Durm, M W; Glaze, P E
For 55 students (13 men, 42 women) there was a significant inverse correlation for scores on the Self-acceptance Scale and scores on the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, thereby giving credence to the construct validity of both scales, that is, the more one accepts oneself, the less negative evaluation there is of oneself.
Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…
Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard
The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acceptance as mediating link between sound perception (i.e. subjective loudness of tinnitus) and tinnitus distress. In total, 424 patients with chronic tinnitus completed the TAQ and validated measures of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression online. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to a good fit of the data to the hypothesised bifactor model (root-mean-square-error of approximation = .065; Comparative Fit Index = .974; Tucker-Lewis Index = .958; standardised root mean square residual = .032). In addition, mediation analysis, using a non-parametric joint coefficient approach, revealed that tinnitus-specific acceptance partially mediated the relation between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress (path ab = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.69). In a multiple mediator model, tinnitus acceptance had a significantly stronger indirect effect than anxiety. The results confirm the factorial structure of the TAQ and suggest the importance of a general acceptance factor that contributes important unique variance beyond that of the first-order factors activity engagement and tinnitus suppression. Tinnitus acceptance as measured with the TAQ is proposed to be a key construct in tinnitus research and should be further implemented into treatment concepts to reduce tinnitus distress.
...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service any component until it passes all applicable inspections and tests prescribed by this subpart and...
...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service any component until it passes all applicable inspections and tests prescribed by this subpart and...
...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service any component until it passes all applicable inspections and tests prescribed by this subpart and...
Haig, Brian D.
Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…
Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip
This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...
Jensen, Arthur R.
The several statistical methods described for detecting test bias in terms of various internal features of a person's test performances and the test's construct validity can be applied to any groups in the population. But the evidence regarding groups other than U.S. blacks and whites is either lacking or is still too sketchy to permit any strong…
For regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (AMs) to animal toxicity tests, their reproducibility and relevance should be determined by intra- and inter-laboratory validation. Appropriate procedures of the validation and regulatory acceptance of AMs were recommended by OECD in 1996. According to those principles, several in vitro methods like skin corrosivity tests and phototoxicity tests were evaluated and accepted by ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), ICCVAM (The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD. Because of the difficulties in conducting inter-laboratory validation and relatively short period remained until EU's ban of animal experiments for safety evaluation of cosmetics, ECVAM and ICCVAM have recently started cooperation in validation and evaluation of AMs. It is also necessary to establish JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of AM) to contribute the issue and for the evaluation of new toxicity tests originated in Japan.
Background The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations. Methods A total of 205 Spanish patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome who attended our pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments: the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) for pain intensity, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results Analysis of results showed that the Spanish CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.83). The Spanish CPAQ score significantly correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophising, health status and physical and psychosocial disability. The Scree plot and a Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same two-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Conclusion The Spanish CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct validity for the acceptance measurement among a sample of Spanish fibromyalgia patients. This study will make it easier to assess pain acceptance in Spanish populations with fibromyalgia. PMID:20385016
Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen
The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…
Strauss, Milton E.; Smith, Gregory T.
Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this chapter, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review five recent advances in validation theory and methodology of importance for clinical researchers. These are: the emergence of nonjustificationist philosophy of science; an increasing appreciation for theory and the need for informative tests of construct validity; valid construct representation in experimental psychopathology; the need to avoid representing multidimensional constructs with a single score; and the emergence of effective new statistical tools for the evaluation of convergent and discriminant validity. PMID:19086835
Reneman, Michiel F; Kleen, Marco; Trompetter, Hester R; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Köke, Albère; van Baalen, Bianca; Schreurs, Karlein M G
Psychometric research on widely used questionnaires aimed at measuring experiential avoidance of chronic pain has led to inconclusive results. To test the structural validity, internal consistency, and construct validity of a recently developed short questionnaire: the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version (AAQ-II-P). Cross-sectional validation study among 388 adult patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain admitted for multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation in four tertiary rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. Cronbach's α was calculated to analyze internal consistency. Principal component analysis was performed to analyze factor structure. Construct validity was analyzed by examining the association between acceptance of pain and measures of psychological flexibility (two scales and sum), pain catastrophizing (three scales and sum), and mental and physical functioning. Interpretation was based on a-priori defined hypotheses. The compound of the seven items of the AAQ-II-P shows a Cronbach's α of 0.87. The single component explained 56.2% of the total variance. Correlations ranged from r=-0.21 to 0.73. Two of the predefined hypotheses were rejected and seven were not rejected. The AAQ-II-P measures a single component and has good internal consistency, and construct validity is not rejected. Thus, the construct validity of the AAQ-II-P sum scores as indicator of experiential avoidance of pain was supported.
Petrides, K. V.
This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773
Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Groscup, Jennifer L; O'Connor, Maureen; Coffaro, Frank; Galietta, Michele
Given the influence of social conformity and prejudice, defendants pleading not guilty by reason of insanity face the significant challenges of securing fair and impartial juries. Attitudes and knowledge of the insanity defense are factors that may influence levels of impartiality. In the light of this, we set out to develop a scale to examine knowledge levels of the insanity defense and their influence on decision-making. Two studies were conducted to construct a scale designed to assess laypersons' knowledge of the insanity defense. Items measuring knowledge of the insanity defense were based on Perlin's (1995) insanity defense myths. The first study identified particular items in need of revision and subscales that required the development of additional items in order to improve reliability and construct validity in the second study. The second study used the revised scale, demonstrating improved validity and reliability. The scale also had acceptable predictive validity with reference to insanity defense verdicts.
van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.
Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…
Parker, Randall M.; Green, Donald
Scores of 135 community college students on the Occupational Aptitude Survey and Interest Schedule (OASIS) were compared with different academic majors. A series of 18 one-way analyses of variance provided evidence for the construct validity of the OASIS Interest Schedule. (Author/GDC)
Lee, Ming; Wimmers, Paul F.
This study examined construct validity of three commonly used clerkship performance assessments: preceptors' evaluations, OSCE-type clinical performance measures, and the NBME [National Board of Medical Examiners] medicine subject examination. Six hundred and eighty-six students taking the inpatient medicine clerkship from 2003 to 2007…
Experiences of stigma among people with severe mental illness. Reliability, acceptability and construct validity of the Swedish versions of two stigma scales measuring devaluation/discrimination and rejection experiences.
Björkman, Tommy; Svensson, Bengt; Lundberg, Bertil
Stigma has been identified as one of the most important obstacles for a successful integration of people with mental illness into the society. Research about stigma has shown negative attitudes among the public towards people with mental illness. Studies so far have, however, put little emphasis on how these negative attitudes are perceived by the mentally ill persons. The aim of the present study was to investigate acceptability and internal consistency of the Swedish versions of two stigma scales, the Devaluation and Discrimination scale and the Rejection experiences scale. Forty individuals were subject to an interview, which also comprised assessments of needs for care, quality of life, therapeutic relationship and empowerment. The results showed that both the Devaluation and Discrimination scale and the Rejection experiences scale had a good internal consistency and acceptability. Stigma in terms of perceived devaluation and discrimination was found to be most markedly associated with empowerment and rejection experiences was found to be most associated with the number of previous psychiatric admissions. It is concluded that the Swedish versions of the Devaluation and Discrimination scale and the Rejection experiences scale may well be used in further studies of stigma among people with mental illness.
Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep
This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%.
Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V
Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations.
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. An exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including: knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. Although women and men differed on the components, they had equivalent overall metacognition for problem solving. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sauteraud, Alain; Olive, Jérôme; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre
Despite the increasing use of E-health systems for mental-health organizations, there is a lack of psychometric tools to evaluate their acceptability by patients with mental disorders. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate a French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES), a 6-item self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which patients find E-health systems acceptable. A forward-backward translation of the AES was performed. The psychometric properties of the French AES version, with construct validity, internal structural validity and external validity (Pearson's coefficient between AES scores and depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II) were analyzed. In a sample of 178 patients (mean age=46.51 years, SD=12.91 years), the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: factor analysis revealed two factors: "Satisfaction" (3 items) and "Usability" (3 items) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. No significant relation was found between AES scores and depression symptoms. The French version of the AES revealed a two-factor scale that differs from the original version. In line with the importance of acceptability in mental health and with a view to E-health systems for patients with mental disorders, the use of the AES in psychiatry may provide important information on acceptability (i.e., satisfaction and usability).
Stock, William A.; Okun, Morris A.
Examined responses of self-ascribed handicapped and nonhandicapped persons to six life satisfaction measures to establish their construct validity. Results offered substantial evidence for the construct validity of life satisfaction. (RC)
Schmidt, Kristin; Roiser, Jonathan P
We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). The "aberrant salience" measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance (LIrr), attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a LIrr task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for approximately 75% of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated "Introvertive Anhedonia" schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. LIrr loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of LIrr and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.
Juarascio, Adrienne; Forman, Evan; Timko, C Alix; Butryn, Meghan; Goodwin, Christina
Research has suggested that mindfulness and acceptance may be important factors in the development, maintenance and treatment of both obesity and eating disorders. However, very few scales exist that apply constructs of acceptance and mindfulness to eating behavior. A measure of acceptance about food related thoughts would be especially beneficial in investigating links between acceptance and problematic eating, and in better understanding mechanisms of action of effective treatments for obesity and eating disorders. The Food Acceptance and Awareness Questionnaire (FAAQ) was developed to measure acceptance of urges and cravings to eat or the extent to which individuals might try to control or change these thoughts. The FAAQ is a self-report questionnaire made up of ten items each rated on a seven-point Likert scale (1=very seldom true to 6=always true). Higher scores indicate greater acceptance of motivations to eat. The FAAQ was given to a sample of 463 undergraduate students along with several other measures of eating behavior and other psychological variables. Concurrent associations with variables theorized to be closely linked (Eating Attitudes Test, EAT; the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, DEBQ; body mass index, BMI) and not very closely linked (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, DASS) were evaluated in order to indicate the new scale's convergent and divergent validity. These results demonstrated highly significant correlations with these measures in the expected direction, with stronger correlations for the theoretically-consistent variables than the theoretically-inconsistent variables. Exploratory factor analyses confirmed a structural two-factor model. Factor 1 seems to measure one's ability to regulate eating despite urges and cravings, and Factor 2 seems to measure desire to maintain internal control over eating thoughts. The FAAQ was also administered to a separate sample of 29 overweight or obese women enrolled in a weight loss program, and
Jackson, Donald E.; And Others
Tested college students (N=153) with one of four personality tests differing in face validity. Subjects received either a bogus interpretation (Barnum) or negative interpretation (Prosecuting Attorney). Barnum feedback was judged more accurate and likeable. Females had higher accuracy scores. Results confirmed findings relative to face validity…
Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.
Harris, Matthew E.
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine existing technology acceptance constructs as they relate to end-user participation in training programs. By analyzing technology acceptance constructs and their fit with existing training paradigms, it was expected that there would be a significant increase in use behavior as defined in the…
Smith, Gregory T.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.
The authors argue for a significant shift in how clinical psychology researchers conduct construct validation and theory validation tests. They argue that sound theory and validation tests can best be conducted on measures of unidimensional or homogeneous constructs. Hierarchical organizations of such constructs are useful descriptively and…
Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall
The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.
Katz, Idit; Buzukashvili, Tamara; Feingold, Liat
This article presents 2 studies aimed at validating a measure of stress experienced by children and parents around the issue of homework, applying Benson's program of validation (Benson, 1998). Study 1 provides external validity of the measure by supporting hypothesized relations between stress around homework and students' and parents' positive…
Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad
Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112
Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption1 leading to a range of adverse prenatal outcomes was recently entered into the AOP wiki and accepted as par...
Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…
Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.
Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…
Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan
This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…
Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes
Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research. PMID:25268633
Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes
Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.
This paper examines the utilization of construct validity in formative assessment for classroom-based purposes. Construct validity pertains to the notion that interpretations are made by educators who analyze test scores during formative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to note the challenges that educators face when interpreting these…
Studied the construct validity of the Fairy Tale Test (C. Coulacoglu, 1993), a personality projective test for children, in a sample of 800 Greek children aged 8, 10, and 12. Factor analysis led to identification of eight primary factors, and correlations with other measures provide construct validity evidence. (SLD)
Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa
Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509
Gogus, Aytac; Nistor, Nicolae; Riley, Richard W.; Lerche, Thomas
The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003, 2012) proposes a major model of educational technology acceptance (ETA) which has been yet validated only in few languages and cultures. Therefore, this study aims at extending the applicability of UTAUT to Turkish culture. Based on acceptance and cultural data…
Frandes, Mirela; Deiac, Anca V; Timar, Bogdan; Lungeanu, Diana
Background Nowadays, mobile technologies are part of everyday life, but the lack of instruments to assess their acceptability for the management of chronic diseases makes their actual adoption for this purpose slow. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a survey instrument for assessing patients’ attitude toward and intention to use mobile technology for diabetes mellitus (DM) self-management, as well as to identify sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life factors that affect them. Methods We first conducted the documentation and instrument design phases, which were subsequently followed by the pilot study and instrument validation. Afterward, the instrument was administered 103 patients (median age: 37 years; range: 18–65 years) diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM, who accepted to participate in the study. The reliability and construct validity were assessed by computing Cronbach’s alpha and using factor analysis, respectively. Results The instrument included statements about the actual use of electronic devices for DM management, interaction between patient and physician, attitude toward using mobile technology, and quality of life evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.9 for attitude toward using mobile technology and 0.97 for attitude toward using mobile device applications for DM self-management. Younger patients (Spearman’s ρ=−0.429; P<0.001) with better glycemic control (Spearman’s ρ=−0.322; P<0.001) and higher education level (Kendall’s τ=0.51; P<0.001) had significantly more favorable attitude toward using mobile assistive applications for DM control. Moreover, patients with a higher quality of life presented a significantly more positive attitude toward using modern technology (Spearman’s ρ=0.466; P<0.001). Conclusion The instrument showed good reliability and internal consistency, making it suitable for measuring the acceptability of mobile technology for DM self-management. Additionally, we found that even
Evidence for the construct validity of Washington University's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development is reviewed. The test has adequate validity for research purposes but is neither valid nor reliable enough to be used as a clinical instrument without further confirming data. (BH)
Paul E. Newton's article on the consensus definition of validity tackles a number of big issues and makes a number of strong claims. I agreed with much of what he said, and I disagreed with a number of his claims, but I found his article to be consistently interesting and thought provoking (whether I agreed or not). I will focus on three general…
Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.; Richard, George V.
Measures of values typically appraise the construct globally, across life domains or relative to a broad life domain such as work. We conducted two studies to construct and initially validate an occupation- and context-specific values measure. Study 1, based on a sample of 192 medical students, describes the initial construction and item analysis…
Laes, E.; Bombaerts, G.
Public participation in a complex technological issue such as the management of radioactive waste needs to be based on a simultaneous construction of scientific, ethical and socio-political foundations. Confronting this challenge is in no way straightforward. The problem is not only that the 'hard' technocrats downplay the importance of socio-political and ethical factors; also, our 'soft' ethical vocabularies (e.g. Habermasian 'discourse ethics') seem to be ill-equipped for tackling such complex questions (in terms of finding concrete solutions). On the other hand, professionals in the field, confronted with a (sometimes urgent) need for finding workable solutions, cannot wait for armchair philosophers to formulate the correct academic answers to their questions. Different public participation and communication models have been developed and tested in real-world conditions, for instance in the Belgian 'partnership approach' to the siting of a low-level waste management facility. Starting from the confrontation of theoretical outlooks and pragmatic solutions, this paper identifies a number of 'dilemmas of participation' that can only be resolved by inherently political choices. Successfully negotiating these dilemmas is of course difficult and conditional on many contextual factors, but nevertheless at the end of the paper an attempt is made to sketch the contours of three possible future scenarios (each with their own limits and possibilities). (authors)
Fiala, William E; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard
Cutrona and Russell's social support model was used to develop a religious support measure (C. E. Cutrona & D. W. Russell, 1987), including 3 distinct but related subscales respectively measuring support from God, the congregation, and church leadership. Factor analyses with the main sample's data (249 Protestants) and cross-validation (93 additional Protestants) supported the scales' reliability and validity. All 3 types of religious support were related to lower depression and greater life satisfaction. Moreover, several relationships between the 3 subscales and psychological functioning variables remained significant after controlling for variance because of church attendance and social support. Results suggest that religious attendance does not automatically imply religious support, and that religious support can provide unique resources for religious persons, above and beyond those furnished by social support. Findings are discussed regarding relevance to community psychology.
Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.
The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…
Wolosin, Robert J; Gesell, Sabina B; Taber, Brian; Epting, Gladys J
Hospitals continuously look for ways to improve patient care and retain high-quality physicians. Previous research indicates that physicians' satisfaction with where they practice is a crucial part of addressing these issues. A reliable and valid method to assess physician satisfaction is needed in order to identify potential areas of discontent. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a self-administered medical staff satisfaction survey. The survey contains 13 Likert-type items divided into three reliable subscales: Quality of Patient Care (alpha = .84), Ease of Practice (alpha = .76), and Relationship with Leadership (alpha = .92). Results from both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the survey's structure and robustness across three independent samples.
Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.
The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural validity of the technology acceptance measure for pre-service teachers (TAMPST) on a Malaysian sample. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 193 pre-service teachers from a Malaysian university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs in the…
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
The first aim of the present study is to validate an extended technology acceptance model (TAME) on the data derived from the faculty members of a university in an ongoing, computer mediated work setting. The study extended the original TAM model by including an intrinsic motivation component--computer self efficacy. In so doing, the study…
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J; Bradford, Amanda
A sample of 16 male and 30 female undergraduates completed the Greer and Francis Scale of Rejection of Christianity. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale for this sample.
Admiraal, Wilfried; Hoeksma, Mark; van de Kamp, Marie-Therese; van Duin, Gee
The richness and complexity of video portfolios endanger both the reliability and validity of the assessment of teacher competencies. In a post-graduate teacher education program, the assessment of video portfolios was evaluated for its reliability, construct validity, and consequential validity. Although video portfolio facilitated a reliable and…
Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.
Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…
Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine
Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…
Osadebe, P. U.
The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…
Moran, Galia S.; Diamond, Gary M.
The cognitive constructions coding system (CCCS) was designed for coding client's expressed problem constructions on four dimensions: intrapersonal-interpersonal, internal-external, responsible-not responsible, and linear-circular. This study introduces, and examines the reliability and validity of, a modified version of the CCCS--a version that…
Chevat, Catherine; Viala-Danten, Muriel; Dias-Barbosa, Carla; Nguyen, Van Hung
Background Influenza is among the most common infectious diseases. The main protection against influenza is vaccination. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and validated for use in clinical trials to assess subjects' perception and acceptance of influenza vaccination and its subsequent injection site reactions (ISR). Methods The VAPI questionnaire was developed based on interviews with vaccinees. The initial version was administered to subjects in international clinical trials comparing intradermal with intramuscular influenza vaccination. Item reduction and scale construction were carried out using principal component and multitrait analyses (n = 549). Psychometric validation of the final version was conducted per country (n = 5,543) and included construct and clinical validity and internal consistency reliability. All subjects gave their written informed consent before being interviewed or included in the clinical studies. Results The final questionnaire comprised 4 dimensions ("bother from ISR"; "arm movement"; "sleep"; "acceptability") grouping 16 items, and 5 individual items (anxiety before vaccination; bother from pain during vaccination; satisfaction with injection system; willingness to be vaccinated next year; anxiety about vaccination next year). Construct validity was confirmed for all scales in most of the countries. Internal consistency reliability was good for all versions (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.68 to 0.94), as was clinical validity: scores were positively correlated with the severity of ISR and pain. Conclusion The VAPI questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool, assessing the acceptance of vaccine injection and reactions following vaccination. Trial registration NCT00258934, NCT00383526, NCT00383539. PMID:19261173
Background Continuing pharmacy education is becoming mandatory in most countries in order to keep the professional license valid. Increasing number of pharmacists are now using e-learning as part of their continuing education. Consequently, the increasing popularity of this method of education calls for standardization and validation practices. The conducted research explored validation aspects of e-learning in terms of knowledge increase and user acceptance. Methods Two e-courses were conducted as e-based continuing pharmacy education for graduated pharmacists. Knowledge increase and user acceptance were the two outcome measured. The change of knowledge in the first e-course was measured by a pre- and post-test and results analysed by the Wilcoxon signed–rank test. The acceptance of e-learning in the second e-course was investigated by a questionnaire and the results analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Results showed that knowledge increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 16 pp after participation in the first e-course. Among the participants who responded to the survey in the second course, 92% stated that e-courses were effective and 91% stated that they enjoyed the course. Conclusions The study shows that e-learning is a viable medium of conducting continuing pharmacy education; e-learning is effective in increasing knowledge and highly accepted by pharmacists from various working environments such as community and hospital pharmacies, faculties of pharmacy or wholesales. PMID:24528547
Foss, I.; Woolf, D. K.; Gagnon, A. S.; Merchant, C. J.
For the purpose of identifying potential sources of predictability of Scottish mean air temperature (SMAT), a redundancy analysis (RA) was accomplished to quantitatively assess the predictability of SMAT from North Atlantic SSTs as well as the temporal consistency of this predictability. The RA was performed between the main principal components of North Atlantic SST anomalies and SMAT anomalies for two time periods: 1890-1960 and 1960-2006. The RA models developed using data from the 1890-1960 period were validated using the 1960-2006 period; in a similar way the model developed based on the 1960-2006 period was validated using data from the 1890-1960 period. The results indicate the potential to forecast decadal trends in SMAT for all seasons in 1960-2006 time period and all seasons with the exception of winter for the period 1890-1960 with the best predictability achieved in summer. The statistical models show the best performance when SST anomalies in the European shelf seas (45°N-65°N, 20W-20E) rather than those for the SSTs over the entire North Atlantic (30°N-75°N, 80°W-30°E) were used as a predictor. The results of the RA demonstrated that similar SSTs modes were responsible for predictions in the first and second half of the 20th century, establishing temporal consistency, though with stronger influence in the more recent half. The SST pattern responsible for explaining the largest amount of variance in SMAT was stronger in the second half of the 20th century and showed increasing influence from the area of the North Sea, possibly due to faster sea-surface warming in that region in comparison with the open North Atlantic. The Wavelet Transform (WT), Cross Wavelet Transform (XWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WTC) techniques were used to analyse RA-model-based forecasts of SMAT in the time-frequency domain. Wavelet-based techniques applied to the predicted and observed time series revealed a good performance of RA models to predict the frequency variability
Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph
Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization.
Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Williams, Joel E; Reis, Jared P; Pluto, Delores
Valid assessment of physical activity is necessary to fully understand this important health-related behaviour for research, surveillance, intervention and evaluation purposes. This article is the second in a companion set exploring the validity of pedometer-assessed physical activity. The previous article published in Sports Medicine dealt with convergent validity (i.e. the extent to which an instrument's output is associated with that of other instruments intended to measure the same exposure of interest). The present focus is on construct validity. Construct validity is the extent to which the measurement corresponds with other measures of theoretically-related parameters. Construct validity is typically evaluated by correlational analysis, that is, the magnitude of concordance between two measures (e.g. pedometer-determined steps/day and a theoretically-related parameter such as age, anthropometric measures and fitness). A systematic literature review produced 29 articles published since > or =1980 directly relevant to construct validity of pedometers in relation to age, anthropometric measures and fitness. Reported correlations were combined and a median r-value was computed. Overall, there was a weak inverse relationship (median r = -0.21) between age and pedometer-determined physical activity. A weak inverse relationship was also apparent with both body mass index and percentage overweight (median r = -0.27 and r = -0.22, respectively). Positive relationships regarding indicators of fitness ranged from weak to moderate depending on the fitness measure utilised: 6-minute walk test (median r = 0.69), timed treadmill test (median r = 0.41) and estimated maximum oxygen uptake (median r = 0.22). Studies are warranted to assess the relationship of pedometer-determined physical activity with other important health-related outcomes including blood pressure and physiological parameters such as blood glucose and lipid profiles. The aggregated evidence of convergent
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL...
This article describes the development, validation, and measurement invariance of scores from a survey designed to measure preservice teachers' reported acceptance of technology. Drawing from conceptual models in the areas of information systems and technology acceptance, a five-factor Technology Acceptance Measure for Preservice Teachers (TAMPST)…
Ferencz, Beata; Scholtissen, Bart; Bogorodskaya, Milana; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn
Apathy is one of the primary neuropsychiatric signatures in Parkinson's disease, yet little research has addressed the construct validity of two commonly used apathy measures, the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. The authors tested the hypothesis that apathy is associated with reduced initiative/engaged behaviors on a laboratory-based measure of apathy. Support was found for the hypothesis that apathy, as indexed by the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, is associated with reduced initiative/engagement on an experimental measure of apathy in Parkinson's disease patients. These findings provide independent evidence for the construct validity of self-report apathy scales, beyond clinician judgment.
Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.
Objective To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Methods Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n=11) and focus groups (3 groups with 6 workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n=144). Results Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales (“Lethargy” and “Bodily Ailment”).. During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW (0.91), Lethargy (0.86) and Bodily Ailment (0.84)) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59–0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74–0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. Conclusions The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. PMID:25603944
MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.
Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…
Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee
Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…
Schroeder, David H.
This study examined the construct validity of the Rod and Frame Test (RFT). Subjects were 554 clients (269 males and 285 females) (aged 14 to 65 years) of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF), a vocational guidance service. In a battery of diverse ability and style tests (19 tests of the JOCRF battery and 4 tests of cognitive style),…
Meier, Scott T.
Development and determination of the construct validity of a scale designed to assess aversion to computers are described. Based on a social learning model emphasizing efficacy, outcome, and reinforcement, the Computer AVersion Scale (CAVS) was developed for use with mental health clients who were high school age and older, as well as mental…
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of scores from the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS)(R. Eisenberger and others, 1986) using responses of 205 college faculty and staff members. Consistent with previous research, the SPOS was found to be unidimensional and distinguishable from two similarly…
Valerio, Wendy H.; Reynolds, Alison M.; Morgan, Grant B.; McNair, Anne A.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the construct validity of the Children's Music-Related Behavior Questionnaire (CMRBQ), an instrument designed for parents to document music-related behaviors about their children and themselves. The research problem was to examine the hypothesized factorial structure of the questionnaire. From a…
Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.
Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…
Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.
Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…
Burney, Gilbert McCollum
The purpose of this study was the development and validation of a paper-and-pencil instrument to assess the formal stage of development as defined by Piaget. Initially, a 42-item test was constructed; item content included syllogisms, verbal analogies, combinatorial and probabilistic reasoning, and questions similar to Piagetian tasks. This…
O'Brien, Terrance P.
From a six-state sample of 286 bank tellers and supervisors, 118 returned an assessment of a DACUM-generated task listing for the teller occupation. Results indicated that the task listing was highly reliable and possessed substantial construct validity, although tasks added by respondents may indicate that DACUM is not yet a stand-alone…
DiStefano, Christine; Hess, Brian
This study investigated the psychological assessment literature to determine what applied researchers are using and reporting from confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies for evidence of construct validation. One hundred and one articles published in four major psychological assessment journals between 1990 and 2002 were systematically…
Silverstein, A. B.
Correlations with Binet IQ in the ITPA normative sample were corrected for restricted intelligence range. The corrected correlation for the Psycholinguistic Quotient is as high as that between the WISC and the Binet, a finding that raises a serious question about the construct validity of the ITPA. (Author)
Construct and concurrent validity of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory were examined. Data were collected from 238 South Korean college students. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the original five-factor model. As hypothesized, scores were significantly correlated with various variables such as scores on the Korean versions of the Career Decision Scale (r =.49), the Vocational Identity Scale in My Vocational Situation (r=-.63), the Career Decision-making Self-efficacy Scale (r=-.47), and Negative Affectivity (r=.37). These results support construct validity inventory. Students who indicated they were undecided about their careers had significantly higher scores than those who indicated they had decided on a career, supporting concurrent validity. Implications and limitations are discussed.
LeBlanc, Destin A
The role of visual examination as the sole acceptance criterion in cleaning validation protocols is explored, including the proper definition of "visual limit" for a given residue. Such a visual limit is specific to the surface the residue is on, and is further defined by viewing conditions, such as lighting, distance, and angle of viewing. A visually clean standard may only be properly utilized if the visual limit is below any scientifically calculated residue limit, such as that determined by a traditional dose-based limit determination. While such an approach, properly applied, has scientific justification and appears to be accepted by the proposed Annex 15 to the European GMPs, the approach is still untested with regulatory authorities.
Williamson, Julie A
Training students to perform emergency procedures is a critical but challenging component of veterinary education. Thoracocentesis is traditionally taught in the classroom, with students progressing to "see one, do one, teach one" during the clinical phase of their education. This method of teaching does not permit students to gain proficiency before performing thoracocentesis on a live animal in a high-stakes, high-stress environment and is dependent on the availability of animals requiring the procedure. A veterinary thoracocentesis simulator has been created to allow students an opportunity for repetitive practice in a low-stakes environment. This study evaluated the face, content, and construct validity of the thoracocentesis simulator. Face and content validation were confirmed by survey results, and construct validity was assessed through comparison of student and veterinarian performance on the simulator. Students' median checklist and global rating scores were significantly lower than those of the veterinarians, and students took significantly longer to perform the procedure, indicating that the simulator was able to differentiate the relative expertise of the user and establishing construct validity. This study supported the use of the thoracocentesis simulator for educators to demonstrate proper technique, for students to practice the steps needed to perform the procedure and experience an approximation of the tactile aspects of the task, and for formative assessment before performing the procedure on client-owned animals.
Nolan, Laurence J; Halperin, Lindsay B; Geliebter, Allan
The Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) comprises ratings of tendency to eat in response to both positive and negative, emotions and situations. To assess construct validity, the responses of 232 male and female participants to the EMAQ subscales were correlated with the subscales of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which has been extensively validated. In addition, the EMAQ scores were correlated with BMI. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between the negative emotions and situations scores of the EMAQ and the emotional eating subscale score of the DEBQ (DEBQ-E). Moreover, discriminant validity was demonstrated by low correlations of EMAQ positive emotions and situations scores with the DEBQ-E score. For the study sample, the EMAQ negative scores were significantly positively correlated with BMI, and the EMAQ positive scores were significantly inversely correlated with BMI. As BMI increased so did reported negative emotional and situational eating whereas as BMI decreased, reported positive emotional and situational eating increased. Although causality cannot be inferred from correlations, eating more under negative emotions may contribute to being overweight whereas eating less may contribute to being underweight. The EMAQ was shown to have construct validity, and emotional eating was significantly correlated with BMI.
Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Shiozuka, Hideki; Igata, Ryohei; Miki, Tazuko; Atake, Kiyokazu; Takeuchi, Yuji; Shirozu, Hiroaki; Ohara, Naotoshi; Konishi, Yuki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Noriaki; Kubota, Takanori; Yoshimura, Reiji
Background: Many patients with schizophrenia have low medication adherence. There is, however, no objective assessment scale that can be used by nurses or caregiver specialists. The Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA) was developed to assess patients’ medication adherence. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the NAMA in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 121 Japanese patients with schizophrenia were enrolled. All patients underwent evaluation using the NAMA and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). Reliability was investigated using a test-retest method and a parallel-test method. To determine the test-retest reliability of the NAMA, we tested 101 schizophrenia patients twice, with the second assessment 2–4 weeks after the date of the first assessment. For validity verification, standard-related validity and the degree of concordance with the DAI-10 scores were measured. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha value of the NAMA in schizophrenia was 0.88. The test-retest correlation coefficients were all between 0.53–0.74. The total scores and all subscores for the NAMA were significantly correlated, and the NAMA total scores were significantly correlated with the DAI-10 total scores. Conclusions: The NAMA shows good reliability and validity in measuring medication adherence in schizophrenia. PMID:28101319
Solbakken, Ole André; Hansen, Roger Sandvik; Havik, Odd E; Monsen, Jon T
Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Platania-Phung, Chris
The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF; Bakker, 2008). This instrument was administered to 711 men and women who were working in Queensland, Australia. The results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WOLF has moderately acceptable construct validity, with the three-factor model being a borderline fit to the data. Tests of the convergent validity of the WOLF yielded satisfactory results. However, the analysis of the discriminant validity of the WOLF showed that the instrument poorly discriminated between work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation. Follow-up exploratory factor analysis, using recommended procedures for determining the number of factors to extract, revealed a two-factor solution, with the work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation items loading on the same factor. Drawing on literature on psychological flow and motivation, as well as the findings of the present study, questions are raised over the adequacy of the conceptual basis of the three-factor model of work-related flow, the discriminant validity of the WOLF subscales, and the appropriateness of the wording of several of this measure's items. Using alternative methods and measures to investigate flow in work settings is recommended.
Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde
This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…
Edwards, Jerri D; Leonard, Kathleen M; Lunsman, Melissa; Dodson, Joan; Bradley, Stacy; Myers, Charlsie A; Hubble, Bridgette
Research has indicated that technology can be effectively used to identify high-risk older drivers. However, adaptation of such technology has been limited. Researchers debate whether older drivers represent a safety problem as well as whether they should be screened for driving fitness. The present study examined how drivers feel regarding technological screening and mandatory state testing. The validity and acceptability of a new technological screening battery for identifying high-risk drivers, the DrivingHealth Inventory (DHI), was also evaluated. In a sample of 258 Alabama drivers aged 18-87, older drivers performed significantly worse than younger drivers on sensory, cognitive, and physical subtests of the DHI, and older drivers with a crash history performed worse than older drivers without crashes. Regardless of age, 90% of participants supported states requiring screening for older drivers' license renewal. The majority of the participants (72%) supported use of technological screening batteries such as the DHI as a driver screening tool. Considering the acceptability and potential efficacy of the DHI, it may be a useful tool in evaluating driving fitness among older adults.
Denckla, Christy A; Bornstein, Robert F; Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A
The Relationship Profile Test is a widely used measure of dependency, detachment, and healthy dependency that has been examined in both clinical and nonclinical settings, though researchers have yet to validate this measure among conjugally bereaved adults. The present study examines the construct validity of a three-facet model of dependency-detachment by comparing relationships among self-report, semistructured interview-rated, and knowledgeable informant-rated functioning among conjugally bereaved adults. Participants (N = 112) included bereaved adults (M = 51.1 years; SD = 9.7) who had experienced the loss of a spouse 1.5 to 3 years prior to taking part in this study. Findings indicate adequate psychometric properties and theoretically expected associations with various measures of wellness and health including satisfaction with life, coping flexibility, somatic complaints, and ego resiliency. Results draw attention to adaptive correlates of dependency, suggesting potentially beneficial mental health interventions.
Hendriksen, C F
Information about levels of protection against tetanus is needed both for the assessment of immune status and for the estimation of the potency of batches of tetanus toxoid. Originally, levels of protective antibodies in human serum samples were titrated in an in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test. Potency testing was based either on an indirect protection test or a direct challenge test. In the former test, rabbits or guinea pigs are immunized and bled, followed by titration of serum samples in a TN test. In the latter test, used in the quality control of tetanus toxoid for human use, protective immunity is induced by vaccination in guinea pigs or mice and subsequently challenging them directly with tetanus toxin. In the mid-1980s, an in vitro model was developed at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) for estimating levels of tetanus antitoxin in serum samples. This model, the toxin-binding inhibition (ToBI) test, was validated recently for both diagnostic testing and potency testing. Although accurate estimation of antitoxin levels is more important for diagnostic testing than for potency testing, the ToBI test has been adopted for determining the immune status but not for potency testing. One major reason is that there are no official guidelines for titration of human serum samples. By contrast, potency testing is performed in accordance with the monographs of national and international pharmacopoeias, which complicates acceptance for technical and bureaucratic reasons. This paper focuses on the validation studies performed at the RIVM. In particular, attention is paid to the various problems encountered. Suggestions for the role of the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)( *) in the quality control of vaccines are also presented.
Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy
Overactivity is a frequently used term in chronic pain literature. It refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals engage in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain, resulting in periods of incapacity. Overactivity, as a construct, has been derived solely from patients' self-reports, raising concerns about the legitimacy of the construct. Self-reported overactivity reflects an individual's "belief," collected retrospectively, that their earlier activity levels have resulted in increased levels of pain. This may be different to an individual actually engaging in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain. In this study, a 5-day observational study design was used to investigate the validity of overactivity as a construct by examining the relationship between a self-report measure of overactivity, patterns of pain, and objectively measured physical activity over time. A sample of 68 adults with chronic pain completed a questionnaire investigating self-reported habitual engagement in overactivity and activity avoidance behaviour, before commencing 5 days of data collection. Over the 5-day period, participants wore an activity monitor and recorded their pain intensity 6 times a day using a handheld computer. Associations were found between (1) high levels of pain and both high overactivity and high avoidance, (2) high levels of overactivity and more variation in pain and objective activity across days, and (3) high levels of overactivity and the reoccurrence of prolonged activity engagement followed by significant pain increases observed in data sets. These results offer some preliminary support for the validity of overactivity as a legitimate construct in chronic pain.
Bleasby, A J; Wootton, J C
A strategy has been developed for the construction of a validated, comprehensive composite protein sequence database. Entries are amalgamated from primary source data bases by a largely automated set of processes in which redundant and trivially different entries are eliminated. A modular approach has been adopted to allow scientific judgement to be used at each stage of database processing and amalgamation. Source databases are assigned a priority depending on the quality of sequence validation and commenting. Rejection of entries from the lower priority database, in each pairwise comparison of databases, is carried out according to optionally defined redundancy criteria based on sequence segment mismatches. Efficient algorithms for this methodology are embodied in the COMPO software system. COMPO has been applied for over 2 years in construction and regular updating of the OWL composite protein sequence database from the source databases NBRF-PIR, SWISS-PROT, a GenBank translation retrieved from the feature tables, NBRF-NEW, NEWAT86, PSD-KYOTO and the sequences contained in the Brookhaven protein structure databank. OWL is part of the ISIS integrated data resource of protein sequence and structure [Akrigg et al. (1988) Nature, 335, 745-746]. The modular nature of the integration process greatly facilitates the frequent updating of OWL following releases of the source databases. The extent of redundancy in these sources is revealed by the comparison process. The advantages of a robust composite database for sequence similarity searching and information retrieval are discussed.
Sanchez-Ismayel, Alexis; Sanchez, Renata; Pena, Romina; Salamo, Oriana
Background and Objective: The use of training models in laparoscopic surgery allows the surgical team to practice procedures in a safe environment. The aim of this study was to determine the capability of an inanimate laparoscopic appendectomy model to discriminate between different levels of surgical experience (construct validity). Methods: The performance of 3 groups with different levels of expertise in laparoscopic surgery—experts (Group A), intermediates (Group B), and novices (Group C)—was evaluated. The groups were instructed of the task to perform in the model using a video tutorial. Procedures were recorded in a digital format for later analysis using the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) score; procedure time was registered. The data were analyzed using the analysis of variance test. Results: Twelve subjects were evaluated, 4 in each group, using the GOALS score and time required to finish the task. Higher scores were observed in the expert group, followed by the intermediate and novice groups, with statistically significant difference. Regarding procedure time, a significant difference was also found between the groups, with the experts having the shorter time. The proposed model is able to discriminate among individuals with different levels of expertise, indicating that the abilities that the model evaluates are relevant in the surgeon's performance. Conclusions: Construct validity for the inanimate full-task laparoscopic appendectomy training model was demonstrated. Therefore, it is a useful tool in the development and evaluation of the resident in training. PMID:24018084
Rock, D. A.; And Others
The study evaluated the invariance of the construct validity and thus the interpretation of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test scores. A systematic procedure for investigation of test bias from a construct validity frame of reference was developed and applied. Invariant construct validity was defined as similar patterns of loadings…
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...
Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Nardo, Antonio; Iannetti, Luigi; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Trentini, Roberto; Serpell, James A; Siracusa, Carlo
Aggressiveness is reported to be the most important public health issue related to both owned and free‑roaming dogs. Common approaches to assess canine aggressiveness are temperament tests. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether one such test, the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test, created to evaluate aggressive and fearful behaviour in dogs in the Netherlands, could be used reliably to assess dog aggression and fear in a population of owned dogs in Central Italy. Reactions to the test were recorded and compared to the owners' perception of their dog's aggressiveness using a validated questionnaire (C‑BARQ). Dogs showing aggressive reactions during the test obtained significantly higher (more aggressive) scores on the C‑BARQ subscales 'stranger‑directed aggression' (SDA p<0.001), 'owner‑directed aggression' (ODA p = 0.03), and 'familiar dog aggression' (FDA p = 0.006), than dogs who did not react aggressively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that 7 of the SAB‑subtests were predictive of the SDA score. The findings indicated that aggression directed toward unfamiliar people can be reliably assessed using the SAB test for a population of Italian pet dogs.
Xu, Feng; Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K; Li, Qiuping; Bodenmann, Guy
The Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI, Bodenmann, 2008) assesses how couples support each other when facing individual (e.g., workload) and common (e.g., parenting) stressors. Specifically, the DCI measures partners' perceptions of their own (Self) and their partners' behaviors (Partner) when facing individual stressors, and partners' common coping behaviors when facing common stressors (Common). To date, the DCI has been validated in 6 different languages from individualistic Western cultures; however, because culture can affect interpersonal interactions, it is unknown whether the DCI is a reliable measure of coping behaviors for couples living in collectivistic Eastern cultures. Based on data from 474 Chinese couples (N = 948 individuals), the current study examined the Chinese version of the DCI's factorial structure, measurement invariance (MI), and construct validity of test scores. Using 3 cultural groups (China, Switzerland, and the United States [U.S.]), confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 5-factor structure regarding Self and Partner and a 2-factor structure regarding Common dyadic coping (DC). Results from analyses of MI indicated that the DCI subscales met the criteria for configural, metric, and full/partial scalar invariance across cultures (Chinese-Swiss and Chinese-U.S.) and genders (Chinese men and women). Results further revealed good construct validity of the DCI test scores. In all, the Chinese version of the DCI can be used for measuring Chinese couples' coping behaviors, and is available for cross-cultural studies examining DC behaviors between Western and Eastern cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record
Cramer, Robert J; Neal, Tess M S; DeCoster, Jamie; Brodsky, Stanley L
Despite the application of Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1977, 2000) to many areas of psychology, there is a lack of research on self-efficacy in the ability to testify in court. The present study fills this gap by incrementally developing the construct of Witness Self-Efficacy and establishing its psychometric properties. Study I features exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielding a two-factor Witness Self-Efficacy Scale (WSES). The two components are Poise and Communication Style. Study II uses a second data collection to show that both WSES domains possess convergent, divergent, and predictive validity relations consistent with those expected using an SET framework. Notably, WSES components predicted perceptions of witness credibility and sentencing outcomes above and beyond witness extraversion, general self-efficacy, and general self-confidence. Implications for SET and witness preparation training are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.
Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255
Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B; Pimentel, Claudia A; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C; Levy, Kenneth N
The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal narcissism and (b) insufficient scope of existing narcissism measures. Four studies are presented documenting the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). The PNI is a 52-item self-report measure assessing 7 dimensions of pathological narcissism spanning problems with narcissistic grandiosity (Entitlement Rage, Exploitativeness, Grandiose Fantasy, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement) and narcissistic vulnerability (Contingent Self-esteem, Hiding the Self, Devaluing). The PNI structure was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The PNI correlated negatively with self-esteem and empathy, and positively with shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and borderline personality organization. Grandiose PNI scales were associated with vindictive, domineering, intrusive, and overly-nurturant interpersonal problems, and vulnerable PNI scales were associated with cold, socially avoidant, and exploitable interpersonal problems. In a small clinical sample, PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization.
Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M
Hebephilia refers to a persistent intense sexual interest in pubescent children. Although not as widely studied as pedophilia, studies of hebephilia have indicated convergence in self-report and sexual arousal. The present study expanded on previous work by examining convergent and divergent validity across indicators of hebephilia that included self-report, sexual behavior, and sexual arousal in a sample of 2238 men who had sexually offended. We included men who denied such interest and specifically examined the overlap between hebephilia and pedophilia and examined pedohebephilia (i.e., sexual interests in both prepubescent and pubescent children). Results indicated that there was considerable convergence across indicators of hebephilia. The results suggested poor divergent validity between hebephilia and pedophilia, as there was substantial overlap between the two constructs across analyses. Finally, a distinct pattern of sexual arousal was found in offenders with pedohebephilia. The results of the present study were discussed with a focus on implications for the assessment of sexual interest in children and the conceptualization of pedohebephilia.
Liu, Fang; Ghaffur, Ambreen; Bains, Jackreet; Hamdy, Shaheen
Older patients (aged 65years and over) are the major consumers of medicines and many barriers affect their ability in taking medicines orally, especially swallowing difficulties. Moreover, the characteristics of differing medicine formulations might have an impact on their acceptability in older patients. The aims of this study were to validate a Medicines Acceptability Questionnaire (MAQ) and to assess acceptability of oral solid medicines in older ambulatory patients with and without dysphagia. One hundred and fifty six older patients attending community pharmacies were recruited and attended face to face interviews. Two questionnaires were administered during the interviews, the validated Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) assessing oral and pharyngeal swallowing function and the newly developed MAQ evaluating patient acceptability of oral solid medicines. Seventeen (11%) participants displayed symptoms compatible with swallowing difficulties identified by the SSQ. Participants with swallowing difficulties were considered themselves more likely to have problems in swallowing tablets and capsules of large sizes (11mm and 13mm tablets and size #00 capsules) compared to participants without dysphagia. Dispersible/effervescent tablets and orally disintegrating tablets were considered to be the most acceptable in this cohort, followed by mini-tablets. Chewable tablets and granules were the least favoured. Consistently higher acceptability scores were seen in the dysphagic population than in the non-dysphagic population for all of the dosage forms that were easier to swallow than tablets and capsules. The development of these formulations will assist in medication taking in older patients with dysphagia and potentially their adherence to drug treatments.
Aquino, Cesar A.
This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…
Wong, Camilla L.; Norris, Mireille; Sinha, Samir S.; Zorzitto, Maria L.; Madala, Sushma; Hamid, Jemila S.
Background The Team Standardized Assessment of a Clinical Encounter Report (StACER) was designed for use in Geriatric Medicine residency programs to evaluate Communicator and Collaborator competencies. Methods The Team StACER was completed by two geriatricians and interdisciplinary team members based on observations during a geriatric medicine team meeting. Postgraduate trainees were recruited from July 2010–November 2013. Inter-rater reliability between two geriatricians and between all team members was determined. Internal consistency of items for the constructs Communicator and Collaborator competencies was calculated. Raters completed a survey previously administered to Canadian geriatricians to assess face validity. Trainees completed a survey to determine the usefulness of this instrument as a feedback tool. Results Thirty postgraduate trainees participated. The prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa range inter-rater reliability for Communicator and Collaborator items were 0.87–1.00 and 0.86–1.00, respectively. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for Communicator and Collaborator items was 0.997 (95% CI: 0.993–1.00) and 0.997 (95% CI: 0.997–1.00), respectively. The instrument lacked discriminatory power, as all trainees scored “meets requirements” in the overall assessment. Niney-three per cent and 86% of trainees found feedback useful for developing Communicator and Collaborator competencies, respectively. Conclusions The Team StACER has adequate inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. Poor discriminatory power and face validity challenge the merit of using this evaluation tool. Trainees felt the tool provided useful feedback on Collaborator and Communicator competencies. PMID:28050222
Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen
Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…
Seha, A M; Klepp, K I; Ndeki, S S
Based on the World Health Organization's standardized survey inventories assessing AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) for adolescents, a written questionnaire was developed and pilot tested among primary school children in Northern Tanzania. Subjects included 472 fifth and sixth graders at four schools in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions. Results indicated that the large majority of the students understood the questions and were able and willing to complete the survey. Non-response patterns did not seem to be related to the sensitivity of included questions. AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward engaging in sexual behavior had acceptable reliability and construct validity when compared with similar surveys in Western countries, while perceived social norms and self-efficacy need further development. KABP questionnaires may serve as a useful method in AIDS-related surveys and evaluation studies among school children in Tanzania if survey instruments are adapted to reflect the local social and cultural context.
Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith
In this rejoinder, we comment on Wright's response to our reanalysis and reinterpretation of the data presented by Wright and colleagues. Two primary differences characterize these perspectives. First, the conceptualization of grandiose narcissism differs such that emotional and ego vulnerability, dysregulation, and pervasive impairments are more characteristic of Wright's conception, likely due to the degree to which it is tied to clinical observations. Our conceptualization is closer to psychopathy and describes an extraverted, dominant, and antagonistic individual who is relatively less likely to be found in clinical settings. Second, our approach to construct validation differs in that we take an empirical perspective that focuses on the degree to which inventories yield scores consistent with a priori predictions. The grandiose dimension of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI-G) yields data that fail to align with expert ratings of narcissistic personality disorder and grandiose narcissism. We suggest that caution should be taken in treating the PNI-G as a gold standard measure of pathological narcissism, that revision of the PNI-G is required before it can serve as a stand-alone measure of grandiose narcissism, and that the PNI-G should be buttressed by other scales when being used as a measure of grandiose narcissism.
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Auxiliary and Replacement Facilities A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...
Huang, Xiaoping; Hu, Zhongfeng
The main problem of the educational evaluation validity is that it just copies the conceptual framework system of validity from educational measurement to its own conceptual system. The validity conceptual system that fits the need of theory and practice of educational evaluation has not been established yet. According to the inherent attributive…
Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Rahim, Sheikh Idris A.; Abumadini, Mahdi S.; Wosornu, Lade
Background: Colleges and universities are becoming increasingly accountable for teaching outcomes in order to meet rigorous accreditation standards. Job satisfaction (JS) seems more difficult to measure in the academic field in view of the complexity of roles, duties and responsibilities. Objectives: To compile and determine the psychometric properties of a proposed Academic Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (AJSQ) suitable for university faculty, and amenable to future upgrading. Materials and Methods: A 46-item five-option Likert-type draft questionnaire on JS was distributed for anonymous self-reporting by all the academic staff of five colleges in University of Dammam (n=340). The outcome measures were (1) factor analysis of the questionnaire items, (2) intra-factor α-Coefficient of Internal Consistency Reliability, (3) inter-factor correlations, (4) comparison of psychometric properties in separately analyzed main faculty subgroups. Results: The response rate was 72.9 percent. Factor analysis extracted eight factors which conjointly explained 60.3 percent of the variance in JS. These factors, in descending order of eigenvalue, were labeled “Authority”, “Supervision”, “Policies and Facilities”, “My Work Itself”, “Interpersonal Relationships”, “Commitment”, “Salary” and “Workload”. Cronbach's-α ranged from 0.90 in Supervision to 0.63 in Salary and Workload. All inter-factor correlations were positive and significant, ranging from 0.65 to 0.23. The psychometric properties of the instrument in separately analyzed subgroups divided by sex, nationality, college and clinical duties produced fairly comparable findings. Conclusion: The AJSQ demonstrated good overall psychometric properties in terms of construct validity and internal consistency reliability in both the overall sample and its separately analyzed subgroups. Recommendation: To replicate these findings in larger multicenter samples of academic staff. PMID:21694952
Mahone, E Mark; Pillion, Joseph P; Hoffman, Jennifer; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Denckla, Martha B
Development of diagnostic instruments directed toward neuropsychological assessment of preschoolers lags significantly behind those available for school-age children (DeWolfe, Byrne, & Bawden, 2000). This is particularly true for measures of executive function (EF). The Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers (ACPT-P; Mahone, Pillion, & Hiemenz, 2001) is a computerized, Go-No-go test developed to measure selected EF skills in preschoolers. First, to determine whether performance on the ACPT-P is associated with hearing impairment, we compared performance of children with mild hearing loss (MHL) to controls on the ACPT-P, and measures of spatial working memory (SWM) and motor persistence (MP). There were no differences between performance of the MHL group and controls on any of these measures. Second, to examine the construct validity of the ACPT-P, we compared performance of 40 preschoolers with ADHD to 40 age- and sex-matched controls, using the ACPT-P to measure response preparation, sustained attention, and inhibitory control. We also compared these groups on measures of SWM and MP. The group with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) performed significantly worse than controls on the ACPT-P (omissions, mean response time, variability) and MP. The ACPT-P was correlated with the MP, but not with the SWM measure. Both the ACPT-P and the MP measures showed low to moderate correlations with parent ratings of behavior associated with ADHD. These findings support the use of performance-based assessment of executive control skills in preschoolers suspected of having ADHD. In this age group, the ACPT-P may be particularly useful in assessing sustained attention and response preparation and may complement behavior rating scales.
McClarty, Katie Larsen
The construct map is a promising tool for organizing the data standard-setting panelists interpret. The challenge in applying construct maps to standard-setting procedures will be the judicious selection of data to include within this organizing framework. Therefore, this commentary focuses on decisions about what to include in the construct map.…
Teten, Andra L.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Pacifici, Caesar
The psychometric properties of the Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB), a multimedia measure of adolescent dating attitudes, were examined. The ACSB is an interactive instrument that uses video vignettes to depict adolescent dating situations. Analyses of the measure's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…
Quinn, John M.; And Others
This study evaluated whether behaviors often taught as part of social skills training for individuals with mental retardation were judged favorably by 61 community judges. Results indicated that the skills of following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating were relevant to judgment of social performance and likely to be reinforced by…
Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu
The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…
Fabry, Julian; And Others
Standard scores on comparable scales of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and the ACT Interest Inventory were intercorrelated to test construct validity of the instruments. Significant correlations were found for the comparable scales demonstrating construct validity for male and female high school students (N=91). (Author)
Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others
Investigated the predictive and construct validity of six experimental measures of career maturity among high school students. Data provide some support for the construct and predictive validity of four of the six career maturity scales. Some technical issues and possible sources of invalidity are discussed, and recommedations are made for future…
Nolet, Victor; Tindal, Gerald
Valid interpretation of test scores is the shared responsibility of the test designer and the test user. Test publishers must provide evidence of the validity of the decisions their tests are intended to support, while test users are responsible for analyzing this evidence and subsequently using the test in the manner indicated by the publisher.…
Jung, Sandy; Ennis, Liam; Hermann, Chantal A; Pham, Anna T; Choy, Alberto L; Corabian, Gabriela; Hook, Tarah
The fundamental psychometric properties of the subscales found in the Static-2002R, an actuarial measure of sexual recidivism risk, were evaluated in the current study. Namely, the reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and factor structure of the Static-2002R subscales were examined with a sample of 372 adult male sex offenders. In addition to using validated measures of sexual violence risk to examine concurrent validity, construct-related measures taken from extant risk measures and psychometric tests were correlated with three of the subscales to assess overall construct validity. Moderate support was found for the reliability of the Static-2002R. The concurrent and construct validity of the General Criminality, Persistence of Sexual Offending, and Deviant Sexual Interest subscales were supported. Generally, these findings further support the Static-2002R as a valid sex offender risk appraisal instrument that encompasses multiple distinct, clinically relevant, risk domains.
Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey
Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings.
Pandya, Ekta; Mistry, Jay; Dobhal, Megha; Borra, Sujana; Paxton, Raheem J.
Limited data exist on the validity of the Late-Life Function and Disability (LLFD) instrument in cancer survivors. We examined the construct validity of the abbreviated LLFD instrument in a sample of African-American breast cancer survivors. African American breast cancer survivors (n = 181) aged 50 years and older completed the abbreviated LLFD instrument and questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach alphas, and structural models were used to evaluate the construct validity of these measures. Minor modifications were made to the three-factor functional component portion of the inventory to improve model fit. Cronbach alpha’s (range 0.85–0.92) and inter-factor correlations (r = 0.3–0.5, all p < 0.05) were appropriate. The two-factor disability component fit the data and Cronbach alpha’s (0.91 and 0.98) were appropriate with a high inter-factor correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.01). The average variance extracted (range = 0.55–0.93) and composite reliabilities (range = 0.86–0.98) were in acceptable ranges. Floor effects ranged from 7% for advanced lower function to 74% for personal role disability. Education and number of comorbidities were correlated significantly with functional outcomes. The abbreviated LLFD instrument had adequate construct validity in this sample of African American breast cancer survivors. Further studies are needed that examine the stability of the instrument over time. PMID:27854321
dos Anjos, Daniela Brianne Martins; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Padilha, Kátia Melissa; Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme
ABSTRACT Objective: evaluate the practicality, acceptability and the floor and ceiling effects, estimate the reliability and verify the convergent construct's validity with the instrument called the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life (IDCV) of the valve disease in patients with mitral and or aortic heart valve disease. Method: data was obtained from 86 heart valve disease patients through 3 phases: a face to face interview for a socio-demographic and clinic characterization and then other two done through phone calls of the interviewed patients for application of the instrument (test and repeat test). Results: as for the practicality and acceptability, the instrument was applied with an average time of 9,9 minutes and with 110% of responses, respectively. Ceiling and floor effects observed for all domains, especially floor effect. Reliability was tested using the test - repeating pattern to give evidence of temporal stability of the measurement. Significant negative correlations with moderate to strong magnitude were found between the score of the generic question about the impact of the disease and the scores of IDCV, which points to the validity of the instrument convergent construct. Conclusion: the instrument to measure the impact of valve heart disease on the patient's daily life showed evidence of reliability and validity when applied to patients with heart valve disease. PMID:27992024
All assessment policies and practices are based on monolingual constructs whereby test-takers are expected to demonstrate their language proficiency in one language at a time. Thus, the construct underlying these assessment approaches and/or scales (e.g., the CEFR) is of language as a closed and finite system that does not enable other languages…
Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea; Houson, Dobie; Witt, David; Diehl, Jim
Contemporary literature lacks a comprehensive set of constructs that provides for understanding both the organizational and job factors that influence employee work passion. Through a detailed analysis of literature, this research identifies eight constructs that form the basis for the appraisal of an employee's work experience with the use of…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly; Guevarra, Rudy P.; Miller, Matthew J.; Harrington, Blair
This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across two studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one’s social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed. PMID:26460977
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly F; Guevarra, Rudy P; Miller, Matthew J; Harrington, Blair
This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across 2 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one's social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed.
Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick
The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…
Sen, Sandip; Janakiraman, Janani
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of probabilistic optimization algorithms which utilize ideas from natural genetics. In this paper, we apply the genetic algorithm to a difficult machine learning problem, viz., to learn the description of pushdown automata (PDA) to accept a context-free language (CFL), given legal and illegal sentences of the language. Previous work has involved the use of GAs in learning descriptions for finite state machines for accepting regular languages. CFLs are known to properly include regular languages, and hence, the learning problem addressed here is of a greater complexity. The ability to accept context free languages can be applied to a number of practical problems like text processing, speech recognition, etc.
ductwork shall be leak tested in accordance with " SMACNA , Balancing and Adjustment of Air Distribution Systems." A maximum leakage of five percent of...constructed and joints shall be sealed as described in " SMACNA Low Pressure Duct Construction Standards." 19.4.3 High Pressure Ductwork: All ductwork...shall be tested in accordance with " SMACNA High Pressure Duct Construction Standards." This would include sealing of joints, hanging and supporting
Markus, Keith A.
I congratulate Paul E. Newton on a thoughtful and evenhanded contribution to test validity theory. I especially appreciate the evident care that went into interpreting the various authors whose work Newton discusses. I found many useful insights along with the few minor points with which I might quibble. I comment on three aspects of Newton's…
Haueter, Jill A.; Macan, Therese Hoff; Winter, Joel
Three groups of subject-matter experts reviewed the content validity of the Newcomer Socialization Questionnaire. Its psychometric properties were supported in a study of 492 employed students; the study was replicated with 320 newly hired workers. Socialization dimensions were positively correlated with job satisfaction and organizational…
Christensen, Ronda W.; Knezek, Gerald A.
Positive teacher attitudes toward computers are widely recognized as a necessary condition for effective use of information technology in the classroom (Woodrow, 1992). To measure attitudes toward technology, it is important to have valid and reliable instruments. In this study, the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to verify construct…
Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…
Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan
Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…
Palmer, Adrian S., Ed.; And Others
This collection, including the proceedings of a colloquium at TESOL 1979, includes the following papers: (1) "Classification of Oral Proficiency Tests," by H. Madsen and R. Jones; (2) "A Theoretical Framework for Communicative Competence," by M. Canale and M. Swain; (3) "Beyond Faith and Face Validity: The Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix and the…
Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang
Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM.
Argoff, Charles E; Stanos, Steven P; Wieman, Matthew S
Background Tamper-resistant formulations (TRFs) of oral opioid drugs are intended to prevent certain types of abuse (eg, intranasal, intravenous). Patients raising objections to receiving a TRF may have valid concerns or may be seeking a formulation that can be more easily misused. Methods US clinicians experienced in pain management met in October 2011 to discuss common patient objections to being switched from a non-TRF opioid to a TRF of the same opioid. Retail pharmacy, health insurance, and scientific data were used to assess the potential validity of these patient objections. Results Clinical experience switching patients from a non-TRF to a TRF opioid was limited to oxycodone controlled release (CR), as it was the only TRF available at that time; knowledge of other TRFs was limited to the scientific literature. Common objections from patients included “costs more,” “not covered by insurance,” “can’t feel it working,” and “causes adverse events.” Objective retail pharmacy and insurance coverage information for oxycodone CR was accessible and indicated that patient objections were based on cost and coverage varied by insurer. Unpublished trial results (ClinicalTrials.gov) revealed that TRF oxycodone CR has a slower initial release than the non-TRF formulation, which may reduce positive subjective effects. The complaint “I can’t feel it working” may reflect lessened positive subjective effects rather than reduced analgesic efficacy. Most tolerability complaints lacked objective support. Conclusion The general process used to assess the validity of patient objections to TRF oxycodone CR may be applied to other TRFs once they become available. Publication of clinical data on TRFs would help clinicians to appropriately weigh patient concerns. PMID:23696714
Duffy, Ryan D.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Perry, Justin C.; Laurenzi, Cathy; Torrey, Carrie L.
This study constructed an instrument measuring work volition for adult populations, defined as the perceived capacity to make occupational choices despite constraints. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis produced a 3-factor structure containing subscales assessing general volition, financial constraints, and structural constraints. The full…
Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.
The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…
Newman, Daniel A.; Hanges, Paul J.; Outtz, James L.
According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial…
Gardner, Donald G.; Pierce, Jon L.
The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance,…
Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Schroeder, David H.
The underlying constructs for an experimental battery (EB) consisting of artistic judgment tests--the Design Judgment Test (DJT), the Visual Designs Test (VDT), Proportion Appraisal (PA), and the Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test--were studied. Scores for 1,686 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation's aptitude-testing service were…
This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…
Moniz, Linda; Buczak, Anna L.; Hung, Lang; Babin, Steven; Dorko, Michael; Lombardo, Joseph
There is a current and pressing need for a test bed of electronic medical records (EMRs) to insure consistent development, validation and verification of public health related algorithms that operate on EMRs. However, access to full EMRs is limited and not generally available to the academic algorithm developers who support the public health community. This paper describes a set of algorithms that produce synthetic EMRs using real EMRs as a model. The algorithms were used to generate a pilot set of over 3000 synthetic EMRs that are currently available on CDC’s Public Health grid. The properties of the synthetic EMRs were validated, both in the entire aggregate data set and for individual (synthetic) patients. We describe how the algorithms can be extended to produce records beyond the initial pilot data set. PMID:23569572
Tarhini, Ali; Teo, Timothy; Tarhini, Takwa
Despite the prevalence and significance of e-learning in education, there is a dearth of published instruments for educational researchers and practitioners that measure users' acceptance of e-learning. To meet this need, Teo (2010) developed the E-learning Acceptance Measure (ElAM). The main objective of this paper is to validate the ElAM (Teo,…
Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard
In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…
The Japanese translation of the revised Life Orientation Test was completed by 223 Japanese college students. Factor analysis yielded two factors, namely, Optimism and Pessimism. These factor scales showed adequate reliability and construct validity.
Horwitz, Michael B.
The data reported by Avery and his colleagues do not support their challenge to the construct validity of empathic understanding ratings. It is argued here that empathic understanding ratings should demonstrate "correspondence" and independence. (Author)
Larivière, Christian; Ludvig, Daniel; Kearney, Robert; Mecheri, Hakim; Caron, Jean-Maxime; Preuss, Richard
This study aimed at testing the reliability and construct validity of a trunk perturbation protocol (TPP) that estimates the intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stiffness. The TPP consists of a series of pseudorandom position-controlled trunk perturbations in an apparatus measuring forces and displacements at the harness surrounding the thorax. Intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stiffness were estimated using a system identification procedure, leading to 12 parameters. Study 1 methods (reliability): 30 subjects performed five 75-s trials, on each of two separate days (eight weeks apart). Reliability was assessed using the generalizability theory, which allowed computing indexes of dependability (ϕ, analogous to intraclass correlation coefficient) and standard errors of measurement (SEM). Study 2 methods (validity): 20 healthy subjects performed three 75-s trials for each of five experimental conditions assumed to provide different lumbar stiffness; testing the construct validity of the TPP using four conditions with different lumbar belt designs and one control condition without. Study 1 results (reliability): Learning was seen between the first and following trials. Consequently, reliability analyses were performed without the first trial. Simulations showed that averaging the scores of three trials can lead to acceptable reliability results for some TPP parameters. Study 2 results (validity): All lumbar belt designs increased low-back intrinsic stiffness, while only some of them decreased reflex stiffness, which support the construct validity of the TPP. Overall, these findings support the use of the TPP to test the effect of rehabilitation or between-groups differences with regards to trunk stiffness.
