Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable construct validity

  1. Construct and Predictive Validity of Social Acceptability: Scores From High School Teacher Ratings on the School Intervention Rating Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…

  2. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  4. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  5. Construct validity and case validity in assessment.

    PubMed

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both construct validity, which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and case validity, which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is grounded in understanding causal influences of a distinct phenomenon on responses to various measures and life contexts, case validity encompasses the joint influences of multiple phenomena on individuals' responses. Two sets of distinctions essential to understanding psychological phenomena, hence to understanding construct validity, are (a) implicit and explicit versions of personality constructs and (b) ability and personality as versions of constructs measured by performance tests presenting maximal and typical conditions, respectively. Since both implicit and explicit versions of constructs interface with maximal or typical performance conditions, case validity requires systematic inclusion of these distinctions in assessment protocols. PMID:22040515

  6. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  7. Construct Validity and Achievement Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Thomas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Criticizes an article by Messick (1989) that emphasizes consequential validity (the potential and actual social consequences of test score interpretation and use) as a component of construct validity. Shows the profitability of separating the construct-indicator link from the indicator-score link, and the greater importance of the former.…

  8. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  12. Validation of the Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) for the assessment of acceptance in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations. Methods A total of 205 Spanish patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome who attended our pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments: the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) for pain intensity, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results Analysis of results showed that the Spanish CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.83). The Spanish CPAQ score significantly correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophising, health status and physical and psychosocial disability. The Scree plot and a Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same two-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Conclusion The Spanish CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct validity for the acceptance measurement among a sample of Spanish fibromyalgia patients. This study will make it easier to assess pain acceptance in Spanish populations with fibromyalgia. PMID:20385016

  13. 10 CFR 36.41 - Construction monitoring and acceptance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.41 Construction monitoring and acceptance... foundations to verify that their construction meets design specifications. (c) Pool integrity. For pool... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Construction monitoring and acceptance testing....

  14. 10 CFR 36.41 - Construction monitoring and acceptance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.41 Construction monitoring and acceptance... foundations to verify that their construction meets design specifications. (c) Pool integrity. For pool... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Construction monitoring and acceptance testing....

  15. 10 CFR 36.41 - Construction monitoring and acceptance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.41 Construction monitoring and acceptance... foundations to verify that their construction meets design specifications. (c) Pool integrity. For pool... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Construction monitoring and acceptance testing....

  16. 10 CFR 36.41 - Construction monitoring and acceptance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.41 Construction monitoring and acceptance... foundations to verify that their construction meets design specifications. (c) Pool integrity. For pool... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Construction monitoring and acceptance testing....

  17. 10 CFR 36.41 - Construction monitoring and acceptance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.41 Construction monitoring and acceptance... foundations to verify that their construction meets design specifications. (c) Pool integrity. For pool... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction monitoring and acceptance testing....

  18. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  19. Construct Validity: Advances in Theory and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Milton E.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this chapter, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review five recent advances in validation theory and methodology of importance for clinical researchers. These are: the emergence of nonjustificationist philosophy of science; an increasing appreciation for theory and the need for informative tests of construct validity; valid construct representation in experimental psychopathology; the need to avoid representing multidimensional constructs with a single score; and the emergence of effective new statistical tools for the evaluation of convergent and discriminant validity. PMID:19086835

  20. [Clinical trial data validation and user acceptance testing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-long; Dai, Nan

    2015-11-01

    For pharmaceutical industries, clinical data is one of the most valuable deliverables. It is also the basis of analysis, submission, approval, labeling and marketing of a drug product. To ensure the integrity and reliability of clinical data, a scientific standardized quality control (QC) has to be established at each step of a clinical trial. Data validation is conducted to ensure the reasonability and compliance of clinical data by checking data quality before the data is statistically analyzed. This paper focuses on purpose of data validation, creation of data validation plan, rationale of data validation, types of data validation and performance of user acceptance testing on clinical database. PMID:26911047

  1. Acceptance criteria for risk in offshore construction projects

    SciTech Connect

    Rettedal, W.; Gudmestad, O.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) state in their Regulation for Risk Analysis that the Operator shall form the acceptance criteria for the risk analysis. This applies to both the construction and operating phases. The philosophy is that the risk should be kept as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP). This paper will discuss what form the criteria for an offshore construction project should have, what hazards the criteria should be measured against and how one should proceed to obtain acceptable risk levels. An application of the criteria for an offshore construction project will be discussed.

  2. Construct Validity in Vocational Interest Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.

    Concern for enhancing construct validity of vocational interest measures provides a focus for scale construction quite distinct from that derived from a criterion-referenced strategy: Construct-oriented measurement implies: (1) substantive definitions of dimensions; (2) concern for internal consistency reliability, as well as generalizability; (3)…

  3. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  4. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  5. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  6. Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

  7. Measuring knowledge of the insanity defense: scale construction and validation.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Groscup, Jennifer L; O'Connor, Maureen; Coffaro, Frank; Galietta, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Given the influence of social conformity and prejudice, defendants pleading not guilty by reason of insanity face the significant challenges of securing fair and impartial juries. Attitudes and knowledge of the insanity defense are factors that may influence levels of impartiality. In the light of this, we set out to develop a scale to examine knowledge levels of the insanity defense and their influence on decision-making. Two studies were conducted to construct a scale designed to assess laypersons' knowledge of the insanity defense. Items measuring knowledge of the insanity defense were based on Perlin's (1995) insanity defense myths. The first study identified particular items in need of revision and subscales that required the development of additional items in order to improve reliability and construct validity in the second study. The second study used the revised scale, demonstrating improved validity and reliability. The scale also had acceptable predictive validity with reference to insanity defense verdicts.

  8. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  9. The acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression scale: development and validation in German and English.

    PubMed

    Gerger, Heike; Kley, Hanna; Bohner, Gerd; Siebler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Scales of rape myth acceptance (RMA) often yield low means and skewed distributions. This is proposed to be because of a change in rape-related beliefs toward more subtle content. Incorporating insights from racism and sexism research, a 30-item self-report scale measuring the acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression (AMMSA) is presented. Across four studies (total N=1,279), the reliability and validity of parallel German and English versions of the AMMSA scale were examined. The results show that both language versions are highly reliable; compared with a traditional RMA scale, means of AMMSA scores are higher and their distributions more closely approximate normality. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses provide evidence for the AMMSA scale's concurrent and predictive construct validity.

  10. Continuum beliefs about psychotic symptoms are a valid, unidimensional construct: Construction and validation of a revised continuum beliefs questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Schlier, Björn; Scheunemann, Jakob; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-07-30

    Growing evidence supports a continuum model of psychosis, with mild psychotic symptoms being frequently experienced by the general population. Moreover, believing in the continuum model correlates with less stigmatization of schizophrenia. This study explores whether continuum beliefs are a valid construct and develops a continuum beliefs scale. First, expert-generated items were reduced to a candidate scale (study 1, n=95). One-dimensionality was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2, n=363). Convergent validity was tested with a previous continuum beliefs scale, essentialist beliefs, and stigmatization (study 2), while self-reported psychotic experiences (i.e. frequency and conviction) served to test discriminant validity (study 3, n=229). A nine item questionnaire that assesses continuum beliefs about schizophrenia symptoms showed acceptable to good psychometric values, high correlations with a previous continuum beliefs scale and small correlations with essentialist beliefs, stereotypes, and desired social distance. No correlations with psychotic experiences were found. Thus, continuum beliefs can be considered a valid construct. The construed CBQ-R asks about symptoms rather than the abstract category "schizophrenia", which may increase understandability of the scale. Validation confirms previous studies and highlights the difference between continuum beliefs and personal psychotic experiences. PMID:27175910

  11. Construct Validation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-02-01

    The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. An exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including: knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. Although women and men differed on the components, they had equivalent overall metacognition for problem solving. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All borrowers... system design, construction standards, and the use of RUS accepted materials. Borrowers must comply...

  13. The Inconsistencies at the Foundation of Construct Validation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.

    1983-01-01

    Construct validation theory is founded upon conflicting metaphysical principles, methodological approaches, and standards of adequacy. This paper explores these unrecognized conflicts and indicates some consequences that these conflicts have for construct validation theory. (Author/PN)

  14. Validation of the French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES) for mental E-health systems.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sauteraud, Alain; Olive, Jérôme; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Despite the increasing use of E-health systems for mental-health organizations, there is a lack of psychometric tools to evaluate their acceptability by patients with mental disorders. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate a French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES), a 6-item self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which patients find E-health systems acceptable. A forward-backward translation of the AES was performed. The psychometric properties of the French AES version, with construct validity, internal structural validity and external validity (Pearson's coefficient between AES scores and depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II) were analyzed. In a sample of 178 patients (mean age=46.51 years, SD=12.91 years), the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: factor analysis revealed two factors: "Satisfaction" (3 items) and "Usability" (3 items) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. No significant relation was found between AES scores and depression symptoms. The French version of the AES revealed a two-factor scale that differs from the original version. In line with the importance of acceptability in mental health and with a view to E-health systems for patients with mental disorders, the use of the AES in psychiatry may provide important information on acceptability (i.e., satisfaction and usability).

  15. The development and validation of the food craving acceptance and action questionnaire (FAAQ).

    PubMed

    Juarascio, Adrienne; Forman, Evan; Timko, C Alix; Butryn, Meghan; Goodwin, Christina

    2011-08-01

    Research has suggested that mindfulness and acceptance may be important factors in the development, maintenance and treatment of both obesity and eating disorders. However, very few scales exist that apply constructs of acceptance and mindfulness to eating behavior. A measure of acceptance about food related thoughts would be especially beneficial in investigating links between acceptance and problematic eating, and in better understanding mechanisms of action of effective treatments for obesity and eating disorders. The Food Acceptance and Awareness Questionnaire (FAAQ) was developed to measure acceptance of urges and cravings to eat or the extent to which individuals might try to control or change these thoughts. The FAAQ is a self-report questionnaire made up of ten items each rated on a seven-point Likert scale (1=very seldom true to 6=always true). Higher scores indicate greater acceptance of motivations to eat. The FAAQ was given to a sample of 463 undergraduate students along with several other measures of eating behavior and other psychological variables. Concurrent associations with variables theorized to be closely linked (Eating Attitudes Test, EAT; the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, DEBQ; body mass index, BMI) and not very closely linked (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, DASS) were evaluated in order to indicate the new scale's convergent and divergent validity. These results demonstrated highly significant correlations with these measures in the expected direction, with stronger correlations for the theoretically-consistent variables than the theoretically-inconsistent variables. Exploratory factor analyses confirmed a structural two-factor model. Factor 1 seems to measure one's ability to regulate eating despite urges and cravings, and Factor 2 seems to measure desire to maintain internal control over eating thoughts. The FAAQ was also administered to a separate sample of 29 overweight or obese women enrolled in a weight loss program, and

  16. On the Value of Homogeneous Constructs for Construct Validation, Theory Testing, and the Description of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory T.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue for a significant shift in how clinical psychology researchers conduct construct validation and theory validation tests. They argue that sound theory and validation tests can best be conducted on measures of unidimensional or homogeneous constructs. Hierarchical organizations of such constructs are useful descriptively and…

  17. Homework Stress: Construct Validation of a Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Idit; Buzukashvili, Tamara; Feingold, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 2 studies aimed at validating a measure of stress experienced by children and parents around the issue of homework, applying Benson's program of validation (Benson, 1998). Study 1 provides external validity of the measure by supporting hypothesized relations between stress around homework and students' and parents' positive…

  18. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  19. Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC): Establishing Construct Validity for Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…

  20. Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption1 leading to a range of adverse prenatal outcomes was recently entered into the AOP wiki and accepted as par...

  1. Motivations and Characteristics of Adult Students: Factor Stability and Construct Validity of the Educational Participation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.

    1996-01-01

    Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…

  2. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

  3. Construct Validation of the Fairy Tale Test--Standardization Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulacoglou, Carina

    2002-01-01

    Studied the construct validity of the Fairy Tale Test (C. Coulacoglu, 1993), a personality projective test for children, in a sample of 800 Greek children aged 8, 10, and 12. Factor analysis led to identification of eight primary factors, and correlations with other measures provide construct validity evidence. (SLD)

  4. Development and Construct Validation of an Academic Emotions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, Sophie; Gregoire, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development and two studies on the construct validity of the Academic Emotions Scale (AES). The AES is a French self-report questionnaire assessing six emotions in the context of school learning: enjoyment, hope, pride, anxiety, shame and frustration. Its construct validity was studied through exploratory and…

  5. All Validity Is Construct Validity. Or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Paul E. Newton's article on the consensus definition of validity tackles a number of big issues and makes a number of strong claims. I agreed with much of what he said, and I disagreed with a number of his claims, but I found his article to be consistently interesting and thought provoking (whether I agreed or not). I will focus on three general…

  6. Understanding Student Teachers' Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…

  7. The Convergent Validity of the Cognitive Preference Construct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg, Euwe; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Three cognitive preference instruments were administered to 71 college students and 37 tenth graders to measure cognitive preferences in a natural information processing (learning) situation and to assess convergent validity of cognitive preference construct and instrument validity of conventional tests. Strong evidence of convergent validity was…

  8. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  9. Development and Validation of the Self-Acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness: The SAS-EB

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research. PMID:25268633

  10. Educational Technology Acceptance across Cultures: A Validation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in the Context of Turkish National Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogus, Aytac; Nistor, Nicolae; Riley, Richard W.; Lerche, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003, 2012) proposes a major model of educational technology acceptance (ETA) which has been yet validated only in few languages and cultures. Therefore, this study aims at extending the applicability of UTAUT to Turkish culture. Based on acceptance and cultural data…

  11. Construct validity of the Concern For Appropriateness scale.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B L; Wolfe, R N

    1985-06-01

    Construct validity of the Concern For Appropriateness scale (CFA; Lennox & Wolfe, 1984), a measure of the tendency to adopt protective self-presentation styles, is examined using a multitrait-multimethod approach. Self-ratings on the CFA and ratings by suitemates constitute the two methods, and concern for appropriateness, interpersonal trust, and boredom susceptibility are assessed with each. Multitrait-multimethod analysis shows that the CFA scale exhibits convergent validity against peer ratings and discriminant validity against boredom susceptibility, the only other variable demonstrating convergence. Results indicate that the CFA exhibits construct validity and might therefore prove useful as an operationalization for self-presentation tendencies. PMID:16367476

  12. Construct Validity of the Social Coping Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…

  13. Construct validation of a physician satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Wolosin, Robert J; Gesell, Sabina B; Taber, Brian; Epting, Gladys J

    2006-01-01

    Hospitals continuously look for ways to improve patient care and retain high-quality physicians. Previous research indicates that physicians' satisfaction with where they practice is a crucial part of addressing these issues. A reliable and valid method to assess physician satisfaction is needed in order to identify potential areas of discontent. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a self-administered medical staff satisfaction survey. The survey contains 13 Likert-type items divided into three reliable subscales: Quality of Patient Care (alpha = .84), Ease of Practice (alpha = .76), and Relationship with Leadership (alpha = .92). Results from both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the survey's structure and robustness across three independent samples.

  14. Validation of Multilevel Constructs: Validation Methods and Empirical Findings for the EDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…

  15. Acceptable Care? Illness Constructions, Healthworlds, and Accessible Chronic Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509

  16. Constructing Short Forms from Composite Tests: Reliability and Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Victor L.; Reynold, Cecil R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for constructing short forms of tests are discussed, and an example is given using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Reliability and validity estimation equations are presented. (GDC)

  17. Assessing the construct validity of the AIDS Attitude Scale.

    PubMed

    Bruce, K E; Reid, B C

    1998-02-01

    To assess the construct validity of the AIDS Attitude Scale (AAS) (Shrum, Turner, & Bruce, 1989), we administered it and related attitude scales to introductory psychology students (n = 279) and gay/lesbian support group members (n = 38). A subset of the students (n = 105) participated in a concurrent validity study; students donating items to an AIDS food pantry scored more tolerantly on the AAS than other students. AAS scores also differentiated subjects expected to have more tolerant attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS from other respondents, indicating known groups validity. As expected, AAS scores were positively correlated with attitudes about homosexuals and negatively correlated with authoritarian beliefs. However, AAS scores were not related to death anxiety. Attitudes about AIDS were distinguishable from related constructs using factor analysis. Together, these data provide evidence for the construct validity of the AAS. The need for valid assessment tools and uses of the AAS are discussed.

  18. Validation of a Chinese version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CAPQ) and CPAQ-8 in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaqun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Yibo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xu, Tianming; Sun, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    Acceptance of chronic pain has increasingly become a significant issue in the field of pain management. Many researchers have suggested that patients with better acceptance of pain are more likely to have better functioning both in physical and psychological status. In many countries, the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and CPAQ-8 have been validated and utilized frequently to measure the pain acceptance of patients with chronic pain. However, the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 yet have not been introduced and validated in Mainland China.In this study, we aimed to translate the English version of the CPAQ into simplified Chinese, make proper cross-cultural adaptations, and validate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8.The English version of the CPAQ was first linguistically translated and cross-culturally adapted to formulate a Chinese version. Then, we recruited 224 patients from a pain clinic and every participant was asked to finish a series of questionnaires. Finally, statistical analysis was performed to test the psychometric properties of the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8.Both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed a 2-factor structure for the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8. Nine out of 10 of the hypotheses were validated for construct validity. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value for the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 were 0.92 and 0.89, respectively. In addition, the Cronbach α values for both the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8 showed excellent test-retest reliability.In conclusion, the original CPAQ was successfully developed into the Chinese version of the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 with excellent validity and reliability. The scores of the CPAQ or CPAQ-8 might be a strong predictor for the physical and psychological function of chronic pain patients. In addition, to improve the satisfaction of surgery patients, we recommend measuring patients' pain acceptance using the CPAQ or CPAQ-8 before and after the

  19. Constructing Social Acceptance in Inclusive Leisure Contexts: The Role of Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Mary Ann; Lashua, Brett

    2002-01-01

    Examined perceptions of people with disabilities regarding their roles related to social acceptance and leisure experience. Interviews with disabled adolescents and young adults indicated that respondents played a role in constructing social acceptance, either proactively or reactively, within inclusive leisure contexts. They identified…

  20. Improving construct validity: Cronbach, Meehl, and Neurath's ship.

    PubMed

    Westen, Drew; Rosenthal, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Smith's article "On Construct Validity: Issues of Method and Measurement" is a fine tribute to L. J. Cronbach and P. E. Meehl (1955) that clarifies the current state and future directions in the understanding of construct validity. Construct validity is a dynamic process, and fit indices need to be used at the service of understanding, not in place of it. The failure of a study or set of studies to support a construct, a measure, or the theory underlying it admits of many explanations, and the ways scientists interpret such failures are prone to cognitive biases and motivated reasoning. This suggests why metrics designed to index the extent to which observations match expectations can be useful prostheses to scientific judgments. As P. E. Meehl (1954) showed decades ago, quantitative, statistical formulas and indices tend to outperform informal, qualitative judgments, and this applies as much to the way researchers evaluate constructs and measures as to judgments in the consulting room.

  1. Development and Construct Validation of the Mentor Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…

  2. Construct Validity of MSRT Reading Comprehension Module in Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichani, Elham Fallahian; Tabatabaei, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers were interested in validity of the language proficiency tests in the previous decades. The present study aims to study the construct validity of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology Reading Comprehension module (MSRT) in the Iranian context. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT) 65…

  3. Construction of Valid and Reliable Test for Assessment of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…

  4. Construct and Predictive Validities of the Perceptual Ability Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The construct and predictive validities of the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) were examined. The results indicate that each of the subtests exhibits different predictive validity. A linear combination of PAT subtest scores was found to be more predictive of first-year dental school technique performance than the total PAT score. (Author/MLW)

  5. Construct Validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…

  6. Constructing Acceptable RWM Approaches: The Politics of Participation

    SciTech Connect

    Laes, E.; Bombaerts, G.

    2006-07-01

    Public participation in a complex technological issue such as the management of radioactive waste needs to be based on a simultaneous construction of scientific, ethical and socio-political foundations. Confronting this challenge is in no way straightforward. The problem is not only that the 'hard' technocrats downplay the importance of socio-political and ethical factors; also, our 'soft' ethical vocabularies (e.g. Habermasian 'discourse ethics') seem to be ill-equipped for tackling such complex questions (in terms of finding concrete solutions). On the other hand, professionals in the field, confronted with a (sometimes urgent) need for finding workable solutions, cannot wait for armchair philosophers to formulate the correct academic answers to their questions. Different public participation and communication models have been developed and tested in real-world conditions, for instance in the Belgian 'partnership approach' to the siting of a low-level waste management facility. Starting from the confrontation of theoretical outlooks and pragmatic solutions, this paper identifies a number of 'dilemmas of participation' that can only be resolved by inherently political choices. Successfully negotiating these dilemmas is of course difficult and conditional on many contextual factors, but nevertheless at the end of the paper an attempt is made to sketch the contours of three possible future scenarios (each with their own limits and possibilities). (authors)

  7. Teacher Efficacy and Preservice Teachers: A Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Susan N.

    A construct validation of a modified version of a teacher efficiency scale was conducted to establish its use with preservice teachers. The scale adapted by A. E. Woolfolk and W. K. Hoy from one constructed by S. Gibson and M. H. Dembo, which contained 12 personal efficacy (PE) and 6 general teaching efficacy (TE) items, was further modified for…

  8. The Convergent Validity of the Cognitive Preference Construct. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Euwe; And Others

    Reported is a study designed to investigate the convergent validity of the cognitive preference construct and to develop new techniques for analyzing cognitive preference data. The cognitive preference construct was invented to help evaluate the science curricula of the sixties based on the assumption that a student's intellectual approach to…

  9. Construct Validity of Putative Causes in Psychosocial Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellario, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Many variations of psychosocial rehabilitation programs and their unclear relationship to the psychosocial rehabilitation construct have increased the probability of threats to construct validity of putative causes, resulting in potential confounding in investigator interpretation. As a minimum, comprehensive and concise operational definitions of…

  10. Reliability and construct validity of the Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ).

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, B A; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Mazalisah, M

    2006-03-01

    The JCQ has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess job stress in many occupational settings worldwide. In Malaysia, both the English and validated Malay versions have been employed in studies of medical professionals and laboratory technicians, respectively. The present study assessed the reliability and construct validity of the Malay version of the JCQ among automotive workers in Malaysia. Fifty workers of a major automotive manufacturer in Kota Bharu, Kelantan consented to participate in the study and were administered the Malay version of the JCQ. Translation (English-Malay) and back translation (Malay-English) of the JCQ was made to ensure the face validity of the questionnaire. Reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, whilst construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (principal component with varimax rotation). The results indicate that the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for decision latitude (job control or decision authority) (0.74) and social support (0.79); however, it was slightly lower for psychological job demand (0.61). Exploratory factor analysis showed 3 meaningful common factors that could explain the 3 theoretical dimensions or constructs of Karasek's demand-control-social support model. In conclusion, the results of the validation study suggested that the JCQ scales are reliable and valid for assessing job stress in a population working in the automotive industry. Further analyses are necessary to evaluate the stability and concurrent validity of the JCQ.

  11. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  12. Validation of the Technology Acceptance Measure for Pre-Service Teachers (TAMPST) on a Malaysian Sample: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural validity of the technology acceptance measure for pre-service teachers (TAMPST) on a Malaysian sample. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 193 pre-service teachers from a Malaysian university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs in the…

  13. Utility of pedometers for assessing physical activity: construct validity.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Williams, Joel E; Reis, Jared P; Pluto, Delores

    2004-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity is necessary to fully understand this important health-related behaviour for research, surveillance, intervention and evaluation purposes. This article is the second in a companion set exploring the validity of pedometer-assessed physical activity. The previous article published in Sports Medicine dealt with convergent validity (i.e. the extent to which an instrument's output is associated with that of other instruments intended to measure the same exposure of interest). The present focus is on construct validity. Construct validity is the extent to which the measurement corresponds with other measures of theoretically-related parameters. Construct validity is typically evaluated by correlational analysis, that is, the magnitude of concordance between two measures (e.g. pedometer-determined steps/day and a theoretically-related parameter such as age, anthropometric measures and fitness). A systematic literature review produced 29 articles published since > or =1980 directly relevant to construct validity of pedometers in relation to age, anthropometric measures and fitness. Reported correlations were combined and a median r-value was computed. Overall, there was a weak inverse relationship (median r = -0.21) between age and pedometer-determined physical activity. A weak inverse relationship was also apparent with both body mass index and percentage overweight (median r = -0.27 and r = -0.22, respectively). Positive relationships regarding indicators of fitness ranged from weak to moderate depending on the fitness measure utilised: 6-minute walk test (median r = 0.69), timed treadmill test (median r = 0.41) and estimated maximum oxygen uptake (median r = 0.22). Studies are warranted to assess the relationship of pedometer-determined physical activity with other important health-related outcomes including blood pressure and physiological parameters such as blood glucose and lipid profiles. The aggregated evidence of convergent

  14. Validation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: acceptance limits and decision methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2012-11-01

    Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization. PMID:23084050

  15. Toys and Gadgets: Construct Validity of Apathy in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferencz, Beata; Scholtissen, Bart; Bogorodskaya, Milana; Okun, Michael S.; Bowers, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is one of the primary neuropsychiatric signatures in Parkinson’s disease, yet little research has addressed the construct validity of two commonly used apathy measures, the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. The authors tested the hypothesis that apathy is associated with reduced initiative/engaged behaviors on a laboratory-based measure of apathy. Support was found for the hypothesis that apathy, as indexed by the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, is associated with reduced initiative/engagement on an experimental measure of apathy in Parkinson patients. These findings provide independent evidence for the construct validity of self-report apathy scales, beyond clinician judgment. PMID:23224453

  16. Development and Validation of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for U.S. Construction Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Methods Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n=11) and focus groups (3 groups with 6 workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n=144). Results Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales (“Lethargy” and “Bodily Ailment”).. During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW (0.91), Lethargy (0.86) and Bodily Ailment (0.84)) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59–0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74–0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. Conclusions The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. PMID:25603944

  17. A Failure to Provide Construct Validity for Psychological Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirt, Michael; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive style and body boundary perception use of defenses, and sense of separate identity. The Rod and Frame Test results were consistent with previous reports. The other variables were not significantly related to RFT performance, casting doubt on the construct validity of psychological…

  18. The Construct Validity of the Rod and Frame Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study examined the construct validity of the Rod and Frame Test (RFT). Subjects were 554 clients (269 males and 285 females) (aged 14 to 65 years) of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF), a vocational guidance service. In a battery of diverse ability and style tests (19 tests of the JOCRF battery and 4 tests of cognitive style),…

  19. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  20. ID Model Construction and Validation: A Multiple Intelligences Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Richey, Rita C.