Campbell, Paul; Hill, Jonathan C; Protheroe, Joanne; Afolabi, Ebenezer K; Lewis, Martyn; Beardmore, Ruth; Hay, Elaine M; Mallen, Christian D; Bartlam, Bernadette; Saunders, Benjamin; van der Windt, Danielle A; Jowett, Sue; Foster, Nadine E; Dunn, Kate M
Musculoskeletal conditions represent a considerable burden worldwide, and are predominantly managed in primary care. Evidence suggests that many musculoskeletal conditions share similar prognostic factors. Systematically assessing patient’s prognosis and matching treatments based on prognostic subgroups (stratified care) has been shown to be both clinically effective and cost-effective. This study (Keele Aches and Pains Study) aims to refine and examine the validity of a brief questionnaire (Keele STarT MSK tool) designed to enable risk stratification of primary care patients with the five most common musculoskeletal pain presentations. We also describe the subgroups of patients, and explore the acceptability and feasibility of using the tool and how the tool is best implemented in clinical practice. The study design is mixed methods: a prospective, quantitative observational cohort study with a linked qualitative focus group and interview study. Patients who have consulted their GP or health care practitioner about a relevant musculoskeletal condition will be recruited from general practice. Participating patients will complete a baseline questionnaire (shortly after consultation), plus questionnaires 2 and 6 months later. A subsample of patients, along with participating GPs and health care practitioners, will be invited to take part in qualitative focus groups and interviews. The Keele STarT MSK tool will be refined based on face, discriminant, construct, and predictive validity at baseline and 2 months, and validated using data from 6-month follow-up. Patient and clinician perspectives about using the tool will be explored. This study will provide a validated prognostic tool (Keele STarT MSK) with established cutoff points to stratify patients with the five most common musculoskeletal presentations into low-, medium-, and high-risk subgroups. The qualitative analysis of patient and health care perspectives will inform practitioners on how to embed the tool
Little, J. Nicole; Hoskins, Marie L.
This article explores the authors' critical reflections that arose while engaging in research with girls recovering from an eating disorder. The authors address issues related to media, consumerism, and identity construction. They emphasize that while there are no clear solutions to dilemmas facing girls in North American culture, researchers and…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd
Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…
Sullivan, Brandon A.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.
This study explored evidence of the construct validity of the interest scales on the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS; Campbell, Hyne, & Nilsen, 1992) by testing evidence for convergent validity with the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Hansen & Campbell, 1985). Two hypotheses were formulated. First, matching CISS and SII scales…
Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre
The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…
Kemper, Christoph J.; Lutz, Johannes; Bahr, Tobias; Ruddel, Heinz; Hock, Michael
Using two clinical samples of patients, the presented studies examined the construct validity of the recently revised Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3). Confirmatory factor analyses established a clear three-factor structure that corresponds to the postulated subdivision of the construct into correlated somatic, social, and cognitive components.…
Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette
Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…
Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.
Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…
Banerji, Madhabi; Ferron, John
Three analytic approaches were used in a framework of classical test theory to examine the construct validity of a mathematics assessment of 16 constructed response items. Results from 280 elementary school students across four age groups suggest a developmental structure of tasks and subdomains that was generally consistent with the test's…
Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…
Setari, Anthony Philip
The purpose of this study was to construct a holistic education school evaluation tool using Montessori Erdkinder principles, and begin the validation process of examining the proposed tool. This study addresses a vital need in the holistic education community for a school evaluation tool. The tool construction process included using Erdkinder…
Newman, Daniel A; Hanges, Paul J; Outtz, James L
According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial socialization experiences that vary within racial groups. Treatment of the test fairness issue--a social and political issue--will benefit from explicitly considering historical events that contributed to group-level race differences. In light of this history, D. A. Newman et al suggest (a) retaining a group-level conceptualization of race/racial socialization and also (b) focusing on criterion-irrelevant variance in test scores that is attributable to race.
Nemoto, Hitoshi; Watson, Deborah; Masuda, Koichi
Tissue engineering holds great promise for cartilage repair with minimal donor-site morbidity. The in vivo maturation of a tissue-engineered construct can be tested in the subcutaneous tissues of the same species for autografts or of immunocompromised animals for allografts or xenografts. This section describes detailed protocols for the surgical transplantation of a tissue-engineered construct into an animal model to assess construct validity.
Validation of a Spanish version of the psychological inflexibility in pain scale (PIPS) and an evaluation of its relation with acceptance of pain and mindfulness in sample of persons with fibromyalgia
Background Psychological flexibility has been suggested as a fundamental process in health. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) is one of the scales employed for assessing psychological inflexibility in pain patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the PIPS and secondly, to compare it to two other psychological constructs, the acceptance of pain and mindfulness scales. Methods The PIPS was translated into Spanish by two bilingual linguistic experts, and then, back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered along with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Face validity, construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and convergent validity were tested. Also a multiple regression analysis was carried out.The usual guidelines have been followed for cross-cultural adaptations. Results Data were very similar to the ones obtained in the original PIPS version. The construct validity confirmed the original two-components solution which explained 61.6% of the variance. The Spanish PIPS had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.90). The Spanish PIPS’ score correlated significantly with worse global functioning (r = 0.55), anxiety (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.66), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62), pain acceptance (r = −0.72) and mindfulness (r = −0.47), as well as correlating modestly with pain intensity (r = 0.12). The multiple regression analyses showed that psychological inflexibility, acceptance and mindfulness are not overlapped. Conclusions The Spanish PIPS scale appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of
ARDAKANI, Abolfazl; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; HABIL, Hussain; JAMEEI, Fahimeh; RASHID, Rusdi; ZAHIRODIN, Alireza; MOTLAQ, Farid; MASJIDI ARANI, Abbas
Background: Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting. Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. Results: The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01), Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01), and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01). Conclusions: This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding. PMID:27252914
Frederick, Richard I; Bowden, Stephen C
This study uses a new method to summarize diagnostic validity information to explore which constructs are captured by malingering tests. The Test Validation Summary applies mixed-groups validation to investigate the meaning of test constructs and to estimate test classification characteristics when test validation groups are not "pure" criterion groups (ie, "compliant" vs "malingering"), but members have variable probability of malingering. The method permits the use of tests with relatively low validity to validate tests of greater validity. In our initial analysis, we argue that the Rey 15-Item Memory Test is best construed as an "intention test" (capturing the intention of testtakers when taking a test) as opposed to an "effort test." Using the Test Validation Summary and mixed-groups validation, we demonstrate that as an indicator of "intention to feign cognitive impairment," the Rey 15-Item Memory Test has estimated false-positive rate (FPR) = 0.02 and true-positive rate (TPR) = 0.57. We then explore the meaning of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT), which uses a dichotomous classification of performance as valid or invalid. Although the WMT is commonly referred to as an "effort test," we argue that it likely captures both "intention" and "effort" but collapses this information into a single dichotomous classification of symptom validity. We demonstrate that, as a result of this dichotomous classification process, the WMT likely has a problematic FPR. In our analysis of previously published WMT data, the WMT FPR is estimated at 0.12 when there is no predisposition to perform poorly but rises dramatically and unrealistically as the predisposition to perform poorly increases. We compare these findings to those of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), which captures both intent and effort to classify 4 different sorts of response styles in cognitive testing. In our analyses, the VIP demonstrates that FPR = 0 and TPR = 0.86 when the construct being measured is
Astroth, Kim S; Fish, Anne F; Mitchell, G Lynn; Bachman, Jean A; Hsueh, Kuei-Hsiang
Measuring readiness to exercise, or exercise stage of change (ESOC), is an important first step when counseling adults about exercise. However, minimal construct validity testing of ESOC measures has been reported. With a sample of 95 adults, we estimated the construct validity of four ESOC measures with commonly used response formats (true/false, ladder, 5 choice, interview). Participants completed all four ESOC measures in random order as well as six validation measures: physical activity performed, exercise self-efficacy, decisional balance pros and cons, and behavioral and experiential processes of change. Few participants were in the earliest stage of change. The true/false measure demonstrated the strongest validity. Further studies are needed in diverse samples with more representation across the stages of change.
Raes, Filip; Pommier, Elizabeth; Neff, Kristin D; Van Gucht, Dinska
The objective of the present study was to construct and validate a short-form version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Two Dutch samples were used to construct and cross-validate the factorial structure of a 12-item Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF). The SCS-SF was then validated in a third, English sample. The SCS-SF demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.86 in all samples) and a near-perfect correlation with the long form SCS (r ≥ 0.97 all samples). Confirmatory factor analysis on the SCS-SF supported the same six-factor structure as found in the long form, as well as a single higher-order factor of self-compassion. The SCS-SF thus represents a reliable and valid alternative to the long-form SCS, especially when looking at overall self-compassion scores.
Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F
Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures.
Laroche, Michel; Pons, Frank; Richard, Marie-Odile
The authors focused on the role of language use in measuring ethnic identity. They demonstrated the construct validity of a 3-dimensional measure and examined potential biases introduced by alternative methods such as constant sum scale. Their findings support the distinction between the 3 subdimensions of language use (English use in family, in media consumption, and while shopping). The authors found evidence of discriminant validity. By using 3 approaches to construct validity, they found that the support for discriminant validity strengthens the discriminant and convergent properties of the instrument. Findings concerning method effects were less obvious. If the traditional multitrait-multimethod approach indicates no method effects, more stringent approaches (e.g., analysis of variance and correlated uniqueness approach) indicate the presence of limited method effects. The authors provide implications regarding measurement of ethnic identity.
Selim, Hassan M.
Uses the Technology Acceptance Model constructs of usefulness and ease of use to assess university students' acceptance of course Web sites as an effective learning tool. Reports results of a survey of undergraduates and discusses the reliability and validity of the Course Website Acceptance Model. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)
This study establishes the validity of the Prison Inmate Inventory for use among female inmates (N = 628). Contrast groups were used to establish construct validity; negative binomial regression analysis was used to confirm predictive validity. Female inmates who were arrested at a younger age demonstrated more severe problems with violence, antisocial traits, distress, adjustment to prison life, and judgment. Results from the negative binomial analysis revealed that inmate risk (low and severe) predicted expected counts of probation revocations, parole revocation, and escape attempts. Expected counts were not related to race/ethnicity in this sample.
Canivez, Gary L.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…
Boezeman, Edwin J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K.
Objectives: To test the predictive value and convergent construct validity of a 6-item work functioning screener (WFS-H). Methods: Healthcare workers (249 nurses) completed a questionnaire containing the work functioning screener (WFS-H) and a work functioning instrument (NWFQ) measuring the following: cognitive aspects of task execution and general incidents, avoidance behavior, conflicts and irritation with colleagues, impaired contact with patients and their family, and level of energy and motivation. Productivity and mental health were also measured. Negative and positive predictive values, AUC values, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated to examine the predictive value of the screener. Correlation analysis was used to examine the construct validity. Results: The screener had good predictive value, since the results showed that a negative screener score is a strong indicator of work functioning not hindered by mental health problems (negative predictive values: 94%-98%; positive predictive values: 21%-36%; AUC:.64-.82; sensitivity: 42%-76%; and specificity 85%-87%). The screener has good construct validity due to moderate, but significant (p<.001), associations with productivity (r=.51), mental health (r=.48), and distress (r=.47). Conclusions: The screener (WFS-H) had good predictive value and good construct validity. Its score offers occupational health professionals a helpful preliminary insight into the work functioning of healthcare workers. PMID:27010085
Kane, Michael J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.; Miura, Timothy K.; Colflesh, Gregory J. H.
The n-back task requires participants to decide whether each stimulus in a sequence matches the one that appeared n items ago. Although n-back has become a standard "executive" working memory (WM) measure in cognitive neuroscience, it has been subjected to few behavioral tests of construct validity. A combined experimental-correlational study…
Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Ortiz, Alba; Carlo, Maria; Francis, David J.
The construct validity of English and Spanish phonological awareness (PA) tasks was examined with a sample of 812 kindergarten children from 71 transitional bilingual education program classrooms located in 3 different types of geographic regions in California and Texas. Tasks of PA, including blending nonwords, segmenting words, and phoneme…
Ramaswami, Soundaram; Babo, Gerard
This paper presents and discusses the statistical analysis of the responses from an online survey administered to a sample of US superintendents (n=225) in an attempt to explore and authenticate the construct validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through exploratory factor analysis. Using a Principal Axis Factor method, 6 factors were extracted…
Nam, Suk Kyung; In Park, Hyung
This study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Attitudes Toward Career Counseling Scale (ATCCS) in Korea. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used for testing the factor structure of the scale. The results supported a two-factor (value and stigma) model, which was theoretically driven from the original study. Results of…
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna
The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the "attitudes toward science class" of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs--science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as…
Grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) have been, and continue to be, frequently used in the field of SLA as a measure of learners' linguistic ability in the second language (L2). However, only a few studies have examined their construct validity as measures of implicit and explicit knowledge (Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005), and even fewer have…
Memis, Ugur Altay
This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…
Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Marinaro, Laura Marie
When utilizing self-assessments to determine motives for health behaviors, it is essential that the resulting data demonstrate sound psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to assess the reliability and construct validity of college students' responses to the Reasons for Smoking Scale (RFS). Confirmatory factor analyses and…
Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho
The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…
McFarland, Michael B.; Petrie, Trent A.
Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of eating, exercise, and affective disturbances in men, measurement of this construct becomes essential. Across 2 studies with male undergraduates (Ns = 189 and 188), the psychometric properties, including incremental validity and factor structure, of the 25-item Body Parts…
Mandy, William P. L.; Charman, Tony; Skuse, David H.
Objective: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the proposed "DSM-5" symptom model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison to alternative models, including that described in "DSM-IV-TR." Method: Participants were 708 verbal children and young persons (mean age, 9.5 years) with mild to severe autistic…
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Witte, Tracy K.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted…
Martin, Andrew J.
Background: This study seeks to examine a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using within- and between-network construct validation approaches. Aims: The study tests the first- and higher-order factor structure of the motivation and engagement wheel and its corresponding measurement tool, the Motivation and Engagement…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Richards, Gary E.
The construct validity of responses to the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) was evaluated in two sets of analyses. First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and an analysis of variance model adapted from multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) research, were used to examine the internal structure of the TSCS responses. Second, MTMM analyses…
Shaffer, Michal; And Others
Personality, environment, and the interaction between them have been suggested as the major factors accounting for career development. Students (N=283) were asked to respond to 28 items on a recently revised self-report instrument, the Career Factor Checklist (CFC), in order to establish the construct validity of the revised CFC and to investigate…
Baig, Lubna; Violato, Claudio; Crutcher, Rodney
Introduction: The purpose of the study was to adduce evidence for estimating the construct validity of clinical competence measured through assessment instruments used for high-stakes examinations. Methods: Thirty-nine international physicians (mean age = 41 + 6.5 y) participated in high-stakes examination and 3-month supervised clinical practice…
Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif
This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…
Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…
Henkel, Thomas George; Wilmoth, James Noel
Three types of data were factor analyzed using principal components extractions with orthogonal and oblique rotations to test publisher claims for construct validity of the Personal Profile System (PPS). Behavioral descriptor data from 1,045 senior non-commissioned Air Force officers were factored as raw data, mean corrected data, and standardized…
Examined the relationship between the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and scores on the Adventure scale of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) among female college students (n=55). Women scoring high on the SSS scales also scored high on the Adventure scale, thereby supporting the construct validity of the SII Adventure scale. (RJM)
Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.
This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…
Heineman, Kirsten R.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Fidler, Vaclav; Middelburg, Karin J.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Aim: The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) is a qualitative assessment of motor behaviour of infants aged 3 to 18 months. The aim of this study was to investigate construct validity of the IMP through the relation of IMP scores with prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal variables, including the presence of brain pathology indicated by neonatal ultrasound…
Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique
The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…
Cid, Eva; Granena, Gisela; Tragant, Elsa
The present study describes the process that was followed in the construction and validation of the foreign language attitudes and goals survey (FLAGS), a new questionnaire based on qualitative data from Tragant and Munoz [Tragant, Munoz, C., 2000. "La motivacion y su relacion con la edad en un contexto escolar de aprendizaje de una lengua…
Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael; Kushner, Shauna; Quilty, Lena C.; Ayearst, Lindsay E.
In the current investigation, the authors examined the diagnostic construct validity of the "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form" (MMPI-2-RF) in a patient sample. All participants were diagnosed via the "Structured Clinical Interview" for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P). The data set used in this…
López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.
The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…
Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent
This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…
Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed
Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…
Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…
Bowler, Mark C.; Woehr, David J.
Recent Monte Carlo research has illustrated that the traditional method for assessing the construct-related validity of assessment center (AC) post-exercise dimension ratings (PEDRs), an application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to a multitrait-multimethod matrix, produces inconsistent results [Lance, C. E., Woehr, D. J., & Meade, A. W.…
Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.
The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…
Clerfeuille, E; Vieux, F; Lluch, A; Darmon, N; Rolf-Pedersen, N
Nutrient profiling classifies individual food products according to their nutrient content. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), validation is a key step in the development of a nutrient profiling system. The aim was to assess the construct validity of five European nutrient profiling systems (Choices, Keyhole, (AFSSA), European Commission (EC) system and FoodProfiler). Construct validity was assessed for each of the five-selected nutrient profiling systems by testing whether healthy foods (that is, identified as eligible by the system) make healthy diets, and unhealthy foods (that is, non-eligible) make unhealthy diets, using diet modeling. The AFSSA, EC and FoodProfiler systems were identified as valid, but differences in their levels of permissiveness suggested some misclassified food products. The two other systems failed the construct validity assessment. Among these three systems, the EC system is the less demanding in terms of nutritional information, it would, therefore, be the easiest to implement for regulating nutrition and health claims in Europe.
Nakamura, Fábio Y; Perandini, Luiz A; Okuno, Nilo M; Borges, Thiago O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Robertson, Robert J
This study tested the concurrent and construct validity of a newly developed OMNI-Kayak Scale, testing 8 male kayakers who performed a flatwater load-incremented "shuttle" test over a 500-m course and 3 estimation-production trials over a 1,000-m course. Velocity, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), using the OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale and the Borg 6-20 Scale were recorded. OMNI-Kayak Scale RPE was highly correlated with velocity, the Borg 6-20 Scale RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate for both load-incremented test (rs = .87-.96), and estimation trials (rs = .75-.90). There were no significant differences among velocities, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between estimation and production trials. The OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale showed concurrent and construct validity in assessing perception of effort in flatwater kayaking and is a valid tool for self-regulation of exercise intensity.
Groves, Christopher L.; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L.; Lynch, Paul J.
Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Witte, Tracy K.; Joiner, Thomas E.
The present study examines the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with five independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide and was developed to measure thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness—both proximal causes of desire for suicide. Results support that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are distinct, but related constructs and that they can be reliably measured. Further, multiple group analyses were consistent with invariance for younger vs. older adults and non-clinical versus clinical populations thereby supporting the relevance of these constructs to diverse populations. Finally, both constructs demonstrated convergent associations with related interpersonal constructs—including loneliness and social support for belongingness and social worth and death ideation for burdensomeness—as well as prospective associations with suicidal ideation. PMID:21928908
Scullen, Steven E; Mount, Michael K; Judge, Timothy A
The construct validity of developmental ratings of managerial performance was assessed by using 2 data sets, each based on a different 360 degrees rating instrument. Specifically, the authors investigated the nature of the constructs measured by developmental ratings, the structural relationships among those constructs, and the generalizability of results across 4 rater perspectives (boss, peer, subordinate, and self). A structure with 4 lower order factors (Technical Skills, Administrative Skills, Human Skills, and Citizenship Behaviors) and 2 higher order factors (Task Performance and Contextual Performance) was tested against competing models. Results consistently supported the lower order constructs, but the higher order structure was problematic, indicating that the structure of ratings is not yet well understood. Multisample analyses indicated few practically significant differences in factor structures across perspectives.
Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: "to gain attention", "to gain a tangible object", and "to escape". There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.
Data from a developmental assessment comprised of 9 short answer mathematics tasks were validated using classical and three-faceted Rasch measurement methods. Field test data from a mixed age elementary school sample (N=280) were analyzed. Descriptive statistics on scores from the overall scale and two subdomains indicated improved performance with age. The data showed better fit with a two-factor model corresponding with the subdomain structure (Bentler's CFI=.94), than a one factor model (CFI=.87). The inter-factor correlation was.76. Convergent validity coefficients of scores with scaled scores of the Stanford AchievementTest mathematics battery ranged from.28 to.47; internal consistency reliability of the total and subdomain scores ranged from.87 to.89, respectively; and median inter-rater reliability was.75. On average, persons, tasks and raters showed acceptable fit with the three-facet Rasch model. Rasch logit difficulties of tasks suggested an ordered scale structure, although tasks tended to have high difficulty levels. The original and calibrated task ordering was consistent at the extreme ends of the scale. Gaps identified on the Rasch item map suggested a need for additional task construction. Conceptual and procedural differences in each technique are considered in deciding future improvements to the scale.
Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K
Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination were computed and examined to identify model fit by applying exploratory factor analysis. Such analyses showed that the instrument demonstrated adequate estimates of reliability in assessing teachers' knowledge of language constructs. The implications for professional development of in-service teachers as well as preservice teacher education are also discussed.
Gold, Bernadette; Holodynski, Manfred
The current study describes the development and construct validation of a situational judgment test for assessing the strategic knowledge of classroom management in elementary schools. Classroom scenarios and accompanying courses of action were constructed, of which 17 experts confirmed the content validity. A pilot study and a cross-validation…
Joiner, T E; Steer, R A; Beck, A T; Schmidt, N B; Rudd, M D; Catanzaro, S J
Physiological hyperarousal (PH) is an understudied component of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. This study contributes to the literature on PH, the tripartite model, and anxiety and its disorders, using data from psychotherapy outpatients (n = 2,448), air force cadets (n = 1,335), and undergraduates (n = 284). Psychometrics and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that PH is a reliable, cohesive, discriminable, and valid construct. Compared with subjective anxiety, PH was more associated to panic versus mood disordered status, and to panic versus generalized anxiety disordered status. As hypothesized, an aspect of anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of body sensations) was particularly related to subjective anxiety in the presence of PH. Results support the PH construct as replicable, valid, and clinically important and support the utility of the tripartite and related models for understanding the relation of depressive and anxious syndromes.
Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.
This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463
Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund
This study sought to evaluate the construct validity of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) by investigating a sample of 2,619 patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs by a variety of statistical techniques. Nineteen patients (0.7%) reached the diagnostic threshold of SZPD. Results from the factor analyses indicated that SZPD consists of three factors: social detachment, withdrawal, and restricted affectivity/ anhedonia. Overall, internal consistency and diagnostic efficiency were poor and best for the criteria that belong to the social detachment factor. These findings pose serious questions about the clinical utility of SZPD as a diagnostic category. On the other hand, the three factors were in concordance with findings from previous studies and with the trait model for personality disorders in DSM-5, supporting the validity of SZPD as a dimensional construct. The authors recommend that SZPD should be deleted as a diagnostic category in future editions of DSM-5.
Adams, Adrienne E; Beeble, Marisa L; Gregory, Katie A
This study investigated the construct validity of the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA). Evidence of construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship between the SEA and an economic outcome, financial resources, as perceived by participants. A sample of 93 women with abusive partners were recruited from a domestic violence organization and interviewed 3 times over a period of 4 months. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relationship between economic abuse and financial resources over time, controlling for the effects of physical and psychological abuse. The findings indicate that baseline economic abuse was significantly related to baseline financial resources, and within-woman change in economic abuse was significantly predicted change in financial resources over time. The findings suggest that the SEA measures what it is intended to measure: an economic dimension of intimate partner abuse that has damaging economic consequences.
Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Drislane, Laura E
This study sought to replicate and extend Hall and colleagues' (2014) work on developing and validating scales from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) to index the triarchic psychopathy constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. This study also extended Hall et al.'s initial findings by including the PPI Revised (PPI-R). A community sample (n = 240) weighted toward subclinical psychopathy traits and a male prison sample (n = 160) were used for this study. Results indicated that PPI-Boldness, PPI-Meanness, and PPI-Disinhibition converged with other psychopathy, personality, and behavioral criteria in ways conceptually expected from the perspective of the triarchic psychopathy model, including showing very strong convergent and discriminant validity with their Triarchic Psychopathy Measure counterparts. These findings further enhance the utility of the PPI and PPI-R in measuring these constructs.
Fuentes López, Eduardo A; Morales, Felipe Cardemil
Recreational noise exposure and its impact on hearing is a problem to which increasing attention is being paid. In Spanish, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid instrument that is capable of describing the extent of noise exposure. The aim was to create and validate an instrument to determine listening habits and levels of recreational noise exposure in young people. We performed a transversal questionnaire validation study using university students. We assessed the validity of the content and appearance of the "Recreational Hearing Habits Questionnaire" (CHAR in Spanish) through experts' judgment. Then we piloted the administration of semantic adaptation with 30 students. Finally, the instrument was applied to 335 Chilean university students, obtaining with these indicators that demonstrated convergent validity of the construct, criterion and reliability. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as correlation and agreement tests. It was confirmed that 14 questions in the questionnaire have a good item-test correlation, having also a factorial structure that indicates the existence of three-dimensions. The questionnaire has good internal consistency and convergent validity with the Noise Exposure Questionnaire. In addition, the score obtained in the CHAR is a predictor of the presence of notch at frequencies of 4 kHz in the right ear and 6 kHz in the left. The CHAR is useful for determining listening habits and thereby recreational noise exposure, indicating good psychometric properties.
Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu
The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver proxy-report version of the Chinese version of the CP QOL-Child in children with CP using CFA. A total of 312 children with CP (mean age: 8.59 years, SD: 2.52 years) and their caregivers participated in this study. The Chinese version of the CP QOL-Child was completed by the caregivers of children with CP. Then, CFA was applied to evaluate the seven-factor measurement structure of the CP QOL-Child. The seven-factor CFA model had an adequate fit to our data as judged by χ(2) statistic and various goodness-of-fit (GOF) indices, including the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). This study provided empirical evidence of the construct validity of the CP QOL-Child to support its use with children with CP in the Chinese speaking society.
Wiedl, Karl H; Schöttke, Henning; Green, Michael F; Nuechterlein, Keith H
Dynamic testing typically involves specific interventions for a test to assess the extent to which test performance can be modified, beyond level of baseline (static) performance. This study used a dynamic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) that is based on cognitive remediation techniques within a test-training-test procedure. From results of previous studies with schizophrenia patients, we concluded that the dynamic and static versions of the WCST should have different construct validity. This hypothesis was tested by examining the patterns of correlations with measures of executive functioning, secondary verbal memory, and verbal intelligence. Results demonstrated a specific construct validity of WCST dynamic (i.e., posttest) scores as an index of problem solving (Tower of Hanoi) and secondary verbal memory and learning (Auditory Verbal Learning Test), whereas the impact of general verbal capacity and selective attention (Verbal IQ, Stroop Test) was reduced. It is concluded that the construct validity of the test changes with dynamic administration and that this difference helps to explain why the dynamic version of the WCST predicts functional outcome better than the static version.
Burns, Ted M; Grouse, C K; Conaway, Mark R; Sanders, Donald B
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) estimates can play an important role in patient care by providing information about the patient's perception of impairment and disability and the degree to which the patient tolerates disease manifestations. The 15-item myasthenia gravis quality of life scale (MG-QOL15) is an HRQOL evaluative instrument specific to patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) that was designed to be easy to administer and interpret. In this multicenter study we demonstrate the construct validity of the MG-QOL15 in the practice setting. To assess the construct validity, score distributions were examined for test items in different MG patient groups that represent the clinical spectrum of the disease. For example, patients in remission more frequently scored test items as normal than did patients in other groups. Patients with lower (better) MG composite scores also more frequently scored items as normal than did patients with higher (worse) scores. There was also appropriate correlation between the MG-QOL15 and the other MG-specific scales studied. The study findings shed light on what troubles MG patients. The MG-QOL15 has construct validity in the clinical practice setting and represents an efficient and valuable tool for assessing HRQOL for patients with MG.
Engel-Yeger, Batya; Josman, Naomi; Rosenblum, Sara
Children's success with participating in life depends heavily on intact executive function (EF) skills. The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for Children (BADS-C) was developed to address the need for a standardised ecologically valid test of children's EF performance. This study aimed to establish the construct validity of the BADS-C in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 208 Israeli children, aged 8-15 years, who were divided into three age groups (8 years to 9 years and 11 months; 10 years to 11 years and 11 months; 12 to 15 years) and tested with the BADS-C. The older age groups achieved significantly better scores than the younger groups. No significant differences were found between genders in any of the BADS-C scores. Similar results were found for familial socio-economic status and parents' education. Construct validity was demonstrated for the BADS-C by providing a profile for different age groups. Additional studies are needed to examine further the validity and reliability of the BADS-C and the relationships between socio-demographic factors and EF.
The main objective of this present study is to demonstrate the estimation of validity values and its consistency based on structural equation model. The method of estimation was then implemented to an empirical data in case of the construction the patient loyalty model. In the hypothesis model, service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty were determined simultaneously, each factor were measured by any indicator variables. The respondents involved in this study were the patients who ever got healthcare at Puskesmas in Padang, West Sumatera. All 394 respondents who had complete information were included in the analysis. This study found that each construct; service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty were valid. It means that all hypothesized indicator variables were significant to measure their corresponding latent variable. Service quality is the most measured by tangible, patient satisfaction is the most mesured by satisfied on service and patient loyalty is the most measured by good service quality. Meanwhile in structural equation, this study found that patient loyalty was affected by patient satisfaction positively and directly. Service quality affected patient loyalty indirectly with patient satisfaction as mediator variable between both latent variables. Both structural equations were also valid. This study also proved that validity values which obtained here were also consistence based on simulation study using bootstrap approach.
Guanilo, Mónica Cecilia De la Torre Ugarte; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita
Objective To construct and validate markers of vulnerability of women to STDs/HIV, taking into consideration the importance of STDs/HIV. Method Methodological study carried out in three stages: 1) systematic review and identification of elements of vulnerability in the scientific production; 2) selection of elements of vulnerability, and development of markers; 3) establishment of the expert group and validation of the markers (content validity). Results Five markers were validated: no openness in the relationship to discuss aspects related to prevention of STDs/HIV; no perception of vulnerability to STDs/HIV; disregard of vulnerability to STDs/ HIV; not recognizing herself as the subject of sexual and reproductive rights; actions of health professionals that limit women's access to prevention of STDs/HIV. Each marker contains three to eleven components. Conclusion The construction of such markers constituted an instrument, presented in another publication, which can contribute to support the identification of vulnerabilities of women in relation to STDs/HIV in the context of primary health care services. The markers constitute an important tool for the operationalization of the concept of vulnerability in primary health care and to promote inter/multidisciplinary and inter/multi-sectoral work processes.
Minaker, Leia M; Raine, Kim D; Wild, T Cameron; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Thompson, Mary E; Frank, Lawrence D
Few studies have assessed the construct validity of measures of neighborhood food environment, which remains a major challenge in accurately assessing food access. In this study, we adapted a psychometric tool to examine the construct validity of 4 such measures for 3 constructs. We used 4 food-environment measures to collect objective data from 422 Ontario, Canada, food stores in 2010. Residents' perceptions of their neighborhood food environment were collected from 2,397 households between 2009 and 2010. Objective and perceptual data were aggregated within buffer zones around respondents' homes (at 250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m, and 1,500 m). We constructed multitrait-multimethod matrices for each scale to examine construct validity for the constructs of food availability, food quality, and food affordability. Convergent validity between objective measures decreased with increasing geographic scale. Convergent validity between objective and subjective measures increased with increasing geographic scale. High discriminant validity coefficients existed between food availability and food quality, indicating that these two constructs may not be distinct in this setting. We conclude that the construct validity of food environment measures varies over geographic scales, which has implications for research, policy, and practice.
Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
Background: Different dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have been found as valid predictors of further mental health problems and antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed at testing the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of ODD dimensions derived from parent- and self-report measures. Method: Confirmatory…
Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor
Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302
Marsh, Herbert W; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen
Relations between multiple dimensions of self-concept, personality (Big Five), well-being, and academic outcomes (school grades, test scores, coursework selection) for a large (N=4,475) sample of German adolescents support the construct validity of a well-defined, multidimensional set of self-concept factors in relation to personality factors, and vice versa. Confirmatory factor analysis of a German adaptation of the Self Description Questionnaire III demonstrated 17 a priori, reasonably independent self-concept factors (M correlation=.14; SD=.17) that had a highly differentiated pattern of relations with the personality factors and academic outcomes. Consistent with theory and previous research, math and verbal self-concepts were negatively related to each other, and this extreme domain specificity was reflected in the systematic and substantial relations with academic criteria measures. Self-esteem, Big Five, and well-being factors explained only small amounts of variance in academic outcomes and support for their incremental validity after controlling for specific self-concept factors was weak.
Podsakoff, Nathan P; Podsakoff, Philip M; Mackenzie, Scott B; Klinger, Ryan L
Several researchers have persuasively argued that the most important evidence to consider when assessing construct validity is whether variations in the construct of interest cause corresponding variations in the measures of the focal construct. Unfortunately, the literature provides little practical guidance on how researchers can go about testing this. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe how researchers can use video techniques to test whether their scales measure what they purport to measure. First, we discuss how researchers can develop valid manipulations of the focal construct that they hope to measure. Next, we explain how to design a study to use this manipulation to test the validity of the scale. Finally, comparing and contrasting traditional and contemporary perspectives on validation, we discuss the advantages and limitations of video-based validation procedures.
Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica
Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be
Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica
Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use
Wilde, Elisabeth A; McCauley, Stephen R; Kelly, Tara M; Weyand, Annie M; Pedroza, Claudia; Levin, Harvey S; Clifton, Guy L; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Shah, Monika V; Moretti, Paolo
The Neurological Outcome Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury (NOS-TBI) is a measure adapted from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and is intended to capture essential neurological deficits impacting individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (see Wilde et al., 2010 ). In the present study we evaluate the measure's construct validity via comparison with a quantified neurological examination performed by a neurologist. Spearman rank-order correlation between the NOS-TBI and the neurological examination was rho = 0.76, p < 0.0001, suggesting a high degree of correspondence (construct validity) between these two measures of neurological function. Additionally, items from the NOS-TBI compared favorably to the neurological examination items, with correlations ranging from 0.60 to 0.99 (all p < 0.0001). On formal neurological examination, some degree of neurological impairment was observed in every participant in this cohort of individuals undergoing rehabilitation for TBI, and on the NOS-TBI neurological impairment was evident in all but one participant. This study documents the presence of measurable neurological sequelae in a sample of patients with TBI in a post-acute rehabilitation setting, underscoring the need for formal measurement of the frequency and severity of neurological deficits in this population. The results suggest that the NOS-TBI is a valid measure of neurological functioning in patients with TBI.
Salazar, Fernando Raul; Bernabé, Eduardo
This study assessed the psychometric properties of the SF-36 questionnaire in a sample of 4344 Peruvian people aged 15 to 64 years. Internal consistency reliability was estimated using Cronbach's α coefficient, construct validity by known-groups comparison defined with respect to key sociodemographic characteristics, and factor structure by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) at item level. Cronbach's α coefficient for the full questionnaire was 0.82 and ranged between 0.66 and 0.92 by scales. The 8 scales discriminated well between sexes, age, and socioeconomic groups. CFA showed that a model with 8 first-order factors and 2 second-order factors (namely, physical and mental health) was a feasible representation of the SF-36 factor structure and had better fit to data than alternative factor structures. The SF-36 showed appropriate psychometric properties regarding internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure when tested in Peru. Future studies should focus on testing other psychometric properties of the SF-36, such as convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity to change.
Hoffman, LaVae M.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Brandel, Jayne; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of two oral language measures that are commonly used for diagnostic purposes with school age children who have language impairments. Methods: 216 children with SLI were assessed with the Test of Language Development-Primary, 3rd edition (TOLD-P:3) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) within a three-month period. The concurrent and construct validity of these two published tests were explored through correlation analysis and principle component factor analysis. Results: The TOLD-P:3 Spoken Language Quotient and CASL Core Composite scores were found to have an inter-test correlation value of r = .596 within this sample, and a paired samples t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between these scores. Principle component factor analyses revealed a two factor structure solution for the TOLD-P:3, while data from the CASL supported a single factor model. Conclusions: Analyses of assessment measure performance data from a sample of school age children with specific language impairment revealed concurrent validity values and construct validity patterns that differed from those found in the norming samples as cited in examiner’s manuals. Implications for practice patterns and future research are discussed. PMID:21930614
Davidson, Charlie A.; Johannesen, Jason K.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.
Background The construct, convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of Learning Potential (LP) was evaluated in a trial of cognitive remediation for adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. LP utilizes a dynamic assessment approach to prospectively estimate an individual's learning capacity if provided the opportunity for specific related learning. Methods LP was assessed in 75 participants at study entry, of whom 41 completed an eight-week cognitive remediation (CR) intervention, and 22 received treatment-as-usual (TAU). LP was assessed in a “test-train-test” verbal learning paradigm. Incremental predictive validity was assessed as the degree to which LP predicted memory skill acquisition above and beyond prediction by static verbal learning ability. Results Examination of construct validity confirmed that LP scores reflected use of trained semantic clustering strategy. LP scores correlated with executive functioning and education history, but not other demographics or symptom severity. Following the eight-week active phase, TAU evidenced little substantial change in skill acquisition outcomes, which related to static baseline verbal learning ability but not LP. For the CR group, LP significantly predicted skill acquisition in domains of verbal and visuospatial memory, but not auditory working memory. Furthermore, LP predicted skill acquisition incrementally beyond relevant background characteristics, symptoms, and neurocognitive abilities. Conclusions Results suggest that LP assessment can significantly improve prediction of specific skill acquisition with cognitive training, particularly for the domain assessed, and thereby may prove useful in individualization of treatment. PMID:26833267
Pizzola, Lisa; Martos, Zoe; Pfisterer, Kaylen; de Groot, Lisette; Keller, Heather
Mealtime satisfaction is an important component of quality of life (QOL) in residential care, yet there currently is no self-administered tool described in the literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate internal and test-retest reliability, and construct validity of a mealtime satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) designed for residential care, more specifically retirement homes. A 15-item MSQ was developed and eligible participants from four retirement homes (n = 749) were invited to participate. The participation rate was 24% and the median age was 88 years for respondents. The internal consistency of the MSQ was high (Cronbach Alpha = 0.83) and the test-retest reliability was also high (Intraclass coefficient = 0.91, P < 0.01). The MSQ was associated with a valid and reliable QOL instrument for older adults (Mann Whitney Test = 1595.5, P < 0.01). The MSQ is reliable and is content and construct valid. QOL can be enriched by improving mealtime satisfaction in retirement homes.
Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct.
Chou, Ya-Hsin; Lee, Chin-Pang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I
Objective Previous studies of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), a free scale, have been based on the classical test theory, and the construct validity and dimensionality of the DSSS are as yet uncertain. The aim of this study was to use Mokken scale analysis (MSA) to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Methods A sample of 214 psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders were enrolled at a medical center in Taiwan (age: mean [SD] =38.3 [10.5] years; 63.1% female) and asked to complete the DSSS. MSA was used to assess the dimensionality of the DSSS. Results All 22 items of the DSSS formed a moderate unidimensional scale (Hs=0.403), supporting its construct validity. The DSSS was divided into 4 subscales (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.67), including a general somatic scale (GSS), melancholic scale (MS), muscular pain scale (MPS), and chest symptom scale (CSS). The GSS is a weak reliable Mokken scale; the other 3 scales are strong reliable Mokken scales. Conclusion The DSSS is a psychometrically sound measure of depression and somatic symptoms in adult psychiatric outpatients with depression or anxiety. The summed score of the DSSS and its 4 subscales are valid statistics. Further research is required for replication of the 4 subscales of the DSSS. PMID:28182138
Garvin, Jennifer Hornung; Gordon, Thomas F; Haignere, Clara; DuCette, Joseph P
This study involved the design and validation of a new Lyme disease risk assessment instrument. The study was funded in part by a research grant from the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) Foundation on Research and Education (FORE). The resulting instrument measured theoretical constructs such as attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, skills, and knowledge relative to Lyme disease. The survey assessment tool is described here, and the tool development process, the validation and reliability process, and results are presented. The assessment tool was created by using a standard instrument development process that first involved constructing possible items (questions) based on several health behavior theories and known health risk behaviors. These items were then further refined by using focus groups, a small pilot study, factor analysis, and a large-scale pilot study. Validity and reliability indices were established with a test-retest reliability coefficient of .66, and finally the tool was used among a population living in a Lyme-disease-endemic area. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .737 for behavioral items, .573 for cognitive items, and .331 for environmental items were established. PMID:18066379
Ekehammar, Bo; Zuber, Irena; Konstenius, Marja-Liisa
Although the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been in use for almost half a century, there are still quite contradictory views about whether it is a reliable instrument, and if so, what it really measures. Thus, based on data from 39 female students, we first examined DMT inter-coder reliability by analyzing the agreement among trained judges in their coding of the same DMT protocols. Second, we constructed a "parallel" photographic picture that retained all structural characteristic of the original and analyzed DMT parallel-test reliability. Third, we examined the construct validity of the DMT by (a) employing three self-report defense-mechanism inventories and analyzing the intercorrelations between DMT defense scores and corresponding defenses in these instruments, (b) studying the relationships between DMT responses and scores on trait and state anxiety, and (c) relating DMT-defense scores to measures of self-esteem. The main results showed that the DMT can be coded with high reliability by trained coders, that the parallel-test reliability is unsatisfactory compared to traditional psychometric standards, that there is a certain generalizability in the number of perceptual distortions that people display from one picture to another, and that the construct validation provided meager empirical evidence for the conclusion that the DMT measures what it purports to measure, that is, psychological defense mechanisms.
High accuracy, geometric complexity and thus high cost of stellarators tend to hinder the advance of stellarator research. Nowadays, new manufacturing methods might be developed for the production of small and middle-size stellarators. The methods should demonstrate advantages with respect common fabrication methods, like casting, cutting, forging and welding, for the construction of advanced highly convoluted modular stellarators. UST2 is a small modular three period quasi-isodynamic stellarator of major radius 0.26 m and plasma volume 10 litres being currently built to validate additive manufacturing (3D printing) for stellarator construction. The modular coils are wound in grooves defined on six 3D printed half period frames designed as light truss structures filled by a strong filler. A geometrically simple assembling configuration has been concocted for UST2 so as to try to lower the cost of the device while keeping the positioning accuracy of the different elements. The paper summarizes the construction and assembling concepts developed, the devised positioning methodology, the design of the coil frames and positioning elements and, an initial validation of the assembling of the components.
Beasley, Christopher; Jason, Leonard; Miller, Steven
Person-environment fit (P-E fit) was initially espoused as an important construct in the field of community psychology; however, most of the theoretical and empirical development of the construct has been conducted by industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists. In the current study, the GEFS—a P-E fit measure was developed from I/O and business management perspectives on fit—was administered to 246 attendees of an annual convention for residents and alumni of Oxford House (OH), a network of over 1400 mutual-help recovery homes. The authors conducted confirmatory factor and convergent construct validity analyses on the GEFS. The results suggested that the theoretical factor structure of the measure adequately fit the data, suggesting that the GEFS is a valid measure of P-E fit. OH resident fit with their recovery home was related to satisfaction, but not expected tenure. Exploratory analyses revealed that the sufficient supply of resident needs by the recovery home and similarity between residents and their housemates predicted satisfaction with the recovery home, but only similarity with housemates predicted how long residents intended to stay in the OHs. PMID:22071911
Wang, Ya-Huei; Liao, Hung-Chang
The objective was to construct and validate a Chinese-language Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS) and to assess its psychometric properties. The three most popular scales have some weaknesses and are grounded in a Western cultural context. Consequently, a comprehensive and psychometrically adequate meaning in life scale is needed for use in Asian samples. 500 randomly selected participants from the Taiwanese public provided 476 valid responses to a written questionnaire. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 63 years (M age = 42.3 yr.; 181 men, 295 women). Exploratory factor analysis reduced the initial 41 items to 33 items, based on a 5-point rating scale. Five factors were extracted: Contented with life (10 items; 33.20% of total variance), Goals in life (5 items; 6.95%), Enthusiasm and commitment (7 items; 6.28%), Understanding (6 items; 5.41%), and Sense or meaning to human existence (5 items; 4.57%). The MiLS showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Therefore, the MiLS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure the subjective sense of a meaning in life in the Taiwanese cultural context.
Hall, Jason R.; Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Morano, Mario; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.
The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy—the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and non-offender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. PMID:24447280
Hall, Jason R; Drislane, Laura E; Patrick, Christopher J; Morano, Mario; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Poythress, Norman G
The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy-the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus-rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and nonoffender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy.
Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D
The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport.
Wu, Ya-Huei; de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Jeandel, Claude; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hanon, Olivier
Since cutoff scores are necessary for differentiating normal cognitive functioning from dementia, the main objective of this study was to establish normative data of the K-T test, a standardized cancellation test. The construct validity of K-T test was also investigated. In total, 2471 cognitively intact elderly subjects from the SU.VI.MAX 2 study were included in the present study. Younger subjects, women and subjects with higher education had a higher number of correct answers and fewer omission errors. Participants made few commission errors and only the educational level was found to have a significant effect. Normative data for correct responses and efficiency were stratified by age, education, and gender. Correlation analysis showed that the K-T test was significantly correlated to validated neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions. This study permits to strengthen the utility of the K-T test to detect impairment of the executive components involved in the task.
Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Castro-Calvo, Jesús
Some studies have concluded there is a relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behaviors that prevent HIV transmission. This paper presents the construction and validation of the latex barrier use self-efficacy scale (LBSS), which 480 participants filled out. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two components: positive expectations of self-efficacy (ES-POS) and negative expectations of self-efficacy (ES-NEG), which together accounted for 65.59% of total variance. That structure was later verified through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was .80 for the total scale, and .78 for each of the two factors. Moreover, the instrument had adequate convergent validity and was positively related with condom use self-efficacy, attitudes toward condom and latex barrier use, and ability to refuse sex if the partner refuses to use preventive methods. In conclusion, this instrument is a useful measure of self-efficacy in latex barrier use.
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna
The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.
Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Silvia, Paul J
The present study examined the factor structure underlying the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the validity of these dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis with 6137 nonclinical young adults supported a 2-factor model with positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. As predicted, the schizotypy dimensions were differentially related to psychopathology, personality, and social impairment. Both dimensions were related to schizotypal and paranoid symptoms. Positive schizotypy was uniquely related to psychotic-like experiences, substance abuse, mood disorders, and mental health treatment, whereas negative schizotypy was associated with negative and schizoid symptoms. Both dimensions were associated with poorer overall and social functioning, but negative schizotypy was associated with decreased likelihood of intimate relationships. The findings support the construct validity of a multidimensional model of schizotypy and the use of psychometric inventories to assess these dimensions.
Weis, Robert; Toolis, Erin E; Cerankosky, Brittany C
We examined the construct validity of the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB; Rotter, Lah, & Rafferty, 1992) as a measure of psychological maladjustment in adolescents. In Study 1, we investigated the reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of the RISB with adolescents referred to treatment. In Studies 2 and 3, we examined the RISB's ability to differentiate referred and nonreferred adolescents. The RISB showed adequate interrater reliability and converged with self-reported, parent-reported, and teacher-reported social-emotional and behavioral problems. Criterion-related evidence suggests that the RISB may be useful as a screening measure for adolescents using a 135 or 140 cut score. We provide normative data to facilitate the test's use with adolescents in clinical and research settings.
Jepsen, Jørgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I
Objective: We have previously demonstrated that neurological individual findings and patterns can be reliably assessed in the examination of the upper limb and also that they are related to pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. This study aimed to study further aspects of the construct validity of the neurological examination. Methods: Blinded to patient-characteristics, two examiners assessed the function of 16 muscles, the sensibility in 7 territories, and the nerve-mechanosensitivity at 20 locations in 82 upper limbs. Based on anatomical patterns and pre-designed algorithms, one or both examiners rated neuropathy as “possible” or “definite” in 40 limbs and also determined the location( s). We developed and tested hypotheses on anatomically and regionally related locations of nerve afflictions (a selective vulnerability of neurons, double and multiple crush, and a tendency to regional spread) and examined the stability of the internal structure of the constructs in different situations. The interrelations of findings were analyzed by hypothesis testing and factor analyses, and the homogeneity of location profiles was analyzed by a conditional likelihood test. Results: Out of 30 limbs with related locations of neuropathy, the findings of each examiner correlated positively (gamma > 0.35) in 22/25, respectively. The patterns of the interrelations identified by the two examiners were similar, with no evidence of any heterogeneity of location profiles for either examiner. Conclusions: This study supports the validity of the physical examination. However, feasibility of its application requires the demonstration of further aspects of construct validity and a favorable influence on patient-management and/or prevention. PMID:20148172
Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel
Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice.
Lorenz, Timo; Beer, Clemens; Pütz, Jan; Heinitz, Kathrin
With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap. PMID:27035437
Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben
With the aim of advancing the literature on impression management in physical activity settings, we developed a theoretically derived 2 by 2 instrument that was designed to measure different types of context-specific self-presentation motives. Following item generation and expert review (Study 1), the instrument was completed by 206 group exercise class attendees (Study 2) and 463 high school physical education students (Study 3). Our analyses supported the intended factor structure (i.e., reflecting acquisitive-agentic, acquisitive-communal, protective-agentic, and protective-communal motives). We found some support for construct validity, and the self-presentation motives were associated with variables of theoretical and applied interest (e.g., impression motivation and construction, social anxiety, social and achievement goals, efficacy beliefs, engagement). Taken together, the results indicate that the Self-presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire (SMPAQ) may be useful for measuring various types of self-presentation motives in physical activity settings.
Lorenz, Timo; Beer, Clemens; Pütz, Jan; Heinitz, Kathrin
With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap.
Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis
Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined.
Liao, Y L; Chen, H B; Zhou, L H; Zhen, X
The purpose of this study is to design and fabricate an anthropopathic abdominal phantom for accuracy evaluation of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms in adaptive radiation therapy. The constructed deformable organs, including the liver, kidney, spleen and stomach, are made of mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and softener dioctyl terephthalate, while the rigid structures, i.e. vertebrae, are made of white cement. Relation between the PVC-softener blending ratio and organ CT number is studied, and three-dimensional printing technic is employed to create highly anthropopathic organs in terms of organ shape and density. Detailed steps for phantom construction, landmark point placement and choice of phantom ingredients and construction recipe are introduced. Preliminary results of the mechanical properties of the fabricated organs are also presented. The experimental results indicate that the constructed phantom has satisfactory elastic characteristics and close CT number with corporal organs, and can potentially be applied to simulate real abdominal organ deformation in geometric accuracy validation of DIR algorithms.
Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.; Carrasco, Miguel Á.
This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children’s behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children’s (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother–father or child–father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children’s behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582
Gur, Ruben C; Richard, Jan; Hughett, Paul; Calkins, Monica E; Macy, Larry; Bilker, Warren B; Brensinger, Colleen; Gur, Raquel E
There is increased need for efficient computerized methods to collect reliable data on a range of cognitive domains that can be linked to specific brain systems. Such need arises in functional neuroimaging studies, where individual differences in cognitive performance are variables of interest or serve as confounds. In genetic studies of complex behavior, which require particularly large samples, such trait measures can serve as endophenotypes. Traditional neuropsychological tests, based on clinical pathological correlations, are protracted, require extensive training in administration and scoring, and leave lengthy paper trails (double-entry for analysis). We present a computerized battery that takes an average of 1h and provides measures of accuracy and speed on 9 neurocognitive domains. They are cognitive neuroscience-based in that they have been linked experimentally to specific brain systems with functional neuroimaging studies. We describe the process of translating tasks used in functional neuroimaging to tests for assessing individual differences. Data are presented on each test with samples ranging from 139 (81 female) to 536 (311 female) of carefully screened healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 84. Item consistency was established with acceptable to high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Inter-item correlations were moderate to high within domain and low to nil across domains, indicating construct validity. Initial criterion validity was demonstrated by sensitivity to sex differences and the effects of age, education and parental education. These results encourage the use of this battery in studies needing an efficient assessment of major neurocognitive domains such as multi-site genetic studies and clinical trials.
Gross, Douglas P; Battié, Michele C
The construct validity of a kinesiophysical Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) administered within a worker's compensation context was examined. A cross-sectional study design was employed. Clinical and demographic information on workers' compensation claimants was extracted from a rehabilitation facility's database. Measures of interest were the Isernhagen Work Systems' (Duluth, MN) FCE, the Pain Disability Index (PDI), and a pain visual analogue scale (VAS). A multitrait Pearson correlation matrix was created to observe the pattern of relationships between variables. The sample consisted of 321 subjects with work-related, medically stable low back pain of median duration of 307 days. FCE performance was moderately correlated with the PDI (r = -0.44-0.52) and with the pain VAS (r = 0.34-0.45). Pain intensity was correlated highly with the PDI (r = 0.79). The moderate relationship between FCE and the PDI supports the construct validity of FCE as a functional measure. However, kinesiophysical FCE performance was not unrelated to pain severity ratings as purported.
Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Chaisombat, Monthalee; Kongpunwijit, Thanapohn; Rhienmora, Phattanapon
The aim of this study was to demonstrate construct validation of the haptic virtual reality (VR) dental simulator and to define expert benchmarking criteria for skills assessment. Thirty-four self-selected participants (fourteen novices, fourteen intermediates, and six experts in endodontics) at one dental school performed ten repetitions of three mode tasks of endodontic cavity preparation: easy (mandibular premolar with one canal), medium (maxillary premolar with two canals), and hard (mandibular molar with three canals). The virtual instrument's path length was registered by the simulator. The outcomes were assessed by an expert. The error scores in easy and medium modes accurately distinguished the experts from novices and intermediates at the onset of training, when there was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.05). The trend was consistent until trial 5. From trial 6 on, the three groups achieved similar scores. No significant difference was found between groups at the end of training. Error score analysis was not able to distinguish any group at the hard level of training. Instrument path length showed a difference in performance according to groups at the onset of training (ANOVA, p<0.05). This study established construct validity for the haptic VR dental simulator by demonstrating its discriminant capabilities between that of experts and non-experts. The experts' error scores and path length were used to define benchmarking criteria for optimal performance.
Mooney, Stephen J; Bader, Michael D M; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Teitler, Julien O; Rundle, Andrew G
Neighborhood physical disorder is thought to affect mental and physical health, but it has been difficult to measure objectively and reliably across large geographical areas or multiple locales. Virtual street audits are a novel method for assessing neighborhood characteristics. We evaluated the ecometric properties of a neighborhood physical disorder measure constructed from virtual street audit data. Eleven trained auditors assessed 9 previously validated items developed to capture physical disorder (e.g., litter, graffiti, and abandoned buildings) on 1,826 block faces using Google Street View imagery (Google, Inc., Mountain View, California) dating from 2007-2011 in 4 US cities (San Jose, California; Detroit, Michigan; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). We constructed a 2-parameter item response theory scale to estimate latent levels of disorder on each block face and defined a function using kriging to estimate physical disorder levels, with confidence estimates, for any point in each city. The internal consistency reliability of the resulting scale was 0.93. The final measure of disorder was positively correlated with US Census data on unemployment and housing vacancy and negatively correlated with data on owner-occupied housing. These results suggest that neighborhood physical disorder can be measured reliably and validly using virtual audits, facilitating research on possible associations between physical disorder and health.
Latzman, Robert D.; Drislane, Laura E.; Hecht, Lisa K.; Brislin, Sarah J.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Freeman, Hani J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.
The current work sought to operationalize constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a species well-suited for investigations of basic biobehavioral dispositions relevant to psychopathology. Across three studies, we generated validity evidence for scale measures of the triarchic model constructs in a large sample (N=238) of socially-housed chimpanzees. Using a consensus-based rating approach, we first identified candidate items for the chimpanzee triarchic (CHMP-Tri) scales from an existing primate personality instrument and refined these into scales. In Study 2, we collected data for these scales from human informants (N=301), and examined their convergent and divergent relations with scales from another triarchic inventory developed for human use. In Study 3, we undertook validation work examining associations between CHMP-Tri scales and task measures of approach-avoidance behavior (N=73) and ability to delay gratification (N=55). Current findings provide support for a chimpanzee model of core dispositions relevant to psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology. PMID:26779396
Zirke, Nina; Schmid, Gabriele; Mazurek, B.; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rauchfuss, Martina
Objective: The objective of the present study is to contribute towards the validation of the SOC (Sense of Coherence) construct on the basis of data from psychosomatic patients. Method: The study included a total of 1403 patients treated as out-patients or in consultations in the Clinic for Psychosomatic Medicine at the Charité University of Medicine, Berlin, between July 2002 and October 2005. Correlations were tested between the sense of coherence (SOC-L9), sociodemographic variables and the following psychometric instruments: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Brief COPE, Questionnaire on Self-Efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism (SWOP-K9) and Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20). Results: Associations were found between sense of coherence and age, but not with gender. In addition, high sense of coherence was correlated with high self-efficacy, optimism, subjective physical well-being and favourable coping strategies as well as with low perceived stress. Conclusion: The results contribute to the validation of the SOC construct. Future investigations should include longitudinal studies of the precise association between sense of coherence and other psychological variables. PMID:19742290
Powers, Abigail; Stevens, Jennifer; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh
There is a need for a brief measure of emotion dysregulation that can be used in large-scale studies. This study evaluated the construct validity of a short, self-report instrument of emotion dysregulation. Subjects (N=2197) were recruited from primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of a study of trauma-related risk and resilience. Emotion dysregulation was measured using the Emotion Dysregulation Scale, short version (EDS-short), a12-item self-report measure assessing emotional experiencing, cognition, and behavior. EDS-short was first compared with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Then, the construct validity of the EDS-short in predicting depression, posttraumatic stress, substance abuse, borderline pathology, suicide attempts, psychiatric hospitalizations, positive affect, and resiliency was assessed. We found a significant positive correlation between EDS-short and DERS. The EDS-short was significantly predictive of higher reported depressive, posttraumatic stress, substance abuse, and borderline symptoms, and lower reported positive affect and resiliency, over and above demographic characteristics and negative affect. Our results demonstrate that the EDS-short is a useful instrument for measuring emotion dysregulation in traumatized populations. A brief measure of emotion dysregulation is critical as the field moves forward in studying the wide ranging negative effects of emotion dysregulation across psychiatric disorders and outcomes. PMID:25468625
Ha, Amy Sau Ching; Cheng, Chih Fu; Chung, Pak Kwong; Yiu, Kenny Tat Choi; Kuo, Che Chun; Yu, Chung Kai; Wang, Fong Jia
The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a “Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument” (PPLI) for physical education teachers. Based on literature review and focus group interviews, an 18-item instrument was developed for the initial tests. This self-report measure, using a 5-point Likert scale, formed the PPLI and was administered to 336 physical education teachers in Hong Kong. The sample was randomly split, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 9-item, 3-factor scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) item loadings ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, and Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the construct demonstrated good fit to the model. The PPLI thus appeared to be reliable and valid to measure the perceived physical literacy of physical education teachers. It is argued that the instrument can be used for both research and applied purposes and potential uses for the instrument in physical education, medical and health settings are discussed. PMID:27195664
Mooney, Stephen J.; Bader, Michael D. M.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Teitler, Julien O.; Rundle, Andrew G.
Neighborhood physical disorder is thought to affect mental and physical health, but it has been difficult to measure objectively and reliably across large geographical areas or multiple locales. Virtual street audits are a novel method for assessing neighborhood characteristics. We evaluated the ecometric properties of a neighborhood physical disorder measure constructed from virtual street audit data. Eleven trained auditors assessed 9 previously validated items developed to capture physical disorder (e.g., litter, graffiti, and abandoned buildings) on 1,826 block faces using Google Street View imagery (Google, Inc., Mountain View, California) dating from 2007–2011 in 4 US cities (San Jose, California; Detroit, Michigan; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). We constructed a 2-parameter item response theory scale to estimate latent levels of disorder on each block face and defined a function using kriging to estimate physical disorder levels, with confidence estimates, for any point in each city. The internal consistency reliability of the resulting scale was 0.93. The final measure of disorder was positively correlated with US Census data on unemployment and housing vacancy and negatively correlated with data on owner-occupied housing. These results suggest that neighborhood physical disorder can be measured reliably and validly using virtual audits, facilitating research on possible associations between physical disorder and health. PMID:25122584
Latzman, Robert D; Drislane, Laura E; Hecht, Lisa K; Brislin, Sarah J; Patrick, Christopher J; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Freeman, Hani J; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D
The current work sought to operationalize constructs of the triarchic model of psychopathy in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a species well-suited for investigations of basic biobehavioral dispositions relevant to psychopathology. Across three studies, we generated validity evidence for scale measures of the triarchic model constructs in a large sample (N=238) of socially-housed chimpanzees. Using a consensus-based rating approach, we first identified candidate items for the chimpanzee triarchic (CHMP-Tri) scales from an existing primate personality instrument and refined these into scales. In Study 2, we collected data for these scales from human informants (N=301), and examined their convergent and divergent relations with scales from another triarchic inventory developed for human use. In Study 3, we undertook validation work examining associations between CHMP-Tri scales and task measures of approach-avoidance behavior (N=73) and ability to delay gratification (N=55). Current findings provide support for a chimpanzee model of core dispositions relevant to psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology.
Sellbom, Martin; Drislane, Laura E; Johnson, Alexandria K; Goodwin, Brandee E; Phillips, Tasha R; Patrick, Christopher J
The triarchic model characterizes psychopathy in terms of three distinct dispositional constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The model can be operationalized through scales designed specifically to index these domains or by using items from other inventories that provide coverage of related constructs. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing the triarchic model domains using items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). A consensus rating approach was used to identify items relevant to each triarchic domain, and following psychometric refinement, the resulting MMPI-2-RF-based triarchic scales were evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity in relation to multiple psychopathy-relevant criterion variables in offender and nonoffender samples. Expected convergent and discriminant associations were evident very clearly for the Boldness and Disinhibition scales and somewhat less clearly for the Meanness scale. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that all MMPI-2-RF triarchic scales incremented standard MMPI-2-RF scale scores in predicting extant triarchic model scale scores. The widespread use of MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic settings provides avenues for both clinical and research applications in contexts where traditional psychopathy measures are less likely to be administered.
Burrows, Emma L; McOmish, Caitlin E; Hannan, Anthony J
The contributions of genetic risk factors to susceptibility for brain disorders are often so closely intertwined with environmental factors that studying genes in isolation cannot provide the full picture of pathogenesis. With recent advances in our understanding of psychiatric genetics and environmental modifiers we are now in a position to develop more accurate animal models of psychiatric disorders which exemplify the complex interaction of genes and environment. Here, we consider some of the insights that have emerged from studying the relationship between defined genetic alterations and environmental factors in rodent models. A key issue in such animal models is the optimization of construct validity, at both genetic and environmental levels. Standard housing of laboratory mice and rats generally includes ad libitum food access and limited opportunity for physical exercise, leading to metabolic dysfunction under control conditions, and thus reducing validity of animal models with respect to clinical populations. A related issue, of specific relevance to neuroscientists, is that most standard-housed rodents have limited opportunity for sensory and cognitive stimulation, which in turn provides reduced incentive for complex motor activity. Decades of research using environmental enrichment has demonstrated beneficial effects on brain and behavior in both wild-type and genetically modified rodent models, relative to standard-housed littermate controls. One interpretation of such studies is that environmentally enriched animals more closely approximate average human levels of cognitive and sensorimotor stimulation, whereas the standard housing currently used in most laboratories models a more sedentary state of reduced mental and physical activity and abnormal stress levels. The use of such standard housing as a single environmental variable may limit the capacity for preclinical models to translate into successful clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need to
Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterized by a history of widespread pain for at least three months. Pain is considered a complex experience in which affective and cognitive aspects are crucial for prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess the importance of pain-related psychological constructs on function and pain in patients with FM. Methods Design Multicentric, naturalistic, one-year follow-up study. Setting and study sample. Patients will be recruited from primary care health centres in the region of Aragon, Spain. Patients considered for inclusion are those aged 18-65 years, able to understand Spanish, who fulfil criteria for primary FM according to the American College of Rheumatology, with no previous psychological treatment. Measurements The variables measured will be the following: main variables (pain assessed with a visual analogue scale and with sphygmomanometer and general function assessed with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and), psychological constructs (pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, mental defeat, psychological inflexibility, perceived injustice, mindfulness, and positive and negative affect), and secondary variables (sociodemographic variables, anxiety and depression assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and psychiatric interview assessed with MINI). Assessments will be carried at baseline and at one-year follow-up. Main outcome Pain Visual Analogue Scale. Analysis The existence of differences in socio-demographic, main outcome and other variables regarding pain-related psychological constructs will be analysed using Chi Square test for qualitative variables, or Student t test or variance analysis, respectively, for variables fulfilling the normality hypothesis. To assess the predictive value of pain-related psychological construct on main outcome variables at one-year follow-up, use will be made of a logistic regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical
Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu
Objective behavioral assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in early childhood is essential for guiding appropriate treatment and intervention. In contrast to Western societies, validated measures of ASD are very limited in different Chinese contexts. The present study attempted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of…
Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.
Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…
This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…
Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.
Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…
Validated data from a developmental mathematics assessment using classical and three-faceted Rasch measurement methods. Analysis of field test data for 289 elementary school students suggested that a unidimensional construct was being measured, as defined by Rasch criteria. Discusses limitations in confirming content-related validity of the…
Chiu, En-Chi; Lee, Yen; Lai, Kuan-Yu; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lee, Shu-Chun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin
Background The Chinese version of the Activities of Daily Living Rating Scale III (ADLRS-III), which has 10 domains, is commonly used for assessing activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with schizophrenia. However, construct validity (i.e., unidimensionality) for each domain of the ADLRS-III is unknown, limiting the explanations of the test results. Purpose This main purpose of this study was to examine unidimensionality of each domain in the ADLRS-III. We also examined internal consistency and ceiling/floor effects in patients with schizophrenia. Methods From occupational therapy records, we obtained 304 self-report data of the ADLRS-III. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the 10 one-factor structures. If a domain showed an insufficient model fit, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to investigate the factor structure and choose one factor representing the original construct. Internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha (α). Ceiling and floor effects were determined by the percentage of patients with the maximum and minimum scores in each domain, respectively. Results CFA analyses showed that 4 domains (i.e., leisure, picture recognition, literacy ability, communication tools use) had sufficient model fits. These 4 domains had acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.79-0.87) and no ceiling/floor effects, except the leisure domain which had a ceiling effect. The other 6 domains showed insufficient model fits. The EFA results showed that these 6 domains were two-factor structures. Conclusion The results supported unidimensional constructs of the leisure, picture recognition, literacy ability, and communication tool uses domains. The sum scores of these 4 domains can be used to represent their respective domain-specific functions. Regarding the 6 domains with insufficient model fits, we have explained the two factors of each domain and chosen one factor to represent its original construct. Future users may
Perera, Harsha N
Extant theory posits well-differentiated dimensions of perceived social support as measured using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). However, evidence is inconsistent with this multidimensionality perspective, with SPS factor correlations near unity and higher between-factor than within-factor item correlations. This article reports on research investigating the internal structure, gender invariance, and predictive validity of SPS scores. The analyses are conducted in a novel bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework, which is designed to account for presumed psychometric multidimensionality in SPS items due to (a) their fallibility as pure indicators of the constructs they are purported to measure and (b) the coexistence of general and specific factors. Based on 376 item responses, evidence was obtained for a bifactor-ESEM representation of the SPS data. In addition, support was found for the invariance of item thresholds and the latent mean invariance of six of the seven SPS factors in the retained solution. Only mean levels of Social Integration were found to differ by gender, with men scoring higher than women. Finally, evidence was obtained for the predictive validity of SPS scores with respect to loneliness and psychological well-being. Quite apart from yielding evidence validating the SPS, this research demonstrates the utility of bifactor ESEM for psychological assessment.
Bonin, Christiani Decker Batista; dos Santos, Rafaella Zulianello; Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Amboni, Ricardo; Benetti, Magnus
Background The lack of tools to measure heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in rehabilitation programs demonstrates the need for specific recommendations regarding the amount or content of information required. Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Methods The tool was developed based on the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire and applied to 96 patients with heart failure, with a mean age of 60.22 ± 11.6 years, 64% being men. Reproducibility was obtained via the intraclass correlation coefficient, using the test-retest method. Internal consistency was assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha, and construct validity, by use of exploratory factor analysis. Results The final version of the tool had 19 questions arranged in ten areas of importance for patient education. The proposed questionnaire had a clarity index of 8.94 ± 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.856, and Cronbach's alpha, 0.749. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the knowledge areas. Comparing the final scores with the characteristics of the population evidenced that low educational level and low income are significantly associated with low levels of knowledge. Conclusion The instrument has satisfactory clarity and validity indices, and can be used to assess the heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID:24652054
Padulo, Johnny; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Haddad, Monoem; Gevat, Cecilia; Vando, Stefano; Maurino, Lucio; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim
Summary Background: the aim of this study was to assess the validity of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and two objective HR-based methods for quantifying karate’s training load (TL) in young Karatekas. Methods: eleven athletes (age 12.50±1.84 years) participated in this study. The training period/camp was performed on 5 consecutive days with two training session (s) per-day (d). Construct validity of RPE method in young Karate athletes, was studied by correlation analysis between RPE session’s training load and both Edwards and Banister’s training impulse score’ method. Results: significant relationship was found between inter-day (n-11 × d-5 × s-2 = 110) sessions RPE and Edwards (r values from 0.84 to 0.92 p < 0.001) and Banister’s (r values from 0.84 to 0.97 p < 0.001), respectively Conclusion: this study showed that session-RPE can be considered a valid method for quantifying karate’s training load in young karate athletes. PMID:25332921
Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Murru, Elisa; Conlin, Catherine; Strong, Heather A
This study examined the validity of a state version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (Hart, Leary & Rejeski, 1989) by conducting tests of concurrent and discriminative validation. Participants were four separate samples of young women (N=221) who exercised ≤ 2 days/week and who participated in various experiments examining body image and self-presentation. Participants' scores on the state SPAS (S-SPAS) were significantly correlated, in expected directions, with scores on both trait and state measures of body image and self-presentation, and with body mass index (BMI). In addition, S-SPAS scores discriminated between women who exercised in a mixed-sex versus a same-sex environment, but trait SPAS scores did not. Together, these results provide evidence of construct validity of a state version of the SPAS and demonstrate that social physique anxiety can be conceptualized and measured as a situational variable. The S-SPAS, rather than the trait SPAS, should be employed in experiments designed to detect differences in state social physique anxiety.
The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE 8 Software Acceptance Test Plan is to assess the approach to be taken for intended testing activities. The plan typically identifies the items to be tested, the requirements being tested, the testing to be performed, test schedules, personnel requirements, reporting requirements, evaluation criteria, and any risks requiring contingency planning. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.
Risk-Based Tailoring of the Verification, Validation, and Accreditation/Acceptance Processes (Adaptation fondee sur le risque, des processus de verification, de validation, et d’accreditation/d’acceptation)
en place pour formaliser le projet de technique recommandée fourni antérieurement par le MSG-019 comme norme industrielle internationale, en...l’IEEE-SA a approuvé le projet « P1516.4 – Vérification, Validation, et Accréditation d’une Fédération, et d’un Overlay pour le processus de...AGARD doivent comporter la dénomination « RTO » ou « AGARD » selon le cas, suivi du numéro de série. Des informations analogues, telles que le titre
Gordon, Rachel A.
This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its orientation toward locating items along an underlying dimension and toward estimating precision of measurement for persons with different levels of that same construct. It also offers a didactic example of how the approach can be used to refine conceptualization and operationalization of constructs in the family sciences, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 2,732). Three basic models are considered: (a) the Rasch and (b) two-parameter logistic models for dichotomous items and (c) the Rating Scale Model for multicategory items. Throughout, the author highlights the potential for researchers to elevate measurement to a level on par with theorizing and testing about relationships among constructs. PMID:25663714
Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Shen, Wang-Qin; Zhu, Bin
The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment system in the world. To investigate its construct validity using structural equation modeling (SEM), a secondary analysis of retrospective data of patients admitted to an acute care facility was conducted using the records of 2588 patients who were at risk for pressure ulcers and admitted between January 2013 and December 2013. Data were extracted to an Excel sheet and analyzed, including demographic characteristics (ie, patients age, gender, weight, and disease spectrum), as well as total Braden scores and subscale scores. The SEM was set according to modification indices suggestion. The original Braden Scale model was supported by χ2(9) = 22.854, CFI = 0.902, GFI = 0.974, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.092, indicating inadequate model fit. After modification according to software indices, χ2(2) = 2.052, CFI = 0.999, GFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.020 indicated an acceptable fit of the model (final model). The factor loadings of 6 subscales were all significant (P <.001), with .147 for nutrition, .137 for activity, .167 for friction and shear, .825 for sensory perception, .626 for mobility, and .556 for moisture subscale. The nutrition, activity, and friction and shear subscales were corrected to examine their relationships with other Braden Scale subscales (nutrition with activity [φ -0.063], activity with friction/shear [φ 0.136], and nutrition (φ friction/shear [0.159]). The factor loadings ranged from -0.067 to 0.159. These findings suggest the original Braden Scale has inadequate construct validity for acute care patients and that new risk-predicting scales should be designed based on data mining. Second, according to the factor loadings in the SEM, the most important risk factor in the Braden Scale for this patient population is sensory perception, followed by mobility and moisture. This suggests practitioners should pay particular attention to pressure ulcer prevention
Canivez, Gary L
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order general intelligence factor, but recent studies have supported an alternate model in which general intelligence is conceptualized as a breadth factor rather than a superordinate factor (M. W. Watkins, 2010, Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition among a national sample of referred students, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 22, pp. 782-787; M. W. Watkins, G. L. Canivez, T. James, K. & R. Good, in press, Construct validity of the WISC-IVUK with a large referred Irish sample, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology). WISC-IV core subtest data obtained from evaluations to assess learning difficulties in 345 children (224 boys, 121 girls) were examined. One through four, first order factor models and indirect versus direct hierarchical models were compared using confirmatory factor analyses. The correlated four-factor Wechsler model provided good fit to these data, but the direct hierarchical model showed statistically significant improvement over the indirect hierarchical model and correlated four-factor model. The direct hierarchical model was judged the best explanation of the WISC-IV factor structure, with the general factor accounting for 71.6% of the common variance while the first order factors accounted for 2.4-10.3% of the common variance. Thus, the results with the present sample of referred children were similar to those from other investigations (G. E. Gignac, 2005, Revisiting the factor structure of the WAIS-R: Insights through nested factor modeling, Assessment, Vol. 12, pp. 320-329; G. E. Gignac, 2006, The WAIS-III as a nested factors model: A useful alternative to
Espinoza-Venegas, Maritza; Sanhueza-Alvarado, Olivia; Ramírez-Elizondo, Noé; Sáez-Carrillo, Katia
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to validate the construct and reliability of an emotional intelligence scale. METHOD: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 was applied to 349 nursing students. The process included content validation, which involved expert reviews, pilot testing, measurements of reliability using Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis to corroborate the validity of the theoretical model's construct. RESULTS: Adequate Cronbach coefficients were obtained for all three dimensions, and factor analysis confirmed the scale's dimensions (perception, comprehension, and regulation). CONCLUSION: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is a reliable and valid tool to measure the emotional intelligence of nursing students. Its use allows for accurate determinations of individuals' abilities to interpret and manage emotions. At the same time, this new construct is of potential importance for measurements in nursing leadership; educational, organizational, and personal improvements; and the establishment of effective relationships with patients. PMID:25806642
Bayona, Sofía; Fernández-Arroyo, José Manuel; Martín, Isaac; Bayona, Pilar
The aims of this study were to test the face, content, and construct validities of a virtual-reality haptic arthroscopy simulator and to validate four assessment hypothesis. The participants in our study were 94 arthroscopists attending an international conference on arthroscopy. The interviewed surgeons had been performing arthroscopies for a mean of 8.71 years (σ = 6.94 years). We explained the operation, functionality, instructions for use, and the exercises provided by the simulator. They performed a trial exercise and then an exercise in which performance was recorded. After having using it, the arthroscopists answered a questionnaire. The simulator was classified as one of the best training methods (over phantoms), and obtained a mark of 7.10 out of 10 as an evaluation tool. The simulator was considered more useful for inexperienced surgeons than for surgeons with experience (mean difference 1.88 out of 10, P value < 0.001). The participants valued the simulator at 8.24 as a tool for learning skills, its fidelity at 7.41, the quality of the platform at 7.54, and the content of the exercises at 7.09. It obtained a global score of 7.82. Of the subjects, 30.8% said they would practise with the simulator more than 6 h per week. Of the surgeons, 89.4% affirmed that they would recommend the simulator to their colleagues. The data gathered support the first three hypotheses, as well as face and content validities. Results show statistically significant differences between experts and novices, thus supporting the construct validity, but studies with a larger sample must be carried out to verify this. We propose concrete solutions and an equation to calculate economy of movement. Analogously, we analyze competence measurements and propose an equation to provide a single measurement that contains them all and that, according to the surgeons' criteria, is as reliable as the judgment of experts observing the performance of an apprentice.
Joy, Stephen; Kaplan, Edith; Fein, Deborah
We analyzed WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization data for evidence of the construct validity and clinical utility of the Digit Symbol-Incidental Learning procedures (Pairing and Free Recall). Scores on both tests correlated moderately with WMS-III memory index scores (mean r=.38 for Pairing and .36 for Free Recall). Cutoff scores can be used to identify younger and older adults likely to suffer from memory impairment. In the standardization sample (which excludes neurological patients), these have moderate positive predictive power (averaging .56 if either test yields a positive finding), moderate negative predictive power (.76), and high specificity (.88), but low sensitivity (.35). In a clinical sample, the same cutoff scores were much more sensitive, correctly identifying 88% of a group of patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Examinees who obtain these low scores should receive follow-up memory testing. Very high scores are associated with a reduced risk of memory impairment.
Since a decade, numerous industrial and public initiatives have been launched in order to make knowledge, practices and mentalities evolve in relation to the acceptability of using waste instead of raw material as construction product. The objectives of these initiatives have been to evaluate current practices and to make new solutions and beneficial use channels emerge. At the same time scientific and standardisation communities have developed methodologies and tools to fit with the assessment needs expressed by industrialists and public decision-makers. In spite of that, some factors, some of them being cross-linked, make the perpetuation of beneficial use channels or even the concretisation of research projects difficult. To cope with this situation, in the framework of sustainable development applied to natural and alternative material, the French Directorate of Road has launched a project aiming at providing public contracting authorities with a document gathering both technical and environmental requirements that they can prescribe in public market tender calls to promote the use of waste and out-of-technical-specifications-material. This paper deals with the presentation of this project focusing more specifically on the approach to assess both technical and environmental acceptability of waste and out-of-technical-specifications-material to be used as alternative material in road construction in France. The current European situation is first described and this paper finally discusses briefly the other key aspects--than environmental acceptability--that have to be taken into account to succeed waste beneficial use.
Peden, John G.; Schuster, Rudy M.
Concerns over the increasing popularity of wilderness recreation have resulted in attempts to determine the amount of use that different areas can tolerate without adverse affects to the resource. Early attempts to establish recreational carrying capacities focused on managers’ assessments of biophysical impacts. The perceptions of wilderness visitors, however, are now considered integral to capacity decisions. This study used a stress appraisal framework to understand wilderness visitors’ perceptions of on-site conditions. It was based on the premise that negative appraisals of wilderness conditions produce stress and that individual perceptions vary based on personal and situational characteristics. The purpose of the study was to assess the validity of a wilderness-hassles appraisal scale by testing hypothesized relationships between experience-use history (EUH), place attachment, and stress appraisal. Data collection occurred through a postal survey of hikers ( n = 385) contacted in the High Peaks and Pemigewasset Wilderness Areas during the summer of 2004. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that stress appraisal is a multi-dimensional construct. Validity testing procedures were restricted to those dimensions that were consistent between study areas and provided partial support for the hassles scale. As hypothesized, EUH did not influence perceptions of wilderness conditions. Place attachment, on the other hand, was positively correlated with stressful appraisals of social and managerial conditions. Although Kruskall Wallis tests revealed significant differences in visitors’ perceptions of managerial conditions between study sites, perceptions of social conditions did not vary significantly. Implications for management and recommendations for further refinement of the wilderness hassles construct are discussed.
Peden, John G; Schuster, Rudy M
Concerns over the increasing popularity of wilderness recreation have resulted in attempts to determine the amount of use that different areas can tolerate without adverse affects to the resource. Early attempts to establish recreational carrying capacities focused on managers' assessments of biophysical impacts. The perceptions of wilderness visitors, however, are now considered integral to capacity decisions. This study used a stress appraisal framework to understand wilderness visitors' perceptions of on-site conditions. It was based on the premise that negative appraisals of wilderness conditions produce stress and that individual perceptions vary based on personal and situational characteristics. The purpose of the study was to assess the validity of a wilderness-hassles appraisal scale by testing hypothesized relationships between experience-use history (EUH), place attachment, and stress appraisal. Data collection occurred through a postal survey of hikers (n = 385) contacted in the High Peaks and Pemigewasset Wilderness Areas during the summer of 2004. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that stress appraisal is a multi-dimensional construct. Validity testing procedures were restricted to those dimensions that were consistent between study areas and provided partial support for the hassles scale. As hypothesized, EUH did not influence perceptions of wilderness conditions. Place attachment, on the other hand, was positively correlated with stressful appraisals of social and managerial conditions. Although Kruskall Wallis tests revealed significant differences in visitors' perceptions of managerial conditions between study sites, perceptions of social conditions did not vary significantly. Implications for management and recommendations for further refinement of the wilderness hassles construct are discussed.
Atkinson, Thomas M.; Rosenfeld, Barry D.; Sit, Laura; Mendoza, Tito R.; Fruscione, Mike; Lavene, Dawn; Shaw, Mary; Li, Yuelin; Hay, Jennifer; Cleeland, Charles S.; Scher, Howard I.; Breitbart, William S.; Basch, Ethan
Context The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) is a frequently used instrument designed to assess the patient-reported outcome of pain. The majority of factor analytic studies have found a two-factor (i.e., pain intensity and pain interference) structure for this instrument; however, since the BPI was developed with an a priori hypothesis of the relationship among its items, it follows that construct validity investigations should utilize confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Objectives The purpose of this work is to establish the construct validity of the BPI using a CFA framework and demonstrate factorial invariance using a range of demographic variables. Methods A retrospective CFA was completed in a sample of individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and cancer (n = 364; 63% male; age 21-92 years, M = 51.80). A baseline one-factor model was compared against two-factor and three-factor models (i.e., pain intensity, activity interference, and affective interference) that were developed based on the hypothetical design of the instrument. Results Fit indices for the three-factor model were statistically superior when compared to the one-factor model and marginally better in comparison to the two-factor model. This three-factor structure was found to be invariant across disease, age, and ethnicity groups. Conclusion The results of this study provide evidence to support a three-factor representation of the BPI, as well as the originally hypothesized two-factor structure. Such findings will begin to provide clinical trialists, pharmaceutical sponsors, and regulators with confidence in the psychometric properties of this instrument when considering its inclusion in clinical research. PMID:21131166
Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G
disorder. Psychological Assessment, 17, 179-190]; however [Carleton, R. N., McCreary, D., Norton, P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (in press-a). The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Revised. Depression & Anxiety; Collins, K. A., Westra, H. A., Dozois, D. J. A., & Stewart, S. H. (2005). The validity of the brief version of the fear of negative evaluation scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 345-359] recommend that these items be reworded to maintain scale sensitivity. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the BFNE-II, a version of the BFNE evaluating revisions of the reverse-worded items in a community sample. A unitary model of the BFNE-II resulted in excellent confirmatory factor analysis fit indices. Moderate convergent and discriminant validity were found when BFNE-II items were correlated with additional independent measures of social anxiety [i.e., Social Interaction Anxiety & Social Phobia Scales; Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455-470], and fear [i.e., Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). The expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss, R. R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behaviour therapy (pp. 107--121). New York: Academic Press. and the Illness/Injury Sensitivity Index; Carleton, R. N., Park, I., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (in press-b). The Illness/Injury Sensitivity Index: an examination of construct validity. Depression & Anxiety). These findings support the utility of the revised items and the validity of the BFNE-II as a measure of the fear of negative evaluation. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Bao, Junzhe; Li, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua
The occurrence of extreme heat and its adverse effects will be exacerbated with the trend of global warming. An increasing number of researchers have been working on aggregating multiple heat-related indicators to create composite indices for heat vulnerability assessments and have visualized the vulnerability through geographic information systems to provide references for reducing the adverse effects of extreme heat more effectively. This review includes 15 studies concerning heat vulnerability assessment. We have studied the indicators utilized and the methods adopted in these studies for the construction of the heat vulnerability index (HVI) and then further reviewed some of the studies that validated the HVI. We concluded that the HVI is useful for targeting the intervention of heat risk, and that heat-related health outcomes could be used to validate and optimize the HVI. In the future, more studies should be conducted to provide references for the selection of heat-related indicators and the determination of weight values of these indicators in the development of the HVI. Studies concerning the application of the HVI are also needed. PMID:26132476
Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J
There is an enormous demand for new therapeutic interventions for a range of major disorders. The majority of clinical trials in recent years have been unsuccessful despite highly promising preclinical data. Therefore, an urgent issue confronting both the academic and commercial medical research sectors is how to optimize translation of preclinical studies. The vast majority of preclinical studies are currently performed using laboratory mice and rats. We will discuss the various opportunities for optimization of animal models of CNS disorders. One limitation of current approaches is that most studies are conducted on sedentary, unstimulated animals with unlimited access to food in the home cage, thus leading to metabolic and physiological compromise. Environmental enrichment, which enhances sensory stimulation, cognitive activity and physical exercise, has been demonstrated to induce dramatic effects on brain and behavior in both wild-type and genetically modified rodent models, relative to standard-housed littermate controls. Environmental enrichment also exerts beneficial effects outside the CNS, such as a reduction in excess body fat. We propose that therapeutic interventions which are found to show promise in standard-housed preclinical models should be subsequently tested under conditions of greater environmental enrichment to identify therapeutics which continue to show efficacy in housing contexts of superior 'environmental construct validity'. Other possible approaches to optimize the quality, validity and reporting of preclinical studies in animal models are also discussed.
Jovanović, Dragan; Šraml, Matjaž; Matović, Boško; Mićić, Spasoje
The present study deals with the problem of speeding behavior on rural roads. The purpose of the paper is to examine the construct validity and the internal consistency and reliability of a questionnaire that measures the determinants of speeding behavior. In addition, it aimed to test the predictive validity of a modified theoretical framework of a theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to speeding behavior. A total of 546 car drivers from five local communities in the Republic of Srpska successfully completed the questionnaire after reading the scenario. The principal component analysis revealed seven components interpreted as: personal norm, perceived behavioral control, affective attitude toward speeding, subjective norm, habit, descriptive norm, and cognitive attitude toward speeding. A speeding behavior model was developed by structural equation modeling. Personal norm, subjective norm, and affective attitudes were shown to be important variables within the modified TPB in understanding speeding behavior. Overall, the present findings provide significant support for the concept of the modified theoretical framework of TPB in relation to speeding behavior on rural roads. Implications for a speeding behavior model and interventions are discussed.
Till, Hettie; Ker, Jean; Myford, Carol; Stirling, Kevin; Mires, Gary
The authors report final-year ward simulation data from the University of Dundee Medical School. Faculty who designed this assessment intend for the final score to represent an individual senior medical student's level of clinical performance. The results are included in each student's portfolio as one source of evidence of the student's capability as a practitioner, professional, and scholar. Our purpose in conducting this study was to illustrate how assessment designers who are creating assessments to evaluate clinical performance might develop propositions and then collect and examine various sources of evidence to construct and evaluate a validity argument. The data were from all 154 medical students who were in their final year of study at the University of Dundee Medical School in the 2010-2011 academic year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on an analysis of senior medical students' clinical performance while they were taking responsibility for the management of a simulated ward. Using multi-facet Rasch measurement and a generalizability theory approach, we examined various sources of validity evidence that the medical school faculty have gathered for a set of six propositions needed to support their use of scores as measures of students' clinical ability. Based on our analysis of the evidence, we would conclude that, by and large, the propositions appear to be sound, and the evidence seems to support their proposed score interpretation. Given the body of evidence collected thus far, their intended interpretation seems defensible.
Otaño, Natalia; Rodríguez, Omaira; Sánchez, Renata; Benítez, Gustavo; Schweitzer, Michael
Background: Training models in laparoscopic surgery allow the surgical team to practice procedures in a safe environment. We have proposed the use of a 4-task, low-cost inert model to practice critical steps of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Methods: The performance of 3 groups with different levels of expertise in laparoscopic surgery, novices (A), intermediates (B), and experts (C), was evaluated using a low-cost inert model in the following tasks: (1) intraoperative cholangiography catheter insertion, (2) transcystic exploration, (3) T-tube placement, and (4) choledochoscope management. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify differences among the groups. Results: A total of 14 individuals were evaluated: 5 novices (A), 5 intermediates (B), and 4 experts (C). The results involving intraoperative cholangiography catheter insertion were similar among the 3 groups. As for the other tasks, the expert had better results than the other 2, in which no significant differences occurred. The proposed model is able to discriminate among individuals with different levels of expertise, indicating that the abilities that the model evaluates are relevant in the surgeon's performance in CBD exploration. Conclusions: Construct validity for tasks 2 and 3 was demonstrated. However, task 1 was no capable of distinguishing between groups, and task 4 was not statistically validated. PMID:22906323
Weitkamp, Katharina; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Romer, Georg
As an instrument to assess specific psychodynamic dimensions, the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence (OPD-CA) is widely used in clinical care and psychotherapeutic training. However, the psychometric validation of its axes is partly still missing. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and construct validity of the axes structure and prerequisites of treatment. 171 children and adolescents (aged 4 to 21 years) with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder who began an analytic psychotherapy were additionally assessed with the OPD-CA by their therapists (n = 25) in the context of naturalistic care in private practice. Therapists were all qualified as analytic child and adolescent psychotherapists and underwent a standardized OPD-CA training. Results indicated conceptually meaningful factor structures for both axes tested. These factor structures predominantly followed the conceptually defined dimensions. Internal consistency was high for the axis structure, modest to low fort he axis prerequisites of treatment. Implications and recommendations for a future revision of the OPD-CA with particular respect of single items and their operationalization are discussed.
Clark, Amanda J; Anderson, Nicole D; Nalder, Emily; Arshad, Sidrah; Dawson, Deirdre R
Surprisingly few ecologically-valid assessments of executive function exist, but the Baycrest Multiple Errands Test (BMET) shows promise in identifying executive impairment. The goal of the present study was to develop both a revised version of the assessment (BMET-R), to improve the test's ability to discriminate between patients and healthy participants, and an alternate form of the BMET-R to permit repeat testing. Sixteen individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) due to stroke or trauma and 16 healthy participants completed a series of neuropsychological assessments, questionnaires, the BMET-R and its alternate form (in counterbalanced order). The results of the study indicated that participants with ABI omitted more tasks, broke more rules, and were less efficient than healthy participants on both the revised BMET-R and its alternate form. Moreover, significant correlations were found between the two versions of the BMET-R for task completions, omissions, errors, rule breaks and inefficiencies but few significant correlations were observed between the BMET-R versions and measures of executive dysfunction in everyday life. These results indicate that the two versions of the BMET-R are able to dissociate the performance of participants with ABI from that of healthy participants. However, despite overlaps in performance and correlations between the two versions of the BMET-R, they did not identically assess executive deficits. This suggests that caution should be used when constructing and validating alternate versions of performance-based assessments.
Shura, Robert D; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E
The Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-II (BDS-II) was developed as an improved scoring method to the original BDS, which was designed to evaluate the capacity for independent regulation of behavior and attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and construct validity of the BDS-II, which had not been adequately re-examined since the development of the new scoring system. In a sample of 164 Veterans with a mean age of 35 years, exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate BDS-II latent factor structure. Correlations and regressions were used to explore validity against 22 psychometrically sound neurocognitive measures across seven neurocognitive domains of sensation, motor output, processing speed, attention, visual-spatial reasoning, memory, and executive functions. Factor analysis found a two-factor solution for this sample which explained 41% of the variance in the model. Validity analyses found significant correlations among the BDS-II scores and all other cognitive domains except sensation and language (which was not evaluated). Hierarchical regressions revealed that PASAT performance was strongly associated with all three BDS-II scores; dominant hand Finger Tapping Test was also associated with the Total score and Factor 1, and CPT-II Commissions was also associated with Factor 2. These results suggest the BDS-II is both a general test of cerebral functioning, and a more specific test of working memory, motor output, and impulsivity. The BDS-II may therefore show utility with younger populations for measuring frontal lobe abilities and might be very sensitive to neurological injury.
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En
Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.
Marinho, Pabliane Matias Lordelo; Campos, Maria Pontes de Aguiar; Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia Llapa; Gois, Cristiane Franca Lisboa; Barreto, Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho
ABSTRACT Objective: to construct and validate a tool to assess the use of light technologies by the nursing team at Intensive Care Units. Method: methodological study in which the tool was elaborated by means of the psychometric method for construction based on the categorization of health technologies by Merhy and Franco, from the National Humanization Policy, using the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy to categorize the domains of the tool. Agreement Percentages and Content Validity Indices were used for the purpose of validation. Results: The result of the application of the Interrater Agreement Percentage exceeded the recommended level of 80%, highlighting the relevance for the proposed theme in the assessment, with an agreement rate of 99%. Conclusion: the tool was validated with four domains (Bond, Autonomy, Welcoming and Management) and nineteen items that assess the use of light technologies at Intensive Care Units. PMID:27992025
Heijmans, Nika; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J.; Heringa, Jaap
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important for multiple developmental processes and tissue maintenance in adults. Consequently, deregulated signaling is involved in a range of human diseases including cancer and developmental defects. A better understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanism and effect of physiological (active) and pathophysiological (hyperactive) WNT signaling is important for predicting treatment response and developing novel therapies. The constitutively expressed CTNNB1 (commonly and hereafter referred to as β-catenin) is degraded by a destruction complex, composed of amongst others AXIN1 and GSK3. The destruction complex is inhibited during active WNT signaling, leading to β-catenin stabilization and induction of β-catenin/TCF target genes. In this study we investigated the mechanism and effect of β-catenin stabilization during active and hyperactive WNT signaling in a combined in silico and in vitro approach. We constructed a Petri net model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including main players from the plasma membrane (WNT ligands and receptors), cytoplasmic effectors and the downstream negative feedback target gene AXIN2. We validated that our model can be used to simulate both active (WNT stimulation) and hyperactive (GSK3 inhibition) signaling by comparing our simulation and experimental data. We used this experimentally validated model to get further insights into the effect of the negative feedback regulator AXIN2 upon WNT stimulation and observed an attenuated β-catenin stabilization. We furthermore simulated the effect of APC inactivating mutations, yielding a stabilization of β-catenin levels comparable to the Wnt-pathway activities observed in colorectal and breast cancer. Our model can be used for further investigation and viable predictions of the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oncogenesis and development. PMID:27218469
Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael
In this study, we examined the reliability and construct validity of new soccer skills tests. Twenty soccer players (10 professional and 10 recreational) repeated trials of passing, shooting, and dribbling skills on different days. Passing and shooting skills required players to kick a moving ball, delivered at constant speed, towards one of four randomly determined targets. Dribbling required players to negotiate seven cones over 20 m. Each trial consisted of 28 passes, 8 shots, and 10 dribbles. Ball speed, precision, and success were determined for all tests using video analysis. Systematic bias was small (<9% in all measures) and all outcome measures were similar between trials. Test-retest reliability statistics were as follows: ball speed (passing, shooting, dribbling; coefficient of variation [CV]: 6.5%, 6.9%, 2.4%; ratio limits of agreement [RLOA]: 0.958 ×/÷ 1.091, 0.990 ×/÷ 1.107, 0.993 ×/÷ 1.039), precision (passing, shooting, dribbling; CV: 10.0%, 23.5%, 4.6%; RLOA: 0.956 ×/÷ 1.147, 1.030 ×/÷ 1.356, 1.000 ×/÷ 1.068), and success (passing, shooting, dribbling; CV: 11.7%, 14.4%, 2.2%; RLOA: 1.017 ×/÷ 1.191, 0.913 ×/÷ 1.265, 0.996 ×/÷ 1.035). Professional players performed better than recreational players in at least one outcome measure for all skills. These findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of new soccer skill protocols.
Kotz, Jayne; Engelke, Catherine; Williams, Melissa; Stephen, Donna; Coutinho, Sudha; Trust, Stephanie K.
Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely recommended for perinatal anxiety and depression screening. However, many Aboriginal women find EPDS language complex and confusing, and providers find using it with Aboriginal women challenging. The two part Kimberley Mum’s Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed to improve screening: Part 1 is a Kimberley version of EPDS; Part 2 is a psychosocial tool that enables contextualisation of Part 1 scores. We aimed to determine if KMMS is a valid and acceptable method of identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety or depressive disorders compared to a semi-structured clinical interview. Methods Across 15 sites in the Kimberley, Western Australia, 97 Aboriginal women aged 16 years and older who intended to continue with their pregnancy or had a baby within the previous 12 months were administered the KMMS by trained healthcare providers who provided an overall assessment of no, low, moderate or high risk; 91 participants were then independently assessed by a blinded clinical expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. A qualitative approach was used to determine KMMS’ acceptability. Results Part 1 had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.89), and overall KMMS risk equivalence for screening for anxiety or depressive disorders was moderate (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 87%; positive predictive value, 68%). Participants found the process easy and useful, and healthcare providers found KMMS more useful than EPDS. Part 2 allowed healthcare providers to ask questions that gave participants an opportunity to express themselves, resulting in a deeper understanding between them. Conclusion KMMS is an effective tool for identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Adoption of KMMS with culturally safe training and support is likely to improve screening processes, and with further
Babusa, Bernadett; Urbán, Róbert; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc
Limited studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a measure of muscle dysmorphia, in different cultures and languages. The aims were to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the MASS (MASS-HU), and to investigate its relationship with self-esteem and exercise-related variables. Two independent samples of male weight lifters (ns=289 and 43), and a sample of undergraduates (n=240) completed the MASS, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the MASS only in the weight lifter sample. The MASS-HU had excellent scale score reliability and good test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the MASS-HU was tested with multivariate regression analyses which indicated an inverse relationship between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. The 18-item MASS-HU was found to be a useful measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia among male weight lifters.
Hu, Yinin; Le, Ivy A.; Goodrich, Robyn N.; Edwards, Brandy L.; Gillen, Jacob R.; Smith, Philip W.; Schroen, Anneke T.; Rasmussen, Sara K.
Objective Many bench-top surgical simulators assess laparoscopic proficiency, yet few address core open surgical skills. The purpose of this study is to describe a cost-effective bench-top vessel-ligation simulator and provide construct validation. Design Prospective comparison of blinded proficiency assessments among participants performing a bench-top vessel-ligation simulation task. Evaluations were performed using Objective Structured Assessments of Technical Skills. Setting This study took place at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, a large academic medical institution. Participants Participants included fourth-year medical students participating in a focused surgical elective course (N = 16), post-graduate year (PGY) 2–3 surgery residents (N = 6), and surgical faculty (N = 5). Results Fixed costs of the vessel-ligation simulator totaled $30. Flexible costs of operation were less than $0.20 per attempt. Median task-specific checklist scores among medical students, residents, and faculty were 4.83, 7.33, and 7.67, respectively. Median global rating scores across the three groups were 2.29, 4.43, and 4.76, respectively. Significant proficiency differences were noted between students and residents/faculty for both metrics (p < 0.001). Conclusions A cost-effective bench-top simulator can effectively measure proficiency with basic open surgical techniques such as vessel-ligation. Among junior surgical trainees, this tool can identify learning gaps and improve operative skills in a pre-clinical setting. PMID:25678049
He, Zhimin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xu; Bian, Mingdi; He, Reqing; Yan, Jindong; Zhong, Ming; Zhao, Xiaoying; Liu, Xuanming
In this study, we constructed dual-transgene vectors (pDT1, pDT7, and pDT7G) that simultaneously co-expressed two genes in plants. ACTIN2 and UBQ10 promoters were used to control the expression of these two genes. The 4×Myc, 3×HA, and 3×Flag reporter genes allowed for the convenient identification of a tunable co-expression system in plants, whereas the dexamethasone (Dex) inducible reporter gene C-terminus of the glucocorticoid receptor (cGR) provided Dex-dependent translocation of the fusion gene between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The function of pDT vectors was validated using four pairwise genes in Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis thaliana. The co-expression efficiency of two genes from the pDT1 and pDT7G vectors was 35% and 42%, respectively, which ensured the generation of sufficient transgenic materials. These pDT vectors are simple, reliable, efficient, and time-saving tools for the co-expression of two genes through a single transformation event and can be used in the study of protein-protein interactions or multi-component complexes.
Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; van Alphen, S P J
The DSM-5 Section III model of personality disorders remains largely unexplored in older adults. More specifically, there is a need for further research on the generalizability of the five trait domains in old age. The development of a short operationalization to screen for maladaptive trait domains, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF), can stimulate the use of the alternative DSM-5 model in older adults by addressing the need for short instruments. The primary goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the PID-5-BF by comparing its structural model and nomological network with the original PID-5 in terms of relations with domains of personality functioning and a gero-specific personality disorder indicator. A five-factor model was supported, but the domain Disinhibition was not replicated in the original PID-5, and some PID-5-BF items showed weak loadings. Nevertheless, the nomological network was similar and showed meaningful relations, supporting the use of the Brief PID-5 in older clinical samples.
Fava, Joseph L.; Severy, Lawrence; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Salomon, Liz; Shulman, Lawrence; Guthrie, Kate Morrow
Currently available risk perception scales tend to focus on risk behaviors and overall risk (vs partner-specific risk). While these types of assessments may be useful in clinical contexts, they may be inadequate for understanding the relationship between sexual risk and motivations to engage in safer sex or one’s willingness to use prevention products during a specific sexual encounter. We present the psychometric evaluation and validation of a scale that includes both general and specific dimensions of sexual risk perception. A one-time, audio computer-assisted self-interview was administered to 531 women aged 18–55 years. Items assessing sexual risk perceptions, both in general and in regards to a specific partner, were examined in the context of a larger study of willingness to use HIV/STD prevention products and preferences for specific product characteristics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two sub-scales: general perceived risk and partner-specific perceived risk. Validity analyses demonstrated that the two subscales were related to many sociodemographic and relationship factors. We suggest that this risk perception scale may be useful in research settings where the outcomes of interest are related to motivations to use HIV and STD prevention products and/ or product acceptability. Further, we provide specific guidance on how this risk perception scale might be utilized to understand such motivations with one or more specific partners. PMID:26621151
Paap, Kenneth R.; Sawi, Oliver
A sample of 58 bilingual and 62 monolingual university students completed four tasks commonly used to test for bilingual advantages in executive functioning (EF): antisaccade, attentional network test, Simon, and color-shape switching. Across the four tasks, 13 different indices were derived that are assumed to reflect individual differences in inhibitory control, monitoring, or switching. The effects of bilingualism on the 13 measures were explored by directly comparing the means of the two language groups and through regression analyses using a continuous measure of bilingualism and multiple demographic characteristics as predictors. Across the 13 different measures and two types of data analysis there were very few significant results and those that did occur supported a monolingual advantage. An equally important goal was to assess the convergent validity through cross-task correlations of indices assume to measure the same component of executive functioning. Most of the correlations using difference-score measures were non-significant and many near zero. Although modestly higher levels of convergent validity are sometimes reported, a review of the existing literature suggests that bilingual advantages (or disadvantages) may reflect task-specific differences that are unlikely to generalize to important general differences in EF. Finally, as cautioned by Salthouse, assumed measures of executive functioning may also be threatened by a lack of discriminant validity that separates individual or group differences in EF from those in general fluid intelligence or simple processing speed. PMID:25249988
Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…
Bowling, Nathan A.; Hammond, Gregory D.
Although several different measures have been developed to assess job satisfaction, large-scale examinations of the psychometric properties of most satisfaction scales are generally lacking. In the current study we used meta-analysis to examine the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale…
Klem, Marianne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hagtvet, Bente
The Norwegian government recommends a systematic language assessment of all four-year-olds as part of the general health surveillance program for the purpose of identifying children at risk of language delay. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the recommended language screening tool called LANGUAGE4 [SPRÅK4] by first…
Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.
Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…
Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others
Procedural documentation is presented for administering, scoring and analyzing data gathered to examine the construct validity of a set of superitems developed to assess student levels of mathematical reasoning ability. Each superitem includes a mathematical situation and a structured set of questions about that situation. The questions were based…
Lim, Doo Hun; Morris, Michael Lane; McMillan, Heather S.
Recently, the stress of work-family conflict has been a critical workplace issue for Asian countries, especially within those cultures experiencing rapid economic development. Our research purpose is to translate and establish construct validity of a Korean-language version of the Multi-Dimensional Work-Family Conflict (WFC) scale used in the U.S.…
Park, Yujeong; Benedict, Amber E.; Brownell, Mary T.
The factor structure of the CORE Phonics Survey was analyzed using a sample of 165 students in upper elementary school with specific learning disabilities. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the hypothesized constructs of the CORE Phonics Survey and predictive validity of the CORE Phonics Survey to predict students' success in word…
Besnoy, Kevin D.; Dantzler, John; Besnoy, Lisa R.; Byrne, Caitlin
This study evaluated the construct validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS). Data for this study were collected from two separate school districts across three different academic years in the Southeastern United States. Of the total sample (N = 2,330), 64.6% of the children were identified as African American, 29.0% as…
Dean, K.; Salem, N.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a behavioral risk index scale to determine if the scaled variable could be used to study possible latent dimensions of risk behaviour. DESIGN: Data from the Minnesota Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to construct and validate a behavioral risk index using item response theory methods. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 3303 Minnesota adults 18 years of age and older. RESULTS: Massive evidence was found against the construct validity of the index scale as a measure of risk behaviour. Seven commonly studied risk behaviours could not be scaled into a valid construct of health behaviour for either men or women. Tests of scalability, homogeneity, and item independence were rejected. In addition, item bias was found for all of the items in relation to important exogenous variables, especially age and education. CONCLUSIONS: The risk behaviours do not represent sufficiently similar types of phenomena to form an additive scale of health related risk taking. Not only do the practices fall on different, undefined dimensions of behavior, subgroup differences in risk taking would be hidden by data reductions summing the behavioral practices into additive scales. The findings indicate that the behaviors have quite distinct meanings that should be studied separately. PMID:9616426
Naji Qasem, Mamun Ali; Ahmad Gul, Showkeen Bilal
The study was conducted to know the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the factorial construction and criterion related validity in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the sample consisted of 510 undergraduate students selected by used random sampling technique. A scale developed by…
Sherman, Elisabeth M. S.; And Others
A 3-factor solution of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) in 260 adults with suspected head injury suggested relatively good construct validity for the factors, based on correlations with neuropsychological tests. Findings are discussed in terms of the multidimensional nature of neuropsychological tests and WAIS-R factors.…
Egelhoff, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E.
The Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) evaluates abnormal behavioral responses to auditory stimulation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study reports preliminary reliability, construct validity and standardization of the ABQ. Parents of children with ASD aged 7-21 years (n = 165) completed the ABQ on-line. Cronbach's alpha…
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Caffrey, Erin
The purpose of this study was to examine the construct and predictive validity of a dynamic assessment (DA) of decoding learning. Students (N = 318) were assessed in the fall of first grade on an array of instruments that were given in hopes of forecasting responsiveness to reading instruction. These instruments included DA as well as…
This study examined the construct validity of the "e-rater"® automated essay scoring engine as an alternative to human scoring in the context of TOEFL® essay writing. Analyses were based on a sample of students who repeated the TOEFL within a short time period. Two "e-rater" scores were investigated in this study, the first…
Gribbons, Barry C.; And Others
A study involving 174 at-risk undergraduate students provided evidence of the construct validity of 5 factors corresponding to scales of the Dimensions of Self-Concept measure. Evidence was obtained for a higher order general academic self-concept, but the anxiety factor was not related to this higher order factor. (SLD)
Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.
Few studies have examined whether nicotine dependence self-report questionnaires can predict specific behaviors and symptoms at specific points in time. The present study used data from a randomized clinical trial (N = 608; M. E. Piper et al., 2007) to assess the construct validity of scales and items from 3 nicotine dependence measures: the…
This study was aimed at mapping features of constructivist activities in higher education settings, constructing and validating a new scale for measuring their presence in lecture face-to-face based environments (LBE), seminars (SM), and distance learning environments (DLE). A mix-method approach was implemented in three phases. The first phase…
Wood, J. \\Luke; Harris, Frank, III.
The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the utility of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM[c]), an instrument designed to examine predictors of student success for men in community colleges. The authors highlight initial validation results from a recent pilot of the CCSM[c], with a focus on the non-cognitive outcomes construct employed…
Deptuła, A.; Partyka, M. A.
The article presents an innovative use of inductive algorithm for generating the decision tree for an analysis of the rank validity parameters of construction and maintenance of the gear pump with undercut tooth. It is preventet an alternative way of generating sets of decisions and determining the hierarchy of decision variables to existing the methods of discrete optimization.
Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented.…
Nugent, William R.
Critical to meta-analysis is the presumption that effect sizes based on different measures are directly comparable. Recent theoretical work has shown that an invariance condition--universe score, or construct, validity invariance--must hold for either observed score or reliability-corrected effect sizes based on different measures to be directly…
Hines, Constance V.; And Others
A study examined the construct validity of six vocational achievement tests used in the Ohio Vocational Achievement Testing Program. (Subject areas covered in the tests were agricultural mechanics, carpentry, diesel mechanics, distributive education for food services personnel, fabric services, and home economics/food service.) In order to…
Park, Robin S.; Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.; Furman, Gail E.; Powell, Jill K.; Mohr, Clinton J.
Objective: The construct validity of checklist and global process scores for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in psychiatry was assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict psychiatry OSCE scores from the clinical skills examination, an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) OSCE, and the National Board of Medical…
Mensch, Sonja M; Echteld, Michael A; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Rameckers, Eugène A A
Movakic is a newly developed instrument for measurement of motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities, with a satisfactory feasibility and content validity and good inter-observer and test-retest reliability. The objective of this study was to investigate its construct validity and responsiveness to change. Sixty children with severe multiple disabilities (mean age 7.7 years, range 2-16) were measured using Movakic six times during 18 months. Construct validity was assessed by correlating Movakic scores with expert judgment. In order to assess responsiveness, scores during 3-months intervals were compared (mean score-changes and intraclass correlations) during which some children experienced meaningful events influencing motor abilities and during which others experienced no such event. Forty-five percent of children had a lower cognitive development level than 6-month, 52% had Gross Motor Function Classification System level V and 37% had level IV. For 27 children all measurements were completed, six children dropped out. Construct validity was good (r=0.50-0.71). Responsiveness was demonstrated by significantly larger score changes after events than when such events did not occur. Movakic is a valid instrument for measuring motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities. Results suggest responsiveness to change in motor abilities after meaningful events.
Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.
The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…
Klein, Corbett S
Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).
Tibbles, Anthony C; Waalen, Judith K; Hains, François C
Background: The Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) is a widely used 10-item paper and pencil measure of disability resulting from low back pain. However, few studies have assessed the psychometric properties of the instrument. This study evaluated the response set bias, the internal consistency, and the construct validity of the ODQ. Objectives: The original ODQ was compared to seven modified versions to examine whether a response set bias existed. The internal consistency of the ODQ was assessed using the Cronbach alpha. Finally, the relationship between scores on the ODQ and the Roland Morris Functional Disability Scal (RM) was examined. Methods: Seven modified versions of the ODQ were developed from the original. One of the eight versions was randomly allocated to 102 adult patients presenting with low lack pain. There was no attempt to select patients on the basis of pain intensity or prior treatment so as to maximize the range and diversity of low back pain sufferers. Results: Results suggest that the responses given on the eight versions of the ODQ are a function of content and not of the format in which the items are presented. The ODQ also has strong internal consisstency (alpha = 0.85) and is strongly correlated to the RM (r = .70, p = .0005). The ODQ is a significant predictor of the RM scores (T-9.45, p = .0005) and duration of symptoms (T = -2.17, p = .0325). Conclusion: The ODQ appears to possess stable psychometric properties. The use of more than one version provides practitioners with a means of repeatedly assessing the disability levels of patients suffering from low back pain over the course of treatment.
Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman
Suppressor effects are operating when the addition of a predictor increases the predictive power of another variable. We argue that suppressor effects can play a valuable role in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures by bringing into clearer focus opposing elements that are inherent--but largely hidden--in the measure's overall score. We illustrate this point using theoretically grounded, replicated suppressor effects that have emerged in analyses of the original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007) and its expanded 2nd version (IDAS-II; Watson et al., 2012). In Study 1, we demonstrate that the IDAS-II Appetite Gain and Appetite Loss scales contain both (a) a shared distress component that creates a positive correlation between them and (b) a specific symptom component that produces a natural negative association between them (i.e., people who recently have experienced decreased interest in food/loss of appetite are less likely to report a concomitant increase in appetite/weight). In Study 2, we establish that mania scales also contain 2 distinct elements-namely, high energy/positive emotionality and general distress/dysfunction-that oppose each another in many instances. In both studies, we obtained evidence of suppression effects that were highly robust across different types of respondents (e.g., clinical outpatients, community adults, college students) and using both self-report and interview-based measures. These replicable suppressor effects establish that many homogeneous, unidimensional symptom scales actually contain distinguishable components with distinct--at times, even antagonistic--properties.
Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.
Construction progress monitoring is a primarily manual and time consuming process which is usually based on 2D plans and therefore has a need for an increased automation. In this paper an approach is introduced for comparing a planned state of a building (as-planned) derived from a Building Information Model (BIM) to a photogrammetric point cloud (as-built). In order to accomplish the comparison a triangle-based representation of the building model is used. The approach has two main processing steps. First, visibility checks are performed to determine whether or not elements of the building are potentially built. The remaining parts can be either categorized as free areas, which are definitely not built, or as unknown areas, which are not visible. In the second step it is determined if the potentially built parts can be confirmed by the surrounding points. This process begins by splitting each triangle into small raster cells. For each raster cell a measure is calculated using three criteria: the mean distance of the points, their standard deviation and the deviation from a local plane fit. A triangle is confirmed if a sufficient number of raster cells yield a high rating by the measure. The approach is tested based on a real case inner city scenario. Only triangles showing unambiguous results are labeled with their statuses, because it is intended to use these results to infer additional statements based on dependencies modeled in the BIM. It is shown that the label built is reliable and can be used for further analysis. As a drawback this comes with a high percentage of ambiguously classified elements, for which the acquired data is not sufficient (in terms of coverage and/or accuracy) for validation.
Warner, Janis A.; Koufteros, Xenophon; Verghese, Anto
This article introduces a new construct coined as Computer User Learning Aptitude (CULA). To establish construct validity, CULA is embedded in a nomological network that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM). Specifically, CULA is posited to affect perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, the two underlying TAM constructs.…
Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.
The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final
Theilmann, Wiebke; Löscher, Wolfgang; Socala, Katarzyna; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Brandt, Claudia
Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The remission rate is above 50% in previously pharmacoresistant patients but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in rodents mimics antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in humans and is widely used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of ECT. For the translational value of findings in animal models it is essential to establish models with the highest construct, face and predictive validity possible. The commonly used model for ECT in rodents does not meet the demand for high construct validity. For ECT, cortical surface electrodes are used to induce therapeutic seizures whereas ECS in rodents is exclusively performed by auricular or corneal electrodes. However, the stimulation site has a major impact on the type and spread of the induced seizure activity and its antidepressant effect. We propose a method in which ECS is performed by screw electrodes placed above the motor cortex of rats to closely simulate the clinical situation and thereby increase the construct validity of the model. Cortical ECS in rats induced reliably seizures comparable to human ECT. Cortical ECS was more effective than auricular ECS to reduce immobility in the forced swim test. Importantly, auricular stimulation had a negative influence on the general health condition of the rats with signs of fear during the stimulation sessions. These results suggest that auricular ECS in rats is not a suitable ECT model. Cortical ECS in rats promises to be a valid method to mimic ECT.
Kolber, Morey J.
Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during
Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Eklund, Robert C; Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Garbarino, Jean-Marie; Stephan, Yannick
We conducted a series of studies to investigate the psychometric properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) among a total sample of 1,563 nonclinical French adolescents. The, first study provided support for the item content of the preliminary version of the French SPAS for adolescents. Then, the second study supported the convergent validity of the English and French version of the SPAS. Finally, Studies 3 to 6 provided support for the factor validity, measurement invariance (across genders, age groups and samples), latent mean structure invariance (across age category and samples), reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity of a 7-item version of the SPAS.
Reime, B; Steiner, I
Our study tested the discriminant validity of burnout in contrast to depression using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Maslach u. Jackson 1986) and the Allgemeine Depressionsskala (ADS, Hautzinger u. Bailer 1993). Furthermore the relationships between burnout and depression to social support, occupational and health variables were examined. Pre-school teachers (n = 101), physician-assistants (n = 81) and their intimates were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Spearman-correlations and factor analysis were conducted with SPSS. The results indicate validity for the burnout construct.
McNeill, Ilona M; Dunlop, Patrick D
This article presents a measure of individual differences in the tendencies to worry constructively and unconstructively, called the Constructive and Unconstructive Worry Questionnaire (CUWQ). The measure is based on a control theory perspective of worry and separates the tendency to worry in a way that facilitates goal-pursuit and threat reduction (constructive worry) from the tendency to worry in a way that hinders goal-pursuit while sustaining threat awareness (unconstructive worry). CUWQ scores were validated in 2 independent nonclinical samples, including North American (Sample 1, N = 295) and Australian (Sample 2, N = 998) residents. Final factor items were selected based on Sample 1, and the measure showed good model fit through a confirmatory factor analysis in Sample 2. In addition, scores on the 2 worry factors showed criterion-related validity by statistically predicting a variety of outcomes in both samples: Constructive worry was positively associated with punctuality and wildfire preparedness and negatively associated with trait-anxiety and amount of worry. Unconstructive worry, on the other hand, was positively associated with trait-anxiety and amount of worry, and negatively associated with punctuality and wildfire preparedness. The 2 factor scores were uncorrelated in Sample 1 and positively correlated in Sample 2, thereby showing that having a tendency to worry in an unconstructive manner does not prohibit 1 from worrying in a constructive manner as well. Understanding how the 2 tendencies to worry differ from each other and separating their measurement enables a better understanding of the role of worry in both normal behavior and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record
Chong, Sandra; Michael, William B.
Studied the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of scores on a Korean version of the Dimensions of Self-Concept Scale (W. Michael and R. Smith, 1976) with samples of 213, 191, and 213 junior high and high school students in Korea. Results generally support the internal consistency reliability and the construct validity of the…
Lowe, Patricia A.; Papanastasiou, Elena C.; DeRuyck, Kimberly A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.
In this study, the authors investigated the temporal stability and construct validity of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C; C. R. Reynolds, B. O. Richmond, & P. A. Lowe, 2003b) scores. Results indicated that the AMAS-C scores had adequate to excellent test score stability, and evidence supported the construct validity of the…
Gaither, Caroline A.
Evidence was obtained from 841 pharmacists for the convergent validity and discriminant validity of measures of career commitment, organizational commitment, career withdrawal intention, and job withdrawal intention. Results indicate the usefulness of confirmatory factor analysis as an alternative to exploratory analyses when determining the…
Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.
Develops and assesses the validity of a self-report measure of sexual harassment proclivities in men. Demonstrates the validity of the scale by its moderate correlations with attitude measures relevant to sexual harassment, its nonsignificant correlation with the need to provide socially desirable responses, and by showing that potential victims…
Ferrara, Filomena Felicia
A validation study was conducted on the Child Sex Abuse Attitude Scale (CSAAS) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the factor structure of three comparative CFA models. Multitrait multimethod analysis was also used to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the CSAAS. The instrument was developed based on the theory of…
Pomplun, Mark; Custer, Michael
This study examines the validity of the measures of verbal and nonverbal working memory on the Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5). The validity evidence included Rasch-based, criterion-referenced item mapping, correlations with other clinical measures of memory, and prediction of reading and mathematics scores. The item mapping clearly…
Stanton, Kasey; Daly, Elizabeth; Stasik-O'Brien, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David
The primary goal of this study was to explicate the construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) by examining their relations both to each other and to measures of personality and psychopathology in a community sample (N = 255). Structural evidence indicates that the NPI is defined by Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness factors, whereas the HPS is characterized by specific dimensions reflecting Social Vitality, Mood Volatility, and Excitement. Our results establish that (a) factor-based subscales from these instruments display divergent patterns of relations that are obscured when relying exclusively on total scores and (b) some NPI and HPS subscales more clearly tap content specifically relevant to narcissism and mania, respectively, than others. In particular, our findings challenge the construct validity of the NPI Leadership/Authority and HPS Social Vitality subscales, which appear to assess overlapping assertiveness content that is largely adaptive in nature.
Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron
The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) was constructed to be a single-factor instrument that assesses an individual's overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. The MATE was validated and the scores resulting from the MATE were found to be reliable for the population of inservice high school biology teachers. However, many…
Afari-Kumah, Eben; Achampong, Akwasi Kyere
This study aims to examine the computer usage intentions of Ghanaian Tertiary Students. The Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the theoretical framework to ascertain whether it could help explain behavioral intentions of individuals to accept and use technology. Factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the initial…
Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee
Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)
Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (<3 years). Methods Data were from 462 mothers and children (age 21–27 months) from the NOURISH trial. Items from five questionnaires and two study-specific items were submitted to a priori item selection, allocation and verification, before theoretically-derived factors were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Construct validity of the new factors was examined by correlating these with child eating behaviours and weight. Results Following expert review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach’s α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: ‘Distrust in Appetite’, ‘Reward for Behaviour’, ‘Reward for Eating’, and ‘Persuasive Feeding’. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: ‘Structured Meal Setting’, ‘Structured Meal Timing’, ‘Family Meal Setting’, ‘Overt Restriction’ and ‘Covert Restriction’. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. Conclusion The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children’s hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required. PMID:24898364
Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Gante, Cristiano; Loureiro, João; Lopes, Isabel
The main goal of the present study was to determine and validate an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Assessment factors were applied to short-term toxicity data using the lowest EC50 and after the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) method. Both ways of EQS generation were applied to a freshwater toxicity dataset for AZX based on available data, and to marine toxicity datasets for AZX and Ortiva(®) (a commercial formulation of AZX) obtained by the present study. A high interspecific variability in AZX sensitivity was observed in all datasets, being the copepoda Eudiaptomus graciloides (LC50,48h = 38 μg L(-1)) and the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis (LC50,96h = 13 μg L(-1)) the most sensitive freshwater and marine species, respectively. MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 (≤0.38 μg L(-1)) were more protective than those derived using the SSD method (≤3.2 μg L(-1)). After comparing the MAC-EQS values estimated in the present study to the smallest AA-EQS available, which protect against the occurrence of prolonged exposure of AZX, the MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 were considered overprotective and a MAC-EQS of 1.8 μg L(-1) was validated and recommended for AZX for the water column. This value was derived from marine toxicity data, which highlights the importance of testing marine organisms. Moreover, Ortiva affects the most sensitive marine species to a greater extent than AZX, and marine species are more sensitive than freshwater species to AZX. A risk characterization ratio higher than one allowed to conclude that AZX might pose a high risk to the aquatic environment. Also, in a wider conclusion, before new pesticides are approved, we suggest to improve the Tier 1 prospective Ecological Risk Assessment by increasing the number of short-term data, and apply the SSD approach, in order to ensure the safety of
Ercikan, Kadriye; Oliveri, María Elena
Assessing complex constructs such as those discussed under the umbrella of 21st century constructs highlights the need for a principled assessment design and validation approach. In our discussion, we made a case for three considerations: (a) taking construct complexity into account across various stages of assessment development such as the…
The most significant constructs of ESL pronunciation models are "accentedness," "intelligibility," and "comprehensibility" (Derwing & Munro 2005; Jenkins, 2000; Pickering, 2006). It is clear though that the assessment of these characteristics shows no consideration for the potential affection of the assessor…
Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: to develop indicators for the nursing outcome Swallowing Status and the respective conceptual and operational definitions validated by experts and in a clinical setting among patients after having experienced a stroke. METHOD: methodological study with concept analysis and content and clinical validations. The Content Validation Index was verified for the scores assigned by 11 experts to indicators. Two pairs of nurses assessed 81 patients during the clinical validation: one pair used an instrument with definitions and the other used an instrument without definitions. The resulting assessments were compared using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Friedman's test, and Minimal Important Difference calculation. RESULTS: All the indicators, with the exception of the indicator Ability to bring food to mouth, presented Content Validation Index above 0.80. The pair using the instrument with definitions presented an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient above 0.80 for all the indicators and similarity was found in all the assessments, according to the Minimal Important Difference calculation. The pair using the instrument without definitions presented a low coefficient (ρ<0.75) for all the indicators. CONCLUSION: the results showed that greater uniformity and accuracy was achieved by the pair of nurses using the conceptual and operational definitions for the indicators of the nursing outcome Swallowing Status. PMID:26155008
Lin, Ju-Han; Nien, Chiao-Lin; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liu, Hong-Yu
Background Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack & Mermelstein, 1983) has been validated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126) and 242 non-athletes (males = 124; females = 118) and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage = 19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35) and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r = .66 and r = .50). Discussion It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders. PMID:27994983
Pomplun, Mark; Custer, Michael
This study examines the validity of the measures of verbal and nonverbal working memory on the Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5). The validity evidence included Rasch-based, criterion-referenced item mapping, correlations with other clinical measures of memory, and prediction of reading and mathematics scores. The item mapping clearly demonstrates a parallel between increasing item difficulty and a progression of item characteristics that placed increasing demands on verbal and nonverbal working memory. The higher correlations of the SB5 verbal and nonverbal working memory subtests with other measures of verbal and nonverbal memory, respectively, and lower correlations with nonverbal and verbal memory measures, respectively, clearly show convergent and divergent validity. The higher correlations between SB5 verbal working memory and reading skills and between SB5 nonverbal memory and mathematics skills are consistent with past research.
This study examined the reliability and validity of a Turkish version for the Marital Dispositional Forgiveness Scale (MDFS). 104 married couples (M age = 36.6 yr., SD = 9.4) living in Turkey completed the Turkish versions of the MDFS and the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS). Cronbach's coefficients a for negative dimension (wives = .82, husbands = .80) and positive dimension (wives = .80, husbands = .79) were adequate. A correlation between the MDFS and RAS scores indicated significant associations, stronger for the positive dimension than the negative dimension, supporting the external validity of the MDFS.
Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; de Domenico, Edvane Birelo Lopes
Abstract Objective: to construct an instrument for the assessment of graduates of undergraduate nursing courses and to validate this instrument through the consensus of specialists. Method: methodological study. In order to elaborate the instrument, documental analysis and a literature review were undertaken. Validation took place through use of the Delphi Conference, between September 2012 and September 2013, in which 36 specialists from Brazilian Nursing participated. In order to analyze reliability, the Cronbach alpha coefficient, the item/total correlation, and the Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated. Results: the instrument was constructed with the participation of specialist nurses representing all regions of Brazil, with experience in lecturing and research. The first Delphi round led to changes in the first instrument, which was restructured and submitted to another round, with a response rate of 94.44%. In the second round, the instrument was validated with a Cronbach alpha of 0.75. Conclusion: the final instrument possessed three dimensions related to the characterization of the graduate, insertion in the job market, and evaluation of the professional training process. This instrument may be used across the territory of Brazil as it is based on the curricular guidelines and contributes to the process of regulation of the quality of the undergraduate courses in Nursing. PMID:27305184
Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Jiang, Z.; Hu, F.; Zhang, W.
The rapid construction of hardware-in-the-loop simulation(HILS) system and validation of the flight control approach for the TianHang eXperimental(THX) rocket are investigated. Firstly, the six degree of freedom simulation system is accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink, and the simulation models are classified and masked into various blocks by their functions. And then, the integrated design of testing and debugging of the flight control devices and the HILS system construction is proposed based on the dSPACE real-time platform. The test and calibration of the gyroscope and rudder system and the flight control code automatically generation are carried out, and various leve's of HILS are achieved. Finally, the optimal linear quadratic regulator with the integrate part is proposed for the three channels of the flight vehicle. The numerical and HILS results demonstrated the effective performance of the proposed control approach. As the control system design implements only on the MATLAB/Simulink platform, a large of repeated work is overleaped. Therefore, the rapid construction of the HILS is accomplished, and the flight control design and validation period is decreased, which implies the remarkable value in engineering application.
Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis
Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…
Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…
Yangin, Selami; Sidekli, Sabri
The measurement of teacher self-efficacy has a history of more than 30 years. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the development and validation of a new scale to measure the science teaching self-efficacy of elementary school teachers. Therefore, a scale has been created to measure elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and…
Ersanli, Ercümend; Mameghani, Shiva Saeighi
In the present study, the Tolerance Scale developed by Ersanli (2014) was adapted to the Iranian culture, and its validity and reliability were investigated in the case of Iranian college students. The participants consisted of 552 Iranian college students (62% male, M = 20.84, S.D.: 1.53) selected using the convenience sampling method. The sample…
Jones, Ryan Seth
Estimates of fidelity of implementation are essential to interpret the effects of educational interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While random assignment protects against many threats to validity, and therefore provides the best approximation to a true counterfactual condition, it does not ensure that the treatment condition…
Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.
This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…
Bray-Clark, Nikki; Bates, Reid
The purpose of this study was to validate the Louisiana SAM Instructional Staff Questionnaire, a key component of the Louisiana School Analysis Model. The model was designed as a comprehensive evaluation tool for schools. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was used to uncover the underlying structure of the SISQ. (Contains 1 table.)
Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III
The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…
Rivera, Jennifer E.
The State of New York Agriculture Science Education secondary program is required to have a certification exam for students to assess their agriculture science education experience as a Regent's requirement towards graduation. This paper focuses on the procedure used to develop and validate two content sub-test questions within a…
Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Serna, George S.
A series of analyses (correlations, multiple regressions, and confirmatory modeling) was conducted on data (N=275) collected to explore the psychometric properties of the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Long Form (RIAS-L). Results were mixed, generally revealing limited support for the RIAS-L's validity and highlighting concerns regarding the…
Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Mongeau, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane
This study examined correlates of attachment at age 3 to further validate preschool separation-reunion measures. Three-year-olds (N = 150) and their mothers participated in a separation-reunion protocol, the Preschool Attachment Classification System (PACS: J. Cassidy & R. S. Marvin with the MacArthur Working Group on Attachment, 1992), and a…
Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun
The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…
Loughland, Tony; Vlies, Penny
Teacher adaptability is a key disposition for teachers that has been linked to outcomes of interests to schools. The aim of this study was to examine how the broader disposition of teacher adaptability might be observable as classroom-based adaptive practices using an argument-based approach to validation. The findings from the initial phase of…
Spanierman, Lisa B.; Heppner, Mary J.
This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW), which operationalizes the idea that racism has a host of psychosocial costs for White individuals. Data from 727 participants were collected in 3 interrelated studies that subjected the items to the rigors of both…
Cheng, Weiyi; Lei, Pui-Wa; DiPerna, James C.
The purpose of the current study was to examine dimensionality and concurrent validity evidence of the EARLI numeracy measures (DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007), which were developed to assess key skills such as number identification, counting, and basic arithmetic. Two methods (NOHARM with approximate chi-square test and DIMTEST with DETECT…
DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William
The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…
Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona; Tasse, Marc J.; Durbin, Janet
The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) is designed as a measure of support needs for individuals with intellectual disability. The current validity study required five experienced clinicians to rank a total of 50 cases as having Low, Medium, or High Support Need based on descriptions that were part of an assessment package for services. These rankings…
Harvey, David W.
This study was designed to examine the validity and test-retest reliability of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) for 61 adult women. The VPI was administered at the beginning of a group guidance program and the preference for Holland's six personality styles - intellectual, conventional, enterprising, realistic, social, artistic -…
Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Curwood, Jen Scott
Given recent concerns around boys' literacy, this study examined multidimensional writing motivation and engagement among boys. We explored internal and external validity of 11 adaptive (e.g. self-efficacy for writing) and maladaptive (e.g. disengagement from writing) factors of writing motivation and engagement. The sample comprised 781 male…
This study reports the development and validation of the Graduate Skills and Attributes Scale which was initially administered to a random sample of 272 third-year-level and postgraduate-level, distance-learning higher education students. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis. In a second study, the scale was administered to a…
One of the most salient requirements for international educational research is the use of comparable measures. For the comparison of student performance across countries the use of item response theory (IRT) scaling techniques facilitates the collection of cross-nationally comparable measures. But there is also a need for valid and comparable…
Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.; James, Trevor; James, Kate; Good, Rebecca
Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct…
Ortiz, Arlene; Clinton, Amanda; Schaefer, Barbara A.
Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was examined for scores on the Spanish Record Form of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition (BSRA-3). Participants included a sample of 68 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 5 years enrolled in preschool programs in Puerto Rico. Scores obtained from the BSRA-3 Spanish Record…
Beery, Thomas H.
The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…
Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.
Scant research has examined the validity of instruments that permit observer ratings of psychopathy. Using a nonclinical (undergraduate) sample, the authors examined the associations between both self- and observer ratings on a psychopathy prototype (Psychopathy Q-Sort, PQS) and widely used measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and…
Bakker, Arnold B.
The WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF) measures flow at work, defined as a short-term peak experience characterized by absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation. Results of Study 1 among 7 samples of employees (total N=1346) from different occupational groups offer support for the factorial validity and reliability of the WOLF.…
Dong, Enhong; Liang, Ying; Liu, Wei; Du, Xueli; Bao, Yong; Du, Zhaohui; Ma, Jin
Background The development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale (WFPTS)-equivalent instrument for Chinese patients were investigated. Material/Methods We approached 3442 randomly selected outpatients at 3 Shanghai (China) general hospitals, treated ≥2 times per year by the same physician, for participation between November 2008 and December 2008. A Chinese version of the WFPTS (C-WFPTS) was prepared and administered to eligible and consenting patients, and subjected to validity assessment using 5 patient behaviors: (1) recommendation of the physician; (2) occurrence of dispute; (3) seeking a second opinion; (4) treatment adherence; and (5) consideration of switching physicians. Results A total of 352 (M: F, 149: 203; mean age, 40.67±17.31 years; age range, 14–94 years) consenting and eligible patients were included in the analysis. The unidimensionality and internal consistency of C-WFPTS was confirmed (Cronbach’s α=0.833). Physician trust correlated significantly with physician satisfaction (r=0.73, P<0.001) and all 5 behaviors (1: r=0.453, 2: r=0.209, 3: r=0.406, 4: r=0.444, 5: r=0.471; P<0.001 for all), indicating validity and predictive validity, respectively. Patient trust increased significantly with increasing age and physician visits (P>0.05), but was not related to gender, birthplace, or insurance type. Conclusions C-WFPTS has good psychometric properties, reliability, and validity for the evaluation of patient trust in the patient-physician relationship, and thereby provides an essential tool for the characterization of patient-physician relationships in China, which is necessary for healthcare reform. PMID:24996983
Wah, Josephine Wong Man; Wang, Mike Kwan Wing; Ping, Cecilia Li-Tsang Wai
With increasing economic globalization, including health care, it is important to use standardized outcome measures applicable to a broad spectrum of patients in a wide array of countries. The purpose of this study was to verify construct and content validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation Questionnaire (PRWE-Hong Kong version). The PRWE was translated into Chinese, and face validity was established by inviting experts and patients to participate in the panel review of the questionnaire. A correlation field study was performed using a convenience sample of 47 patients with wrist injuries. Patients were assessed at baseline and six weeks after the initial measurement. The following measures were taken: the Chinese version of the PRWE and the Medical Outcome Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, active wrist range of motion, grip strength, and the Jebsen Hand Function Test. Statistical analysis consisted of Pearson correlation coefficients (convergent validity), factor analysis (content validity), paired t-test (convergent validity), and the Cronbach alpha (internal consistency). Clinically relevant correlations existed between "Pain at rest" and the VAS "resting pain" (r=0.785, p<0.0001) as well as between "Pain on repeated wrist movement" and the VAS "exertion pain" (r=0.872, p<0.0001). The "Physical Component Summary" of the SF-36 was found significantly correlated with the PRWE function subset total score (r=-0.618, p<0.0001), and the PRWE total score (r=-0.645, p<0.0001). The specific function subset score also correlated with the wrist flexion range (r=-0.308, p<0.0001) and the grip strength (r=-0.488, p=0.035). Two factors were found that accounted for 61% of the variance. The Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from 0.7805 to 0.9502, indicating that the internal consistency of the questionnaire items was sound and reliable. Positive correlations between the wrist ranges of
Rouzrokh, Ali; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmed; Mahmoudian, Massoud
A modular patch-clamp amplifier was constructed based on the Strickholm design, which was initially published in 1995. Various parts of the amplifier such as the power supply, input circuit, headstage, feedback circuit, output and nulling circuits were redesigned to use recent software advances and fabricated using the common lithographic printed…
Elsaadany, Mostafa; Harris, Matthew; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda
It is crucial to replicate the micromechanical milieu of native tissues to achieve efficacious tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. In this study, we introduced an innovative loading platform, EQUicycler, that utilizes a simple, yet effective, and well-controlled mechanism to apply physiologically relevant homogenous mechanical equiaxial strain on three-dimensional cell-embedded tissue scaffolds. The design of EQUicycler ensured elimination of gripping effects through the use of biologically compatible silicone posts for direct transfer of the mechanical load to the scaffolds. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) was created to understand and to quantify how much applied global strain was transferred from the loading mechanism to the tissue constructs. In vitro studies were conducted on various cell lines associated with tissues exposed to equiaxial mechanical loading in their native environment. In vitro results demonstrated that EQUicycler was effective in maintaining and promoting the viability of different musculoskeletal cell lines and upregulating early differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. By utilizing EQUicycler, collagen fibers of the constructs were actively remodeled. Residing cells within the collagen construct elongated and aligned with strain direction upon mechanical loading. EQUicycler can provide an efficient and cost-effective tool to conduct mechanistic studies for tissue engineered constructs designed for tissue systems under mechanical loading in vivo.
Schiefele, Ulrich; Schaffner, Ellen
Reading motivation has been defined consistently as a multidimensional construct. However, there is some disagreement regarding the number and nature of the dimensions of reading motivation. In particular, there is a lack of studies investigating the dimensional structure and measurement invariance (e.g., across gender) of reading motivation…
Enright, Robert D.; And Others
Tests the construct of belief-discrepancy reasoning (i.e., judgments people make about others who disagree with them). First, fourth, seventh, and tenth graders were assessed and retested one year later. Longitudinal trends supported a four-stage development toward open-mindedness which was confirmed by another study of fourth and seventh graders…
Contrasted a new measure of self-control, the Retrospective Behavioral Self-Control scale (RBS), with the most widespread measure of this construct (H. Grasmick and others, 1993). Results show that the RBS measured the general factor of behavior across samples of 214 and 213 undergraduates and 76 employees, but the other scale, used with only one…
Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley
The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…
Mozgalina, Anastasia; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna
Achievement of advanced literacy as a goal of foreign language (FL) study within the available amount of time requires that FL departments construct a well-articulated program and optimize student learning at each stage of the curriculum. One essential element of such optimization is the development of assessment procedures to place students into…
It is crucial to replicate the micromechanical milieu of native tissues to achieve efficacious tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. In this study, we introduced an innovative loading platform, EQUicycler, that utilizes a simple, yet effective, and well-controlled mechanism to apply physiologically relevant homogenous mechanical equiaxial strain on three-dimensional cell-embedded tissue scaffolds. The design of EQUicycler ensured elimination of gripping effects through the use of biologically compatible silicone posts for direct transfer of the mechanical load to the scaffolds. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) was created to understand and to quantify how much applied global strain was transferred from the loading mechanism to the tissue constructs. In vitro studies were conducted on various cell lines associated with tissues exposed to equiaxial mechanical loading in their native environment. In vitro results demonstrated that EQUicycler was effective in maintaining and promoting the viability of different musculoskeletal cell lines and upregulating early differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. By utilizing EQUicycler, collagen fibers of the constructs were actively remodeled. Residing cells within the collagen construct elongated and aligned with strain direction upon mechanical loading. EQUicycler can provide an efficient and cost-effective tool to conduct mechanistic studies for tissue engineered constructs designed for tissue systems under mechanical loading in vivo. PMID:28168197
Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.
Cognitive diagnostic analyses have been advocated as methods that allow an assessment to function as a formative assessment to inform instruction. To use this approach, it is necessary to first identify the skills required for each item in the test, known as a Q-matrix. However, because the construct being tested and the underlying cognitive…
Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida
Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…
Westbrook, Bert W.; Parry-Hill, Joseph W., Jr.
The Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test (CVMT) was constructed to measure knowledge and abilities dealing with the characteristics and requirements of a wide range of occupations. Fifteen cognitive vocational maturity areas were identified; the present form of the test consists of 120 multiple choice items, whose reading grade levels range from 1.4…
Constructed 25-item Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale (ARVS) which emphasized victim blame, credibility, deservingness, denigration, and trivialization. Results from administration of ARVS to university students, social workers, psychologists, physicians, lawyers, and police officers in Singapore, and to university students in the United States…
Patrick, Christopher J.; Edens, John F.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Benning, Stephen D.
Much of the research on psychopathy has treated it as a unitary construct operationalized by total scores on one (or more) measures. More recent studies on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) suggest the existence of two distinct facets of psychopathy with unique external correlates. Here, the authors report reanalyses of two offender…
Renison, Belinda; Ponsford, Jennie; Testa, Renee; Richardson, Barry; Brownfield, Kylie
Virtual reality (VR) assessment paradigms have the potential to address the limited ecological validity of pen and paper measures of executive function (EF) and the pragmatic and reliability issues associated with functional measures. To investigate the ecological validity and construct validity of a newly developed VR measure of EF, the Virtual Library Task (VLT); a real life analogous task--the Real Library Task (RLT); and five neuropsychological measures of EF were administered to 30 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 30 healthy Controls. Significant others for each participant also completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), which is a behavioral rating scale of everyday EF. Performances on the VLT and the RLT were significantly positively correlated indicating that VR performance is similar to real world performance. The TBI group performed significantly worse than the Control group on the VLT and the Modified Six Elements Test (MSET) but the other four neuropsychological measures of EF failed to differentiate the groups. Both the MSET and the VLT significantly predicted everyday EF suggesting that they are both ecologically valid tools for the assessment of EF. The VLT has the advantage over the MSET of providing objective measurement of individual components of EF.
Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H; Lin, Daming; Alten, Rieke; Christensen, Robin; Furst, Daniel E; Hewlett, Sarah; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn; Woodworth, Thasia; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Jamal, Shahin; Keystone, Edward C; Pope, Janet; Tin, Diane; Thorne, J Carter
Objective To evaluate the reliability of concurrent flare identification using 3 methods (patient, rheumatologist and Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 criteria), and construct validity of candidate items representing the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) RA Flare Core Domain Set. Methods Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares was assessed using the agreement coefficient. Construct validity of flare questions was examined: convergent (Spearman's r); discriminant (mean differences between flaring/non-flaring patients); and consequential (proportions with prior treatment reductions and intended therapeutic change postflare). Results The 849 patients were 75% female, 81% white, 42% were in remission/low disease activity (R/LDA), and 16–32% were flaring at the second visit. Agreement of flare status was low–strong (κ's 0.17–0.88) and inversely related to RA disease activity level. Flare domains correlated highly (r's≥0.70) with each other, patient global (r's≥0.66) and corresponding measures (r's 0.49–0.92); and moderately highly with MD and patient-reported joint counts (r's 0.29–0.62). When MD/patients agreed the patient was flaring, mean flare domain between-group differences were 2.1–3.0; 36% had treatment reductions prior to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. Conclusions Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with/without flare and have strong evidence of construct and consequential validity. Ongoing work will identify optimal scoring and cut points to identify RA flares. PMID
Moreno-Jiménez, M Pilar; Ríos Rodríguez, M Luisa; Martín, Macarena Vallejo
This article describes the development and validation of a new instrument, the scale (SCAP) which measures community participation (CP) and socio-political participation (SPP). The sample consists of 756 participants in Málaga, residents whose average age is 38.78 years old (SD = 13.96) and of whom 58.5% are women. The results endorse the psychometric qualities of the instrument. We present descriptive analysis of the items, the dimensionality of the scale and its internal consistency. The external evidence of validity shows positive and statistically significant correlations with sense of community and empowerment, variables theoretically related to participation. A confirmatory factor analysis confirms the two-dimensional structure (CP and SPP). Further analysis show a higher CP in women. This instrument extends the quantitative research on citizen participation.
Pereira, Barbara Juliana da Costa; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Beatriz Maria, Jorge; Mazzo, Alessandra
The aim of this descriptive study, carried out at a public university, was to design, develop, and validate a distance learning module on intramuscular premedication antisepsis. The content was introduced in the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, based on the Systematic Model for Web-Based Training projects. Ten nurses and information technologists at work consented to participate, in compliance with ethical guidelines, and answered a questionnaire to validate the Virtual Learning Environment. The educational aspects of the environment interface were mostly evaluated as "excellent," whereas the assessment of didactic resources indicated interactivity difficulties. It is concluded that distance learning is an important tool for the teaching of premedication antisepsis. To ensure its effectiveness, appropriate methods and interactive devices must be used.
Petit, Sylvie; Bergua, Valérie; Peres, Karine; Bouisson, Jean; Koleck, Michèle
Given changing and subjective aspects of quality of life, the current assessment scales are often encompassing and not very adapted for older people. Thus, the present validation study has several objectives: 1) To elaborate a specific measure of the quality of life of older people, given the characteristics and problems of this population; 2) To propose a simple scale to use for any health care professional and fast passation to encourage the inclusion of such measures in the framework of a comprehensive care of the elderly; 3) To validate this scale in a large cohort of retired older farmers. This scale resulted in 14 items illustrating the various dimensions of quality of life of older people. It was then proposed for validation in a large cohort of retired elderly farmers of 65 years and over, and living at home. After exploratory factor analysis of subjects' responses to the EQVPA, five items were extracted explaining 48.8% of the total variance. Its internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.72). The five items permitted to assess daily and social activities in environment, social and familial relationships, physical and functional health and mental health. The results showed that quality of life is significantly correlated with greater life satisfaction, more social support and social network, higher level of subjective health, lower level of functional impairments, lower level of anxious and depressive symptoms, and lower level of routinization. Validation of the tools such as EQVPA seems important for the prevention and preservation of the quality of life of older people.
Pérez Escamirosa, Fernando; Ordorica Flores, Ricardo; Minor Martínez, Arturo
In this article, we describe the construction and validation of a laparoscopic trainer using an iPhone 5 and a plastic document holder case. The abdominal cavity was simulated with a clear plastic document holder case. On 1 side of the case, 2 holes for entry of laparoscopic instruments were drilled. We added a window to place the camera of the iPhone, which works as our camera of the trainer. Twenty residents carried out 4 tasks using the iPhone Trainer and a physical laparoscopic trainer. The time of all tasks were analyzed with a simple paired t test. The construction of the trainer took 1 hour, with a cost of
Colado, Juan C.; Garcia-Masso, Xavier; Triplett, N. Travis; Calatayud, Joaquin; Flandez, Jorge; Behm, David; Rogers, Michael E.
The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB) was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM) and overall body (O) ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB). Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise. Key points This new resistance intensity scale is an appropriate and valid tool for assessing perceived exertion during strength training with elastic bands
Law, Lily N C; Zentner, Marcel
A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals' extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS) that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch), qualitative (timbre, tuning), temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo), and dynamic (loudness). The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85) and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85). Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon's Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo), the Musical Ear Test (rhythm), and sample instrumental sounds (timbre). Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01). An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery's discriminant validity (-.05, ns). The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery.
Law, Lily N. C.; Zentner, Marcel
A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals’ extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS) that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch), qualitative (timbre, tuning), temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo), and dynamic (loudness). The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85) and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85). Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon’s Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo), the Musical Ear Test (rhythm), and sample instrumental sounds (timbre). Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01). An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery’s discriminant validity (−.05, ns). The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery. PMID:23285071
Güerci, A; Zúñiga, L; Marcos, R
Individual radiosensitivity is an individual characteristic associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation. The purpose of our work is to establish a dose-response curve useful to classify individuals as radiosensitive or radioresistant. Thus, a dose-response curve was constructed by measuring in vitro responses to increasing doses (0 to 8 Gy) of gamma radiation in the comet assay. The obtained curve fit well with a linear equation in the range of 0 to 8 Gy. The overall dose-response curve was constructed for percent DNA in tail, as a measure of the genetic damage induced by irradiation. To probe the goodness of the constructed curve, a validation study was carried out with whole blood from two donors in a blind study. Results show that, for the two applied doses (2 and 6 Gy), the obtained values fit well inside the interval of confidence of the curve. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the usefulness of the comet assay in determining individual responses to defined doses of gamma radiation. The standard dose-response curve constructed may be used to detect individuals departing from reference values.
Christie, Jason D.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ware, Lorraine B.; Lederer, David; Hadjiliadis, Denis; Lee, James; Robinson, Nancy; Localio, A. Russell; Wille, Keith; Lama, Vibha; Palmer, Scott; Orens, Jonathan; Weinacker, Ann; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigaehu; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Kawut, Steven M.
Background The purpose of this study was to test the discriminant validity of ISHLT PGD grades in terms of lung injury biomarker profiles and survival. Methods The study samples consisted of a multicenter prospective cohort study for the biomarker analysis and a 450 patient cohort study for the mortality analyses. PGD was defined according to ISHLT consensus at 24, 48 and 72 hours after transplantation. We compared the changes in plasma markers of acute lung injury between PGD grades using longitudinal data models. To test predictive validity, we compared differences in the 30-day mortality and long-term survival according to PGD grade. Results PGD grade 3 demonstrated greater differences between plasma ICAM-1, protein C, and PAI-1 levels than did PGD grades 0-2 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after lung transplantation (p<0.05 for each). Grade 3 had the highest 30-day (test for trend p<0.001) and overall mortality (log rank p<0.001), with PGD grades 1 and 2 demonstrating intermediate risks of mortality. The ability to discriminate both 30 day and overall mortality improved as the time of grading moved away from the time of transplantation (test for trend p<0.001). Conclusions The ISHLT grading system has good discriminant validity, based on plasma markers of lung injury and mortality. Grade 3 PGD was associated with the most severely altered plasma biomarker profile and the worst outcomes, regardless of the time point of grading. PGD grade at 48 and 72 hours discriminated mortality better than PGD grade at 24 hours. PMID:20655249
Boopathi, Pon Arunachalam; Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Mugasimangalam, Raja Chinnadurai; Kochar, Sanjay Kumar; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar; Das, Ashis
High density oligonucleotide microarrays have been used on Plasmodium vivax field isolates to estimate whole genome expression. However, no microarray platform has been experimentally optimized for studying the transcriptome of field isolates. In the present study, we adopted both bioinformatics and experimental testing approaches to select best optimized probes suitable for detecting parasite transcripts from field samples and included them in designing a custom 15K P. vivax microarray. This microarray has long oligonucleotide probes (60mer) that were in-situ synthesized onto glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology and has been developed into an 8X15K format (8 identical arrays on a single slide). Probes in this array were experimentally validated and represents 4180 P. vivax genes in sense orientation, of which 1219 genes have also probes in antisense orientation. Validation of the 15K array by using field samples (n=14) has shown 99% of parasite transcript detection from any of the samples. Correlation analysis between duplicate probes (n=85) present in the arrays showed perfect correlation (r(2)=0.98) indicating the reproducibility. Multiple probes representing the same gene exhibited similar kind of expression pattern across the samples (positive correlation, r≥0.6). Comparison of hybridization data with the previous studies and quantitative real-time PCR experiments were performed to highlight the microarray validation procedure. This array is unique in its design, and results indicate that the array is sensitive and reproducible. Hence, this microarray could be a valuable functional genomics tool to generate reliable expression data from P. vivax field isolates.
Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng
Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.
Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng
Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158
Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed.
Jing, Meng-Juan; Lin, Wei-Quan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Ji; Tang, Jie; Jiang, En-She; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi
The 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is widely used, while the 11-item version is seldom to be found in current research in mainland China. The objectives of the present study is to compare the reliability and construct validity between these two versions and to confirm which may be better for the mainland Chinese setting. Based on a cross-sectional health survey with a constructive questionnaire, 1887 individuals aged 18 years or above were selected. Socio-demographic, health-related, gynecological data were collected, and 11-item and 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were used to assess fatigue. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were performed to test the fit of models of the two versions. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two versions of CFS did not support the two-factor theorized models. In addition, a three-factor ESEM model of the 11-item version, but not the 14-item version, showed better factor structure and fitness than the other models examined. Both the versions had good internal consistency reliability and a satisfactory internal consistency (Ω = 0.78–0.96, omega coefficient indicates the internal consistency reliability) was obtained from the optimal model. This study provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and structural validity for the three-factor model of the 11-item version, which was proven to be superior to the 14-item version for this data. PMID:26805863
Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; Wallander, Jan L; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A
The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS-R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning.
Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen
Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons.
Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N.; Wallander, Jan L.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.
The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS–R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS–R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning. PMID:25932505
Jing, Meng-Juan; Lin, Wei-Quan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Ji; Tang, Jie; Jiang, En-She; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi
The 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is widely used, while the 11-item version is seldom to be found in current research in mainland China. The objectives of the present study is to compare the reliability and construct validity between these two versions and to confirm which may be better for the mainland Chinese setting. Based on a cross-sectional health survey with a constructive questionnaire, 1887 individuals aged 18 years or above were selected. Socio-demographic, health-related, gynecological data were collected, and 11-item and 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were used to assess fatigue. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were performed to test the fit of models of the two versions. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two versions of CFS did not support the two-factor theorized models. In addition, a three-factor ESEM model of the 11-item version, but not the 14-item version, showed better factor structure and fitness than the other models examined. Both the versions had good internal consistency reliability and a satisfactory internal consistency (Ω = 0.78-0.96, omega coefficient indicates the internal consistency reliability) was obtained from the optimal model. This study provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and structural validity for the three-factor model of the 11-item version, which was proven to be superior to the 14-item version for this data.
Berg, Joanna M; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Reddy, Sheethal D; Latzman, Robert D; Roose, Annelore; Craighead, Linda W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Raison, Charles L
The Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU), developed to assess callous/unemotional (CU) traits, has recently experienced increased attention in light of the proposal to add a CU specifier to the conduct disorder diagnosis in DSM-5. In a sample of 70 at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17 years) in the foster care system who received a contemplative intervention program, the present study placed the ICU within a nomological network of correlates, including anxiety, depression, hopefulness, loneliness, and physiological measures of stress (e.g., cortisol). The findings offered some support for the ICU's construct validity, including significant negative associations with measures of compassion toward others. Nevertheless, unexpected substantial positive correlations emerged with multiple measures of psychological distress, raising questions concerning other aspects of the ICU's construct validity. Taken together, results of the current study suggest that rather than assessing a dearth of all major emotions as implied by its name and some previous descriptions, the ICU may be heavily saturated with negative emotionality and global maladjustment.
Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen
Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357
Background The KINDL questionnaire is frequently used to evaluate quality of life (QOL) and the impacts of health conditions on children's everyday living. The objectives of this study were to assess the reproducibility and construct validity of the Serbian KINDL for QOL assessments in healthy children and adolescents. Methods Five hundred and sixty-four healthy children and adolescents completed the KINDL. Reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the structure of the KINDL - construct validity. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.03 to 0.84 for the subscales and total score. A second order CFA model as originally hypothesized was tested: items (24), primary factors (six subscales), and one secondary factor (QOL). The fit indexes derived from a CFA failed to yield appropriate fit between the data and the hypothesized model. Conclusion Majority of the subscales and total KINDL possess appropriate reproducibility for group comparisons. However, a CFA failed to confirm the structure of the original measurement model, indicating that the Serbian version should be revised before wider use for QOL assessments in healthy children and adolescent. PMID:19715576
Szabo, Amanda N.; Mullen, Sean P.; White, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Fanning, Jason; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward
Objective To cross-validate the psychometric properties of the abbreviated Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LL-FDI), a measure of perceived functional limitations and disability. Design Baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments conducted across the course of a 12-month exercise program. Setting University research community. Participants Older healthy adults (N=179; mean ± SD age, 66.43±5.67y) at baseline; 145 were retained at follow-up. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures LL-FDI and functional performance measures. Results Factor analyses confirmed the factor structure of the abbreviated LL-FDI, and all subscales met minimal criteria for temporal invariance. Significant correlations also were found between functional limitations subscales and an array of physical function performance measures, supporting the scale’s construct validity. Conclusions The abbreviated LL-FDI with some modifications appears to be temporally invariant in community-dwelling older adults. Additionally, moderate relationships between functional limitations and functional performance provide further support for these being conceptually distinct constructs. PMID:21458777
Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis
Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.
Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M
The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries.
Binder, Per-Einar; Stige, Brynjulf
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most widely used children's mental health diagnosis today, but the validity of the diagnosis is controversial, for instance, because it might conceal relational and ecological dimensions of restlessness. We invited parents and professionals from one local community in western Norway to participate in cooperative group discussions on how to conceptualize and understand children's restlessness. We carried out a thematic and reflexive analysis of the cooperative group discussions on ADHD and children's restlessness, and present findings related to three ecological levels inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model. At the level of the individual, restlessness was discussed as individual trait, as the expectation to be seen and heard, and as a result of traumatization. At the level of dyad, group or family, restlessness was discussed as a relational phenomenon and as parents' problems. At the level of community, restlessness was discussed as lack of cooperation and lack of structures or resources. Our findings show how contextualized and cooperative reflexivity can contribute to more valid understandings of children's restlessness, and how cooperative inquiry can stimulate reflections about solidarity and sustainability in relation to adult's actions. PMID:26701898
Sánchez, Renata; Rodríguez, Omaira; Rosciano, José; Vegas, Liumariel; Bond, Verónica; Rojas, Aram; Sanchez-Ismayel, Alexis
The objective of this study is to determine the ability of the GEARS scale (Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills) to differentiate individuals with different levels of experience in robotic surgery, as a fundamental validation. This is a cross-sectional study that included three groups of individuals with different levels of experience in robotic surgery (expert, intermediate, novice) their performance were assessed by GEARS applied by two reviewers. The difference between groups was determined by Mann-Whitney test and the consistency between the reviewers was studied by Kendall W coefficient. The agreement between the reviewers of the scale GEARS was 0.96. The score was 29.8 ± 0.4 to experts, 24 ± 2.8 to intermediates and 16 ± 3 to novices, with a statistically significant difference between all of them (p < 0.05). All parameters from the scale allow discriminating between different levels of experience, with exception of the depth perception item. We conclude that the scale GEARS was able to differentiate between individuals with different levels of experience in robotic surgery and, therefore, is a validated and useful tool to evaluate surgeons in training.
Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne
The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…
Pessoa, T B A; de Souza, S S; Cerqueira, A F; Rezende, R P; Pirovani, C P; Dias, J C T
Landfarming biodegradation is a strategy used by the petrochemical industry to reduce pollutants in petroleum-contaminated soil. We constructed 2 metagenomic libraries from landfarming soil in order to determine the pathway used for mineralization of benzene and to examine protein expression of the bacteria in these soils. The DNA of landfarm soil, collected from Ilhéus, BA, Brazil, was extracted and a metagenomic library was constructed with the Copy Control(TM) Fosmid Library Production Kit, which clones 25-45-kb DNA fragments. The clones were selected for their ability to express enzymes capable of cleaving aromatic compounds. These clones were grown in Luria-Bertani broth plus L-arabinose, benzene, and chloramphenicol as induction substances; they were tested for activity in the catechol cleavage pathway, an intermediate step in benzene degradation. Nine clones were positive for ortho-cleavage and one was positive for meta-cleavage. Protein band patterns determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis differed in bacteria grown on induced versus non-induced media (Luria-Bertani broth). We concluded that the DNA of landfarm soil is an important source of genes involved in mineralization of xenobiotic compounds, which are common in gasoline and oil spills. Metagenomic library allows identification of non-culturable microorganisms that have potential in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.
Paquet, V L; Punnett, L; Buchholz, B
While observing six simulated construction tasks in the field, trained analysts recorded arm, trunk and leg postures categorically with two fixed-interval observational protocols. Observations were compared to measurements obtained with an electronic postural assessment system coupled with video analysis. The electronic postural assessment system consisted of electronic inclinometers to measure upper arm posture, knee flexion and trunk flexion, coveralls to house the inclinometer wiring, and an eletrogoniometric system to measure trunk lateral bending and twisting. Video analysis included frozen-frame analysis that corresponded to the moment of observation and simulated real-time analysis. Measurements were made on five male participants who each performed three tasks representative of construction laborers' work. Agreement among the observational and reference methods was generally high, although significant differences in measured frequency of exposure existed for knee flexion, trunk lateral bending and trunk twisting. The results suggest that, under appropriate conditions, discrete observations can be used to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of exposure frequency for broad categories of certain body postures.
Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J
A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior.
de Vries, Grietje E; Jorritsma, Wim; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F
Self-reported disability related to neck pain can be measured using general health questionnaires. The validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP) in a tertiary outpatient rehabilitation setting is unknown. This study investigates construct validity of the SF-36 in these patients using 16 a-priori formulated hypotheses. Ninety-one patients admitted for rehabilitation completed the SF-36 before the rehabilitation program. SF-36 domain scores of patients with CNP were compared with general population reference values and standardized differences were calculated. For both the SF-36 physical and the mental component summary (PCS and MCS), differences between primary and tertiary care setting, men and women, age groups, litigants and nonlitigants, patients with and without compensation, and with ≥3 versus≤2 concomitant complaints were analyzed using independent t-tests. Differences between PCS and MCS scores were analyzed using a paired t-test. Twelve hypotheses were not rejected and four were rejected. All SF-36 domain scores were significantly lower than the general population references values. The domain scores 'role physical', 'bodily pain', 'vitality', 'social functioning,' and 'role emotional' were relevantly (≥1 SD) lower. SF-36-PCS and SF-36-MCS scores were significantly lower in tertiary care. The SF-36-PCS score was significantly lower for patients with workers compensation and patients with at least three concomitant complaints. The SF-36-MCS score was significantly lower for the age group of at least 39 years. The SF-36 has good construct validity and can be used to measure self-reported general health in patients with nonspecific CNP in outpatient tertiary rehabilitation.
Saunders, Ruth P.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.
Objective Scales used to measure selected social-cognitive beliefs and motives for physical activity were tested among boys and girls. Methods Covariance modeling was applied to responses obtained from large multi-ethnic samples of students in the fifth and sixth grades. Results Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed, supporting the factorial validity of the scales in all groups. Multi-group longitudinal invariance was confirmed between boys and girls, overweight and normal weight students, and non-Hispanic black and white children. The construct validity of the scales was supported by hypothesized convergent and discriminant relationships within a measurement model that included correlations with physical activity (MET • min/day) measured by an accelerometer. Conclusions Scores from the scales provide valid assessments of selected beliefs and motives that are putative mediators of change in physical activity among boys and girls, as they begin the understudied transition from the fifth grade into middle school, when physical activity naturally declines. PMID:23459310
de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of wheelchair basketball matches and expert judgement. Forty-six players performed the test to determine its validity and 23 players performed the test twice for reliability. Independent-samples t-tests were used to assess whether the times needed to complete the test were different for classifications, playing standards and sex. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to quantify reliability of performance times. Males performed better than females (P < 0.001, effect size [ES] = -1.26) and international men performed better than national men (P < 0.001, ES = -1.62). Performance time of low (≤2.5) and high (≥3.0) classification players was borderline not significant with a moderate ES (P = 0.06, ES = 0.58). The reliability was excellent for overall performance time (ICC = 0.95). These results show that the test can be used as a standardised mobility performance test to validly and reliably assess the capacity in mobility performance of elite wheelchair basketball athletes. Furthermore, the described methodology of development is recommended for use in other sports to develop sport-specific tests.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Abbasi, Mohamad Hadi; Noroozi, Ensieh
Objective: Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students. Methods: A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRS-SS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years. Results: Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. Results showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed. PMID:25053964
Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe
This study analyzes the process of producing a situational plan according to a benchmark from the philosophy of language and argumentation theory. The basic approach used in the analysis was developed by Carlos Matus. Specifically, the study seeks to identify the inherent argumentative structure and patterns in the situational explanation and regulatory design in a plan's operations, taking argumentative approaches from pragma-dialectics and informal logic as the analytical parameters. The explanation of a health problem is used to illustrate the study. Methodologically, the study is based on the existing literature on the subject and case analyses. The study concludes with the proposition that the use of the specific references means introducing greater rigor into both the analysis of the validity of causal arguments and the design of proposals for interventions, in order for them to be more conclusive in achieving a plan's objectives.
Mohedano, M Luz; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Pérez-Ramos, Adrián; Gaiser, Rogier A; Requena, Teresa; López, Paloma
Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene expression in Lactobacillus. This vector is also able to replicate in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The usage of pRCR as a promoter probe was validated in Lactobacillus acidophilus by characterizing the regulation of lactacin B expression. The results show that the regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level, with lbaB gene expression being specifically induced by co-culture of the L. acidophilus bacteriocin producer and the S. thermophilus STY-31 inducer bacterium.
Razi, Adeel; Kahan, Joshua; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in characterising the connectivity of resting state brain networks. Most of the literature uses functional connectivity to examine these intrinsic brain networks. Functional connectivity has well documented limitations because of its inherent inability to identify causal interactions. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is a framework that allows for the identification of the causal (directed) connections among neuronal systems — known as effective connectivity. This technical note addresses the validity of a recently proposed DCM for resting state fMRI – as measured in terms of their complex cross spectral density – referred to as spectral DCM. Spectral DCM differs from (the alternative) stochastic DCM by parameterising neuronal fluctuations using scale free (i.e., power law) forms, rendering the stochastic model of neuronal activity deterministic. Spectral DCM not only furnishes an efficient estimation of model parameters but also enables the detection of group differences in effective connectivity, the form and amplitude of the neuronal fluctuations or both. We compare and contrast spectral and stochastic DCM models with endogenous fluctuations or state noise on hidden states. We used simulated data to first establish the face validity of both schemes and show that they can recover the model (and its parameters) that generated the data. We then used Monte Carlo simulations to assess the accuracy of both schemes in terms of their root mean square error. We also simulated group differences and compared the ability of spectral and stochastic DCMs to identify these differences. We show that spectral DCM was not only more accurate but also more sensitive to group differences. Finally, we performed a comparative evaluation using real resting state fMRI data (from an open access resource) to study the functional integration within default mode network using spectral and stochastic DCMs. PMID:25463471
Razi, Adeel; Kahan, Joshua; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in characterising the connectivity of resting state brain networks. Most of the literature uses functional connectivity to examine these intrinsic brain networks. Functional connectivity has well documented limitations because of its inherent inability to identify causal interactions. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is a framework that allows for the identification of the causal (directed) connections among neuronal systems--known as effective connectivity. This technical note addresses the validity of a recently proposed DCM for resting state fMRI--as measured in terms of their complex cross spectral density--referred to as spectral DCM. Spectral DCM differs from (the alternative) stochastic DCM by parameterising neuronal fluctuations using scale free (i.e., power law) forms, rendering the stochastic model of neuronal activity deterministic. Spectral DCM not only furnishes an efficient estimation of model parameters but also enables the detection of group differences in effective connectivity, the form and amplitude of the neuronal fluctuations or both. We compare and contrast spectral and stochastic DCM models with endogenous fluctuations or state noise on hidden states. We used simulated data to first establish the face validity of both schemes and show that they can recover the model (and its parameters) that generated the data. We then used Monte Carlo simulations to assess the accuracy of both schemes in terms of their root mean square error. We also simulated group differences and compared the ability of spectral and stochastic DCMs to identify these differences. We show that spectral DCM was not only more accurate but also more sensitive to group differences. Finally, we performed a comparative evaluation using real resting state fMRI data (from an open access resource) to study the functional integration within default mode network using spectral and stochastic DCMs.
Shin, Dong-Hee; Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Won-Young
This study explores attitudinal and behavioral patterns when using Cyworld by adopting an expanded Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A model for Cyworld acceptance is used to examine how various factors modified from the TAM influence acceptance and its antecedents. This model is examined through an empirical study involving Cyworld users using structural equation modeling techniques. The model shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated. The results not only confirm the model but also reveal general factors applicable to Web2.0. A set of constructs in the model can be the Web2.0-specific factors, playing as enhancing factor to attitudes and intention.
Gwaltney, Kevin Dale
This effort: 1) establishes an autonomy definition uniquely tailored for teaching, 2) validates a nationally generalizable teacher autonomy construct, 3) demonstrates that the model describes and explains the autonomy levels of particular teacher groups, and 4) verifies the construct can represent teacher autonomy in other empirical models. The…
Menjares, Pete C.; Michael, William B.; Rueda, Robert
Investigated the reliability and construct validity of scores on a Spanish version of an academic self-concept measure for economically disadvantaged Hispanic middle school, English as a Second Language students. Results did not completely support five hypothesized constructs corresponding to five factor subscales on the English version. Students…
Schumann, Anja; Nigg, Claudio R.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Jordan, Patricia J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Garber, Carol Ewing; Riebe, Deborah; Benisovich, Sonya V.
Examined whether stages of change of exercise adoption appropriately addressed strenuous, moderate, and mild intensities of physical activity. Secondary analysis of four data sets (adolescents, college students, adults, and seniors) investigated transtheoretical model constructs for exercise adoption. Results supported the construct validity of…
Martin, Andrew J.
From a developmental construct validity perspective, this study examines motivation and engagement across elementary school, high school, and university/college, with particular focus on the Motivation and Engagement Scale (comprising adaptive, impeding/maladaptive, and maladaptive factors). Findings demonstrated developmental construct validity…
Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Han, Dianwei; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu
Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology utilizes microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway to produce artificially selected small RNAs using miRNA gene backbone. It provides a feasible strategy for inducing loss of gene function, and has been applied in functional genomics study, improvement of crop quality and plant virus disease resistance. A big challenge in amiRNA applications is the unpredictability of silencing efficacy of the designed amiRNAs and not all constructed amiRNA candidates would be expressed effectively in plant cells. We and others found that high efficiency and specificity in RNA silencing can be achieved by designing amiRNAs with perfect or almost perfect sequence complementarity to their targets. In addition, we recently demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system can be used to validate amiRNA constructs, which provides a simple, rapid and effective method to select highly expressible amiRNA candidates for stable genetic transformation. Here, we describe the methods for design of amiRNA candidates with perfect or almost perfect base-pairing to the target gene or gene groups, incorporation of amiRNA candidates in miR168a gene backbone by one step inverse PCR amplification, construction of plant amiRNA expression vectors, and assay of transient expression of amiRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration, small RNA extraction, and amiRNA Northern blot.
Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings
Roizen, Mariana; Rodríguez, Susana; Bauer, Gabriela; Medin, Gabriela; Bevilacqua, Silvina; Varni, James W; Dussel, Veronica
Background To validate the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Argentinean children and adolescents with chronic conditions and to assess the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on the instrument's comprehensibility and acceptability. Reliability, and known-groups, and convergent validity were tested. Methods Consecutive sample of 287 children with chronic conditions and 105 healthy children, ages 2–18, and their parents. Chronically ill children were: (1) attending outpatient clinics and (2) had one of the following diagnoses: stem cell transplant, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, end stage renal disease, complex congenital cardiopathy. Patients and adult proxies completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 and an overall health status assessment. Physicians were asked to rate degree of health status impairment. Results The PedsQL™ 4.0 was feasible (only 9 children, all 5 to 7 year-olds, could not complete the instrument), easy to administer, completed without, or with minimal, help by most children and parents, and required a brief administration time (average 5–6 minutes). People living below the poverty line and/or low literacy needed more help to complete the instrument. Cronbach Alpha's internal consistency values for the total and subscale scores exceeded 0.70 for self-reports of children over 8 years-old and parent-reports of children over 5 years of age. Reliability of proxy-reports of 2–4 year-olds was low but improved when school items were excluded. Internal consistency for 5–7 year-olds was low (α range = 0.28–0.76). Construct validity was good. Child self-report and parent proxy-report PedsQL™ 4.0 scores were moderately but significantly correlated (ρ = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and both significantly correlated with physician's assessment of health impairment and with child self-reported overall health status. The PedsQL™ 4.0 discriminated between healthy and chronically ill children (72
Slaughter, Jerel E; Zickar, Michael J; Highhouse, Scott; Mohr, David C
The authors conducted 4 studies to construct a multidimensional measure of perceptions of organization personality. Results of the first 2 studies suggest that (a) 5 broad factors are sufficient to capture the structure of organization personality perceptions, (b) real-world organizations differ on personality profiles, and (c) personality trait inferences are related to organizational attraction. Results of a 3rd study suggest that personality trait inferences assessed in 1 sample are related lo ratings of organizational attractiveness by a 2nd sample. Finally, results of a 4th study suggest that the measure is sensitive to experimental manipulations of organizational descriptions. Implications and suggestions for the use of this measure in future research are discussed.
Lipe, Anne W; York, Elizabeth; Jensen, Eric
The purpose of this study was to substantiate the usefulness of the tasks on two music-based assessments in providing information about music cognition among people with dementia and to more fully understand the nature of this construct and its relationship to general cognition. Individuals with dementia (N = 50) received 3 evaluations: the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), the MBECF, and the RMST. Results of the study revealed significant correlations between the MMSE and both music-based assessments. A pattern of correlations between the MMSE and the subsets of tasks contained in both music-based assessments showed that while there are strong relationships between music and general cognition, that there also is uniqueness to the melodic, singing and rhythmic aspects of music cognition.
Purpose We introduce the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), a new integrative measure of well-being in seven languages, detailing the validation process and presenting psychometric data. The scale includes eleven items related to different domains of remembered well-being (general, hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being) and ten items related to experienced well-being (i.e., positive and negative emotional events that possibly happened the day before); the sum of these items produces a combined well-being index. Methods A distinctive characteristic of this study is that to construct the scale, an initial pool of items, covering the remembered and experienced well-being domains, were subjected to a complete selection and validation process. These items were based on widely used scales (e.g., PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Psychological Well-Being Scales). Both the initial items and reference scales were translated into seven languages and completed via Internet by participants (N = 4,052) aged 16 to 60 years from nine countries (Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA). Results Results from this initial validation study provided very good support for the psychometric properties of the PHI (i.e., internal consistency, a single-factor structure, and convergent and incremental validity). Conclusions Given the PHI’s good psychometric properties, this simple and integrative index could be used as an instrument to monitor changes in well-being. We discuss the utility of this integrative index to explore well-being in individuals and communities. PMID:23607679
Purpose: This study aimed to test the construct validity of an instrument to measure student professional behaviors in entry-level occupational therapy (OT) students in the academic setting. Methods: A total of 718 students from 37 OT programs across the United States answered a self-assessment survey of professional behavior that we developed. The survey consisted of ranking 28 attributes, each on a 5-point Likert scale. A split-sample approach was used for exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Results: A three-factor solution with nine items was extracted using exploratory factor analysis [EFA] (n=430, 60%). The factors were ‘Commitment to Learning’ (2 items), ‘Skills for Learning’ (4 items), and ‘Cultural Competence’ (3 items). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the validation split (n=288, 40%) indicated fair fit for this three-factor model (fit indices: CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.06, and SRMR=0.05). Internal consistency reliability estimates of each factor and the instrument ranged from 0.63 to 0.79. Conclusion: Results of the CFA in a separate validation dataset provided robust measures of goodness-of-fit for the three-factor solution developed in the EFA, and indicated that the three-factor model fitted the data well enough. Therefore, we can conclude that this student professional behavior evaluation instrument is a structurally validated tool to measure professional behaviors reported by entry-level OT students. The internal consistency reliability of each individual factor and the whole instrument was considered to be adequate to good. PMID:27246495
Bansal, Krishna; Baghel, Uttam Singh; Thakral, Seema
Drug-polymer miscibility is one of the fundamental prerequisite for the successful design and development of amorphous solid dispersion formulation. The purpose of the present work is to provide an example of the theoretical estimation of drug-polymer miscibility and solubility on the basis of Flory-Huggins (F-H) theory and experimental validation of the phase diagram. The F-H interaction parameter, χ d-p, of model system, aceclofenac and Soluplus, was estimated by two methods: by melting point depression of drug in presence of different polymer fractions and by Hildebrand and Scott solubility parameter calculations. The simplified relationship between the F-H interaction parameter and temperature was established. This enabled us to generate free energy of mixing (ΔG mix) curves for varying drug-polymer compositions at different temperatures and finally the spinodal curve. The predicted behavior of the binary system was evaluated through X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro dissolution studies. The results suggest possibility of employing interaction parameter as preliminary tool for the estimation of drug-polymer miscibility.
Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith
The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism.
Oliveira, Ema; Almeida, Leandro; Ferrándiz, Carmen; Ferrando, Mercedes; Sainz, Marta; Prieto, María Dolores
The aim of this work is to study the unidimensional and multidimensional nature of creativity when assessed through divergent thinking tasks, as proposed in Torrance's battery (Torrance Creative Thinking Test, TTCT). This battery is made up of various tasks with verbal and figurative content, aimed at estimating the level of creativity according to the dimensions or cognitive functions of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of the individuals' ideas. This work used a sample of 595 Portuguese students from 5th and 6th grade. The results of confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the unidimensional model (a general factor of creativity) and the model of factors as a function of the cognitive dimensions of creativity, based on task content, do not fit well. The model with the best fit has a hierarchical factor structure, in which the first level comprises the factors for each of the subtests applied and the second level includes verbal or figurative content. The difficulty to verify the structural validity of the TTCT is noted, and the need for further studies to achieve, in practice, better individual creativity scores.
Purpose Middle Eastern (ME) population is rapidly growing in the US but cannot be easily identified in cancer registry or other databases for epidemiological research. The purpose of this study was to develop a list of common Middle Eastern surnames and validate it by linking with a cancer registry incidence files. Methods Surnames and place of birth in the Middle East were obtained from various sources. After exclusion of the non-specific entries, the final combined list included 49,610 surnames and was matched with the California Cancer Registry incidence file for 1988-2003. Results Overall, 1.4% of all registered cases were positively identified as ME that is similar to the proportion of ME population in California. Two third of the identified cases had known place of birth in the Middle East and of those, 70% were non-Arabs. The sensitivity of the list in detecting ME birth in men and women are 91% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive values for men and women are 72% and 65%. The specificity and negative predictive values are universally over 99 percent. Conclusion The high accuracy reported for this Middle Eastern surname list (MESL) makes it a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of this ethnic population. PMID:18023539
Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts
San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard...construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete Proposals, Economist, July 24
Gao, Ran; Chan, Albert P.C.; Utama, Wahyudi P.; Zahoor, Hafiz
The character of construction projects exposes front-line workers to dangers and accidents. Safety climate has been confirmed to be a predictor of safety performance in the construction industry. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between multilevel safety climate and safety performance. An integrated model was developed to study how particular safety climate factors of one level affect those of other levels, and then affect safety performance from the top down. A questionnaire survey was administered on six construction sites in Vietnam. A total of 1030 valid questionnaires were collected from this survey. Approximately half of the data were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining data were submitted to structural equation modeling (SEM). Top management commitment (TMC) and supervisors’ expectation (SE) were identified as factors to represent organizational safety climate (OSC) and supervisor safety climate (SSC), respectively, and coworkers’ caring and communication (CCC) and coworkers’ role models (CRM) were identified as factors to denote coworker safety climate (CSC). SEM results show that OSC factor is positively related to SSC factor and CSC factors significantly. SSC factor could partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and CSC factors, as well as the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance. CSC factors partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance, and the relationship between SSC factor and safety performance. The findings imply that a positive safety culture should be established both at the organizational level and the group level. Efforts from all top management, supervisors, and coworkers should be provided to improve safety performance in the construction industry. PMID:27834823
Gao, Ran; Chan, Albert P C; Utama, Wahyudi P; Zahoor, Hafiz
The character of construction projects exposes front-line workers to dangers and accidents. Safety climate has been confirmed to be a predictor of safety performance in the construction industry. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between multilevel safety climate and safety performance. An integrated model was developed to study how particular safety climate factors of one level affect those of other levels, and then affect safety performance from the top down. A questionnaire survey was administered on six construction sites in Vietnam. A total of 1030 valid questionnaires were collected from this survey. Approximately half of the data were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining data were submitted to structural equation modeling (SEM). Top management commitment (TMC) and supervisors' expectation (SE) were identified as factors to represent organizational safety climate (OSC) and supervisor safety climate (SSC), respectively, and coworkers' caring and communication (CCC) and coworkers' role models (CRM) were identified as factors to denote coworker safety climate (CSC). SEM results show that OSC factor is positively related to SSC factor and CSC factors significantly. SSC factor could partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and CSC factors, as well as the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance. CSC factors partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance, and the relationship between SSC factor and safety performance. The findings imply that a positive safety culture should be established both at the organizational level and the group level. Efforts from all top management, supervisors, and coworkers should be provided to improve safety performance in the construction industry.
Rossi, Gina; Derksen, Jan
This article examines the influence of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) as a clinical and research instrument beyond the borders of the United States. The MCMI's theoretical and empirical grounding, its alignment with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and scales that can be interpreted both categorically and dimensionally, are the primary features that make the test attractive. We begin with studies that evaluated the construct equivalence of the different language adaptations. Data from the most widely researched non English-language forms (Danish, Dutch, and Spanish) show excellent comparability with Millon's original. Nevertheless, significant problems were noted in efforts to create clinical groups that would allow for equivalence of diagnostic accuracy when using the cutoff scores. Although dimensional aspects of the scale scores were not affected by this, the adapted measures might show attenuated diagnostic accuracy compared with Millon's original. Next, we present MCMI studies conducted in clinical settings to document where the adapted tests have made their greatest impact in the international literature. A wide variety of clinical applications demonstrated broad utility, and given the high number of issues addressed, we think Millon's influence will certainly stand the test of time in different domains and settings.
Walters, Glenn D
Indicators from three different self-report measures-the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale, and the Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory-were organized into two dimensions, proactive and reactive, and subjected to construct validation and taxometric analysis in 637 male medium and maximum security inmates. Using three nonredundant and relatively independent taxometric procedures, mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum eigenvalue (MAXEIG), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode), consistent evidence of dimensional latent structure was discerned for the proactive and reactive dimensions of antisociality, both of which correlated moderately with a measure of antisocial personality disorder. It is reasoned that the two-dimensional model may eventually be capable of bridging the gap between childhood aggression and adult criminality as well as provide guidance to clinicians working with criminal offenders.
Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Zammuner, Vanda Lucia; Salovey, Peter
In 2 studies, we assessed the construct validity of the Italian version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) version 2.0. In Study 1, we administered the MSCEIT together with measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence, personality, and affect. In Study 2, we administered the MSCEIT together with indexes of dispositional coping, emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia, state-trait anxiety, depression, and depressive rumination. We evaluated the factorial structure of the MSCEIT with a confirmatory factor analysis model using data combined from Study 1 and 2. The results confirm that the MSCEIT Italian version satisfactorily discriminates emotional intelligence ability from crystallized and fluid intelligence, personality, and affect, and exhibits significant correlations with various psychological well-being criteria. Furthermore, data from both studies confirm that the factorial structure of MSCEIT is consistent with the theory on which it is based, although it was difficult to rule out alternative structures.
Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Han, Meilan; Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Brown, Kevin K.; Fairclough, Diane
Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease that often causes disabling dyspnea. In IPF and other lung diseases, patient-reported outcomes (PROs)—questionnaires designed to gather information from the patient's perspective—can determine whether therapies affect dyspnea or other outcomes meaningful to patients. Before a PRO can be used confidently as an outcome measure in a longitudinal trial, studies must demonstrate the PRO's ability to capture change over time in the target population. Our goal in this study was to examine whether the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire does so in patients with IPF. Methods We used data from the Sildenafil Trial of Exercise Performance in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (STEP-IPF) to perform analyses that examined associations between UCSD scores and five external measures (anchors) at baseline and over time. Anchors included the Activity domain from St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-A), the Physical Functioning domain from the SF-36 (SF36-PF), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and distance walked during a timed walk test (6MWD). Linear regression models were used to examine relationships between UCSD scores and anchors over time. Results At baseline, UCSD scores were weakly correlated with percent predicted FVC (−0.21, p=0.005) and percent predicted DLCO (−0.20, p=0.008), moderately correlated with 6MWD (−0.39, p<0.0001) and strongly correlated with SGRQ-A (0.79, p<0.0001) and SF36-PF (−0.72, p<0.0001). Change over time in UCSD scores was associated with change in FVC (estimate=2.54, standard error [SE]=1.23, p=0.04), SGRQ-A (estimate=7.94, SE=1.11, p<0.0001), SF36-PF (estimate=6.00, SE=1.13, p<0.0001), and 6MWD (estimate=4.23, SE=1.18, p=0.0004) but not DLCO (estimate=0.33, SE=1.33, p=0.80). Conclusions These results support the validity of the UCSD to assess change in dyspnea over time in patients with
Li, Sissi L.
At the university level, introductory science courses usually have high student to teacher ratios which increases the challenge to meaningfully connect with students. Various curricula have been developed in physics education to actively engage students in learning through social interactions with peers and instructors in class. This learning environment demands not only conceptual understanding but also learning to be a scientist. However, the success of student learning is typically measured in test performance and course grades while assessment of student development as science learners is largely ignored. This dissertation addresses this issue with the development of an instrument towards a measure of physics learning identity (PLI) which is used to guide and complement case studies through student interviews and in class observations. Using the conceptual framework based on Etienne Wenger's communities of practice (1998), I examine the relationship between science learning and learning identity from a situated perspective in the context of a large enrollment science class as a community of practice. This conceptual framework emphasizes the central role of identity in the practices negotiated in the classroom community and in the way students figure out their trajectory as members. Using this framework, I seek to understand how the changes in student learning identity are supported by active engagement based instruction. In turn, this understanding can better facilitate the building of a productive learning community and provide a measure for achievement of the curricular learning goals in active engagement strategies. Based on the conceptual framework, I developed and validated an instrument for measuring physics learning identity in terms of student learning preferences, self-efficacy for learning physics, and self-image as a physics learner. The instrument was pilot tested with a population of Oregon State University students taking calculus based
Silva, Franciele Basso Fernandes; Leite, Juliana da Silva; de Mello, Marcela Freire Vallim; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis
Compared with conventional histological paraffin blocks, tissue microarray (TMA) represents a "high-throughput tool" that provides rapid results, a time- and cost-effective approach and simultaneous investigation of several tissue samples under the same conditions. Given the large number of cases of dogs affected with mammary tumors, the complexity of these tumors and their similarity with breast cancer in women, this study aimed to validate a low-cost modified method to construct TMAs for canine mammary tumor analysis using immunomarkers. Carcinoma cases were selected from canine mammary carcinomas in mixed tumors (CMT) because this tumor type is the most heterogeneous among the histopathological types of mammary tumors observed in female dogs. Through a histopathological examination, tumor representativity was compared between conventional sections and histological sections obtained from the TMA block; both were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. An immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to compare the percentages of immunoreactive cells obtained in whole tissue sections versus those obtained from sections from the TMA block. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex and anti-PCNA, anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies were used. Statistical analysis consisted of the nonparametric Friedman's test (p≤0.05) and descriptive statistical analysis. Histopathological analysis showed tumor representativity in all TMA cores selected for the study. There was no difference between the immunohistochemical analysis of mammary tumors using conventional histological sections or sections obtained from a single 1-mm-diameter TMA core, regardless of the marker used: PCNA (p=0.279), pancytokeratin (p=0.243) and vimentin (p=0.967). The results did not change even when the means of any number of cores were compared among each other and with the conventional histological section: PCNA (p=0.413), pancytokeratin (p=0.177) and vimentin (p=1.0). Therefore, this study
Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton
The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.
Cartwright, Fiona; Stritzke, Werner G K
This study tested the construct validity of a multidimensional ambivalence model of chocolate craving, and examined the concurrent and discriminant validity of the model with respect to chocolate consumption and disordered eating behaviors. The Orientation to Chocolate Questionnaire (OCQ) was administered to 312 university students (79.5% female) along with measures of chocolate consumption and disordered eating. Results supported a three-factor model of chocolate craving incorporating approach and avoidance inclinations and feelings of guilt. These craving dimensions differentially predicted frequency and quantity of chocolate consumption as well as a range of disordered eating behaviors. Chocolate-related guilt was a consistent indicator of dysfunctional eating patterns, but was unrelated to external or functional eating. Approach inclinations positively predicted consumption-oriented eating behaviors and negatively predicted avoidance-oriented behaviors. Active avoidance inclinations facilitated restraint and inhibited frequency of consumption, but were unrelated to quantity consumed. In line with contemporary theories of substance craving, chocolate craving can be conceptualized as a net action disposition resulting from the relative strength of the competing processes underlying indulgence and restraint.
Luciano, Juan V; Barrada, Juan R; Aguado, Jaume; Osma, Jorge; García-Campayo, Javier
The dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a current source of controversy among experts. The present study integrates a solid theoretical framework (Clark & Watson's, 1991, tripartite theory) and a fine-grained methodological approach (structural equation modeling; SEM) to examine the dimensionality and construct validity of the HADS in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Using the HADS data of 269 Spanish patients with FM, we estimated the cross-sectional and, for the first time, longitudinal fit (autoregressive model) of 2 competing models (oblique 2-factor vs. bifactor) via confirmatory factor analysis. The pattern of relationships between the HADS latent dimensions and positive and negative affect (PA and NA) was analyzed using SEM. HADS reliability was assessed by computing the omega and omega hierarchical coefficients. The bifactor model, which accounted for the covariance among HADS items with regard to 1 general factor (psychological distress) and 2 specific factors (depression and anxiety), described the HADS structure better than the original oblique 2-factor model during both study periods. All latent dimensions of the bifactor model were temporally stable. The SEM analysis revealed a significant link between psychological distress and NA as well as between depression and low PA. Only the general factor of psychological distress showed adequate reliability. In conclusion, the HADS shows a clear bifactor structure among FM patients. Our results indicate that it is not recommendable to compute anxiety and depression scores separately because anxiety variance is tapped primarily by the broader construct of psychological distress, and both specific dimensions show low reliability.
Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Gjulem, Tonje; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo
Objectives To determine the criterion validity of a questionnaire on physical exposures compared to objective measurements at construction and health care sites and to examine exposure variation over several working days. Methods Five hundred ninety-four construction and health care workers answered a baseline questionnaire. The daily activities (standing, moving, sitting, number of steps), postures (inclination of the arm and the trunk), and relative heart rate of 125 participants were recorded continuously over 3–4 working days. At the end of the first measurement day, the participants answered a second questionnaire (workday questionnaire). Results All objective activity measurements had significant correlations to their respective questions. Among health care workers, there were no correlations between postures and relative heart rate and the baseline questionnaire. The questionnaires overestimated the exposure durations. The highest explained variance in the adjusted models with self-reported variables were found for objectively measured sitting (R2 = 0.559) and arm inclination > 60° (R2 = 0.420). Objective measurements over several days showed a higher reliability compared to single day measurements. Conclusions Questionnaires cannot provide an accurate description of mechanical exposures. Objective measurements over several days are recommended in occupations with varying tasks. PMID:27649499
McQueen, Amy; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Vernon, Sally W.
Understanding individuals' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is important for developing effective interventions to increase adherence to screening guidelines. Theory-based cognitive and psychosocial constructs have been associated with CRCS in the literature, but few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of such measures. We hypothesized a correlated four-factor model including CRCS perceived pros, cons, social influence, and self-efficacy. We also examined measurement invariance across subgroups based on gender, race (white; African American), and prior CRCS experience (never; overdue for repeat screening). We used baseline (n=1,250) and 2-week (n=1,036) follow-up survey data from participants in a behavioral intervention trial designed to increase CRCS. Only minor modifications were made to the hypothesized model to improve fit, and the final model was confirmed with a random half of the sample, as well as with follow-up data. Results support the hypothesized unidimensional construct measures and suggest that the items may be appropriate for all subgroups examined. Greater variance in responses to items assessing the perceived cons of CRCS was found among African Americans compared with whites, suggesting that race may moderate the association between perceived cons and CRCS in this sample. Pros, cons, social influence, and self-efficacy are associated with CRCS; therefore, using scales with known psychometric properties strengthens researchers' ability to draw conclusions about group differences and changes over time and to compare their results with other studies. Replication studies in other populations are needed to provide further evidence of construct validity for the scales reported here. PMID:18768488
Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue
The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.
In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership
Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortez; Torrecilhas, Juliana Akamine; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; Mottin, Camila; de Oliveira, Carlos Antonio Lopes; Guerrero, Ana; Del Mar Campo, Maria; Sañudo, Carlos; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes
Forty ½ Brown Swiss×½ Nellore crossbred bulls were distributed into three experimental groups: CON - diet without addition of essential oils; CLO - diet with average 5,000mg/animal/day of clove essential oils and CIN - diet with average 5,000mg/animal/day of cinnamon essential oils to evaluate three methodologies of visual acceptability: with steaks directly in Trays and Sequential and Random photos. Seventeen consumers evaluated visual appearance of meat using a 9-point structured hedonic scale. CON group presented higher shelf-life than essential oils groups. Trays and Sequential scores were similar in the majority of days; thus digital images could be used to evaluate colour evolution. However, Random photos resulted in lower scores and slower acceptability decrease than Trays and Sequential photos (p<0.05) among the second and fifth day of display. Random photos presented a lower and more constant standard deviation than Trays and Sequential photos (p<0.01) indicating that this methodology promoted a higher standard situation for meat colour evaluation.
Fantuzzo, John W.; And Others
Examined construct validity of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance and its appropriateness for urban children. Data collected from a sample of 476 African American children of low-income families in a large metropolitan Head Start program failed to produce psychologically meaningful constructs or support for…
..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...