    2007-01-01

    This is a report of a developmental research study that aimed to construct and validate an instructional design (ID) model that incorporates the theory and practice of multiple intelligences (MI). The study consisted of three phases. In phase one, the theoretical foundations of multiple Intelligences and ID were examined to guide the development…

  1. Construction and Initial Validation of the Chinese Reading Motivation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-Ling

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and initial validation of a Chinese reading motivation questionnaire (CRMQ) which was designed to assess Chinese students' reading motivation in Hong Kong. The development of the CRMQ consisted of two steps. In the first study, groups of items were constructed based on achievement motivation theories and…

  2. Examining the Construct Validity of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…

  3. A Construction and Validation of Formal Operational Reasoning Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.

    In Piaget's developmental psychology the fourth and highest stage of human cognitive development is that of formal operations. The research on formal thought instruments is outlined. This study was designed to construct and validate paper-and-pencil instruments which could be used to select students capable of abstract conceptualization,…

  4. The convergent validity of the cognitive preference construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Euwe; Lunetta, Vincent N.; Tamir, Pinchas

    As a part of a series of construct validity studies this study was designed to assess the convergent validity of the cognitive preference construct. Three measures of cognitive preference were administered to 71 college students and to a small sample of tenth graders. One instrument was a conventional cognitive preference test, the other two were designed to assess cognitive preference in common learning settings using student responses to a science reading and teacher ratings of relevant classroom behavior respectively. Correlations between the science reading and the conventional test showed strong convergence of the Q (questioning) mode of cognitive preference but rather weak convergence of the R (recall), P (principles), and A (applications) modes. A subgroup of students with significantly discrepant R, P, Q, and A score patterns, thus a distinct cognitive preference, showed higher correlations between instruments than the total sample, as one would expect in case of construct validity. Apparently the cognitive preference construct is a more valid descriptor for the cognitive style of some people than for others.

  5. Construct Validity of the Children's Music-Related Behavior Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Wendy H.; Reynolds, Alison M.; Morgan, Grant B.; McNair, Anne A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the construct validity of the Children's Music-Related Behavior Questionnaire (CMRBQ), an instrument designed for parents to document music-related behaviors about their children and themselves. The research problem was to examine the hypothesized factorial structure of the questionnaire. From a…

  6. The Social Interest Index: A Study of Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozdzierz, Gerald J.; Semyck, Roger W.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Social Interest Index (SII) with 140 male alcoholics. Hypothesized that the SII would relate positively with measures of mental health, intelligence, education, and internal locus of control and would relate negatively with measures of MMPI "pathology" scales. The hypotheses generally were supported. (Author)

  7. The Construct Validity of the Internal Restlessness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa; Hays, Brian; Schepman, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the construct validity of the Internal Restlessness Scale (IRS), a self-report instrument developed to measure feelings of restlessness in young adults with ADHD, and the relationship between the IRS and a neuropsychological, behavioral task (i.e., continuous performance test). Pearson product-moment correlations…

  8. Construct Validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Marôco, João; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief instrument developed for the screening of milder forms of cognitive impairment. The present study aims to assess the construct related validity of the MoCA through the establishment of the factorial, convergent, and discriminant related validities, and the reliability of data. In a Portuguese sample of 830 participants, several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Although all tested models showed a good fit, the six-factor model based on the conceptual model proposed by the MoCA's authors showed a significantly better fit. The results allowed us to establish the factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of this six-dimensional structure. An overall psychometric adequacy of the items, and a good reliability were also found. This study contributes to overcome an important gap in the construct related validity of this instrument. The present findings corroborate the six-dimensional structure of the MoCA and provide good evidence of the construct related validity. The MoCA has proved to be an appropriate measure for cognitive screening taking into account different cognitive domains, which will enable clinicians and researchers to use this test and its six latent dimensions to achieve a better understanding of the individuals' cognitive profile. PMID:22115097

  9. Construct validity of Stable-2000 and Stable-2007 scores.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Babchishin, Kelly M

    2012-02-01

    We addressed the construct validity of Stable-2000 and Stable-2007 scores by examining correlations between selected items and validated independent measures of relevant constructs in samples of convicted sex offenders. In Study 1, the Child Molester Attitudes item of the Stable-2000 shared 23% of the variance with a self-report measure of beliefs supportive of child molestation, r(19) = .48. The Deviant Sexual Interests items of the Stable-2000 and Stable-2007 shared 7% to 66% of the variance, respectively, with an offense-history-based measure of pedophilic interests, r(18) = .27 for the Stable-2000 and r(11) = .81 for the Stable-2007. In Study 2, the Lovers/Intimate Partners, General Social Rejection/Loneliness, Rapist Attitudes, and Child Molester Attitudes items of the Stable-2000 shared 4% to 19% of the variance with self-report measures of, respectively, intimacy, r(90) = -.44; loneliness, r(88) = .34; beliefs supportive of rape, r(72) = .21; and beliefs supportive of child molestation, r(78) = .36. The results generally suggest that the Stable items examined are associated with measures of similar constructs; however, the degree of convergence was lower than expected. More systematic and comprehensive research is needed to examine convergence of the Stable items with other relevant measures and additional aspects of construct validity. Such efforts will provide a clearer understanding of dynamic risk factors, appropriate areas of focus for treatment efforts, and, more generally, why some sex offenders recidivate.

  10. Preliminary Evidence Regarding the Validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory as a Measure of the Construct Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Gary E.

    1976-01-01

    Construct validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory was investigated. A sample of graduate students were administered the inventory immediately after a stressful experience and again two weeks later after the stressful experience had been resolved. Two of the twelve inventory subscales, Self Regard and Self Acceptance showed significant…

  11. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  12. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  13. Construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP)

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Olle; Bjørnestad, John Olav; Skisland, Anne; Cliffordson, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP) using structural equation modeling. The instrument is a 12-item self-report instrument, developed in the Scandinavian cultural context and based on Kohlberg’s theory. A hypothesized simplex structure model underlying the MDSP was tested through structural equation modeling. Validity was also tested as the proportion of respondents older than 20 years that reached the highest moral level, which according to the theory should be small. A convenience sample of 339 nursing students with a mean age of 25.3 years participated. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that MDSP reflects a moral construct empirically organized from low to high. A minority of respondents >20 years of age (13.5%) scored more than 80% on the highest moral level. The findings support the construct validity of the MDSP and the stages and levels in Kohlberg’s theory. PMID:21655343

  14. The construct validity of the work-related flow inventory in a sample of Australian workers.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF; Bakker, 2008). This instrument was administered to 711 men and women who were working in Queensland, Australia. The results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WOLF has moderately acceptable construct validity, with the three-factor model being a borderline fit to the data. Tests of the convergent validity of the WOLF yielded satisfactory results. However, the analysis of the discriminant validity of the WOLF showed that the instrument poorly discriminated between work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation. Follow-up exploratory factor analysis, using recommended procedures for determining the number of factors to extract, revealed a two-factor solution, with the work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation items loading on the same factor. Drawing on literature on psychological flow and motivation, as well as the findings of the present study, questions are raised over the adequacy of the conceptual basis of the three-factor model of work-related flow, the discriminant validity of the WOLF subscales, and the appropriateness of the wording of several of this measure's items. Using alternative methods and measures to investigate flow in work settings is recommended.

  15. The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) instrument: construct validation.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ana L; Leal, Soraya C; Chaves, Sacha B; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Frencken, Jo E; Creugers, Nico H J

    2014-04-01

    The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) is a newly developed epidemiological instrument. The aim of this study was to investigate its construct validity. Four calibrated examiners, using CAST codes 0-6, visually examined 109 surfaces of extracted and exfoliated teeth. These teeth were then hemisectioned, photographed, and assessed histologically by two calibrated examiners using the Downer criteria. Twenty-eight of the 109 teeth were scanned using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and assessed by the same examiners using the same criteria. Validation was determined through calculation of the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index for two categories of carious lesions examined visually, with histology and micro-CT as gold standards. Interexaminer consistency was κ = 0.76: SE ± 0.05 between visual and histological assessments of teeth and was κ = 0.89: SE ± 0.08 between visual and micro-CT assessments. For the category 'healthy' vs. 'diseased' (CAST codes 0-2 vs. CAST codes 3-6), sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index values of 100%, 92.9%, and 93%, respectively, for micro-CT, and 96.6%, 86%, and 83%, respectively, for histology, were obtained. For the category 'dentine' vs. 'non-dentine lesions' (CAST codes 0-3 vs. CAST codes 4-6) sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index values of 90%, 100%, and 90%, respectively, for micro-CT, and 81.4%, 100%, and 81%, respectively, for histology, were obtained. Construct validity of the CAST instrument was obtained.

  16. Overactivity in chronic pain: is it a valid construct?

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Overactivity is a frequently used term in chronic pain literature. It refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals engage in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain, resulting in periods of incapacity. Overactivity, as a construct, has been derived solely from patients' self-reports, raising concerns about the legitimacy of the construct. Self-reported overactivity reflects an individual's “belief,” collected retrospectively, that their earlier activity levels have resulted in increased levels of pain. This may be different to an individual actually engaging in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain. In this study, a 5-day observational study design was used to investigate the validity of overactivity as a construct by examining the relationship between a self-report measure of overactivity, patterns of pain, and objectively measured physical activity over time. A sample of 68 adults with chronic pain completed a questionnaire investigating self-reported habitual engagement in overactivity and activity avoidance behaviour, before commencing 5 days of data collection. Over the 5-day period, participants wore an activity monitor and recorded their pain intensity 6 times a day using a handheld computer. Associations were found between (1) high levels of pain and both high overactivity and high avoidance, (2) high levels of overactivity and more variation in pain and objective activity across days, and (3) high levels of overactivity and the reoccurrence of prolonged activity engagement followed by significant pain increases observed in data sets. These results offer some preliminary support for the validity of overactivity as a legitimate construct in chronic pain. PMID:26067583

  17. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Acceptance: A Validation Study Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…

  18. On the Value of Homogeneous Constructs for Construct Validation, Theory Testing, and the Description of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory T.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue for a significant shift in how clinical psychology researchers conduct construct validation and theory validation tests. They argue that sound theory and validation tests can best be conducted on measures of unidimensional or homogeneous constructs. Hierarchical organizations of such constructs are useful descriptively and theoretically, but higher order composites do not refer to definable psychological processes. Application of this perspective to the approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to describing psychopathology calls into doubt the traditional use of the syndromal approach, in which single scores reflect the presence of multidimensional disorders. For many forms of psychological dysfunction, this approach does not appear optimal and may need to be discarded. The authors note that their perspective represents a straightforward application of existing psychometric theory, they demonstrate the practical value of adopting this perspective, and they provide evidence that this shift is already under way among clinical researchers. Description in terms of homogeneous dimensions provides improved validity, utility, and parsimony. In contrast, the use of composite diagnoses can retard scientific progress and hamper clinicians' efforts to understand and treat dysfunction. PMID:19719340

  19. Construction and Validation of Attitudes Toward Plagiarism Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Aim To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Methods Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. Results The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I – positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II – negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III – subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach α was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I – α = 0.83; factor II – α = 0.79; and factor III – α = 0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Conclusion Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. PMID:20564761

  20. Development and construct validation of the Hand Function Sort.

    PubMed

    Matheson, L N; Kaskutas, V K; Mada, D

    2001-06-01

    The construct validity of the Hand Function Sort (HFS) was investigated in 126 adults of working age (65% male) with medical impairments. Principal components factor analysis identified one major factor and two minor factors, which was consistent with the findings of a subsequent Harris Image Analysis. A Kaiser Image Analysis identified seven factors, partitioning the first global factor. Construct validity also was studied. HFS scores of subjects who had impairment of the dominant upper extremity were compared with subjects whose dominant upper extremities were not impaired. Significant differences were found between groups for total scores and in categories of tasks for which hand dominance was likely to be important. Conversely, there were no significant differences with tasks for which hand dominance was not important. HFS scores were compared with grip strength, which accounted for significant variance in the total HFS score. When categories of tasks were considered, substantial variance in the factors for which grip strength was important was accounted for by grip strength. For tasks in which grip strength was not likely to be important, variance accounted for by grip strength was negligible.

  1. Development of physical ability tests for police officers: a construct validation approach.

    PubMed

    Arvey, R D; Landon, T E; Nutting, S M; Maxwell, S E

    1992-12-01

    A construct validation approach was followed to affirm that 8 physical ability test events were significantly related to two important constructs underlying the job performance of police officers: strength and endurance. A sample of 115 incumbent police officers took 8 physical ability tests and were rated by supervisors on their physical performances in their job. LISREL methods were used to test the model specified, and a reasonable fit was achieved. Portions of the model were tested on an independent sample of 161 applicants; the fit of the model was again acceptable. A nomological network of relationships, in which strength and endurance factors correlated in expected directions with other physiological and demographic variables, was hypothesized and tested. Finally, the data were examined for potential gender differences and bias. Considerable differences were shown between men and women on both test and performance variables, and women would be overpredicted if a common regression line were used for selection purposes.

  2. The validity and acceptability of a text-based monitoring system for pediatric asthma studies.

    PubMed

    Gahleitner, Florian; Legg, Julian; Holland, Emma; Pearson, Sarah; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A meaningful analysis in research requires robust, valid data. Paper diaries allow the collection of data from individuals over time but are notorious for poor compliance and validity. SMS-technology is a novel method for data collection in medical research. Time-tagged SMS are transferred directly to an electronic file. We used SMS to collect symptoms and peak flow rate (PEFR) meter readings from 32 children with asthma. Parents responded first to five SMS daily for 7 days during an asymptomatic period and then for 14 days during a cold. Compliance with use of PEFR meter and SMS system were assessed. Digital PEFR meters enabled data download at the end of the study to confirm validity of transmitted data. Parents of 24 participants provided feedback about this data collection tool. Mean (±SD) "SMS-diary and PEFR-meter compliance" were 96% (±8) and 84% (±21) during baseline and 91% (±12) and 82% (±20) during cold respectively. Correctly reported PEFR values were found in 65.5% of all cases, in 8.3% PEFR values sent were "self-invented" and 2.4% of values were missing. All of the 22 parents completing the baseline questionnaire were happy to use SMS for this study. Of the 20 parents completing the follow up questionnaire, 95% (19/20) found the system user-friendly, 55% (11/20) would be more likely to participate in studies if they were using SMS data collection and 25% (5/20) were "sometimes unhappy" about receiving messages. This real-time capture of data is well accepted and could avoid some of the pitfalls of backfilled paper diaries. PMID:25847724

  3. The validity and acceptability of a text-based monitoring system for pediatric asthma studies.

    PubMed

    Gahleitner, Florian; Legg, Julian; Holland, Emma; Pearson, Sarah; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A meaningful analysis in research requires robust, valid data. Paper diaries allow the collection of data from individuals over time but are notorious for poor compliance and validity. SMS-technology is a novel method for data collection in medical research. Time-tagged SMS are transferred directly to an electronic file. We used SMS to collect symptoms and peak flow rate (PEFR) meter readings from 32 children with asthma. Parents responded first to five SMS daily for 7 days during an asymptomatic period and then for 14 days during a cold. Compliance with use of PEFR meter and SMS system were assessed. Digital PEFR meters enabled data download at the end of the study to confirm validity of transmitted data. Parents of 24 participants provided feedback about this data collection tool. Mean (±SD) "SMS-diary and PEFR-meter compliance" were 96% (±8) and 84% (±21) during baseline and 91% (±12) and 82% (±20) during cold respectively. Correctly reported PEFR values were found in 65.5% of all cases, in 8.3% PEFR values sent were "self-invented" and 2.4% of values were missing. All of the 22 parents completing the baseline questionnaire were happy to use SMS for this study. Of the 20 parents completing the follow up questionnaire, 95% (19/20) found the system user-friendly, 55% (11/20) would be more likely to participate in studies if they were using SMS data collection and 25% (5/20) were "sometimes unhappy" about receiving messages. This real-time capture of data is well accepted and could avoid some of the pitfalls of backfilled paper diaries.

  4. Development and Construct Validation of the Interprofessional Attitudes Scale

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jeffrey; Carpenter, Joan G.; Eaton, Jacqueline; Guo, Jia-Wen; Lassche, Madeline; Pett, Marjorie A.; Blumenthal, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Training of health professionals requires development of interprofessional competencies and assessment of these competencies. No validated tools exist to assess all four competency domains described in the 2011 Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (the IPEC Report). The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale based on the IPEC competency domains that assesses interprofessional attitudes of students in the health professions. Method In 2012, a survey tool was developed and administered to 1,549 students from the University of Utah Health Science Center, an academic health center composed of four schools and colleges (Health, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed to validate the assessment tool, eliminate redundant questions, and to identify subscales. Results The EFA and CFA focused on aligning subscales with IPEC core competencies, and demonstrating good construct validity and internal consistency reliability. A response rate of 45% (n = 701) was obtained. Responses with complete data (n=678) were randomly split into two datasets which were independently analyzed using EFA and CFA. The EFA produced a 27-item scale, with five subscales (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients: 0.62 to 0.92). CFA indicated the content of the five subscales was consistent with the EFA model. Conclusions The Interprofessional Attitudes Scale (IPAS) is a novel tool that, compared to previous tools, better reflects current trends in interprofessional competencies. The IPAS should be useful to health sciences educational institutions and others training people to work collaboratively in interprofessional teams. PMID:25993280

  5. Construct validity of two tests of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Buican, B; Toomey, R

    1996-06-26

    The construct validity was examined of two measures of social cognition in schizophrenia: (1) a measure of differential deficit in concrete versus abstract social cue perception and (2) a measure of differential deficit in concrete versus abstract situational feature recognition. A significant relationship between the two difference scores would be expected if both measured differential cognition of abstract and concrete social information. This correlation would be expected to remain significant even after the influence of a generalized deficit in social cognition was partialed out. Twenty-three subjects with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia completed a videotaped measure of social cue perception and a pencil-and-paper measure of situational feature recognition. Results showed that standardized residual scores representing the difference in abstract and concrete cue perception and representing the difference in abstract and concrete situational feature recognition were significantly associated. Implications of these strategies for understanding and remediating the social cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:8832776

  6. Construct Validation of the Dietary Inflammatory Index among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255

  7. Construction, validation, and derivation of performance standards for a fitness test for correctional officer applicants.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Thomas, Scott G; Burr, Jamie F; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a fitness test for correctional officer (CO) applicants (FITCO) and to establish associated standards of acceptability. The FITCO incorporated the most important, physically demanding, and frequently occurring tasks of a CO. It consists of (i) a simulated cell search; (ii) an emergency response circuit (ERC), involving a 60-m run while scaling 4 sets of stairs, followed by simulations of an inmate control, wrist restraint, arm retraction, and 40-m mannequin drag; and (iii) a test of aerobic fitness. The validity of the FITCO was established by very high congruence between the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion of incumbent COs while performing the ERC with the same measurements while COs were performing the on-the-job tasks on which the ERC was based. The content validity of the FITCO was confirmed by very high Likert ratings (>6 on a 7-point scale) by both male and female incumbent COs of all ages concerning the importance, relatedness, physical demands, and overall appropriateness of the FITCO for evaluating CO applicants. We conclude that because the forces built into the ERC and the FITCO standards were both derived from the performance of safe and efficient incumbent female COs of all ages, and both the validity and test-retest reliability (intraclass correllation coefficient = 0.977) of the FITCO are very high, the FITCO was properly constructed to meet the requirements of the Supreme Court of Canada's Meiorin Decision. PMID:20130667

  8. Construct validity of functional capacity tests in healthy workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional Capacity (FC) is a multidimensional construct within the activity domain of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework (ICF). Functional capacity evaluations (FCEs) are assessments of work-related FC. The extent to which these work-related FC tests are associated to bio-, psycho-, or social factors is unknown. The aims of this study were to test relationships between FC tests and other ICF factors in a sample of healthy workers, and to determine the amount of statistical variance in FC tests that can be explained by these factors. Methods A cross sectional study. The sample was comprised of 403 healthy workers who completed material handling FC tests (lifting low, overhead lifting, and carrying) and static work FC tests (overhead working and standing forward bend). The explainable variables were; six muscle strength tests; aerobic capacity test; and questionnaires regarding personal factors (age, gender, body height, body weight, and education), psychological factors (mental health, vitality, and general health perceptions), and social factors (perception of work, physical workloads, sport-, leisure time-, and work-index). A priori construct validity hypotheses were formulated and analyzed by means of correlation coefficients and regression analyses. Results Moderate correlations were detected between material handling FC tests and muscle strength, gender, body weight, and body height. As for static work FC tests; overhead working correlated fair with aerobic capacity and handgrip strength, and low with the sport-index and perception of work. For standing forward bend FC test, all hypotheses were rejected. The regression model revealed that 61% to 62% of material handling FC tests were explained by physical factors. Five to 15% of static work FC tests were explained by physical and social factors. Conclusions The current study revealed that, in a sample of healthy workers, material handling FC tests were

  9. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ)-further validation including a confirmatory factor analysis and a comparison with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia.

    PubMed

    Wicksell, Rikard K; Olsson, Gunnar L; Melin, Lennart

    2009-08-01

    Acceptance of pain and distress has lately appeared as an important factor in determining peoples' ability to restore functioning in the presence of chronic pain. Although treatments based on cognitive behaviour therapy are beginning to incorporate acceptance strategies, there is still a lack of reliable and valid instruments to assess relevant processes in such interventions. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) was originally constructed as part of the development of an acceptance oriented treatment approach for pain patients. A revised 20-item version of the instrument with two subscales has shown adequate reliability and validity. In the present study, a Swedish translation of CPAQ was evaluated with 611 participants reporting chronic pain and symptoms of whiplash associated disorders. This study sought to further assess the psychometric properties of the instrument and to investigate its relation to another important measure of pain adjustment, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Due to low intercorrelations with other items, item 16 was excluded. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the previously suggested two-factor solution. Furthermore, the internal consistencies were good for the subscales (activities engagement and pain willingness) as well as the total scale. Hierarchical regression analyses illustrated strong relations with criteria variables (e.g. disability and life satisfaction). In general, the activities engagement subscale contributed more than pain willingness to the prediction of criteria variables. Furthermore, results illustrated that CPAQ explained more variance than the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in pain intensity, disability, life satisfaction, and depression.

  10. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  11. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  12. 30 CFR 18.95 - Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...

  13. 30 CFR 18.95 - Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...

  14. 30 CFR 18.95 - Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...

  15. 30 CFR 18.95 - Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...

  16. 30 CFR 18.95 - Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field...

  17. Rejoinder: A Construct Validity Approach to the Assessment of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    In this rejoinder, we comment on Wright's response to our reanalysis and reinterpretation of the data presented by Wright and colleagues. Two primary differences characterize these perspectives. First, the conceptualization of grandiose narcissism differs such that emotional and ego vulnerability, dysregulation, and pervasive impairments are more characteristic of Wright's conception, likely due to the degree to which it is tied to clinical observations. Our conceptualization is closer to psychopathy and describes an extraverted, dominant, and antagonistic individual who is relatively less likely to be found in clinical settings. Second, our approach to construct validation differs in that we take an empirical perspective that focuses on the degree to which inventories yield scores consistent with a priori predictions. The grandiose dimension of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI-G) yields data that fail to align with expert ratings of narcissistic personality disorder and grandiose narcissism. We suggest that caution should be taken in treating the PNI-G as a gold standard measure of pathological narcissism, that revision of the PNI-G is required before it can serve as a stand-alone measure of grandiose narcissism, and that the PNI-G should be buttressed by other scales when being used as a measure of grandiose narcissism.

  18. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  19. Construction and Quantitative Validation of Chicken CXCR4 Expression Reporter.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Bassami, Mohammadreza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-03-01

    Site directional migration is an important biological event and an essential behavior for latent migratory cells. A migratory cell maintains its motility, survival, and proliferation abilities by a network of signaling pathways where CXCR4/SDF signaling route plays crucial role for directed homing of a polarized cell. The chicken embryo due to its specific vasculature modality has been used as a valuable model for organogenesis, migration, cancer, and metastasis. In this research, the regulatory regions of chicken CXCR4 gene have been characterized in a chicken hematopoietic lymphoblast cell line (MSB1). A region extending from -2000 bp upstream of CXCR4 gene to +68 after its transcriptional start site, in addition to two other mutant fragments were constructed and cloned in a promoter-less reporter vector. Promoter activity was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry techniques. Our findings show that the full sequence from -2000 to +68 bp of CXCR4 regulatory region is required for maximum promoter functionality, while the mutant CXCR4 promoter fragments show a partial promoter activity. The chicken CXCR4 promoter validated in this study could be used for characterization of directed migratory cells in chicken development and disease models. PMID:26809356

  20. Construct Validity of the Ecological Momentary Assessment in Audiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a methodology involving repeated assessments/surveys to collect data describing respondents’ current or very recent experiences and related contexts in their natural environments. The use of EMA in audiology research is growing. Purpose This study examined the construct validity (i.e., the degree to which a measurement reflects what it is intended to measure) of EMA in terms of measuring speech understanding and related listening context. Experiment 1 investigated the extent to which individuals can accurately report their speech recognition performance and characterize the listening context in controlled environments. Experiment 2 investigated whether the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in uncontrolled, real-world environments would reveal a valid pattern that was consistent with the established relationships between speech understanding, hearing aid use, listening context, and lifestyle. Research Design This is an observational study. Study Sample Twelve and twenty-seven adults with hearing impairment participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Data Collection and Analysis In the laboratory testing of Experiment 1, participants estimated their speech recognition performance in settings wherein the signal-to-noise ratio was fixed or constantly varied across sentences. In the field testing the participants reported the listening context (e.g., noisiness level) of several semicontrolled real-world conversations. Their reports were compared to (1) the context described by normal-hearing observers and (2) the background noise level measured using a sound level meter. In Experiment 2, participants repeatedly reported the degree of speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context using paper-and-pencil journals in their natural environments for 1 week. They also carried noise dosimeters to measure the sound level. The associations between (1) speech understanding, hearing aid

  1. On the Validity of Educational Evaluation and Its Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoping; Hu, Zhongfeng

    2015-01-01

    The main problem of the educational evaluation validity is that it just copies the conceptual framework system of validity from educational measurement to its own conceptual system. The validity conceptual system that fits the need of theory and practice of educational evaluation has not been established yet. According to the inherent attributive…

  2. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Arigo, Danielle R.; Raggio, Greer A.; Kaufman, Alison I.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). Method The PAAQ was administered to three distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; one sample also wore accelerometers for seven days (at baseline and six months later). Results The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = 0.89) and two subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = 0.86, Behavioral Commitment α = 0.85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; ps < 0.05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over six months (p = 0.05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over one week (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults. PMID:25106049

  3. Construct validity of the auditory continuous performance test for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Pillion, Joseph P; Hoffman, Jennifer; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Denckla, Martha B

    2005-01-01

    Development of diagnostic instruments directed toward neuropsychological assessment of preschoolers lags significantly behind those available for school-age children (DeWolfe, Byrne, & Bawden, 2000). This is particularly true for measures of executive function (EF). The Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers (ACPT-P; Mahone, Pillion, & Hiemenz, 2001) is a computerized, Go-No-go test developed to measure selected EF skills in preschoolers. First, to determine whether performance on the ACPT-P is associated with hearing impairment, we compared performance of children with mild hearing loss (MHL) to controls on the ACPT-P, and measures of spatial working memory (SWM) and motor persistence (MP). There were no differences between performance of the MHL group and controls on any of these measures. Second, to examine the construct validity of the ACPT-P, we compared performance of 40 preschoolers with ADHD to 40 age- and sex-matched controls, using the ACPT-P to measure response preparation, sustained attention, and inhibitory control. We also compared these groups on measures of SWM and MP. The group with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) performed significantly worse than controls on the ACPT-P (omissions, mean response time, variability) and MP. The ACPT-P was correlated with the MP, but not with the SWM measure. Both the ACPT-P and the MP measures showed low to moderate correlations with parent ratings of behavior associated with ADHD. These findings support the use of performance-based assessment of executive control skills in preschoolers suspected of having ADHD. In this age group, the ACPT-P may be particularly useful in assessing sustained attention and response preparation and may complement behavior rating scales. PMID:15737941

  4. Construct Maps: A Tool to Organize Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClarty, Katie Larsen

    2013-01-01

    The construct map is a promising tool for organizing the data standard-setting panelists interpret. The challenge in applying construct maps to standard-setting procedures will be the judicious selection of data to include within this organizing framework. Therefore, this commentary focuses on decisions about what to include in the construct map.…

  5. Adolescent Personality: A Five-Factor Model Construct Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Spencer T.; Victor, James B.; Chambers, Anthony L.; Halverson, Jr., Charles F.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate convergent and discriminant validity of the five-factor model of adolescent personality in a school setting using three different raters (methods): self-ratings, peer ratings, and teacher ratings. The authors investigated validity through a multitrait-multimethod matrix and a confirmatory factor…

  6. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  7. Construction and Validation of a Professional Suitability Scale for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the construction and validation of a professional suitability scale, designed for assessing students' suitability for social work practice. Data were collected from 188 field supervisors who provided usable questionnaires, representing a response rate of 74%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a…

  8. Construct Validity of a Self-Report Measure of Alexithymia in a Psychiatric Inpatient Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Robert F.; O'Neill, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    Examined construct validity of Shipko and Noviello's alexithymia scale (SNALEX), designed to assess one's difficulty identifying and expressing feelings, in 101 psychiatric inpatients. SNALEX scores correlated positively with Rorschach index of verbal productivity and negatively with subject age. Results do not support construct validity of SNALEX…

  9. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  10. The Work Cognition Inventory: Initial Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea; Houson, Dobie; Witt, David; Diehl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary literature lacks a comprehensive set of constructs that provides for understanding both the organizational and job factors that influence employee work passion. Through a detailed analysis of literature, this research identifies eight constructs that form the basis for the appraisal of an employee's work experience with the use of…

  11. The Construct Validation of an Attitudes toward Working Mothers Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetenbaum, Toby J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Attitude toward Working Mothers Scale to 526 graduate students. Findings demonstrated the reliability, validity and generalizability of the 32 item scale and suggested that the AWM Scale could be useful in research in maternal employment. (JAC)

  12. Validation of Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB). A Multimedia Measure of Adolescent Dating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Andra L.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Pacifici, Caesar

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB), a multimedia measure of adolescent dating attitudes, were examined. The ACSB is an interactive instrument that uses video vignettes to depict adolescent dating situations. Analyses of the measure's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  13. Construct validity of the five factor borderline inventory.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Lengel, Gregory J; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E; O'Meara, Madison; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    The Five Factor Borderline Inventory (FFBI) is a new self-report measure developed to assess traits of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from the perspective of the Five Factor Model of general personality. The current study sought to first replicate initial validity findings for the FFBI and then to further validate the FFBI with predispositional risk factors of the biosocial theory of BPD and with commonly associated features of BPD (e.g., depression, low self-esteem) utilizing two samples of young adults (N = 87; 85) who have engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury. The FFBI showed strong convergent and discriminant validity across two measures of the Five Factor Model and also correlated strongly with measures of impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD. The FFBI also related to two measures of early childhood emotional vulnerability and parental invalidation and measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Overall, the results provide support for the FFBI as a measure of BPD. PMID:25155158

  14. Construct validity of the five factor borderline inventory.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Lengel, Gregory J; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E; O'Meara, Madison; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    The Five Factor Borderline Inventory (FFBI) is a new self-report measure developed to assess traits of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from the perspective of the Five Factor Model of general personality. The current study sought to first replicate initial validity findings for the FFBI and then to further validate the FFBI with predispositional risk factors of the biosocial theory of BPD and with commonly associated features of BPD (e.g., depression, low self-esteem) utilizing two samples of young adults (N = 87; 85) who have engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury. The FFBI showed strong convergent and discriminant validity across two measures of the Five Factor Model and also correlated strongly with measures of impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD. The FFBI also related to two measures of early childhood emotional vulnerability and parental invalidation and measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Overall, the results provide support for the FFBI as a measure of BPD.

  15. Self-Efficacy and Marijuana Cessation: A Construct Validity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Robert S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines possible relationships between self-efficacy for avoiding marijuana use and theoretically related measures in a sample of 161 men and 51 women who sought marijuana cessation treatments. Predictive validity was stronger for frequency of posttreatment use than for abstinence status. Discusses the need for better assessment of the efficacy…

  16. Construction and Validation of an Observational Scale of Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, James R.; Waters, Tracy J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of the Neighborhood Observation Scale, a 41 item measure of neighborhood physical appearance, social appearance, safety, and amenities. Three independent ratings were collected on each of 244 neighborhoods in 132 census block groups in five South Carolina counties, for a total of 732 observations.…

  17. Constructs and Attributes in Test Validity: Reflections on Newton's Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    I congratulate Paul E. Newton on a thoughtful and evenhanded contribution to test validity theory. I especially appreciate the evident care that went into interpreting the various authors whose work Newton discusses. I found many useful insights along with the few minor points with which I might quibble. I comment on three aspects of Newton's…

  18. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  19. Construct Validity of Self-Reported Metacognitive Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…

  20. The Construct Validation of Tests of Communicative Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Adrian S., Ed.; And Others

    This collection, including the proceedings of a colloquium at TESOL 1979, includes the following papers: (1) "Classification of Oral Proficiency Tests," by H. Madsen and R. Jones; (2) "A Theoretical Framework for Communicative Competence," by M. Canale and M. Swain; (3) "Beyond Faith and Face Validity: The Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix and the…

  1. Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

  2. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM.

  3. The Construction and Initial Validation of the Work Volition Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Perry, Justin C.; Laurenzi, Cathy; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study constructed an instrument measuring work volition for adult populations, defined as the perceived capacity to make occupational choices despite constraints. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis produced a 3-factor structure containing subscales assessing general volition, financial constraints, and structural constraints. The full…

  4. The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Further Construct Validation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Donald G.; Pierce, Jon L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance,…

  5. A Construct Validation of the Administrative Diagnostic Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Theodore B.

    In November 1996, the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) approved the revision of the Administrative Diagnostic Inventory (ADI), the diagnostic procedure conducted in their assessment center. To assist the NAESP in the use of the ADI for the assessment of current and prospective school principals, the construct validity…

  6. Construction and Validation of a Children's Interpersonal Trust Belief Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Fox, Claire; Green, Sarah; Ruderman, Louise; Slater, Kevin; Stevens, Kelly; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    A scale was constructed to assess children's generalized trust beliefs (CGTB) in four target groups (mother, father, teacher and peer) with respect to three bases of trust: reliability, emotionality, and honesty. The CGTB Scale was administered to 145 Year 5 and 156 Year 6 children (mean age = 10 years, 1 month) residing in the English Midlands,…

  7. Is Test Taker Perception of Assessment Related to Construct Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…

  8. Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…

  9. A Think Aloud Study Comparing the Validity and Acceptability of Discrete Choice and Best Worst Scaling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Whitty, Jennifer A.; Walker, Ruth; Golenko, Xanthe; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study provides insights into the validity and acceptability of Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) and profile-case Best Worst Scaling (BWS) methods for eliciting preferences for health care in a priority-setting context. Methods An adult sample (N = 24) undertook a traditional DCE and a BWS choice task as part of a wider survey on Health Technology Assessment decision criteria. A ‘think aloud’ protocol was applied, whereby participants verbalized their thinking while making choices. Internal validity and acceptability were assessed through a thematic analysis of the decision-making process emerging from the qualitative data and a repeated choice task. Results A thematic analysis of the decision-making process demonstrated clear evidence of ‘trading’ between multiple attribute/levels for the DCE, and to a lesser extent for the BWS task. Limited evidence consistent with a sequential decision-making model was observed for the BWS task. For the BWS task, some participants found choosing the worst attribute/level conceptually challenging. A desire to provide a complete ranking from best to worst was observed. The majority (18,75%) of participants indicated a preference for DCE, as they felt this enabled comparison of alternative full profiles. Those preferring BWS were averse to choosing an undesirable characteristic that was part of a ‘package’, or perceived BWS to be less ethically conflicting or burdensome. In a repeated choice task, more participants were consistent for the DCE (22,92%) than BWS (10,42%) (p = 0.002). Conclusions This study supports the validity and acceptability of the traditional DCE format. Findings relating to the application of BWS profile methods are less definitive. Research avenues to further clarify the comparative merits of these preference elicitation methods are identified. PMID:24759637

  10. Social validation of component behaviors of following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, J M; Sherman, J A; Sheldon, J B; Quinn, L M; Harchik, A E

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated whether behaviors often taught as part of social skills training are judged favorably by others. Community judges evaluated the performances of people in various situations requiring one of three social skills: following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating to resolve conflicts. These skills were displayed in videotaped scenes by actors with and without mental retardation who acted out roles that had different types of authority relationships, and when different components or clusters of behavior (nonverbal, specific verbal, or general verbal behaviors) were performed well or poorly. The highest ratings by judges were of videotaped scenes that depicted correct use of all behaviors, regardless of which skill was being examined, whether or not the actor had mental retardation, or what the relationship was between the two actors. The lowest ratings were of videotaped scenes that depicted poor performance of all behaviors, and intermediate ratings were obtained when only some of the behaviors were performed poorly. These results, as well as the verbal responses of judges to questions, indicated that the different behaviors commonly used in teaching the skills of following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating are relevant to judgment of social performance, and are likely to be reinforced and maintained by social contingencies. PMID:1634429

  11. Do I matter? Construct validation of adolescents' perceived mattering to parents and friends.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S K

    2001-08-01

    Although the perception of mattering to others has been described as important for psychosocial well-being (Coopersmith, 1967; Rosenberg, 1985), very little attention has been given to the empirical study, measurement, and evaluation of this construct. The present project employed Loevinger's (1957) three-component model for construct validation to examine the construct validity of perceived mattering to mothers, fathers, and friends. Findings provide support for theoretical inferences about the characteristics of perceived mattering. For example, purpose for life and a sense of relatedness are positively associated with perceived mattering and perceived mattering appears to be a distinct construct from global self-esteem

  12. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  13. Attitude Patterns and the Production of Original Verbal Images: A Study in Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatena, Joe; Torrance, E. Paul

    1971-01-01

    The Runner Studies of Attitude Patterns, a personality inventory, was used as the criterion to determine construct validity of Sounds and Images and Onomatopoeia and Images, two tests of verbal originality. (KW)

  14. Construct validity of the helplessness/hopelessness/haplessness scale: correlations with perfectionism and depression.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Lester, David

    2007-02-01

    In a sample of 117 undergraduates, helplessness scores and the discrepancy scores on a measure of perfectionism predicted depression scores, providing evidence for construct validity for the hopelessness, helplessness, and haplessness scales. PMID:17450974

  15. Design, construction and validation of a portable care system for the daily telerehabiliatation of gait.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Brocco, Monica

    2013-10-01

    When designing a complete system of daily-telerehabilitation it should be borne in mind that properly designed methodologies should be furnished for patients to execute specific motion tasks and for care givers to assess the relevant parameters. Whether in hospital or at home, the system should feature two basic elements: (a) instrumented and walking aids or supports, (b) equipment for the assessment of parameters. Being gait the focus, the idea was to design, construct and validate - as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used - a simple, portable kit that may be easily interfaced/integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (instrumented walkways, aids, supports), with feedback to both patient for self-monitoring and trainer/therapist (present or remote) for clinical reporting. The proposed system consists of: one step-counter, three couples of photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data; a software interface on a dedicated PC and a network adapter. The system has been successfully validated in a clinical application on two groups of 16 subjects at the 1st and 2nd level of the Tinetti test. The degree of acceptance by subjects and care-givers was high. The system was also successfully compared with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a de facto standard. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and different ground rugosity. The advantages are: (a) very low costs when compared with optoelectronic solutions and other portable solutions; (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems; (c) good compatibility with any rehabilitative tool.

  16. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Wong-McSweeney, D; Woodcock, J S; Peris, E; Waddington, D C; Moorhouse, A T; Redel-Macías, M D

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure-response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure-response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure-response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure-response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N=321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. PMID:26875606

  17. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Wong-McSweeney, D; Woodcock, J S; Peris, E; Waddington, D C; Moorhouse, A T; Redel-Macías, M D

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure-response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure-response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure-response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure-response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N=321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom.

  18. Construction and Validation of SRA-FV Need Assessment.

    PubMed

    Thornton, David; Knight, Raymond A

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the construction and testing of a newly designed instrument to assess psychological factors associated with increased rates of sexual recidivism. The new instrument (Structured Risk Assessment-Forensic Version or SRA-FV) was based on previous research using the SRA framework. This article describes the results of testing SRA-FV with a large sample (N = 566) of sexual offenders being evaluated for an early civil commitment program. SRA-FV was found to significantly predict sexual recidivism for both child molesters and rapists and to have incremental predictive value relative to two widely used static actuarial instruments (Static-99R; Risk Matrix 2000/S).

  19. Learning to construct pushdown automata for accepting deterministic context-free languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sandip; Janakiraman, Janani

    1992-03-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of probabilistic optimization algorithms which utilize ideas from natural genetics. In this paper, we apply the genetic algorithm to a difficult machine learning problem, viz., to learn the description of pushdown automata (PDA) to accept a context-free language (CFL), given legal and illegal sentences of the language. Previous work has involved the use of GAs in learning descriptions for finite state machines for accepting regular languages. CFLs are known to properly include regular languages, and hence, the learning problem addressed here is of a greater complexity. The ability to accept context free languages can be applied to a number of practical problems like text processing, speech recognition, etc.

  20. Construct validity of clinical spinal mobility tests in ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcelo P; Stebbings, Simon M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine, using systematic review and meta-analysis, the level of evidence supporting the construct validity of spinal mobility tests for assessing patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Following the guidelines proposed in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, three sets of keywords were used for data searching: (i) ankylosing spondylitis, spondyloarthritis, spondyloarthropathy, spondylarthritis; (ii) accuracy, association, construct, correlation, Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials, OMERACT, truth, validity; (iii) mobility, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index-BASMI, radiography, spinal measures, cervical rotation, Schober (a further 19 keywords were used). Initially, 2558 records were identified, and from these, 21 studies were retained. Fourteen of these studies were considered high level of evidence. Compound indexes of spinal mobility showed mostly substantial to excellent levels of agreement with global structural damage. Individual mobility tests for the cervico-thoracic spine showed only moderate agreements with cervical structural damage, and considering structural damage at the lumbar spine, the original Schober was the only test that presented consistently substantial levels of agreement. Three studies assessed the construct validity of mobility measures for inflammation and low to fair levels of agreement were observed. Two meta-analyses were conducted, with assessment of agreement between BASMI and two radiological indexes of global structural damage. The spinal mobility indexes and the original Schober test show acceptable construct validity for inferring the extent of structural damage when assessing patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Spinal mobility measures do not reflect levels of inflammation at either the sacroiliac joints and/or the spine.

  1. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  2. Evidence of Construct Validity of the Interest Scales on the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Brandon A.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored evidence of the construct validity of the interest scales on the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS; Campbell, Hyne, & Nilsen, 1992) by testing evidence for convergent validity with the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Hansen & Campbell, 1985). Two hypotheses were formulated. First, matching CISS and SII scales were…

  3. Construct Validity of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART): Associations with Psychopathy and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa; Hopko, Derek R.; Bare, Robert; Lejuez, C. W.; Robinson, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    To continue research assessing the validity of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) as a measure of risk taking, the BART was administered to a nonforensic sample of individuals with varying levels of psychopathic characteristics. Construct validity of the BART was evaluated by measuring risk-taking behavior in relation to self-reported…

  4. Construct and Concurrent Validity of a Prototype Questionnaire to Survey Public Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…

  5. Simulation of Tangential Excision: A Test for Construct Validity.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, James J; Goldin, Ian M; O'Sullivan, Geoffrey M; Silverman, Elliott L; Mitchell, Katrina B; Yurt, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    A foundational skill in burn surgery is tangential excision (TE). The purpose of this study was to develop a simulation model for TE, hypothesizing that simulation could be used in surgical training. TE simulation was created using the TE knife, foam, mineral oil, and base. Subjects, surgeons, or surgeons in training, were given a pre- and post-task questionnaire about experience with TE. Subjects were divided into three TE experience groups: novice--none, intermediate--some, and expert--TE in current or past practice. The task was to excise pre-marked rectangles, generating four excisional products (EPs). Evaluators blindly assessed performance by EP analysis using a novel scoring tool and reviewed videos using a modified objective structured assessment of technical skill (OSATS) rubric. Inter-rater reliabilities and P values were obtained, comparing Novice and Intermediate with Expert scores. Forty subjects completed the study: 16 were identified as TE novices, 17 as intermediates, and seven as experts. All EPs and videos were reviewed blindly by two evaluators using the EP scoring tool and OSATS methodology, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to measure inter-rater reliabilities, which were acceptable (ICC => 0.42) for OSATS, time, and EP analysis: border and texture. Statistical differences between Novice and Expert scores were found (P < .0100, P < .0200, P < .0025, and P < .0005, respectively). Statistical differences between Intermediate and Expert scores were also found (P < .0100, P < .0200, P < .0100, and P < .0025, respectively). Post-simulation survey results showed experts 86% of the time agreeing or strongly agreeing that the simulation was similar to the clinical skin and 100% felt it would be a useful for training before clinical performance. Simulation for TE was successfully created to blindly discern level of TE experience. Participants agreed that simulation could play an essential role in burn surgical training.

  6. Evolution of the probiotic concept from conception to validation and acceptance in medical science.

    PubMed

    Dobrogosz, Walter J; Peacock, Trent J; Hassan, Hosni M

    2010-01-01

    Two pioneering achievements by Ilya Ilyich Metchnikoff were recorded in 1908. Most notable was his Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the innate cellular immune response to an infectious challenge. Of lesser note was his recommendation, "...to absorb large quantities of microbes, as a general belief is that microbes are harmful. This belief is erroneous. There are many useful microbes, amongst which the lactic bacilli have an honorable place." While his discovery of the inflammatory response was rapidly incorporated into our understanding of cellular immunity, his recommendation "to absorb large quantities of microbes," on the other hand, languished for decades in limbos of indifference, skepticism, and disbelief. The present chapter is a synopsis of salient discoveries made during the past 100 years, which gradually displaced these skepticisms, validated his concept of "useful microbes," and propelled his "lactic bacilli" into the mainstream of modern medical science, practice, and therapy. PMID:20602986

  7. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  8. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  9. The Motivation of Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior: Examination of Construct Validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…

  10. Construct Validity of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 in Clinical Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Christoph J.; Lutz, Johannes; Bahr, Tobias; Ruddel, Heinz; Hock, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Using two clinical samples of patients, the presented studies examined the construct validity of the recently revised Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3). Confirmatory factor analyses established a clear three-factor structure that corresponds to the postulated subdivision of the construct into correlated somatic, social, and cognitive components.…

  11. Construct Validity of Scores on a Developmental Assessment with Mathematical Patterns Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, Madhabi; Ferron, John

    1998-01-01

    Three analytic approaches were used in a framework of classical test theory to examine the construct validity of a mathematics assessment of 16 constructed response items. Results from 280 elementary school students across four age groups suggest a developmental structure of tasks and subdomains that was generally consistent with the test's…

  12. Examining the construct validity of affective judgments of physical activity measures.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Michael; Sala, Margarita; Tang, Rui; Baldwin, Austin

    2016-09-01

    Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research. Then, we examine the construct validity of a wide variety of affective judgment of physical activity measures in MTurk and student samples. Cronbach's alpha for the included measures was uniformly high; however, several scales contained excessively redundant items that ultimately lessen their construct validity. Moreover, dependability estimates for the majority of measures was poor, indicating high levels of transient measurement error. The included measures significantly predicted levels of physical activity; however, their relative predictive power was strongly associated with their dependability. In general, the affective judgment measures demonstrated poor convergent validity suggesting they are not interchangeable and best viewed as assessing distinct, albeit related, constructs. Another important limitation of these measures is that they exhibited poor discriminant validity from exercise self-efficacy, which represents an important theoretical and empirical issue for the field of health behavior research. Overall, the current findings indicate the available affective judgments of physical activity measures are suboptimal, have considerable construct validity limitations, and thereby prevent the further advancement of science, theory, and intervention development in this promising area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537007

  13. Transplantation of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage in an Animal Model (Xenograft and Autograft): Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Hitoshi; Watson, Deborah; Masuda, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for cartilage repair with minimal donor-site morbidity. The in vivo maturation of a tissue-engineered construct can be tested in the subcutaneous tissues of the same species for autografts or of immunocompromised animals for allografts or xenografts. This section describes detailed protocols for the surgical transplantation of a tissue-engineered construct into an animal model to assess construct validity.

  14. Keele Aches and Pains Study protocol: validity, acceptability, and feasibility of the Keele STarT MSK tool for subgrouping musculoskeletal patients in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Paul; Hill, Jonathan C; Protheroe, Joanne; Afolabi, Ebenezer K; Lewis, Martyn; Beardmore, Ruth; Hay, Elaine M; Mallen, Christian D; Bartlam, Bernadette; Saunders, Benjamin; van der Windt, Danielle A; Jowett, Sue; Foster, Nadine E; Dunn, Kate M

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions represent a considerable burden worldwide, and are predominantly managed in primary care. Evidence suggests that many musculoskeletal conditions share similar prognostic factors. Systematically assessing patient’s prognosis and matching treatments based on prognostic subgroups (stratified care) has been shown to be both clinically effective and cost-effective. This study (Keele Aches and Pains Study) aims to refine and examine the validity of a brief questionnaire (Keele STarT MSK tool) designed to enable risk stratification of primary care patients with the five most common musculoskeletal pain presentations. We also describe the subgroups of patients, and explore the acceptability and feasibility of using the tool and how the tool is best implemented in clinical practice. The study design is mixed methods: a prospective, quantitative observational cohort study with a linked qualitative focus group and interview study. Patients who have consulted their GP or health care practitioner about a relevant musculoskeletal condition will be recruited from general practice. Participating patients will complete a baseline questionnaire (shortly after consultation), plus questionnaires 2 and 6 months later. A subsample of patients, along with participating GPs and health care practitioners, will be invited to take part in qualitative focus groups and interviews. The Keele STarT MSK tool will be refined based on face, discriminant, construct, and predictive validity at baseline and 2 months, and validated using data from 6-month follow-up. Patient and clinician perspectives about using the tool will be explored. This study will provide a validated prognostic tool (Keele STarT MSK) with established cutoff points to stratify patients with the five most common musculoskeletal presentations into low-, medium-, and high-risk subgroups. The qualitative analysis of patient and health care perspectives will inform practitioners on how to embed the tool

  15. "It's an Acceptable Identity": Constructing "Girl" at the Intersections of Health, Media, and Meaning-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, J. Nicole; Hoskins, Marie L.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the authors' critical reflections that arose while engaging in research with girls recovering from an eating disorder. The authors address issues related to media, consumerism, and identity construction. They emphasize that while there are no clear solutions to dilemmas facing girls in North American culture, researchers and…

  16. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... including the existing permanent right-of-way for large diameter pipeline (pipe greater than 12 inches in diameter) to carry out routine construction. Pipeline 12 inches in diameter and smaller should use no more... by stands of mature trees, structures, or other features that exceed the age of the facility...

  17. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... including the existing permanent right-of-way for large diameter pipeline (pipe greater than 12 inches in diameter) to carry out routine construction. Pipeline 12 inches in diameter and smaller should use no more... by stands of mature trees, structures, or other features that exceed the age of the facility...

  18. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... including the existing permanent right-of-way for large diameter pipeline (pipe greater than 12 inches in diameter) to carry out routine construction. Pipeline 12 inches in diameter and smaller should use no more... by stands of mature trees, structures, or other features that exceed the age of the facility...

  19. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... including the existing permanent right-of-way for large diameter pipeline (pipe greater than 12 inches in diameter) to carry out routine construction. Pipeline 12 inches in diameter and smaller should use no more... by stands of mature trees, structures, or other features that exceed the age of the facility...

  20. Validation of a Spanish version of the psychological inflexibility in pain scale (PIPS) and an evaluation of its relation with acceptance of pain and mindfulness in sample of persons with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological flexibility has been suggested as a fundamental process in health. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) is one of the scales employed for assessing psychological inflexibility in pain patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the PIPS and secondly, to compare it to two other psychological constructs, the acceptance of pain and mindfulness scales. Methods The PIPS was translated into Spanish by two bilingual linguistic experts, and then, back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered along with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Face validity, construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and convergent validity were tested. Also a multiple regression analysis was carried out.The usual guidelines have been followed for cross-cultural adaptations. Results Data were very similar to the ones obtained in the original PIPS version. The construct validity confirmed the original two-components solution which explained 61.6% of the variance. The Spanish PIPS had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.90). The Spanish PIPS’ score correlated significantly with worse global functioning (r = 0.55), anxiety (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.66), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62), pain acceptance (r = −0.72) and mindfulness (r = −0.47), as well as correlating modestly with pain intensity (r = 0.12). The multiple regression analyses showed that psychological inflexibility, acceptance and mindfulness are not overlapped. Conclusions The Spanish PIPS scale appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of

  1. Evaluating constructs represented by symptom validity tests in forensic neuropsychological assessment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Richard I; Bowden, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new method to summarize diagnostic validity information to explore which constructs are captured by malingering tests. The Test Validation Summary applies mixed-groups validation to investigate the meaning of test constructs and to estimate test classification characteristics when test validation groups are not "pure" criterion groups (ie, "compliant" vs "malingering"), but members have variable probability of malingering. The method permits the use of tests with relatively low validity to validate tests of greater validity. In our initial analysis, we argue that the Rey 15-Item Memory Test is best construed as an "intention test" (capturing the intention of testtakers when taking a test) as opposed to an "effort test." Using the Test Validation Summary and mixed-groups validation, we demonstrate that as an indicator of "intention to feign cognitive impairment," the Rey 15-Item Memory Test has estimated false-positive rate (FPR) = 0.02 and true-positive rate (TPR) = 0.57. We then explore the meaning of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT), which uses a dichotomous classification of performance as valid or invalid. Although the WMT is commonly referred to as an "effort test," we argue that it likely captures both "intention" and "effort" but collapses this information into a single dichotomous classification of symptom validity. We demonstrate that, as a result of this dichotomous classification process, the WMT likely has a problematic FPR. In our analysis of previously published WMT data, the WMT FPR is estimated at 0.12 when there is no predisposition to perform poorly but rises dramatically and unrealistically as the predisposition to perform poorly increases. We compare these findings to those of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), which captures both intent and effort to classify 4 different sorts of response styles in cognitive testing. In our analyses, the VIP demonstrates that FPR = 0 and TPR = 0.86 when the construct being measured is

  2. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs: customer and competitor orientation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F

    2008-08-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures.

  3. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs: customer and competitor orientation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F

    2008-08-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures. PMID:18982953

  4. The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: a multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Michel; Pons, Frank; Richard, Marie-Odile

    2009-08-01

    The authors focused on the role of language use in measuring ethnic identity. They demonstrated the construct validity of a 3-dimensional measure and examined potential biases introduced by alternative methods such as constant sum scale. Their findings support the distinction between the 3 subdimensions of language use (English use in family, in media consumption, and while shopping). The authors found evidence of discriminant validity. By using 3 approaches to construct validity, they found that the support for discriminant validity strengthens the discriminant and convergent properties of the instrument. Findings concerning method effects were less obvious. If the traditional multitrait-multimethod approach indicates no method effects, more stringent approaches (e.g., analysis of variance and correlated uniqueness approach) indicate the presence of limited method effects. The authors provide implications regarding measurement of ethnic identity.

  5. Elaborating on the construct validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure in a criminal offender sample.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jennifer H; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger (2009) developed the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in an effort to integrate historical theories and contemporary measurement models. The model proposes 3 phenotypic domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Patrick (2010) developed the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), a 58-item self-report measure, to index these 3 domains. This study examined the construct validity of the TriPM in a sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 141) and found evidence of good construct validity in that the scales were related to conceptually relevant normal-range and dysfunctional personality trait criteria, as well as narcissism and deficits in empathy. PMID:23113864

  6. The Kramer-Froehle controversy: a contribution to construct validity of the FIRO-B questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gluck, G A

    1979-10-01

    Replicated the conditions established by Kramer in his attempt to contribute to the construct validation of the FIRO-B. Froehle's apparent later replication produced significantly different results from Kramer's original study. In replicating Kramer's design this researcher wished to establish whether the earlier failure to replicate was due to a difference in design or to an actual lack of construct validity of the FIRO-B. Kramer's findings were supported and an alternative explanation for the difference in Kramer's and Froehle's findings is discussed.

  7. Validation study of a ray-tracing simulator for focal construct geometry.

    PubMed

    Dicken, Anthony; Rogers, Keith; Godber, Simon; Prokopiou, Danae; Shevchuk, Alex; Tranfield, Graham; Evans, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a computer modelling package designed to simulate X-ray diffraction imaging employing focal construct geometry. The paths of coherently diffracted X-rays are modelled by ray-tracing. The results of the study show good agreement between simulated and measured data obtained in the laboratory. The validation of the modelling package permits the rapid optimisation and prototyping of focal construct technology, which has wide applicability in security X-ray imaging.

  8. Positive psychological measure: constructing and evaluating the reliability and validity of a Chinese Humor Scale applicable to professional nursing.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh

    2005-09-01

    The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p's<.001). The CHS was tested using item analysis. The scale was constructed in accordance with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (K.M.O.=.92). Thirty CHS items, categorized under the four indices of "humorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing.

  9. Construct Validation of a Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Test for Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaus, Stephanie; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E.; Glas, Cees A. W.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing enables precise measurements of patient-reported outcomes at an individual level across different dimensions. This study examined the construct validity of a multidimensional computerized adaptive test (CAT) for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The ‘CAT Fatigue RA’ was constructed based on a previously calibrated item bank. It contains 196 items and three dimensions: ‘severity’, ‘impact’ and ‘variability’ of fatigue. The CAT was administered to 166 patients with RA. They also completed a traditional, multidimensional fatigue questionnaire (BRAF-MDQ) and the SF-36 in order to examine the CAT’s construct validity. A priori criterion for construct validity was that 75% of the correlations between the CAT dimensions and the subscales of the other questionnaires were as expected. Furthermore, comprehensive use of the item bank, measurement precision and score distribution were investigated. Results The a priori criterion for construct validity was supported for two of the three CAT dimensions (severity and impact but not for variability). For severity and impact, 87% of the correlations with the subscales of the well-established questionnaires were as expected but for variability, 53% of the hypothesised relations were found. Eighty-nine percent of the items were selected between one and 137 times for CAT administrations. Measurement precision was excellent for the severity and impact dimensions, with more than 90% of the CAT administrations reaching a standard error below 0.32. The variability dimension showed good measurement precision with 90% of the CAT administrations reaching a standard error below 0.44. No floor- or ceiling-effects were found for the three dimensions. Conclusion The CAT Fatigue RA showed good construct validity and excellent measurement precision on the dimensions severity and impact. The dimension variability had less ideal measurement characteristics

  10. Construct Validity of the Scores of the Chinese Version of the Need for Closure Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneta, Giovanni B.; Yip, Pelen P. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the construct validity of the scores of the Chinese version of the Need for Closure Scale (NFCS) as administered to a sample of Hong Kong college students who also completed the Personal Need for Structure Scale (PNS) and the Personal Fear of Invalidity Scale (PFI). The scale-scale and scale-facet correlations were similar to…

  11. Integrating Clinical Assessment with Cognitive Neuroscience: Construct Validation of the California Verbal Learning Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delis, Dean C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored validity of new clinical test of verbal memory incorporating constructs from normal and pathological memory research, to quantify the ways examinees learn verbal material. Factor analyses of normal subjects and neurological patients indicated that verbal memory consisted of a number of component factors, reflecting learning strategy,…

  12. Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education Activities Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Ugur Altay

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…

  13. Second-Order Factor Structure of the MBTI: A Construct Validity Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Borrello, Gloria M.

    1986-01-01

    Factor adequacy and other results based on data from college students (N=359) provided positive evidence regarding the construct validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Second order factor analysis supported the appropriateness of the MBTI item weighting procedures. (Author/ABB)

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--China Form: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…

  15. Experimental manipulation of working memory model parameters: an exercise in construct validity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory G; Turner, Travis H; Mano, Quintino R; Bolden, Khalima; Thomas, Michael L

    2013-09-01

    As parametric cognitive models become more commonly used to measure individual differences, the construct validity of the interpretation of individual model parameters needs to be well established. The validity of the interpretation of 2 parameters of a formal model of the Continuous Recognition Memory Test (CRMT) was investigated in 2 experiments. The 1st study found that manipulating the percentage of trials on the CRMT for which degraded pseudowords were presented altered the model's stimulus encoding parameter but not the working memory displacement parameter. The 2nd experiment showed that manipulating the number of syllables forming a pseudoword altered the model's working memory displacement parameter for each syllable added to the pseudoword. Findings from both experiments supported the construct representation of the model parameters, supporting the construct validity of the model's use to interpret CRMT performance. Combining parametric models with the manipulation of factors that theory predicts are related to model parameters provides an approach to construct validation that bridges experimental and individual difference methods of studying human cognition.

  16. The Construct Validation of a Questionnaire of Social and Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Noghani, Mohsen; Zabihi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to construct and validate a questionnaire of social and cultural capital in the foreign language context of Iran. To this end, a questionnaire was designed by picking up the most frequently-used indicators of social and cultural capital. The Factorability of the intercorrelation matrix was measured by two tests:…

  17. The Incremental Validity of Religious Constructs in Predicting Quality of Life, Racism, and Sexual Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csarny, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which certain religious/spiritual constructs simply reflect personality variables and to what extent they describe unique components of individual differences. It assessed the incremental validity of several recent or widely used religious measures over personality dimensions in predicting quality of life, racism,…

  18. Testing the Cross-Ethnic Construct Validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-ethnic construct validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Method: The sample consisted of 1,166 individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness who were receiving treatment in community-based mental health programs. Multiple-group confirmatory factor…

  19. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  20. Assessment Center Construct-Related Validity: Stepping beyond the MTMM Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Mark C.; Woehr, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Monte Carlo research has illustrated that the traditional method for assessing the construct-related validity of assessment center (AC) post-exercise dimension ratings (PEDRs), an application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to a multitrait-multimethod matrix, produces inconsistent results [Lance, C. E., Woehr, D. J., & Meade, A. W.…

  1. The Reliability and Construct Validity of Ratings for the Autism Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and construct validity of ratings for the Autism Behavior Checklist were examined with a sample of 198 children diagnosed with autistic disorder and conditions often confused with autism. Alpha coefficients for the five scales of the ABC as well as the Total Score were reported and the factor structure of the ABC was examined…

  2. Self Concept in a School Setting: Construct Validation by Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sylvia T.

    A model of self concept in children was examined by conducting a construct validation of a self concept instrument, the Self-Appraisal Inventory (SAI). The SAI was an 80-item instrument with four subscales: General, Family, Peer and Scholastic, all of which were based on behavioral objectives. The model was made more useful for a school setting…

  3. Construct Validation of the Strong Interest Inventory Adventure Scale among Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and scores on the Adventure scale of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) among female college students (n=55). Women scoring high on the SSS scales also scored high on the Adventure scale, thereby supporting the construct validity of the SII Adventure scale. (RJM)

  4. A Construct Validity Study of Clinical Competence: A Multitrait Multimethod Matrix Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baig, Lubna; Violato, Claudio; Crutcher, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to adduce evidence for estimating the construct validity of clinical competence measured through assessment instruments used for high-stakes examinations. Methods: Thirty-nine international physicians (mean age = 41 + 6.5 y) participated in high-stakes examination and 3-month supervised clinical practice…

  5. Testing the Construct Validity of Proposed Criteria for "DSM-5" Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandy, William P. L.; Charman, Tony; Skuse, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the proposed "DSM-5" symptom model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison to alternative models, including that described in "DSM-IV-TR." Method: Participants were 708 verbal children and young persons (mean age, 9.5 years) with mild to severe autistic…

  6. A Construct Validation Study of Phonological Awareness for Children Entering Prekindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…

  7. The Kramer-Froehle Controversy: A Contribution to Construct Validity of the FIRO-B Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Gerald A.

    1979-01-01

    Kramer's study supporting the construct validity of the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (Firo-B) scale was replicated in this experiment. The significantly different results reported by Froehle may be due to differences in the populations sampled and in their environment. (GDC)

  8. The Use of Variants of the Trail Making Test in Serial Assessment: A Construct Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ryan, Jeanne P.

    2008-01-01

    The construct validity of three variants of the Trail Making Test was investigated using 162 undergraduate psychology students. During a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Comprehensive Trail Making Test, and Connections Task were administered in six possible orders. Using confirmatory factor…

  9. Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Teacher Knowledge of Basic Language Constructs of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty,…

  10. Diagnostic Construct Validity of MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael; Kushner, Shauna; Quilty, Lena C.; Ayearst, Lindsay E.

    2012-01-01

    In the current investigation, the authors examined the diagnostic construct validity of the "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form" (MMPI-2-RF) in a patient sample. All participants were diagnosed via the "Structured Clinical Interview" for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P). The data set used in this study was composed…

  11. Constructing and Validating the Foreign Language Attitudes and Goals Survey (FLAGS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Eva; Granena, Gisela; Tragant, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the process that was followed in the construction and validation of the foreign language attitudes and goals survey (FLAGS), a new questionnaire based on qualitative data from Tragant and Munoz [Tragant, Munoz, C., 2000. "La motivacion y su relacion con la edad en un contexto escolar de aprendizaje de una lengua…

  12. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  13. Construct Validity and Reliability of College Students' Responses to the Reasons for Smoking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Marinaro, Laura Marie

    2010-01-01

    When utilizing self-assessments to determine motives for health behaviors, it is essential that the resulting data demonstrate sound psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to assess the reliability and construct validity of college students' responses to the Reasons for Smoking Scale (RFS). Confirmatory factor analyses and…

  14. Construct Validity Examination of Critical Thinking Dispositions for Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadi, Ibrahim; Alwi, Nor Hayati; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Talib, Othman

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the psychology properties of the construct validity for the Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) instrument. The CTD instrument consists of 39 Likert-type items measuring seven dispositions, namely analyticity, open-mind, truth-seeking, systematicity, self-confidence inquisitiveness and maturity. The study involves…

  15. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  16. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy: Construct and Incremental Validity in Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…

  17. A Comparison of the Construct Validity of Three Measures of Negative Affectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of three measures of negative affectivity (NA) by examining their relationships with measures of job stressors, strains, and attitudes. The authors also examined the extent to which controlling for scores on NA attenuated relationships between job stressors and strains differently depending on the NA and…

  18. Construct Validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…

  19. The Construct Validity of Attitudes toward Career Counseling Scale for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Suk Kyung; In Park, Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Attitudes Toward Career Counseling Scale (ATCCS) in Korea. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used for testing the factor structure of the scale. The results supported a two-factor (value and stigma) model, which was theoretically driven from the original study. Results of…

  20. Construct Validity of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities: Regression Analysis with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Ernest O.; Wiebe, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    A sample of preschool children was used to assess the construct validity of each of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Clinical interpretation of the General Cognitive Index (GCI) may be warranted, but diagnostic use of the Memory or Motor Scales with preschool children should be avoided. (Author/GK)

  1. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  2. Modeling MTMM Data from Additive and Multiplicative Covariance Structures: An Audit of Construct Validity Concordance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Goffin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Extent to which findings derived from 4 approaches to multimethod multitrait analyses (MTMM) were consistent in providing estimates of construct validity related to measurement of 4 dimensions of perceived competence across 4 maximally dissimilar rating methods was determined using sample of 158 eleventh graders in Canada. Four MTMM approaches…

  3. Construction and Validation of a Chinese SRL-Based Reading Instruction Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to construct and validate a Chinese self-regulated learning (SRL)-based reading instruction questionnaire (CSRIQ) and to examine the relationship between Chinese reading instruction and Hong Kong students' reading development from the SRL perspective. A total of 339 Grade 10 students completed the initial CSRIQ in Study…

  4. Construct Validity for the Activity Vector Analysis Utilizing the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) to the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in 114 employed adults. Examination of descriptions of dimensions defined by obtained structure vectors associated with each instrument based on the canonical correlation linear composites suggested construct validity for the AVA relative to the 16PF…

  5. Construct Validation and Application of a Common Measure of Social Cohesion in 33 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…

  6. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV with a Referred Sample: Direct versus Indirect Hierarchical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…

  7. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  8. Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness: Construct Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Witte, Tracy K.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted…

  9. Construct Validity of the Infant Motor Profile: Relation with Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Fidler, Vaclav; Middelburg, Karin J.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) is a qualitative assessment of motor behaviour of infants aged 3 to 18 months. The aim of this study was to investigate construct validity of the IMP through the relation of IMP scores with prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal variables, including the presence of brain pathology indicated by neonatal ultrasound…

  10. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use.

    PubMed

    Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L; Lynch, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472

  11. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Christopher L.; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L.; Lynch, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472

  12. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use.

    PubMed

    Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L; Lynch, Paul J

    2015-12-15

    Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed.

  13. Effects of impression management and self-deception on the predictive validity of personality constructs.

    PubMed

    Barrick, M R; Mount, M K

    1996-06-01

    This study tests whether 2 types of response distortion (self-deception and impression management) affect the predictive validity of 2 of the "Big 5" personality dimensions, conscientiousness and emotional stability, in 2 applicant samples of long-haul semitruck drivers (n = 147 and n = 139). As hypothesized, conscientiousness (p = -.26 and -.26) and emotional stability (p = -.23 and -.21) were valid predictors of voluntary turnover in the 2 samples. Also as hypothesized, conscientiousness was a valid predictor of supervisory ratings of performance (p = .41 and .39) in the 2 samples. Although not hypothesized, emotional stability was also significantly related to supervisor ratings of performance (p = .23 and .27). Results from structural equations modeling indicated that applicants did distort their scores on both personality dimensions and the distortion occurred both through self-deception and impression management; however, neither type of distortion attenuated the predictive validities of either personality construct. PMID:8690688

  14. Latent inhibition and blocking: further consideration of their construct validity as animal models of schizophrenia Commentary on Ellenbroek and Cools "Animal models with construct validity for schizophrenia"

    PubMed

    Joseph, M.H.; Jones, S.H.

    1991-12-01

    Conventional animal models of schizophrenia do not pretend to account for the symptoms of schizophrenia; i.e. they lack construct validity. Ellenbroek and Cools (1990) have reviewed a number of other models with construct validity for fundamental psychological processes, which are hypothesised to be deficient in schizophrenia. Two of these, Latent Inhibition (LI) and the Kamin Blocking effect (KB), essentially demonstrate the effects of prior learning on the formation of current associations. Animal studies have now shown that LI and KB are disrupted by increased dopaminergic activity, and restored by dopaminergic blockade. The present paper adds to the database described by Ellenbroek and Cools and discusses some further theoretical and practical issues. Specifically: (a) Kamin's blocking is disrupted in acute, but not in chronic schizophrenic subjects; (b) LI and KB are not simply examples of associative interference; (c) The masking task used in adult human studies of LI does not introduce an element of blocking as defined by Kamin's paradigm; (d) A direct study of "selective attention" in acute schizophrenia suggests that the impairment in LI and KB relates to the utilisation of experience about past regularities, rather than a generalised attentional deficit; (e) Recent studies, especially with nicotine, indicate that LI can be disrupted by drug administration during acquisition only; (f) It is now possible to study the release of dopamine, and of other transmitters in the nucleus accumbens and in other brain areas, during the behavioural paradigm of LI in rats. In this way it should be possible to determine directly the neuronal circuitry involved in LI (and KB): this approach could explain the link between the neuropathology and neuropharmacology of schizophrenia and its symptoms, besides providing more valid test procedures for evaluating potential neuroleptic drugs.

  15. Construct Validity of Four Frailty Measures in an Older Australian Population: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, I S; Pratt, N; Russell, M; Roughead, E E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals identified as frail have been shown to be at an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. However, there is no gold standard frailty measure and frailty status can vary depending on the measure used, suggesting the measures perform differently. Construct validity can be used to assess a measure's performance. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of four frailty measures in an Australian older population using Rasch analysis. Frailty status among the 2087 participants aged 65 years and above from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) was assessed using: frailty phenotype--FP, simplified frailty phenotype--SFP, frailty index--FI, and prognostic frailty score--PFS. Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the measures, which is the extent to which the underlying characteristic of frailty is assessed. The criteria for unidimensionality from principal component analysis of the residuals was when 50% or more of the raw variance was explained by the measures, and less than 5% was unexplained variance. Only FI meet the unidimensionality criteria with 74% of explained variance and 2.1% of unexplained variance. SFP did not show a unidimensional construct with 13.3% of explained variance and 47.1% of unexplained variance. FP and PFS had 39.6%, 18.1% and 46.5%, 8.7% of explained and unexplained variance, respectively. Our findings showed that FI has better construct validity than the other three measures in assessing frailty among the Australian older population. PMID:27224497

  16. Development, Construction, and Content Validation of a Questionnaire to Test Mobile Shower Commode Usability

    PubMed Central

    Theodoros, Deborah G.; Russell, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Usability is an emerging domain of outcomes measurement in assistive technology provision. Currently, no questionnaires exist to test the usability of mobile shower commodes (MSCs) used by adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To describe the development, construction, and initial content validation of an electronic questionnaire to test mobile shower commode usability for this population. Methods: The questionnaire was constructed using a mixed-methods approach in 5 phases: determining user preferences for the questionnaire’s format, developing an item bank of usability indicators from the literature and judgement of experts, constructing a preliminary questionnaire, assessing content validity with a panel of experts, and constructing the final questionnaire. Results: The electronic Mobile Shower Commode Assessment Tool Version 1.0 (eMAST 1.0) questionnaire tests MSC features and performance during activities identified using a mixed-methods approach and in consultation with users. It confirms that usability is complex and multidimensional. The final questionnaire contains 25 questions in 3 sections. The eMAST 1.0 demonstrates excellent content validity as determined by a small sample of expert clinicians. Conclusion: The eMAST 1.0 tests usability of MSCs from the perspective of adults with SCI and may be used to solicit feedback during MSC design, assessment, prescription, and ongoing use. Further studies assessing the eMAST’s psychometric properties, including studies with users of MSCs, are needed. PMID:25762862

  17. Construct Validity of Four Frailty Measures in an Older Australian Population: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, I S; Pratt, N; Russell, M; Roughead, E E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals identified as frail have been shown to be at an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. However, there is no gold standard frailty measure and frailty status can vary depending on the measure used, suggesting the measures perform differently. Construct validity can be used to assess a measure's performance. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of four frailty measures in an Australian older population using Rasch analysis. Frailty status among the 2087 participants aged 65 years and above from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) was assessed using: frailty phenotype--FP, simplified frailty phenotype--SFP, frailty index--FI, and prognostic frailty score--PFS. Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the measures, which is the extent to which the underlying characteristic of frailty is assessed. The criteria for unidimensionality from principal component analysis of the residuals was when 50% or more of the raw variance was explained by the measures, and less than 5% was unexplained variance. Only FI meet the unidimensionality criteria with 74% of explained variance and 2.1% of unexplained variance. SFP did not show a unidimensional construct with 13.3% of explained variance and 47.1% of unexplained variance. FP and PFS had 39.6%, 18.1% and 46.5%, 8.7% of explained and unexplained variance, respectively. Our findings showed that FI has better construct validity than the other three measures in assessing frailty among the Australian older population.

  18. The motivation of stereotypic and repetitive behavior: examination of construct validity of the motivation assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C

    2008-08-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: "to gain attention", "to gain a tangible object", and "to escape". There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

  19. The construction and validation of a measure of Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict.

    PubMed

    Ward, Colleen; Stuart, Jaimee; Kus, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    The research describes the construction and validation of the Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict Scale (EICS) based on 3 independent samples totaling 975 immigrants, international students, and members of ethnic minority groups. The convergent validity of the 20-item scale was supported by its correlations with Self-Concept Clarity (r = -.65), Sense of Coherence (r = -.58), Identity Distress (r = .48), and the Cultural Conflict (r = .62) and Cultural Distance (r = .21) components of the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale. EICS was also linked to contemporary acculturation research with integrated migrants experiencing less conflict than those who were separated, assimilated, or marginalized. PMID:21859286

  20. Validation of an instrument for assessing teacher knowledge of basic language constructs of literacy.

    PubMed

    Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K

    2012-10-01

    Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination were computed and examined to identify model fit by applying exploratory factor analysis. Such analyses showed that the instrument demonstrated adequate estimates of reliability in assessing teachers' knowledge of language constructs. The implications for professional development of in-service teachers as well as preservice teacher education are also discussed.

  1. Validation of an instrument for assessing teacher knowledge of basic language constructs of literacy.

    PubMed

    Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K

    2012-10-01

    Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination were computed and examined to identify model fit by applying exploratory factor analysis. Such analyses showed that the instrument demonstrated adequate estimates of reliability in assessing teachers' knowledge of language constructs. The implications for professional development of in-service teachers as well as preservice teacher education are also discussed. PMID:22843431

  2. Construct Validity of Medical Clinical Competence Measures: A Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix Study Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, George B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Construct validity was investigated for three tests of clinical competence in medicine: National Board of Medical Examiners examination (NBME), California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and Resident Evaluation Form (REF). Scores from 166 residents were analyzed. Results suggested low construct validity for CPI and REF scales, and moderate…

  3. Development and Construct Validation of a Situational Judgment Test of Strategic Knowledge of Classroom Management in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Bernadette; Holodynski, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the development and construct validation of a situational judgment test for assessing the strategic knowledge of classroom management in elementary schools. Classroom scenarios and accompanying courses of action were constructed, of which 17 experts confirmed the content validity. A pilot study and a cross-validation…

  4. Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples.

    PubMed

    Baer, Ruth A; Smith, Gregory T; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J Mark G

    2008-09-01

    Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors investigated several aspects of the construct validity of the FFMQ in experienced meditators and nonmeditating comparison groups. Consistent with predictions, most mindfulness facets were significantly related to meditation experience and to psychological symptoms and well-being. As expected, relationships between the observing facet and psychological adjustment varied with meditation experience. Regression and mediation analyses showed that several of the facets contributed independently to the prediction of well-being and significantly mediated the relationship between meditation experience and well-being. Findings support the construct validity of the FFMQ in a combination of samples not previously investigated.

  5. Poor Validity of the DSM-IV Schizoid Personality Disorder Construct as a Diagnostic Category.

    PubMed

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the construct validity of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) by investigating a sample of 2,619 patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs by a variety of statistical techniques. Nineteen patients (0.7%) reached the diagnostic threshold of SZPD. Results from the factor analyses indicated that SZPD consists of three factors: social detachment, withdrawal, and restricted affectivity/ anhedonia. Overall, internal consistency and diagnostic efficiency were poor and best for the criteria that belong to the social detachment factor. These findings pose serious questions about the clinical utility of SZPD as a diagnostic category. On the other hand, the three factors were in concordance with findings from previous studies and with the trait model for personality disorders in DSM-5, supporting the validity of SZPD as a dimensional construct. The authors recommend that SZPD should be deleted as a diagnostic category in future editions of DSM-5.

  6. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  7. Multidimensional Approach Toward Spiritual Coping: Construction and Validation of the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ).

    PubMed

    Charzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research was to construct the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ). Two studies have been carried out: the first on the sample of 1,296 persons facing stressful situations, and the second, on 352 persons undergoing alcohol addiction therapy. The first study provided data for PCA and CFA, calculation of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and descriptive statistics of the questionnaire. The second study allowed the author to verify the construct and criterion validity of the tool. The final version of the SCQ is composed of 32 items constituting two scales: positive and negative spiritual coping. The scale of positive spiritual coping includes four subscales-domains (personal, social, environmental and religious), and the scale of negative spiritual coping, three subscales (personal, social and religious). The validity and reliability of the tool are satisfactory. The questionnaire can be used to measure spiritual coping, both among religious and non-religious people. PMID:24898542

  8. Construct Validity and Test Re-Test Reliability of the Forgotten Joint Score.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon M; Salmon, Lucy J; Webb, Justin M; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P

    2015-11-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing knee arthroplasty completed questionnaires: FJS, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and WOMAC Score (mean 39 months after surgery), and were mailed a repeat questionnaire after 4 to 6 weeks. The test-retest reliability was almost perfect for the FJS (ICC = 0.97), and the FJS subdomains (ICC > 0.8). Convergent construct validity of the FJS was correlated with the KOOS Subscores of Quality of Life (0.63, P = 0.001), Symptom (0.33, P = 0.001), Pain (0.68, P = 0.001) and ADL (0.66, P = 0.001) and the Total WOMAC (0.70, P = 0.001). The FJS demonstrates high test-retest reliability and construct validity compared to the Normalised WOMAC and KOOS Subscales. The FJS does not demonstrate the ceiling effect of the WOMAC or KOOS pain scores so may have greater discriminatory ability following TKR.

  9. Construction and validation of questionnaire to assess recreational noise exposure in university students.

    PubMed

    Fuentes López, Eduardo A; Morales, Felipe Cardemil

    2014-01-01

    Recreational noise exposure and its impact on hearing is a problem to which increasing attention is being paid. In Spanish, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid instrument that is capable of describing the extent of noise exposure. The aim was to create and validate an instrument to determine listening habits and levels of recreational noise exposure in young people. We performed a transversal questionnaire validation study using university students. We assessed the validity of the content and appearance of the "Recreational Hearing Habits Questionnaire" (CHAR in Spanish) through experts' judgment. Then we piloted the administration of semantic adaptation with 30 students. Finally, the instrument was applied to 335 Chilean university students, obtaining with these indicators that demonstrated convergent validity of the construct, criterion and reliability. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as correlation and agreement tests. It was confirmed that 14 questions in the questionnaire have a good item-test correlation, having also a factorial structure that indicates the existence of three-dimensions. The questionnaire has good internal consistency and convergent validity with the Noise Exposure Questionnaire. In addition, the score obtained in the CHAR is a predictor of the presence of notch at frequencies of 4 kHz in the right ear and 6 kHz in the left. The CHAR is useful for determining listening habits and thereby recreational noise exposure, indicating good psychometric properties.

  10. Construction and validation of questionnaire to assess recreational noise exposure in university students.

    PubMed

    Fuentes López, Eduardo A; Morales, Felipe Cardemil

    2014-01-01

    Recreational noise exposure and its impact on hearing is a problem to which increasing attention is being paid. In Spanish, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid instrument that is capable of describing the extent of noise exposure. The aim was to create and validate an instrument to determine listening habits and levels of recreational noise exposure in young people. We performed a transversal questionnaire validation study using university students. We assessed the validity of the content and appearance of the "Recreational Hearing Habits Questionnaire" (CHAR in Spanish) through experts' judgment. Then we piloted the administration of semantic adaptation with 30 students. Finally, the instrument was applied to 335 Chilean university students, obtaining with these indicators that demonstrated convergent validity of the construct, criterion and reliability. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as correlation and agreement tests. It was confirmed that 14 questions in the questionnaire have a good item-test correlation, having also a factorial structure that indicates the existence of three-dimensions. The questionnaire has good internal consistency and convergent validity with the Noise Exposure Questionnaire. In addition, the score obtained in the CHAR is a predictor of the presence of notch at frequencies of 4 kHz in the right ear and 6 kHz in the left. The CHAR is useful for determining listening habits and thereby recreational noise exposure, indicating good psychometric properties. PMID:25209039

  11. Construct validity of adolescents' self-reported big five personality traits: importance of conceptual breadth and initial validation of a short measure.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Julien

    2014-10-01

    While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures.

  12. Dynamic testing in schizophrenia: does training change the construct validity of a test?

    PubMed

    Wiedl, Karl H; Schöttke, Henning; Green, Michael F; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic testing typically involves specific interventions for a test to assess the extent to which test performance can be modified, beyond level of baseline (static) performance. This study used a dynamic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) that is based on cognitive remediation techniques within a test-training-test procedure. From results of previous studies with schizophrenia patients, we concluded that the dynamic and static versions of the WCST should have different construct validity. This hypothesis was tested by examining the patterns of correlations with measures of executive functioning, secondary verbal memory, and verbal intelligence. Results demonstrated a specific construct validity of WCST dynamic (i.e., posttest) scores as an index of problem solving (Tower of Hanoi) and secondary verbal memory and learning (Auditory Verbal Learning Test), whereas the impact of general verbal capacity and selective attention (Verbal IQ, Stroop Test) was reduced. It is concluded that the construct validity of the test changes with dynamic administration and that this difference helps to explain why the dynamic version of the WCST predicts functional outcome better than the static version. PMID:15954185

  13. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): evidence of construct validity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver proxy-report version of the Chinese version of the CP QOL-Child in children with CP using CFA. A total of 312 children with CP (mean age: 8.59 years, SD: 2.52 years) and their caregivers participated in this study. The Chinese version of the CP QOL-Child was completed by the caregivers of children with CP. Then, CFA was applied to evaluate the seven-factor measurement structure of the CP QOL-Child. The seven-factor CFA model had an adequate fit to our data as judged by χ(2) statistic and various goodness-of-fit (GOF) indices, including the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). This study provided empirical evidence of the construct validity of the CP QOL-Child to support its use with children with CP in the Chinese speaking society.

  14. Assessing the vulnerability of women to sexually transmitted diseases STDS/ HIV: construction and validation of markers.

    PubMed

    Guanilo, Mónica Cecilia De la Torre Ugarte; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2014-08-01

    Objective To construct and validate markers of vulnerability of women to STDs/HIV, taking into consideration the importance of STDs/HIV. Method Methodological study carried out in three stages: 1) systematic review and identification of elements of vulnerability in the scientific production; 2) selection of elements of vulnerability, and development of markers; 3) establishment of the expert group and validation of the markers (content validity). Results Five markers were validated: no openness in the relationship to discuss aspects related to prevention of STDs/HIV; no perception of vulnerability to STDs/HIV; disregard of vulnerability to STDs/ HIV; not recognizing herself as the subject of sexual and reproductive rights; actions of health professionals that limit women's access to prevention of STDs/HIV. Each marker contains three to eleven components. Conclusion The construction of such markers constituted an instrument, presented in another publication, which can contribute to support the identification of vulnerabilities of women in relation to STDs/HIV in the context of primary health care services. The markers constitute an important tool for the operationalization of the concept of vulnerability in primary health care and to promote inter/multidisciplinary and inter/multi-sectoral work processes.

  15. Validity test and its consistency in the construction of patient loyalty model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuar, Ferra

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this present study is to demonstrate the estimation of validity values and its consistency based on structural equation model. The method of estimation was then implemented to an empirical data in case of the construction the patient loyalty model. In the hypothesis model, service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty were determined simultaneously, each factor were measured by any indicator variables. The respondents involved in this study were the patients who ever got healthcare at Puskesmas in Padang, West Sumatera. All 394 respondents who had complete information were included in the analysis. This study found that each construct; service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty were valid. It means that all hypothesized indicator variables were significant to measure their corresponding latent variable. Service quality is the most measured by tangible, patient satisfaction is the most mesured by satisfied on service and patient loyalty is the most measured by good service quality. Meanwhile in structural equation, this study found that patient loyalty was affected by patient satisfaction positively and directly. Service quality affected patient loyalty indirectly with patient satisfaction as mediator variable between both latent variables. Both structural equations were also valid. This study also proved that validity values which obtained here were also consistence based on simulation study using bootstrap approach.

  16. Construct validity of the PROMIS® sexual function and satisfaction measures in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With data from a diverse sample of patients either in treatment for cancer or post-treatment for cancer, we examine inter-domain and cross-domain correlations among the core domains of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures (PROMIS® SexFS) and the corresponding domains from conceptually-similar measures of sexual function, the International Index of Erectile Function and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings Men (N=389) and women (N=430) were recruited from a tumor registry, oncology clinics, and an internet panel. The PROMIS SexFS, International Index of Erectile Function, and Female Sexual Function Index were used to collect participants’ self-reported sexual function. The domains shared among the measures include desire/interest in sexual activity, lubrication and vaginal discomfort/pain (women), erectile function (men), orgasm, and satisfaction. We examined correlations among different domains within the same instrument (discriminant validity) and correlations among similar domains measured by different instruments (convergent validity). Correlations demonstrating discriminant validity ranged from 0.38 to 0.73 for men and 0.48 to 0.74 for women, while correlations demonstrating convergent validity ranged from 0.62 to 0.83 for men and 0.71 to 0.92 for women. As expected, correlations demonstrating convergent validity were higher than correlations demonstrating discriminant validity, with one exception (orgasm for men). Conclusions Construct validity was supported by convergent and discriminant validity in a diverse sample of patients with cancer. For patients with cancer who may or may not have sexual dysfunction, the PROMIS SexFS measures provide a comprehensive assessment of key domains of sexual function and satisfaction. PMID:23497200

  17. Construct validity of Minimum Data Set items within the context of the Braden Conceptual Schema.

    PubMed

    Zulkowski, K

    1998-10-01

    The Minimum Data Set Plus (MDS+) is used by all federally-funded long-term care facilities to assess residents and plan their care. Eighteen conditions, known as Resident Assessment Protocols (RAPs) including a pressure ulcer RAP, require a written care plan by staff. Consequently, it is important to determine if the operational definitions from the MDS+ are consistent with theoretical constructs from a conceptual schema representative of pressure ulcer risk. Examination of construct validity shows that not all of the variables in the Braden Conceptual Schema are adequately operationalized by the MDS+ or the pressure ulcer RAP. Physiologic markers of nutritional status and friction/shear are not included in the MDS+. Sensory perception is included in the MDS+ but not the pressure ulcer RAP. If the MDS+ pressure ulcer RAP is to be used to plan care and assess risk, then all items should be included. The purpose of this article is to examine the construct validity between the operational definitions of risk factors from the MDS+ and pressure ulcer RAP with theoretical constructs from the Braden Conceptual Schema.

  18. Parent- and Self-Reported Dimensions of Oppositionality in Youth: Construct Validity, Concurrent Validity, and the Prediction of Criminal Outcomes in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have been found as valid predictors of further mental health problems and antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed at testing the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of ODD dimensions derived from parent- and self-report measures. Method: Confirmatory…

  19. The adaptation of a Danish version of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: reliability and construct validity in a population of patients with fibromyalgia in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Marianne U; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Amris, Kirstine; Samsøe, Bente Danneskiold; Mortensen, Erik L

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) in a population of patients with fibromyalgia in Denmark. The study sample included 102 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia referred to a specialist clinic. The PSEQ was translated and adapted to a Danish setting using a standard stepwise forward-backward translation procedure, followed by initial testing and focus group interview. Reliability was examined by analysing internal consistency and test-retest agreement. Construct validity was examined by investigating dimensionality, targeting, local independence, category functioning and differential item functioning (DIF). Reliability was high: Cronbach's alpha 0.88, test-retest correlation 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.89 and item-total correlations 0.44-0.70. Factor analyses and item response (IRT) models indicated unidimensionality, and the PSEQ-DK was well targeted to the sample. High interitem correlation was observed between two items, indicating local dependence, and item misfit and DIF were observed for a few items. However, the overall fit of the scale to a single-factor model and IRT models supported acceptable construct validity. The PSEQ-DK showed acceptable psychometric properties and can therefore represent a reliable and valid measure for evaluating self-efficacy in patients with fibromyalgia in Denmark.

  20. Reliability, construct validity and measurement potential of the ICF comprehensive core set for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Comprehensive Core Set for osteoarthritis (OA) in order to test its possible use as a measuring tool for functioning. Methods 100 patients with OA (84 F, 16 M; mean age 63 yr) completed forms including demographic and clinical information besides the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36®) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC). The ICF Comprehensive Core Set for OA was filled by health professionals. The internal construct validities of "Body Functions-Body structures" (BF-BS), "Activity" (A), "Participation" (P) and "Environmental Factors" (EF) domains were tested by Rasch analysis and reliability by internal consistency and person separation index (PSI). External construct validity was evaluated by correlating the Rasch transformed scores with SF-36 and WOMAC. Results In each scale, some items showing disordered thresholds were rescored, testlets were created to overcome the problem of local dependency and items that did not fit to the Rasch model were deleted. The internal construct validity of the four scales (BF-BS 16 items, A 8 items, P 7 items, EF 13 items) were good [mean item fit (SD) 0.138 (0.921), 0.216 (1.237), 0.759 (0.986) and -0.079 (2.200); person item fit (SD) -0.147 (0.652), -0.241 (0.894), -0.310 (1.187) and -0.491 (1.173) respectively], indicating a single underlying construct for each scale. The scales were free of differential item functioning (DIF) for age, gender, years of education and duration of disease. Reliabilities of the BF-BS, A, P, and EF scales were good with Cronbach's alphas of 0.79, 0.86, 0.88, and 0.83 and PSI's of 0.76, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively. Rasch scores of BF-BS, A, and P showed moderate correlations with SF-36 and WOMAC scores where the EF had significant but weak correlations only with SF36-Social

  1. Construct validation of 4 food-environment assessment methods: adapting a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach for environmental measures.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M; Raine, Kim D; Wild, T Cameron; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Thompson, Mary E; Frank, Lawrence D

    2014-02-15

    Few studies have assessed the construct validity of measures of neighborhood food environment, which remains a major challenge in accurately assessing food access. In this study, we adapted a psychometric tool to examine the construct validity of 4 such measures for 3 constructs. We used 4 food-environment measures to collect objective data from 422 Ontario, Canada, food stores in 2010. Residents' perceptions of their neighborhood food environment were collected from 2,397 households between 2009 and 2010. Objective and perceptual data were aggregated within buffer zones around respondents' homes (at 250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m, and 1,500 m). We constructed multitrait-multimethod matrices for each scale to examine construct validity for the constructs of food availability, food quality, and food affordability. Convergent validity between objective measures decreased with increasing geographic scale. Convergent validity between objective and subjective measures increased with increasing geographic scale. High discriminant validity coefficients existed between food availability and food quality, indicating that these two constructs may not be distinct in this setting. We conclude that the construct validity of food environment measures varies over geographic scales, which has implications for research, policy, and practice.

  2. Construct validity of the Modified Gait Efficacy Scale in older females.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Talley, Susan Ann; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-05-01

    There are few well-validated tools that focus on the assessment of walking confidence in older adults. The main objective of this study was to assess construct validity of the 10-item Modified Gait Efficacy Scale (mGES) as a measure of walking confidence in older adults. Twenty-four older females completed the mGES, the 16-item Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC-16) scale, and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Construct validity of the mGES was evaluated by quantifying relationships between the mGES and the ABC-16 and the SFT, and by examining the ability of the mGES to discriminate between known groups (no/lower fear of falling versus higher fear of falling). There was a strong correlation between mGES and the ABC-16 scale (rs = 0.85; p < 0.001). The mGES was significantly associated with SFT components that required lower extremity strength, stepping aerobic endurance, and walking agility and dynamic balance (rs = 0.45 to 0.61; p < 0.05). Relationships between the mGES and number of arm curls in 30 s, chair sit and reach test, and back scratch test were weak (rs = 0.13-0.25; p > 0.05). Mean mGES score was 91.5% in a no/lower fear of falling group, while it was 81.4% in a higher fear group (p = 0.22). There was a trend toward a significant difference in the unstandardized residuals derived from regression of ranked mGES scores on ranked covariate (age and 8 foot up and go) scores, between the no/lower versus higher fear of falling group (p = 0.095). These results support construct validity of the mGES as a measure of gait self-efficacy in community-dwelling older females.

  3. Construct validity of the Modified Gait Efficacy Scale in older females.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Talley, Susan Ann; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-05-01

    There are few well-validated tools that focus on the assessment of walking confidence in older adults. The main objective of this study was to assess construct validity of the 10-item Modified Gait Efficacy Scale (mGES) as a measure of walking confidence in older adults. Twenty-four older females completed the mGES, the 16-item Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC-16) scale, and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Construct validity of the mGES was evaluated by quantifying relationships between the mGES and the ABC-16 and the SFT, and by examining the ability of the mGES to discriminate between known groups (no/lower fear of falling versus higher fear of falling). There was a strong correlation between mGES and the ABC-16 scale (rs = 0.85; p < 0.001). The mGES was significantly associated with SFT components that required lower extremity strength, stepping aerobic endurance, and walking agility and dynamic balance (rs = 0.45 to 0.61; p < 0.05). Relationships between the mGES and number of arm curls in 30 s, chair sit and reach test, and back scratch test were weak (rs = 0.13-0.25; p > 0.05). Mean mGES score was 91.5% in a no/lower fear of falling group, while it was 81.4% in a higher fear group (p = 0.22). There was a trend toward a significant difference in the unstandardized residuals derived from regression of ranked mGES scores on ranked covariate (age and 8 foot up and go) scores, between the no/lower versus higher fear of falling group (p = 0.095). These results support construct validity of the mGES as a measure of gait self-efficacy in community-dwelling older females. PMID:27253337

  4. Are we really measuring what we say we're measuring? Using video techniques to supplement traditional construct validation procedures.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Podsakoff, Philip M; Mackenzie, Scott B; Klinger, Ryan L

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have persuasively argued that the most important evidence to consider when assessing construct validity is whether variations in the construct of interest cause corresponding variations in the measures of the focal construct. Unfortunately, the literature provides little practical guidance on how researchers can go about testing this. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe how researchers can use video techniques to test whether their scales measure what they purport to measure. First, we discuss how researchers can develop valid manipulations of the focal construct that they hope to measure. Next, we explain how to design a study to use this manipulation to test the validity of the scale. Finally, comparing and contrasting traditional and contemporary perspectives on validation, we discuss the advantages and limitations of video-based validation procedures.

  5. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be

  6. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    PubMed

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  7. The Spanish SF-36 in Peru: factor structure, construct validity, and internal consistency.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Fernando Raul; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of the SF-36 questionnaire in a sample of 4344 Peruvian people aged 15 to 64 years. Internal consistency reliability was estimated using Cronbach's α coefficient, construct validity by known-groups comparison defined with respect to key sociodemographic characteristics, and factor structure by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) at item level. Cronbach's α coefficient for the full questionnaire was 0.82 and ranged between 0.66 and 0.92 by scales. The 8 scales discriminated well between sexes, age, and socioeconomic groups. CFA showed that a model with 8 first-order factors and 2 second-order factors (namely, physical and mental health) was a feasible representation of the SF-36 factor structure and had better fit to data than alternative factor structures. The SF-36 showed appropriate psychometric properties regarding internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure when tested in Peru. Future studies should focus on testing other psychometric properties of the SF-36, such as convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity to change.

  8. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    PubMed

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct.

  9. An empirical look at the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT): reliability and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Ekehammar, Bo; Zuber, Irena; Konstenius, Marja-Liisa

    2005-07-01

    Although the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been in use for almost half a century, there are still quite contradictory views about whether it is a reliable instrument, and if so, what it really measures. Thus, based on data from 39 female students, we first examined DMT inter-coder reliability by analyzing the agreement among trained judges in their coding of the same DMT protocols. Second, we constructed a "parallel" photographic picture that retained all structural characteristic of the original and analyzed DMT parallel-test reliability. Third, we examined the construct validity of the DMT by (a) employing three self-report defense-mechanism inventories and analyzing the intercorrelations between DMT defense scores and corresponding defenses in these instruments, (b) studying the relationships between DMT responses and scores on trait and state anxiety, and (c) relating DMT-defense scores to measures of self-esteem. The main results showed that the DMT can be coded with high reliability by trained coders, that the parallel-test reliability is unsatisfactory compared to traditional psychometric standards, that there is a certain generalizability in the number of perceptual distortions that people display from one picture to another, and that the construct validation provided meager empirical evidence for the conclusion that the DMT measures what it purports to measure, that is, psychological defense mechanisms.

  10. Investigating the construct validity of intolerance of uncertainty and its unique relationship with worry.

    PubMed

    Buhr, Kristin; Dugas, Michel J

    2006-01-01

    Although recent findings suggest that intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental construct involved in excessive worry, additional research is required to further establish the construct validity of intolerance of uncertainty and demonstrate its unique contribution to the understanding of worry. The present study examined the relationships among measures of worry, intolerance of uncertainty, intolerance of ambiguity, perfectionism, and perceived control in a sample of 197 university students. The findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty moderately overlaps with earlier conceptualizations of intolerance of ambiguity; however, worry was more highly related to intolerance of uncertainty than to intolerance of ambiguity. Intolerance of uncertainty also emerged as the most salient predictor of worry compared to other cognitive processes such as perfectionism and perceived control. Worry and intolerance of uncertainty continued to be significantly related after controlling for intolerance of ambiguity, perfectionism, and perceived control, which implies that intolerance of uncertainty shares a unique association with worry that is not accounted for by these other cognitive factors. Overall, the findings provide evidence of construct validity and underscore the role of intolerance of uncertainty in the conceptualization of worry.

  11. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Experiential Discounting Task.

    PubMed

    Smits, Rochelle R; Stein, Jeffrey S; Johnson, Patrick S; Odum, Amy L; Madden, Gregory J

    2013-04-01

    Delay discounting (the devaluation of delayed rewards) has been studied extensively using animal models with psychophysical adjustment procedures. Similar procedures have been developed to assess delay discounting in humans and these procedures most often use hypothetical rewards and delays. The Experiential Discounting Task (EDT) was developed to assess human delay discounting using real rewards and delays. In the present study we examined the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the EDT. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing it with a standard delay discounting task. The EDT had poor test-retest reliability and discounting rates obtained with this task were uncorrelated with those obtained in the standard delay discounting task. Area under the EDT discounting curve was negatively correlated with scores on a measure of boredom proneness (i.e., individuals prone to boredom more steeply discounted delayed money in the EDT). This correlation may underlie previous reports that discounting in the EDT is correlated with addictions, as some evidence suggests boredom proneness is correlated with gambling, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and sensation seeking. Boredom proneness scores were correlated with no other measure of discounting. These findings suggest the EDT measures a different construct than that measured by traditional delay discounting tasks. PMID:23421359

  12. Development and Validation of Triarchic Construct Scales from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jason R.; Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Morano, Mario; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy—the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and non-offender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. PMID:24447280

  13. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport.

  14. CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A MEANING IN LIFE SCALE IN THE TAIWANESE CULTURAL CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to construct and validate a Chinese-language Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS) and to assess its psychometric properties. The three most popular scales have some weaknesses and are grounded in a Western cultural context. Consequently, a comprehensive and psychometrically adequate meaning in life scale is needed for use in Asian samples. 500 randomly selected participants from the Taiwanese public provided 476 valid responses to a written questionnaire. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 63 years (M age = 42.3 yr.; 181 men, 295 women). Exploratory factor analysis reduced the initial 41 items to 33 items, based on a 5-point rating scale. Five factors were extracted: Contented with life (10 items; 33.20% of total variance), Goals in life (5 items; 6.95%), Enthusiasm and commitment (7 items; 6.28%), Understanding (6 items; 5.41%), and Sense or meaning to human existence (5 items; 4.57%). The MiLS showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Therefore, the MiLS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure the subjective sense of a meaning in life in the Taiwanese cultural context.

  15. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.

  16. Risk management in technovigilance: construction and validation of a medical-hospital product evaluation instrument.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Cleuza Catsue Takeda; Evora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; de Oliveira, Márcio Mattos Borges

    2010-01-01

    With the continuous incorporation of health technologies, hospital risk management should be implemented to systemize the monitoring of adverse effects, performing actions to control and eliminate their damage. As part of these actions, Technovigilance is active in the procedures of acquisition, use and quality control of health products and equipment. This study aimed to construct and validate an instrument to evaluate medical-hospital products. This is a quantitative, exploratory, longitudinal and methodological development study, based on the Six Sigma quality management model, which has as its principle basis the component stages of the DMAIC Cycle. For data collection and content validation, the Delphi technique was used with professionals from the Brazilian Sentinel Hospital Network. It was concluded that the instrument developed permitted the evaluation of the product, differentiating between the results of the tested brands, in line with the initial study goal of qualifying the evaluations performed. PMID:21120414

  17. New Evidence of Construct Validity Problems for Pettigrew and Meertens' (1995) Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale.

    PubMed

    Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice. PMID:27154379

  18. New Evidence of Construct Validity Problems for Pettigrew and Meertens' (1995) Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale.

    PubMed

    Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice.

  19. Measuring Psychological Capital: Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12)

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Beer, Clemens; Pütz, Jan; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap. PMID:27035437

  20. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined.

  1. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined. PMID:24341926

  2. Construction of an anthropopathic abdominal phantom for accuracy validation of deformable image registration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Y L; Chen, H B; Zhou, L H; Zhen, X

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this study is to design and fabricate an anthropopathic abdominal phantom for accuracy evaluation of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms in adaptive radiation therapy. The constructed deformable organs, including the liver, kidney, spleen and stomach, are made of mixture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and softener dioctyl terephthalate, while the rigid structures, i.e. vertebrae, are made of white cement. Relation between the PVC-softener blending ratio and organ CT number is studied, and three-dimensional printing technic is employed to create highly anthropopathic organs in terms of organ shape and density. Detailed steps for phantom construction, landmark point placement and choice of phantom ingredients and construction recipe are introduced. Preliminary results of the mechanical properties of the fabricated organs are also presented. The experimental results indicate that the constructed phantom has satisfactory elastic characteristics and close CT number with corporal organs, and can potentially be applied to simulate real abdominal organ deformation in geometric accuracy validation of DIR algorithms. PMID:27177102

  3. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Haplessness Scale in patients with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Vatan, Sevginar; Ertaş, Sedar; Lester, David

    2011-04-01

    In a sample of 100 Turkish psychiatric patients with diagnoses of anxiety disorders, Lester's Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Haplessness inventory had moderate estimates of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. PMID:21675581

  4. The Learning Environment Preferences: Exploring the Construct Validity of an Objective Measure of the Perry Scheme of Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Presents initial data from 725 college and university students on the construct validity of the Learning Environmental Preferences (LEP) instrument. Findings suggest that the LEP accurately measures the cognitive portion of the Perry scheme of intellectual development. (Author/TE)

  5. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302

  6. Validity of an Ecometric Neighborhood Physical Disorder Measure Constructed by Virtual Street Audit

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Bader, Michael D. M.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Teitler, Julien O.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood physical disorder is thought to affect mental and physical health, but it has been difficult to measure objectively and reliably across large geographical areas or multiple locales. Virtual street audits are a novel method for assessing neighborhood characteristics. We evaluated the ecometric properties of a neighborhood physical disorder measure constructed from virtual street audit data. Eleven trained auditors assessed 9 previously validated items developed to capture physical disorder (e.g., litter, graffiti, and abandoned buildings) on 1,826 block faces using Google Street View imagery (Google, Inc., Mountain View, California) dating from 2007–2011 in 4 US cities (San Jose, California; Detroit, Michigan; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). We constructed a 2-parameter item response theory scale to estimate latent levels of disorder on each block face and defined a function using kriging to estimate physical disorder levels, with confidence estimates, for any point in each city. The internal consistency reliability of the resulting scale was 0.93. The final measure of disorder was positively correlated with US Census data on unemployment and housing vacancy and negatively correlated with data on owner-occupied housing. These results suggest that neighborhood physical disorder can be measured reliably and validly using virtual audits, facilitating research on possible associations between physical disorder and health. PMID:25122584

  7. Credibility assessment: preliminary process theory, the polygraph process, and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Palmatier, John J; Rovner, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The term "polygraph test," particularly in a forensic context, is used generally to describe diagnostic procedures using a polygraph instrument to assess credibility. Polygraph testing has been subject to greater scrutiny, debate, and empirical study than many other forensic techniques. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that, when used properly, the polygraph testing process functions with a high degree of predictive (criterion) validity. However, advocates have failed to address, in a substantive manner, the primary objection often cited by opponents that the polygraph procedure most used in applied day-to-day contexts, that is, Comparison Question Testing (CQT), is atheoretical and lacking construct validity. A review of the available research literature, including that from the neurosciences, psychophysiology, and other relevant disciplines, coupled with an intimate understanding of two commonly used polygraph procedures, the context in which they are used, and the scientific method, strongly suggests that such claims are no longer true, nor warranted. Here, we discuss the interplay of the two most advocated polygraph procedures, the CQT and CIT (Concealed Information Testing), with Preliminary Process Theory (PPT), contemporary writings on memory and other contributions from the research literature relevant to the instrumental assessment of credibility. We conclude that the available scientific evidence not only establishes a plausible theoretical construct that strengthens the practical application of the polygraph process in forensic and other settings, but also concurrently provides directions for future research by scientists interested in the applied assessment of credibility. PMID:24933412

  8. Credibility assessment: preliminary process theory, the polygraph process, and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Palmatier, John J; Rovner, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The term "polygraph test," particularly in a forensic context, is used generally to describe diagnostic procedures using a polygraph instrument to assess credibility. Polygraph testing has been subject to greater scrutiny, debate, and empirical study than many other forensic techniques. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that, when used properly, the polygraph testing process functions with a high degree of predictive (criterion) validity. However, advocates have failed to address, in a substantive manner, the primary objection often cited by opponents that the polygraph procedure most used in applied day-to-day contexts, that is, Comparison Question Testing (CQT), is atheoretical and lacking construct validity. A review of the available research literature, including that from the neurosciences, psychophysiology, and other relevant disciplines, coupled with an intimate understanding of two commonly used polygraph procedures, the context in which they are used, and the scientific method, strongly suggests that such claims are no longer true, nor warranted. Here, we discuss the interplay of the two most advocated polygraph procedures, the CQT and CIT (Concealed Information Testing), with Preliminary Process Theory (PPT), contemporary writings on memory and other contributions from the research literature relevant to the instrumental assessment of credibility. We conclude that the available scientific evidence not only establishes a plausible theoretical construct that strengthens the practical application of the polygraph process in forensic and other settings, but also concurrently provides directions for future research by scientists interested in the applied assessment of credibility.

  9. Construction and Validation of a Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument for Physical Education Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Amy Sau Ching; Cheng, Chih Fu; Chung, Pak Kwong; Yiu, Kenny Tat Choi; Kuo, Che Chun; Yu, Chung Kai; Wang, Fong Jia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a “Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument” (PPLI) for physical education teachers. Based on literature review and focus group interviews, an 18-item instrument was developed for the initial tests. This self-report measure, using a 5-point Likert scale, formed the PPLI and was administered to 336 physical education teachers in Hong Kong. The sample was randomly split, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 9-item, 3-factor scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) item loadings ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, and Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the construct demonstrated good fit to the model. The PPLI thus appeared to be reliable and valid to measure the perceived physical literacy of physical education teachers. It is argued that the instrument can be used for both research and applied purposes and potential uses for the instrument in physical education, medical and health settings are discussed. PMID:27195664

  10. Construction and Validation of a Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument for Physical Education Teachers.

    PubMed

    Sum, Raymond Kim Wai; Ha, Amy Sau Ching; Cheng, Chih Fu; Chung, Pak Kwong; Yiu, Kenny Tat Choi; Kuo, Che Chun; Yu, Chung Kai; Wang, Fong Jia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a "Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument" (PPLI) for physical education teachers. Based on literature review and focus group interviews, an 18-item instrument was developed for the initial tests. This self-report measure, using a 5-point Likert scale, formed the PPLI and was administered to 336 physical education teachers in Hong Kong. The sample was randomly split, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 9-item, 3-factor scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) item loadings ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, and Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the construct demonstrated good fit to the model. The PPLI thus appeared to be reliable and valid to measure the perceived physical literacy of physical education teachers. It is argued that the instrument can be used for both research and applied purposes and potential uses for the instrument in physical education, medical and health settings are discussed. PMID:27195664

  11. Validity of an ecometric neighborhood physical disorder measure constructed by virtual street audit.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Stephen J; Bader, Michael D M; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Teitler, Julien O; Rundle, Andrew G

    2014-09-15

    Neighborhood physical disorder is thought to affect mental and physical health, but it has been difficult to measure objectively and reliably across large geographical areas or multiple locales. Virtual street audits are a novel method for assessing neighborhood characteristics. We evaluated the ecometric properties of a neighborhood physical disorder measure constructed from virtual street audit data. Eleven trained auditors assessed 9 previously validated items developed to capture physical disorder (e.g., litter, graffiti, and abandoned buildings) on 1,826 block faces using Google Street View imagery (Google, Inc., Mountain View, California) dating from 2007-2011 in 4 US cities (San Jose, California; Detroit, Michigan; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). We constructed a 2-parameter item response theory scale to estimate latent levels of disorder on each block face and defined a function using kriging to estimate physical disorder levels, with confidence estimates, for any point in each city. The internal consistency reliability of the resulting scale was 0.93. The final measure of disorder was positively correlated with US Census data on unemployment and housing vacancy and negatively correlated with data on owner-occupied housing. These results suggest that neighborhood physical disorder can be measured reliably and validly using virtual audits, facilitating research on possible associations between physical disorder and health.

  12. Validating the youth sport enjoyment construct in high school physical education.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Hairul; Grove, J Robert; Whipp, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop and validate a questionnaire measuring teaching processes related to physical education (PE) enjoyment. Scanlan and Lewthwaite's (1986) youth sport enjoyment model provided the theoretical foundation for this work. Content validity and item readability of the instrument were established by obtaining feedback from eight experts in psychology and four highly experienced secondary school teachers. Construct validity was then established by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on data from 304 secondary school students (grades 8, 9, and 10). As a result of these analyses, six teaching processes related to PE enjoyment were identified: self-referent competency (four items), other-referent competency (four items), teacher-generated excitement (three items), activity-generated excitement (five items), peer interaction (two items), and parental encouragement (two items). Correlation analyses revealed that all of these processes were positively correlated with PE enjoyment. The weakest correlation was between peer interaction and enjoyment (r = .31, p < .05), and the strongest was between activity-generated excitement and enjoyment (r = .83, p < .05). We believe that the instrument is appropriate for studying affective outcomes within physical educational settings among students in grades 8, 9, and 10.

  13. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire about Heart Failure Patients' Knowledge of Their Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Christiani Decker Batista; dos Santos, Rafaella Zulianello; Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Amboni, Ricardo; Benetti, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of tools to measure heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in rehabilitation programs demonstrates the need for specific recommendations regarding the amount or content of information required. Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Methods The tool was developed based on the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire and applied to 96 patients with heart failure, with a mean age of 60.22 ± 11.6 years, 64% being men. Reproducibility was obtained via the intraclass correlation coefficient, using the test-retest method. Internal consistency was assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha, and construct validity, by use of exploratory factor analysis. Results The final version of the tool had 19 questions arranged in ten areas of importance for patient education. The proposed questionnaire had a clarity index of 8.94 ± 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.856, and Cronbach's alpha, 0.749. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the knowledge areas. Comparing the final scores with the characteristics of the population evidenced that low educational level and low income are significantly associated with low levels of knowledge. Conclusion The instrument has satisfactory clarity and validity indices, and can be used to assess the heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID:24652054

  14. Construct Validity and Generalizability of Simulation-Based Objective Structured Clinical Examination Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Sidi, Avner; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Lampotang, Samsun

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known if construct-related validity (progression of scores with different levels of training) and generalizability of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scenarios previously used with non-US graduating anesthesiology residents translate to a US training program. Objective We assessed for progression of scores with training for a validated high-stakes simulation-based anesthesiology examination. Methods Fifty US anesthesiology residents in postgraduate years (PGYs) 2 to 4 were evaluated in operating room, trauma, and resuscitation scenarios developed for and used in a high-stakes Israeli Anesthesiology Board examination, requiring a score of 70% on the checklist for passing (including all critical items). Results The OSCE error rate was lower for PGY-4 than PGY-2 residents in each field, and for most scenarios within each field. The critical item error rate was significantly lower for PGY-4 than PGY-3 residents in operating room scenarios, and for PGY-4 than PGY-2 residents in resuscitation scenarios. The final pass rate was significantly higher for PGY-3 and PGY-4 than PGY-2 residents in operating room scenarios, and also was significantly higher for PGY-4 than PGY-2 residents overall. PGY-4 residents had a better error rate, total scenarios score, general evaluation score, critical items error rate, and final pass rate than PGY-2 residents. Conclusions The comparable error rates, performance grades, and pass rates for US PGY-4 and non-US (Israeli) graduating (PGY-4 equivalent) residents, and the progression of scores among US residents with training level, demonstrate the construct-related validity and generalizability of these high-stakes OSCE scenarios. PMID:26279774

  15. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  16. Construct Validity Evidence for Single-Response Items to Estimate Physical Activity Levels in Large Sample Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2007-01-01

    Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…

  17. A Critical Evaluation of the Validity and the Reliability of Global Competency Constructs for Supervisor Assessment of Junior Medical Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, D. A.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Clarke, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Supervisor assessments are critical for both formative and summative assessment in the workplace. Supervisor ratings remain an important source of such assessment in many educational jurisdictions even though there is ambiguity about their validity and reliability. The aims of this evaluation is to explore the: (1) construct validity of ward-based…

  18. Construct Validity of the Chinese Version of the Psycho-Educational Profile-3rd Edition (CPEP-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Objective behavioral assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in early childhood is essential for guiding appropriate treatment and intervention. In contrast to Western societies, validated measures of ASD are very limited in different Chinese contexts. The present study attempted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of…

  19. Construct Validity of Scores/Measures from a Developmental Assessment in Mathematics Using Classical and Many-Facet Rasch Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, Madhabi

    2000-01-01

    Validated data from a developmental mathematics assessment using classical and three-faceted Rasch measurement methods. Analysis of field test data for 289 elementary school students suggested that a unidimensional construct was being measured, as defined by Rasch criteria. Discusses limitations in confirming content-related validity of the…

  20. Construct Validation of Analytic Rating Scales in a Speaking Assessment: Reporting a Score Profile and a Composite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…

  1. Correlational analysis and predictive validity of psychological constructs related with pain in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterized by a history of widespread pain for at least three months. Pain is considered a complex experience in which affective and cognitive aspects are crucial for prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess the importance of pain-related psychological constructs on function and pain in patients with FM. Methods Design Multicentric, naturalistic, one-year follow-up study. Setting and study sample. Patients will be recruited from primary care health centres in the region of Aragon, Spain. Patients considered for inclusion are those aged 18-65 years, able to understand Spanish, who fulfil criteria for primary FM according to the American College of Rheumatology, with no previous psychological treatment. Measurements The variables measured will be the following: main variables (pain assessed with a visual analogue scale and with sphygmomanometer and general function assessed with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and), psychological constructs (pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, mental defeat, psychological inflexibility, perceived injustice, mindfulness, and positive and negative affect), and secondary variables (sociodemographic variables, anxiety and depression assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and psychiatric interview assessed with MINI). Assessments will be carried at baseline and at one-year follow-up. Main outcome Pain Visual Analogue Scale. Analysis The existence of differences in socio-demographic, main outcome and other variables regarding pain-related psychological constructs will be analysed using Chi Square test for qualitative variables, or Student t test or variance analysis, respectively, for variables fulfilling the normality hypothesis. To assess the predictive value of pain-related psychological construct on main outcome variables at one-year follow-up, use will be made of a logistic regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical

  2. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children’s Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.; Carrasco, Miguel Á.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children’s behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children’s (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother–father or child–father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children’s behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582

  3. Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its orientation toward locating items along an underlying dimension and toward estimating precision of measurement for persons with different levels of that same construct. It also offers a didactic example of how the approach can be used to refine conceptualization and operationalization of constructs in the family sciences, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 2,732). Three basic models are considered: (a) the Rasch and (b) two-parameter logistic models for dichotomous items and (c) the Rating Scale Model for multicategory items. Throughout, the author highlights the potential for researchers to elevate measurement to a level on par with theorizing and testing about relationships among constructs. PMID:25663714

  4. Expanding the Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Associations with Physical Health and Anaclitic and Introjective Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huprich, Steven K.; Hsiao, Wei Cheng; Porcerelli, John H.; Bornstein, Robert F.; Markova, Tsveti

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT) with respect to measures of two related constructs--physical health and well-being (functional health status), and depression-linked personality type (anaclitic vs. introjective). In Study 1, the authors administered the RPT, Depressive Experiences Questionnaire…

  5. The consumer quality index anthroposophic healthcare: a construction and validation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accounting for the patients’ perspective on quality of care has become increasingly important in the development of Evidence Based Medicine as well as in governmental policies. In the Netherlands the Consumer Quality (CQ) Index has been developed to measure the quality of care from the patients’ perspective in different healthcare sectors in a standardized manner. Although the scientific accountability of anthroposophic healthcare as a form of integrative medicine is growing, patient experiences with anthroposophic healthcare have not been measured systematically. In addition, the specific anthroposophic aspects are not measured by means of existing CQ Indexes. To enable accountability of quality of the anthroposophic healthcare from the patients’ perspective the aim of this study is the construction and validation of a CQ Index for anthroposophic healthcare. Method Construction in three phases: Phase 1. Determining anthroposophic quality aspects: literature study and focus groups. Phase 2. Adding new questions and validating the new questionnaire. Research population: random sample from 7910 patients of 22 anthroposophic GPs. Data collection: survey, mixed mode by means of the Dillman method. Measuring instrument: experience questionnaire: CQ Index General Practice (56 items), added with 27 new anthroposophic items added and an item-importance questionnaire (anthroposophic items only). Statistical analyses: Factor analysis, scale construction, internal consistency (Chronbach’s Alpha), inter-item-correlation, discriminative ability (Intra Class Correlation) and inter-factor-correlations. Phase 3. Modulation and selection of new questions based on results. Criteria of retaining items: general: a limited amount of items, statistical: part of a reliable scale and inter-item-correlation <0,7, and theoretical. Results Phase 1. 27 anthroposophic items. Phase 2. Two new anthroposophic scales: Scale AntroposophicTreatmentGP: seven items, Alpha=0,832, ICC

  6. Assessment study of insight ARTHRO VR (®) arthroscopy virtual training simulator: face, content, and construct validities.

    PubMed

    Bayona, Sofía; Fernández-Arroyo, José Manuel; Martín, Isaac; Bayona, Pilar

    2008-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the face, content, and construct validities of a virtual-reality haptic arthroscopy simulator and to validate four assessment hypothesis. The participants in our study were 94 arthroscopists attending an international conference on arthroscopy. The interviewed surgeons had been performing arthroscopies for a mean of 8.71 years (σ = 6.94 years). We explained the operation, functionality, instructions for use, and the exercises provided by the simulator. They performed a trial exercise and then an exercise in which performance was recorded. After having using it, the arthroscopists answered a questionnaire. The simulator was classified as one of the best training methods (over phantoms), and obtained a mark of 7.10 out of 10 as an evaluation tool. The simulator was considered more useful for inexperienced surgeons than for surgeons with experience (mean difference 1.88 out of 10, P value < 0.001). The participants valued the simulator at 8.24 as a tool for learning skills, its fidelity at 7.41, the quality of the platform at 7.54, and the content of the exercises at 7.09. It obtained a global score of 7.82. Of the subjects, 30.8% said they would practise with the simulator more than 6 h per week. Of the surgeons, 89.4% affirmed that they would recommend the simulator to their colleagues. The data gathered support the first three hypotheses, as well as face and content validities. Results show statistically significant differences between experts and novices, thus supporting the construct validity, but studies with a larger sample must be carried out to verify this. We propose concrete solutions and an equation to calculate economy of movement. Analogously, we analyze competence measurements and propose an equation to provide a single measurement that contains them all and that, according to the surgeons' criteria, is as reliable as the judgment of experts observing the performance of an apprentice.

  7. Assessment study of insight ARTHRO VR (®) arthroscopy virtual training simulator: face, content, and construct validities.

    PubMed

    Bayona, Sofía; Fernández-Arroyo, José Manuel; Martín, Isaac; Bayona, Pilar

    2008-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the face, content, and construct validities of a virtual-reality haptic arthroscopy simulator and to validate four assessment hypothesis. The participants in our study were 94 arthroscopists attending an international conference on arthroscopy. The interviewed surgeons had been performing arthroscopies for a mean of 8.71 years (σ = 6.94 years). We explained the operation, functionality, instructions for use, and the exercises provided by the simulator. They performed a trial exercise and then an exercise in which performance was recorded. After having using it, the arthroscopists answered a questionnaire. The simulator was classified as one of the best training methods (over phantoms), and obtained a mark of 7.10 out of 10 as an evaluation tool. The simulator was considered more useful for inexperienced surgeons than for surgeons with experience (mean difference 1.88 out of 10, P value < 0.001). The participants valued the simulator at 8.24 as a tool for learning skills, its fidelity at 7.41, the quality of the platform at 7.54, and the content of the exercises at 7.09. It obtained a global score of 7.82. Of the subjects, 30.8% said they would practise with the simulator more than 6 h per week. Of the surgeons, 89.4% affirmed that they would recommend the simulator to their colleagues. The data gathered support the first three hypotheses, as well as face and content validities. Results show statistically significant differences between experts and novices, thus supporting the construct validity, but studies with a larger sample must be carried out to verify this. We propose concrete solutions and an equation to calculate economy of movement. Analogously, we analyze competence measurements and propose an equation to provide a single measurement that contains them all and that, according to the surgeons' criteria, is as reliable as the judgment of experts observing the performance of an apprentice. PMID:27628252

  8. A validation of the construct and reliability of an emotional intelligence scale applied to nursing students1

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza-Venegas, Maritza; Sanhueza-Alvarado, Olivia; Ramírez-Elizondo, Noé; Sáez-Carrillo, Katia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to validate the construct and reliability of an emotional intelligence scale. METHOD: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 was applied to 349 nursing students. The process included content validation, which involved expert reviews, pilot testing, measurements of reliability using Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis to corroborate the validity of the theoretical model's construct. RESULTS: Adequate Cronbach coefficients were obtained for all three dimensions, and factor analysis confirmed the scale's dimensions (perception, comprehension, and regulation). CONCLUSION: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is a reliable and valid tool to measure the emotional intelligence of nursing students. Its use allows for accurate determinations of individuals' abilities to interpret and manage emotions. At the same time, this new construct is of potential importance for measurements in nursing leadership; educational, organizational, and personal improvements; and the establishment of effective relationships with patients. PMID:25806642

  9. The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies.

    PubMed

    Law, Kenneth S; Wong, Chi-Sum; Song, Lynda J

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed the definition of emotional intelligence (EI) and argued that El is conceptually distinct from personality. In Study 1, the authors showed that EI was related to yet distinct from personality dimensions and that it had incremental predictive power on life satisfaction. The authors examined the construct validity of self-reports and others' ratings of EI using two samples in Study 2. In a student sample, parents' ratings explained additional variance in the students' life satisfaction and feelings of powerlessness after controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions. In the work sample, peer ratings were found to be significant predictors of job performance ratings provided by supervisors after controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions. Other implications for future research on EI are discussed. PMID:15161407

  10. Fear of success: the construction and validation of a measuring instrument.

    PubMed

    Pappo, M

    1983-02-01

    This study constructed an instrument which identifies people who fear success (FOS) in academic areas and conducted a laboratory study which tested the instrument's predictive validity. The theoretical formulation of the FOS phenomenon leads to the expectation that individuals high in the fear of success would demonstrate the following characteristics: low self-esteem, a preoccupation with the evaluative aspects of situations, a competitive orientation, repudiation of competence, and self-sabotage at the approach or attainment of success. The fear of success questionnaire is an 83-item scale with a reliability of .90. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, subjects identified by the FOS questionnaire were given either Success or nonsuccess feedback after completing the first of two equivalent reading tests. The results of the laboratory experiment indicated that there is strong clear evidence of self-sabotage under conditions of success among subjects who scored high on the FOS questionnaire.

  11. The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies.

    PubMed

    Law, Kenneth S; Wong, Chi-Sum; Song, Lynda J

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed the definition of emotional intelligence (EI) and argued that El is conceptually distinct from personality. In Study 1, the authors showed that EI was related to yet distinct from personality dimensions and that it had incremental predictive power on life satisfaction. The authors examined the construct validity of self-reports and others' ratings of EI using two samples in Study 2. In a student sample, parents' ratings explained additional variance in the students' life satisfaction and feelings of powerlessness after controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions. In the work sample, peer ratings were found to be significant predictors of job performance ratings provided by supervisors after controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions. Other implications for future research on EI are discussed.

  12. The Rorschach texture response: a construct validation study using attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Michael J; Viglione, Donald J

    2009-11-01

    Using attachment theory, in this research, we explored the construct validity of the Rorschach (Exner, 1974) Texture (T) response as a measure of interpersonal closeness and contact. A total of 40 men and 39 women completed the Rorschach and 2 attachment inventories. Their romantic partners also completed an informant version of the attachment measures. Attachment styles were measured by factor scores involving both self-report and partner report. Results indicate that attachment theory, as a broad conceptual framework, is associated with T. Specifically, T = 1 is most closely associated with a secure attachment style, T > 1 with aspects of the preoccupied style, and T = 0 with aspects of the avoidant style and an absence of secure attachment. Needs for closeness and contact associated with T can be couched within an adult attachment theory, but in this study, we did not test for problematic aspects of insecure attachment. Gender is a complicating factor and deserves more study.

  13. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Acceptance Test Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Norris

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE 8 Software Acceptance Test Plan is to assess the approach to be taken for intended testing activities. The plan typically identifies the items to be tested, the requirements being tested, the testing to be performed, test schedules, personnel requirements, reporting requirements, evaluation criteria, and any risks requiring contingency planning. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  14. Construct validities and the empirical relationships between optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Carifio, James; Rhodes, Lauren

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validities and the relationships between Optimism [21], Hope [27], Self-Efficacy [18], and Locus of Control [12]. The validities and relationships between these scales were examined not only because they are to some degree rival constructs but also because there is an outstanding theoretical question in the literature of whether each of these variables is a state or trait variable or both. Synder' Hope scale was the "know marker" trait-state scale in this study. Data were obtained on all scales from 78 at-risk university students and 22 regular (or normal) students, as all scales either make claims about or have existing data on these two different types of subjects. Other background data were also collected. A Manova on the 13 variables for which data were obtained found significant profile differences between the two groups of subjects as theory and the literature predicted at the 0.01 level. The trait-state two factor structure of Synder's Hope scale was found except the structure was orthogonal in at-risk students as opposed to the oblique structure Synder found in normals. The same strong results were obtained for Schiever and Carver's Optimism scale which additionally resolved an outstanding interpetability issue with this scale. Hypothesized factor structures were not obtained for the self-efficacy or the locus of control scales and both scales best fit the trait-sate model, which contradicts Bandura's and other prevailing view of these two variables, but supports the results found by Bandalos et al. [2].

  15. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Evaluate Construct Validity of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Thomas M.; Rosenfeld, Barry D.; Sit, Laura; Mendoza, Tito R.; Fruscione, Mike; Lavene, Dawn; Shaw, Mary; Li, Yuelin; Hay, Jennifer; Cleeland, Charles S.; Scher, Howard I.; Breitbart, William S.; Basch, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Context The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) is a frequently used instrument designed to assess the patient-reported outcome of pain. The majority of factor analytic studies have found a two-factor (i.e., pain intensity and pain interference) structure for this instrument; however, since the BPI was developed with an a priori hypothesis of the relationship among its items, it follows that construct validity investigations should utilize confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Objectives The purpose of this work is to establish the construct validity of the BPI using a CFA framework and demonstrate factorial invariance using a range of demographic variables. Methods A retrospective CFA was completed in a sample of individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and cancer (n = 364; 63% male; age 21-92 years, M = 51.80). A baseline one-factor model was compared against two-factor and three-factor models (i.e., pain intensity, activity interference, and affective interference) that were developed based on the hypothetical design of the instrument. Results Fit indices for the three-factor model were statistically superior when compared to the one-factor model and marginally better in comparison to the two-factor model. This three-factor structure was found to be invariant across disease, age, and ethnicity groups. Conclusion The results of this study provide evidence to support a three-factor representation of the BPI, as well as the originally hypothesized two-factor structure. Such findings will begin to provide clinical trialists, pharmaceutical sponsors, and regulators with confidence in the psychometric properties of this instrument when considering its inclusion in clinical research. PMID:21131166

  16. [Construct validity of a new computer-assisted cognitive assessment battery in normal adults].

    PubMed

    Maeshima, S; Komai, N; Nakai, K; Oura, Y; Nakagawa, M; Itakura, T; Masuo, O; Yamaga, H; Okita, R; Ozaki, F; Moriwaki, H

    1999-01-01

    A computer-assisted battery for neuropsychological tests (CNT) has been designed to screen adults for cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to gather evidence for the construct validity of CNT and also investigate the relationship between CNT and conventional neuropsychological tests. Subjects were 45 healthy adults (21 men and 24 women), who ranged in age from 20 to 70 years (mean = 33.5, SD = 1.9) with no history of substance abuse, or of psychotic or neurological disorders. The CNT in our study consists of six subtests designed to assess various components of driving, such as digit span, visual scanning, visual and verbal memory, complex reaction time, and vigilance. Mini-mental state test, Kana-hiroi test, word fluency, the auditory-verbal learning test and Raven's colored progressive matrices were also performed as conventional neuropsychological tests. Results showed there were high correlations between each CNT subtests and conventional neuropsychological tests. A factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors with eigen values greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. CNT was able to estimate each factor related to cognitive function such as learning and memory, attention, judgment, and visual scanning selectively. CNT may thus be a useful tool for detection of cognitive impairment, although this test has important limitations. Broader applications of these tests will require extensive population-based validation.

  17. Deriving childhood temperament measures from emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes: scale construction and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Jeffrey R; Van Hulle, Carol A; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2011-06-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific behaviors using the Lab-TAB and for forming behavioral composites that correspond to commonly researched temperament dimensions. We used mother ratings and independent postvisit observer ratings to provide validity evidence in a community sample of 4.5-year-old children. 12 Lab-TAB behavioral episodes were employed, yielding 24 within-episode temperament components that collapsed into 9 higher level composites (Anger, Sadness, Fear, Shyness, Positive Expression, Approach, Active Engagement, Persistence, and Inhibitory Control). These dimensions of temperament are similar to those found in questionnaire-based assessments. Correlations among the 9 composites were low to moderate, suggesting relative independence. As expected, agreement between Lab-TAB measures and postvisit observer ratings was stronger than agreement between the Lab-TAB and mother questionnaire. However, for Active Engagement and Shyness, mother ratings did predict child behavior in the Lab-TAB quite well. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of emotion-eliciting temperament assessment methodologies, suggest appropriate methods for data aggregation into trait-level constructs and set some expectations for associations between Lab-TAB dimensions and the degree of cross-method convergence between the Lab-TAB and other commonly used temperament assessments.

  18. Constructing and evaluating a validity argument for the final-year ward simulation exercise.

    PubMed

    Till, Hettie; Ker, Jean; Myford, Carol; Stirling, Kevin; Mires, Gary

    2015-12-01

    The authors report final-year ward simulation data from the University of Dundee Medical School. Faculty who designed this assessment intend for the final score to represent an individual senior medical student's level of clinical performance. The results are included in each student's portfolio as one source of evidence of the student's capability as a practitioner, professional, and scholar. Our purpose in conducting this study was to illustrate how assessment designers who are creating assessments to evaluate clinical performance might develop propositions and then collect and examine various sources of evidence to construct and evaluate a validity argument. The data were from all 154 medical students who were in their final year of study at the University of Dundee Medical School in the 2010-2011 academic year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on an analysis of senior medical students' clinical performance while they were taking responsibility for the management of a simulated ward. Using multi-facet Rasch measurement and a generalizability theory approach, we examined various sources of validity evidence that the medical school faculty have gathered for a set of six propositions needed to support their use of scores as measures of students' clinical ability. Based on our analysis of the evidence, we would conclude that, by and large, the propositions appear to be sound, and the evidence seems to support their proposed score interpretation. Given the body of evidence collected thus far, their intended interpretation seems defensible.

  19. The Construction and Validation of the Heat Vulnerability Index, a Review.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junzhe; Li, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua

    2015-06-26

    The occurrence of extreme heat and its adverse effects will be exacerbated with the trend of global warming. An increasing number of researchers have been working on aggregating multiple heat-related indicators to create composite indices for heat vulnerability assessments and have visualized the vulnerability through geographic information systems to provide references for reducing the adverse effects of extreme heat more effectively. This review includes 15 studies concerning heat vulnerability assessment. We have studied the indicators utilized and the methods adopted in these studies for the construction of the heat vulnerability index (HVI) and then further reviewed some of the studies that validated the HVI. We concluded that the HVI is useful for targeting the intervention of heat risk, and that heat-related health outcomes could be used to validate and optimize the HVI. In the future, more studies should be conducted to provide references for the selection of heat-related indicators and the determination of weight values of these indicators in the development of the HVI. Studies concerning the application of the HVI are also needed.

  20. Constructing and evaluating a validity argument for the final-year ward simulation exercise.

    PubMed

    Till, Hettie; Ker, Jean; Myford, Carol; Stirling, Kevin; Mires, Gary

    2015-12-01

    The authors report final-year ward simulation data from the University of Dundee Medical School. Faculty who designed this assessment intend for the final score to represent an individual senior medical student's level of clinical performance. The results are included in each student's portfolio as one source of evidence of the student's capability as a practitioner, professional, and scholar. Our purpose in conducting this study was to illustrate how assessment designers who are creating assessments to evaluate clinical performance might develop propositions and then collect and examine various sources of evidence to construct and evaluate a validity argument. The data were from all 154 medical students who were in their final year of study at the University of Dundee Medical School in the 2010-2011 academic year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on an analysis of senior medical students' clinical performance while they were taking responsibility for the management of a simulated ward. Using multi-facet Rasch measurement and a generalizability theory approach, we examined various sources of validity evidence that the medical school faculty have gathered for a set of six propositions needed to support their use of scores as measures of students' clinical ability. Based on our analysis of the evidence, we would conclude that, by and large, the propositions appear to be sound, and the evidence seems to support their proposed score interpretation. Given the body of evidence collected thus far, their intended interpretation seems defensible. PMID:25808311

  1. Construct validity and reliability of college students' responses to the reasons for smoking scale.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Marinaro, Laura Marie

    2010-01-01

    When utilizing self-assessments to determine motives for health behaviors, it is essential that the resulting data demonstrate sound psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to assess the reliability and construct validity of college students' responses to the Reasons for Smoking Scale (RFS). Confirmatory factor analyses and internal consistency reliability coefficients were completed. The data of 110 college students who smoke fell short of providing a good fit, chi2(130) = 343.856, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.123, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.793, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.756. Reliability coefficients ranged from .615 to .912. Three subscales improved reliability by removing an item. Although the fit indices showed improvement with these modifications, good model fit was still not achieved, chi2(50) = 148.059, RMSEA = 0.134, CFI = 0.872, TLI = 0.831. Although other populations' responses to the RFS have demonstrated validity and reliability, this college population's did not. Health educators should use caution when interpreting the results of college students' responses to the RFS because they may be incomplete and/or inaccurate.

  2. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament using a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This paper provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific behaviors using the Lab-TAB and for forming behavioral composites that correspond to commonly researched temperament dimensions. We used mother ratings and independent post-visit observer ratings to provide validity evidence in a community sample of 4.5 year-old children. 12 Lab-TAB behavioral episodes were employed, yielding 24 within-episode temperament components that collapsed into 9 higher-level composites (Anger, Sadness, Fear, Shyness, Positive Expression, Approach, Active Engagement, Persistence, and Inhibitory Control). These dimensions of temperament are similar to those found in questionnaire-based assessments. Correlations among the 9 composites were low to moderate, suggesting relative independence. As expected, agreement between Lab-TAB measures and post-visit observer ratings was stronger than agreement between the Lab-TAB and mother questionnaire. However, for Active Engagement and Shyness, mother ratings did predict child behavior in the Lab-TAB quite well. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of emotion-eliciting temperament assessment methodologies, suggest appropriate methods for data aggregation into trait-level constructs, and set some expectations for associations between Lab-TAB dimensions and the degree of cross-method convergence between the Lab-TAB and other commonly used temperament assessments. PMID:21480723

  3. The Construction and Validation of the Heat Vulnerability Index, a Review.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junzhe; Li, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of extreme heat and its adverse effects will be exacerbated with the trend of global warming. An increasing number of researchers have been working on aggregating multiple heat-related indicators to create composite indices for heat vulnerability assessments and have visualized the vulnerability through geographic information systems to provide references for reducing the adverse effects of extreme heat more effectively. This review includes 15 studies concerning heat vulnerability assessment. We have studied the indicators utilized and the methods adopted in these studies for the construction of the heat vulnerability index (HVI) and then further reviewed some of the studies that validated the HVI. We concluded that the HVI is useful for targeting the intervention of heat risk, and that heat-related health outcomes could be used to validate and optimize the HVI. In the future, more studies should be conducted to provide references for the selection of heat-related indicators and the determination of weight values of these indicators in the development of the HVI. Studies concerning the application of the HVI are also needed. PMID:26132476

  4. Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration Four-Task Training Model: Construct Validity

    PubMed Central

    Otaño, Natalia; Rodríguez, Omaira; Sánchez, Renata; Benítez, Gustavo; Schweitzer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Training models in laparoscopic surgery allow the surgical team to practice procedures in a safe environment. We have proposed the use of a 4-task, low-cost inert model to practice critical steps of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Methods: The performance of 3 groups with different levels of expertise in laparoscopic surgery, novices (A), intermediates (B), and experts (C), was evaluated using a low-cost inert model in the following tasks: (1) intraoperative cholangiography catheter insertion, (2) transcystic exploration, (3) T-tube placement, and (4) choledochoscope management. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify differences among the groups. Results: A total of 14 individuals were evaluated: 5 novices (A), 5 intermediates (B), and 4 experts (C). The results involving intraoperative cholangiography catheter insertion were similar among the 3 groups. As for the other tasks, the expert had better results than the other 2, in which no significant differences occurred. The proposed model is able to discriminate among individuals with different levels of expertise, indicating that the abilities that the model evaluates are relevant in the surgeon's performance in CBD exploration. Conclusions: Construct validity for tasks 2 and 3 was demonstrated. However, task 1 was no capable of distinguishing between groups, and task 4 was not statistically validated. PMID:22906323

  5. Construction and validation of anisotropic and orthotropic ventricular geometries for quantitative predictive cardiac electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Alan P.; Bernus, Olivier; Dierckx, Hans; Gilbert, Stephen H.; Greenwood, John P.; Holden, Arun V.; Mohee, Kevin; Plein, Sven; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ries, Michael E.; Smith, Godfrey L.; Sourbron, Steven; Walton, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Reaction–diffusion computational models of cardiac electrophysiology require both dynamic excitation models that reconstruct the action potentials of myocytes as well as datasets of cardiac geometry and architecture that provide the electrical diffusion tensor D, which determines how excitation spreads through the tissue. We illustrate an experimental pipeline we have developed in our laboratories for constructing and validating such datasets. The tensor D changes with location in the myocardium, and is determined by tissue architecture. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) provides three eigenvectors ei and eigenvalues λi at each voxel throughout the tissue that can be used to reconstruct this architecture. The primary eigenvector e1 is a histologically validated measure of myocyte orientation (responsible for anisotropic propagation). The secondary and tertiary eigenvectors (e2 and e3) specify the directions of any orthotropic structure if λ2 is significantly greater than λ3—this orthotropy has been identified with sheets or cleavage planes. For simulations, the components of D are scaled in the fibre and cross-fibre directions for anisotropic simulations (or fibre, sheet and sheet normal directions for orthotropic tissues) so that simulated conduction velocities match values from optical imaging or plunge electrode experiments. The simulated pattern of propagation of action potentials in the models is partially validated by optical recordings of spatio-temporal activity on the surfaces of hearts. We also describe several techniques that enhance components of the pipeline, or that allow the pipeline to be applied to different areas of research: Q ball imaging provides evidence for multi-modal orientation distributions within a fraction of voxels, infarcts can be identified by changes in the anisotropic structure—irregularity in myocyte orientation and a decrease in fractional anisotropy, clinical imaging provides human ventricular

  6. Constructing and validating readability models: the method of integrating multilevel linguistic features with machine learning.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-06-01

    Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.

  7. The Self-Presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire: Instrument Development and Preliminary Construct Validity Evidence.

    PubMed

    Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of advancing the literature on impression management in physical activity settings, we developed a theoretically derived 2 by 2 instrument that was designed to measure different types of context-specific self-presentation motives. Following item generation and expert review (Study 1), the instrument was completed by 206 group exercise class attendees (Study 2) and 463 high school physical education students (Study 3). Our analyses supported the intended factor structure (i.e., reflecting acquisitive-agentic, acquisitive-communal, protective-agentic, and protective-communal motives). We found some support for construct validity, and the self-presentation motives were associated with variables of theoretical and applied interest (e.g., impression motivation and construction, social anxiety, social and achievement goals, efficacy beliefs, engagement). Taken together, the results indicate that the Self-presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire (SMPAQ) may be useful for measuring various types of self-presentation motives in physical activity settings. PMID:26265337

  8. Design, construction, and validation of an MRI-compatible vibrotactile stimulator intended for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Broadbent, Scott; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Lambert, Casey M; Collins, D Louis

    2009-10-30

    Vibrotactile stimulation has been used successfully to activate the human somatosensory pathway in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. The design and characterization of these devices are of particular interest in frequency discrimination tasks and investigations of the somatopic organization of sensory areas. However, few have investigated the utility of vibrotactile stimulation in a clinical context. We have previously demonstrated that vibrotactile stimulation can provide robust activations in areas targeted in stereotactic functional neurosurgical procedures used for tumour resection (i.e.: primary and secondary somatosensory areas) and subcortical targets for thalamic pain and movement disorders (i.e.: sensory thalamus). The main contribution of this manuscript is the presentation of the design, materials, construction, and validation of a novel vibrotactile stimulator intended for clinical use. The thalamic activations are also compared to a digital atlas in order to evaluate anatomical localization. The proposed stimulator was constructed entirely from non-ferromagnetic parts, uses compressed air to deliver stimulation using computer control, and stimulates the entirety of the hand and fingers to ensure robust somatosensory activations. In addition, this stimulator is constructed entirely from "off-the-shelf" parts and would be easily replicated due to the simplicity of design and the relatively small expense of the parts required. The device was tested by stimulating the right hand of 10 normal controls (5 females, 5 males, all right handed; age range: 25-42 years, mean: 30.9 years, standard deviation: 5.2 years) during an fMRI experiment. The results demonstrate significant single subject activations of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and of the sensory thalamus.

  9. The construct and longitudinal validity of the basketball exercise simulation test.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Dascombe, Ben J; Reaburn, Peter R J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the recently developed Basketball Exercise Simulation Test (BEST). Ten semiprofessional (age, 22.7 ± 6.1 years; height, 189.6 ± 9.5 cm; weight, 86.5 ± 18.7 kg; % body fat, 14.7 ± 3.5%) and 10 recreational (age, 26.6 ± 4.0 years; height, 185.9 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 92.6 ± 8.4 kg; % body fat, 23.8 ± 6.3%) male basketball players volunteered for the study. The participants completed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IRT) and BEST trial midway through the playing season. Eight participants (semiprofessional, n = 4; recreational, n = 4) completed an additional Yo-Yo IRT and BEST trial at the end of the playing season. Performance measures from the BEST included sprint decrement (%), mean sprint and circuit time (seconds), and total distance covered (m). Construct validity was calculated using Student's unpaired t-tests to identify the differences in Yo-Yo IRT and BEST performances between playing levels. Longitudinal validity was determined based on the relationship between changes (%) in Yo-Yo IRT1 and BEST performances across the season. Semiprofessional players performed significantly (p < 0.01) better in the Yo-Yo IRT (1,283 ± 62 vs. 636 ± 297 m) and BEST (mean sprint time: 1.45 ± 0.01 vs. 1.65 ± 0.03 seconds; mean circuit time: 18.98 ± 1.79 vs. 22.72 ± 2.01 seconds; sprint decrement: 8.54 ± 0.15 vs. 15.38 ± 0.27%) compared with recreational players. For the group as a whole, a strong relationship was evident between the changes in BEST sprint decrement and changes in Yo-Yo IRT performance (R = -0.815, p = 0.014) across the season. In conclusion, the BEST displayed both discriminative and longitudinal validities and provides a novel match-specific fitness test for basketball players.

  10. The DrivingHealth® Inventory as a clinical screening tool-assessment of face validity and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Crisler, M C; Brooks, J O; Drouin, N; Schold Davis, E; Healy, S L; Kopera, K W; McKee, J A; Sifrit, K

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the use and potential for patient acceptance of the DrivingHealth(®) Inventory (DHI) in clinical practice, we administered the DHI to 360 community dwelling volunteers over age 50 at a Southeastern US rehabilitation hospital. Volunteers also completed surveys to document their health, driving habits, and impressions of the DHI. Volunteers reported strong agreement with statements that indicated that they believe the DHI measures abilities important for safe driving and that they would be willing to listen to advice about driving and safe mobility from medical professionals; however, responses to some items were more positive among drivers whose DHI results indicated no apparent loss of function that could impair driving. These results support the use of the DHI in clinical practice as a tool to raise awareness of factors that correlate to driving; however, further research will be necessary to investigate how the DHI may benefit diverse clinical populations. Experiences with using DHI as part of clinical practice are also discussed.

  11. The DrivingHealth® Inventory as a clinical screening tool-assessment of face validity and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Crisler, M C; Brooks, J O; Drouin, N; Schold Davis, E; Healy, S L; Kopera, K W; McKee, J A; Sifrit, K

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the use and potential for patient acceptance of the DrivingHealth(®) Inventory (DHI) in clinical practice, we administered the DHI to 360 community dwelling volunteers over age 50 at a Southeastern US rehabilitation hospital. Volunteers also completed surveys to document their health, driving habits, and impressions of the DHI. Volunteers reported strong agreement with statements that indicated that they believe the DHI measures abilities important for safe driving and that they would be willing to listen to advice about driving and safe mobility from medical professionals; however, responses to some items were more positive among drivers whose DHI results indicated no apparent loss of function that could impair driving. These results support the use of the DHI in clinical practice as a tool to raise awareness of factors that correlate to driving; however, further research will be necessary to investigate how the DHI may benefit diverse clinical populations. Experiences with using DHI as part of clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:24102591

  12. Psychosocial Assessments for HIV+ African Adolescents: Establishing Construct Validity and Exploring Under-Appreciated Correlates of Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Elizabeth D.; Marukutira, Tafireyi C.; Chapman, Jennifer; Mokete, Keboletse; Riva, Katherine; Tshume, Ontibile; Eby, Jessica; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Gross, Robert; Glanz, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives Psychosocial factors such as outcome expectancy, perceived stigma, socio-emotional support, consideration of future consequences, and psychological reactance likely influence adolescent adherence to antiretroviral treatments. Culturally-adapted and validated tools for measuring these factors in African adolescents are lacking. We aimed to identify culturally-specific factors of importance to establishing local construct validity in Botswana. Methods Using in-depth interviews of 34 HIV+ adolescents, we explored how the psychosocial factors listed above are perceived in this cultural context. We evaluated six scales that have been validated in other contexts. We also probed for additional factors that the adolescents considered important to their HIV medication adherence. Analyses were conducted with an analytic framework approach using NVivo9 software. Results While the construct validity of some Western-derived assessment tools was confirmed, other tools were poorly representative of their constructs in this cultural context. Tools chosen to evaluate HIV-related outcome expectancy and perceived stigma were well-understood and relevant to the adolescents. Feedback from the adolescents suggested that tools to measure all other constructs need major modifications to obtain construct validity in Botswana. The scale regarding future consequences was poorly understood and contained several items that lacked relevance for the Batswana adolescents. They thought psychological reactance played an important role in adherence, but did not relate well to many components of the reactance scale. Measurement of socio-emotional support needs to focus on the adolescent-parent relationship, rather than peer-support in this cultural context. Denial of being HIV-infected was an unexpectedly common theme. Ambivalence about taking medicines was also expressed. Discussion In-depth interviews of Batswana adolescents confirmed the construct validity of some Western

  13. Test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, Ilda; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We wished to determine test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity. Design. Test re-test reliability was examined in a controlled study. Construct validity was tested in a blinded randomized crossover study. Setting. The study was performed at a university hospital in Denmark. Participants. A total of 11 subjects for test re-test and 20 subjects for the construct validity study were included. All subjects were healthy volunteers. Intervention. The test re-test trial had two measurements with 2 days pause in between. The interventions in the construct validity study included baseline measurement, intervention 1: fatigue, intervention 2: stress, and intervention 3: fatigue and stress. There was a 2 day pause between each intervention. Main outcome measure. An integrated measure of completion time and number of errors was used. Results. All participants completed the study (test re-test n = 11; construct validity n = 20). The test re-testshowed a strong Pearson product-moment correlation (r = 0.90, n = 11, P < 0.01) with no sign of learning effect. The 20 subjects in the construct validity trial were randomized to the order of the four interventions, so that all subjects completed each intervention once. A repeated measures ANOVA determined that mean integrated measure differed between interventions (p = 0.002). Post hoc tests using Bonferroni correction revealed that compared with baseline all interventions had significantly higher integrated scores ranging from 47–59% difference in mean. Conclusion. The star track test of manual dexterity had a strong test re-test reliability, and was able to discriminate between a subject’s normal manual dexterity and dexterity after exposure to fatigue and/or stress. PMID:25922800

  14. The ECVAM workshops: a critical assessment of their impact on the development, validation and acceptance of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2002-12-01

    ECVAM initiated its workshop programme in 1994, to enable it to become well informed about the state of the art of non-animal test development and validation, and about the possible incorporation of alternatives into regulatory requirements for safety testing. Fifty-one such workshops have been held on specific topics, up to 2002. In these workshops, the current status of in vitro tests and their potential uses were reviewed and recommendations were made as to the best ways forward to progress and enhance the utilisation of in vitro methods. Reports for 46 of these workshops have been published in ATLA. Most of the workshops focused on in vitro replacement methods, although an increasing number have dealt with reduction and refinement. The recommendations in the ECVAM workshops have been progressed further by: a) the formation of ECVAM task forces; b) the organisation of further workshops; c) the activities of scientific committees; d) the provision of earmarked research funding; and e) the conduct of validation studies. Examples of each of these activities are discussed. Some individual workshops are covered in more detail and several recommendations that have so far not been acted on are also considered. The workshops and their reports have had a substantial effect on the development and implementation of alternative methods, and have been a major factor in contributing to the success of the first nine years of ECVAM's existence. It is strongly recommended that ECVAM continues to organise workshops and to publish their findings, and several suggestions are made for topics of future workshops.

  15. Construction and Experimental Validation of a Petri Net Model of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Annika; Heijmans, Nika; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J; Heringa, Jaap; van Amerongen, Renée; Feenstra, K Anton

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important for multiple developmental processes and tissue maintenance in adults. Consequently, deregulated signaling is involved in a range of human diseases including cancer and developmental defects. A better understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanism and effect of physiological (active) and pathophysiological (hyperactive) WNT signaling is important for predicting treatment response and developing novel therapies. The constitutively expressed CTNNB1 (commonly and hereafter referred to as β-catenin) is degraded by a destruction complex, composed of amongst others AXIN1 and GSK3. The destruction complex is inhibited during active WNT signaling, leading to β-catenin stabilization and induction of β-catenin/TCF target genes. In this study we investigated the mechanism and effect of β-catenin stabilization during active and hyperactive WNT signaling in a combined in silico and in vitro approach. We constructed a Petri net model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including main players from the plasma membrane (WNT ligands and receptors), cytoplasmic effectors and the downstream negative feedback target gene AXIN2. We validated that our model can be used to simulate both active (WNT stimulation) and hyperactive (GSK3 inhibition) signaling by comparing our simulation and experimental data. We used this experimentally validated model to get further insights into the effect of the negative feedback regulator AXIN2 upon WNT stimulation and observed an attenuated β-catenin stabilization. We furthermore simulated the effect of APC inactivating mutations, yielding a stabilization of β-catenin levels comparable to the Wnt-pathway activities observed in colorectal and breast cancer. Our model can be used for further investigation and viable predictions of the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oncogenesis and development. PMID:27218469

  16. Construction and Experimental Validation of a Petri Net Model of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans, Nika; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J.; Heringa, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important for multiple developmental processes and tissue maintenance in adults. Consequently, deregulated signaling is involved in a range of human diseases including cancer and developmental defects. A better understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanism and effect of physiological (active) and pathophysiological (hyperactive) WNT signaling is important for predicting treatment response and developing novel therapies. The constitutively expressed CTNNB1 (commonly and hereafter referred to as β-catenin) is degraded by a destruction complex, composed of amongst others AXIN1 and GSK3. The destruction complex is inhibited during active WNT signaling, leading to β-catenin stabilization and induction of β-catenin/TCF target genes. In this study we investigated the mechanism and effect of β-catenin stabilization during active and hyperactive WNT signaling in a combined in silico and in vitro approach. We constructed a Petri net model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including main players from the plasma membrane (WNT ligands and receptors), cytoplasmic effectors and the downstream negative feedback target gene AXIN2. We validated that our model can be used to simulate both active (WNT stimulation) and hyperactive (GSK3 inhibition) signaling by comparing our simulation and experimental data. We used this experimentally validated model to get further insights into the effect of the negative feedback regulator AXIN2 upon WNT stimulation and observed an attenuated β-catenin stabilization. We furthermore simulated the effect of APC inactivating mutations, yielding a stabilization of β-catenin levels comparable to the Wnt-pathway activities observed in colorectal and breast cancer. Our model can be used for further investigation and viable predictions of the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oncogenesis and development. PMID:27218469

  17. A newly constructed and validated isoflavone database for the assessment of total genistein and daidzein intake.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Margaret R; Cummings, John H; Morton, Michael S; Michael Steel, C; Bolton-Smith, Caroline; Riches, Andrew C

    2006-01-01

    The principal phyto-oestrogens (PO) in food are isoflavones, lignans, coumestans and prenylated flavonoids, with isoflavones and lignans being the most commonly found in UK diets. Until recently obtaining accurate data on the PO content of foods was hampered by lack of suitable analytical methods and validation techniques. Furthermore, although PO data exist for some foods, these foods may not be available in the UK. The aim of the present study was to construct a new, comprehensive isoflavone (total genistein + daidzein) database. Using data, mainly from recent GC-MS analysis, for approximately 300 foods available in the UK, and extensive recipe calculations, a new database was constructed containing approximately 6000 foods allocated an isoflavone value. By analysing 7 d weighed food diaries, the database was subsequently used to estimate isoflavone intake in two groups of healthy volunteers, omnivores (n 9) and vegetarians (n 10). Mean isoflavone intake in the vegetarian and omnivorous group was 7.4 (sem 3.05) and 1.2 (sem 0.43) mg/d, respectively. Mean intake for the total group was 4.5 (sem 1.89) mg/d. Main food sources of isoflavones for the vegetarian group were soya milk (plain), meat-substitute foods containing textured vegetable protein and soya protein isolate, soya mince, wholemeal bread and rolls, white bread and rolls, croissants and pitta breads, beans, raisins and soya sauce. Main food sources of isoflavones for the omnivorous group were soya yogurts, wholemeal bread and rolls, white bread and rolls, garlic bread, nan bread and brown bread, sultanas and scones.

  18. The Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interests (SSPI): construct, predictive, and incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Leslie; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Seto, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    This study of 410 adult male sex offenders against children, using data from the Dynamic Supervision Project (Hanson, Harris, Scott, & Helmus, 2007), examined the construct, predictive, and incremental validity of the Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interests (SSPI; Seto & Lalumière, 2001), a brief proxy measure of phallometrically assessed sexual response to children that is based on sexual victim characteristics. As predicted, the SSPI was significantly related to the Deviant Sexual Interests item on the STABLE-2007 (Hanson et al., 2007), a dynamic risk measure encompassing multiple domains, and with the Deviant Sexual Interests item from its predecessor, the STABLE-2000 (Hanson et al., 2007). The SSPI was unrelated (or more weakly related) to items measuring general antisociality. In addition, the SSPI significantly predicted sexual recidivism, defined as new charges or convictions for sexual offenses, and a broader sexual recidivism outcome that included breaches of community supervision conditions that might involve sexually motivated behavior (e.g., being in the presence of children unsupervised). The SSPI did not add to the predictive accuracy of 2 actuarial risk measures, the Static-99R and Static-200R (Helmus, Thornton, Hanson, & Babchishin, 2012), but it did add to the predictive accuracy of the STABLE-2007. Additional analyses suggest the SSPI can serve as a substitute for the STABLE-2007 Deviant Sexual Interests item, if necessary (e.g., in archival research), when assessing sexual offenders against children.

  19. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS): construct validation, sensitivity analyses and other psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Costa, Carlos Gonçalves; Nogueira, Conceição

    2012-03-01

    According to Mohr and Fassinger (2006), identity is seen as both self-identification and collective identification with values, beliefs, traits or behaviours and attachments. Their Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) multidimensional identity model accounts for important variables regarding the constitution of identities. This model not only accesses numerous dimensions of the lives of LGB individuals, but is also based on a body of research that recognizes how LGB difficulties are caused by societal intolerance and marginalization (Mohr & Fassinger, 2000). The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS; Kendra & Mohr, 2008) constitutes an operationalization of this multidimensional model, and the aim of this article is to present its construct validity by analysing its factor structure using a sample of Portuguese lesbian, gay and bisexual participants. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, as well as from factor invariance analysis across sub-samples are presented. In a general way, the factor structure obtained in this study follows the original proposal of Kendra and Mohr's (2008) LGBIS. Moreover, scale sensitivity analyses are presented in order to check for eventual differences in the factor structure and/or factor intercorrelations regarding participant gender and sexual orientation. These results are then discussed in the light of LGB identity models.

  20. Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  1. Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25867696

  2. Why do we fear death? The construction and validation of the Reasons for Death Fear Scale.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2002-10-01

    Previous research has disclosed different meanings of death, varieties of death anxiety, and hundreds of factors extracted from the uni- and multi-dimensional death anxiety scales. However, there have been no empirical studies to elucidate the reasons for death fear. The Reasons for Death Fear Scale (RDFS) was constructed and validated. It consists of 18 brief items, with good reliabilities ( > .8). Four factors of the RDFS were labeled Fear of Pain and Punishment, Fear of Losing Worldly Involvements, Religious Transgressions and Failures, and Parting from Loved Ones. A high-loaded factor was extracted in which the RDFS's loading was .45, while the loadings of the scales of death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession ranged between .8 and .9. Of interest is that the correlation between the RDFS and death anxiety was higher than that with general anxiety. No gender-differences were detected with college students. It is important to note that the findings of this study were only researched through Arabic and mainly Muslim college students. The generalizability of the present results to other populations would seem to merit further investigation.

  3. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Hungarian men.

    PubMed

    Babusa, Bernadett; Urbán, Róbert; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Limited studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a measure of muscle dysmorphia, in different cultures and languages. The aims were to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the MASS (MASS-HU), and to investigate its relationship with self-esteem and exercise-related variables. Two independent samples of male weight lifters (ns=289 and 43), and a sample of undergraduates (n=240) completed the MASS, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the MASS only in the weight lifter sample. The MASS-HU had excellent scale score reliability and good test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the MASS-HU was tested with multivariate regression analyses which indicated an inverse relationship between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. The 18-item MASS-HU was found to be a useful measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia among male weight lifters. PMID:21962394

  4. Establishing the Criterion-related, Construct, and Content Validities of a Simulation-based Assessment of Inquiry Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2014-07-01

    The emphasis on scientific inquiry has increased the importance in developing the fundamental abilities to conduct scientific investigations and urged a need for valid assessments of students' inquiry abilities. We took advantage of the advanced technology to develop a simulation-based assessment of inquiry abilities (SAIA) that allowed students to generate scientific explanations and demonstrate their experimental abilities. This paper describes the validation of the assessment. Data were collected from 48 12th-grade students at a local high school who were categorized into three groups based on their program majors. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized to validate SAIA. The quantitative results showed that SAIA was aligned with a validated reasoning-skill test (criterion-related validity), discriminated variance among different groups (construct validity), and was highly suitable for examining inquiry abilities (content validity). Additionally, we utilized the think-aloud technique in order to identify the performances exhibited by students while they accomplished the SAIA tasks. The protocol analysis indicated that in general, students demonstrated the expected abilities in SAIA and that their SAIA scores accurately reflected their performance levels of inquiry abilities. The results suggested that SAIA was a valid assessment for evaluating the inquiry abilities of high school students. This study also provided systemic strategies for validating simulation-based assessments.

  5. Bilingual advantages in executive functioning: problems in convergent validity, discriminant validity, and the identification of the theoretical constructs

    PubMed Central

    Paap, Kenneth R.; Sawi, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 58 bilingual and 62 monolingual university students completed four tasks commonly used to test for bilingual advantages in executive functioning (EF): antisaccade, attentional network test, Simon, and color-shape switching. Across the four tasks, 13 different indices were derived that are assumed to reflect individual differences in inhibitory control, monitoring, or switching. The effects of bilingualism on the 13 measures were explored by directly comparing the means of the two language groups and through regression analyses using a continuous measure of bilingualism and multiple demographic characteristics as predictors. Across the 13 different measures and two types of data analysis there were very few significant results and those that did occur supported a monolingual advantage. An equally important goal was to assess the convergent validity through cross-task correlations of indices assume to measure the same component of executive functioning. Most of the correlations using difference-score measures were non-significant and many near zero. Although modestly higher levels of convergent validity are sometimes reported, a review of the existing literature suggests that bilingual advantages (or disadvantages) may reflect task-specific differences that are unlikely to generalize to important general differences in EF. Finally, as cautioned by Salthouse, assumed measures of executive functioning may also be threatened by a lack of discriminant validity that separates individual or group differences in EF from those in general fluid intelligence or simple processing speed. PMID:25249988

  6. Sampling and analysis validates acceptable knowledge on LANL transuranic, heterogeneous, debris waste, or ``Cutting the Gordian knot that binds WIPP``

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.R.; Souza, L.A.; Michael, D.I.; Black, P.K.

    1999-02-01

    Through sampling and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analyses, LANL and the DOE validated that a LANL transuranic (TRU) waste (TA-55-43, Lot No. 01) was not a Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) hazardous waste. This paper describes the sampling and analysis project as well as the statistical assessment of the analytical results. The analyses were conducted according to the requirements and procedures in the sampling and analysis plan approved by the New Mexico Environmental Department. The plan used a statistical approach that was consistent with the stratified, random sampling requirements of SW-846. LANL adhered to the plan during sampling and chemical analysis of randomly selected items of the five major types of materials in this heterogeneous, radioactive, debris waste. To generate portions of the plan, LANL analyzed a number of non-radioactive items that were representative of the mix of items present in the waste stream. Data from these cold surrogates were used to generate means and variances needed to optimize the design. Based on statistical arguments alone, only two samples from the entire waste stream were deemed necessary, however a decision was made to analyze at least two samples of each of the five major waste types. To obtain these samples, nine TRU waste drums were opened. Sixty-six radioactively contaminated and four non-radioactive grab samples were collected. Portions of the samples were composited for chemical analyses. In addition, a radioactively contaminated sample of rust-colored powder of interest to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) was collected and qualitatively identified as rust.

  7. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Factorial Construction and Criterion Related Validity in Likert Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji Qasem, Mamun Ali; Ahmad Gul, Showkeen Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the factorial construction and criterion related validity in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the sample consisted of 510 undergraduate students selected by used random sampling technique. A scale developed by…

  8. Construct and Predictive Validity of the Core Phonics Survey: A Diagnostic Assessment for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yujeong; Benedict, Amber E.; Brownell, Mary T.

    2014-01-01

    The factor structure of the CORE Phonics Survey was analyzed using a sample of 165 students in upper elementary school with specific learning disabilities. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the hypothesized constructs of the CORE Phonics Survey and predictive validity of the CORE Phonics Survey to predict students' success in…

  9. Construct Validation of the Translated Version of the Work-Family Conflict Scale for Use in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo Hun; Morris, Michael Lane; McMillan, Heather S.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the stress of work-family conflict has been a critical workplace issue for Asian countries, especially within those cultures experiencing rapid economic development. Our research purpose is to translate and establish construct validity of a Korean-language version of the Multi-Dimensional Work-Family Conflict (WFC) scale used in the U.S.…

  10. Construct Validity Invariance and Discrepancies in Meta-Analytic Effect Sizes Based on Different Measures: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical to meta-analysis is the presumption that effect sizes based on different measures are directly comparable. Recent theoretical work has shown that an invariance condition--universe score, or construct, validity invariance--must hold for either observed score or reliability-corrected effect sizes based on different measures to be directly…

  11. Convergent and Discriminant Construct Validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children with the BASC-SRP-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Blade, Richard L.; Lund, Jacqueline; Kempf, Kari K. G.

    2003-01-01

    This brief report details a study of the construct validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children (ISSC) in comparison with the Child Self-Report Form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC). Using self-reports of 121 students ages 8-12 from general education classes, who were administered both measures, correlational…

  12. Construct Validity of the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem, Depression, and Ego Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Aalberg, Veikko; Vuorinen, Risto

    2005-01-01

    Construct validity of the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ) was studied in a sample of 194 normal Finnish adolescents from 14 to 16 years of age. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the hierarchical structure of adolescents' self-image with 5 lower-order factors loading on a single higher-order factor. Lower-order factors were…

  13. Developing Form Assembly Specifications for Exams with Multiple Choice and Constructed Response Items: Balancing Reliability and Validity Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Patterson, Brian; Ewing, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric considerations and challenges associated with including constructed response items on tests are discussed along with how these issues affect the form assembly specifications for mixed-format exams. Reliability and validity, security and fairness, pretesting, content and skills coverage, test length and timing, weights, statistical…

  14. Do Smokers Know What We're Talking about? The Construct Validity of Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether nicotine dependence self-report questionnaires can predict specific behaviors and symptoms at specific points in time. The present study used data from a randomized clinical trial (N = 608; M. E. Piper et al., 2007) to assess the construct validity of scales and items from 3 nicotine dependence measures: the…

  15. Construction and Validation of the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory: Clinical Judgment Skill Competencies That Measure Counselor Debiasing Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…

  16. A Preliminary Investigation into the Internal Consistency and Construct Validity of the Triple C: Checklist of Communicative Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Teresa; Bloomberg, Karen; West, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Background: The "Triple C" was designed to assess the communication skills of people with severe disabilities and to sensitise support workers to their communicative behaviours. The study aim was to investigate the Triple C's internal consistency and construct validity. Method: Deidentified data from the completed checklists of 172 adults with…

  17. Construct Validity of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Psychiatry: Associations with the Clinical Skills Examination and Other Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Robin S.; Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.; Furman, Gail E.; Powell, Jill K.; Mohr, Clinton J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The construct validity of checklist and global process scores for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in psychiatry was assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict psychiatry OSCE scores from the clinical skills examination, an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) OSCE, and the National Board of Medical…

  18. A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis of the Construct Validity of Child Anxiety Disorders in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…

  19. Measuring Teacher Self-Report on Classroom Practices: Construct Validity and Reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented.…

  20. The Construct and Predictive Validity of a Dynamic Assessment of Young Children Learning to Read: Implications for RTI Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Caffrey, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct and predictive validity of a dynamic assessment (DA) of decoding learning. Students (N = 318) were assessed in the fall of first grade on an array of instruments that were given in hopes of forecasting responsiveness to reading instruction. These instruments included DA as well as…

  1. The Construct Validity of the Tower of London (DX) as a Measure of the Executive Functioning of ADHD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, William C.; Zillmer, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    The construct-related validity of the Tower of London-Drexel (TOL-DX), a measure of executive functioning (W. Culbertson and A. Zillmer, 1995) was studied with 129 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results show that the TOL-DX loads prominently on an Executive Planning/Inhibition factor while separating for factors…

  2. A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Construct Validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Nathan A.; Hammond, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    Although several different measures have been developed to assess job satisfaction, large-scale examinations of the psychometric properties of most satisfaction scales are generally lacking. In the current study we used meta-analysis to examine the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale…

  3. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Four-Year-Olds: Construct Validation of a Language Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klem, Marianne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hagtvet, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian government recommends a systematic language assessment of all four-year-olds as part of the general health surveillance program for the purpose of identifying children at risk of language delay. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the recommended language screening tool called LANGUAGE4 [SPRÅK4] by first…

  4. Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Measure Construct Validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnoy, Kevin D.; Dantzler, John; Besnoy, Lisa R.; Byrne, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the construct validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS). Data for this study were collected from two separate school districts across three different academic years in the Southeastern United States. Of the total sample (N = 2,330), 64.6% of the children were identified as African American, 29.0% as…

  5. Brief Report: Preliminary Reliability, Construct Validity and Standardization of the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelhoff, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    The Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) evaluates abnormal behavioral responses to auditory stimulation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study reports preliminary reliability, construct validity and standardization of the ABQ. Parents of children with ASD aged 7-21 years (n = 165) completed the ABQ on-line. Cronbach's alpha…

  6. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 2 - Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Auxiliary and Replacement Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 75-foot-wide right-of-way including the existing permanent right-of-way for large diameter pipeline (pipe greater than 12 inches in diameter) to carry out routine construction. Pipeline 12 inches in diameter and smaller should use no more than a 50-foot-wide right-of-way. b. The temporary...

  7. Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity of the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire in a Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Geller, Karly S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the 16-item, four-factor Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ), which assesses theory-based aspects of eating behavior, across diverse, nonclinical subgroups. A total of 621 men and women aged 18–81 years (34.3 ± 16.4) with a mean BMI of 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (range 15.5–74.1 kg/m2) were recruited from general education classes at the University of Hawai’i, Manoa and an online survey panel of Hawai’i residents to complete a web-based survey. Participants were predominantly white (23%), Asian/Asian-mix (42%), or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (18%). The WREQ’s factor structure was successfully replicated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the entire sample and by weight status, gender, age, and race with strong internal consistency. Four-week test–retest reliability (n = 31) for the subscales was excellent with interclass correlations of 0.849–0.932. Tests of population invariance confirmed the generalizability of the WREQ across all subgroups having provided no evidence that the factor structure, factor loadings, or indicator intercepts varied significantly between the groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that emotional eating was independently associated with BMI (β = 0.272, P < 0.001) as well as moderate- and long-term weight change rates (weight gain) in young adults (β = 0.152, P = 0.042) and adults (β = 0.217, P = 0.001). Compensatory restraint was negatively associated with weight gain in adults (β = −0.133, P = 0.039). Routine restraint and emotional eating were highest among dieters. All associations remained significant after accounting for gender, age, and race. The hypothesized WREQ measurement model demonstrated very good construct validity, confirming the unbiased generalizability of the WREQ measure across sex, age, race, and BMI subgroups, and excellent criterion-related validity with respect to current BMI, weight change, and weight control status. PMID:21546931

  8. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  9. Relationship of COP System Interest Inventory Scales to Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) Scales in a College Sample: Construct Validity of Scales Based on Progressed Occupational Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Construct validity data found some support for the California Occupational Preference System constructs when its results were evaluated on a sample of 213 female undergraduates relative to the Vocational Preference Inventory results. (PN)

  10. Validation of Bim Components by Photogrammetric Point Clouds for Construction Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Construction progress monitoring is a primarily manual and time consuming process which is usually based on 2D plans and therefore has a need for an increased automation. In this paper an approach is introduced for comparing a planned state of a building (as-planned) derived from a Building Information Model (BIM) to a photogrammetric point cloud (as-built). In order to accomplish the comparison a triangle-based representation of the building model is used. The approach has two main processing steps. First, visibility checks are performed to determine whether or not elements of the building are potentially built. The remaining parts can be either categorized as free areas, which are definitely not built, or as unknown areas, which are not visible. In the second step it is determined if the potentially built parts can be confirmed by the surrounding points. This process begins by splitting each triangle into small raster cells. For each raster cell a measure is calculated using three criteria: the mean distance of the points, their standard deviation and the deviation from a local plane fit. A triangle is confirmed if a sufficient number of raster cells yield a high rating by the measure. The approach is tested based on a real case inner city scenario. Only triangles showing unambiguous results are labeled with their statuses, because it is intended to use these results to infer additional statements based on dependencies modeled in the BIM. It is shown that the label built is reliable and can be used for further analysis. As a drawback this comes with a high percentage of ambiguously classified elements, for which the acquired data is not sufficient (in terms of coverage and/or accuracy) for validation.

  11. On Conducting Construct Validity Meta-Analyses for the Rorschach: A Reply to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman (2016).

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

    2016-01-01

    We respond to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman's (2016) critique of our systematic reviews and meta-analyses of 65 Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables published in Psychological Bulletin (2013). The authors endorsed our supportive findings but critiqued the same methodology when used for the 13 unsupported variables. Unfortunately, their commentary was based on significant misunderstandings of our meta-analytic method and results, such as thinking we used introspectively assessed criteria in classifying levels of support and reporting only a subset of our externally assessed criteria. We systematically address their arguments that our construct label and criterion variable choices were inaccurate and, therefore, meta-analytic validity for these 13 CS variables was artificially low. For example, the authors created new construct labels for these variables that they called "the customary CS interpretation," but did not describe their methodology nor provide evidence that their labels would result in better validity than ours. They cite studies they believe we should have included; we explain how these studies did not fit our inclusion criteria and that including them would have actually reduced the relevant CS variables' meta-analytic validity. Ultimately, criticisms alone cannot change meta-analytic support from negative to positive; Tibon Czopp and Zeligman would need to conduct their own construct validity meta-analyses. PMID:27153466

  12. A new method to model electroconvulsive therapy in rats with increased construct validity and enhanced translational value.

    PubMed

    Theilmann, Wiebke; Löscher, Wolfgang; Socala, Katarzyna; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Brandt, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The remission rate is above 50% in previously pharmacoresistant patients but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in rodents mimics antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in humans and is widely used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of ECT. For the translational value of findings in animal models it is essential to establish models with the highest construct, face and predictive validity possible. The commonly used model for ECT in rodents does not meet the demand for high construct validity. For ECT, cortical surface electrodes are used to induce therapeutic seizures whereas ECS in rodents is exclusively performed by auricular or corneal electrodes. However, the stimulation site has a major impact on the type and spread of the induced seizure activity and its antidepressant effect. We propose a method in which ECS is performed by screw electrodes placed above the motor cortex of rats to closely simulate the clinical situation and thereby increase the construct validity of the model. Cortical ECS in rats induced reliably seizures comparable to human ECT. Cortical ECS was more effective than auricular ECS to reduce immobility in the forced swim test. Importantly, auricular stimulation had a negative influence on the general health condition of the rats with signs of fear during the stimulation sessions. These results suggest that auricular ECS in rats is not a suitable ECT model. Cortical ECS in rats promises to be a valid method to mimic ECT.

  13. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a reliable and valid method for quantifying PST. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST. Methods: Two investigators each performed sidelying PST measurements on the non-dominant shoulder of 45 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Upon completion of the PST measurements, one rater assessed active internal and external rotation for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Interrater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 2,k was good (ICC 5 0.90). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 9 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter-trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was evaluated using active internal rotation for convergence and external rotation for discrimination. Construct validity was supported by a good to excellent relationship between PST and internal rotation (r 5 0.88) and by an inverse relationship between PST and external rotation (r 5 20.07). Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST when strict measurement protocols are adhered to. An advantage of this procedure lies in the ability to control scapular position to ensure motion is limited to the glenohumeral joint. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change values during

  14. Psychological Terms, Logical Positivism, and Realism: Issues Related to Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The standard conception of test validity which makes philosophical assumptions about the nature of scientific inquiry is discussed. The general kinds of questions and issues which psychologists and educators should address in order to develop a complete theory of test validity that is philosophically sound are outlined. (MT)

  15. Validating the Youth Sport Enjoyment Construct in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Hairul; Grove, J. Robert; Whipp, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop and validate a questionnaire measuring teaching processes related to physical education (PE) enjoyment. Scanlan and Lewthwaite's (1986) youth sport enjoyment model provided the theoretical foundation for this work. Content validity and item readability of the instrument were established by obtaining…

  16. The Support Appraisal for Work Stressors Inventory: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sandra A.; Gardner, John; Callan, Victor J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of perceived available support in buffering the negative effects of workplace stressors, a new multidimensional measure of perceived available support, the SAWS, was developed. Initial item development and content validation were conducted, followed by scale evaluation and validation. Two samples of 190 and…

  17. The Construct Validity of the Stanford-Binet 5 Measures of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomplun, Mark; Custer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the measures of verbal and nonverbal working memory on the Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5). The validity evidence included Rasch-based, criterion-referenced item mapping, correlations with other clinical measures of memory, and prediction of reading and mathematics scores. The item mapping clearly…

  18. A Construct Validity Study of Scores on a Korean Version of an Academic Self-Concept Scale for Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Sandra; Michael, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of scores on a Korean version of the Dimensions of Self-Concept Scale (W. Michael and R. Smith, 1976) with samples of 213, 191, and 213 junior high and high school students in Korea. Results generally support the internal consistency reliability and the construct validity of the…

  19. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  20. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P < 0.001), diet healthiness (ρ = 0.17, P = 0.002) and the rating of nutrition's importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  1. Construct validity of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Gastrointestinal Symptom Scales in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Vivek; Hays, Ron D.; Khanna, Puja P.; Spiegel, Brennan M.R.; Chang, Lin; Melmed, Gil Y.; Bolus, Roger; Khanna, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) GI Symptom item bank captures upper and lower GI symptoms (reflux, disrupted swallowing, nausea/vomiting, belly pain, gas /bloating /flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and fecal incontinence). The objective of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of the PROMIS-GI bank in SSc. Methods 167 patients with SSc were administered the PROMIS GI bank and the UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Scale (GIT 2.0) instrument. GIT 2.0 is a multi-item instrument that measures SSc-associated GI symptoms. Product-moment correlations and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of the PROMIS GI scales with the GIT 2.0 symptom scales were used to evaluate convergent and discriminant validity. Results Patients with SSc GI involvement had PROMIS GI scale scores 0.2–0.7 SD worse than US population. Correlations among scales measuring the same domains for the PROMIS GI and GIT 2.0 measures were large, ranging from 0.61 to 0.87 (average r = 0.77). The average correlation between different symptom scales was 0.22, supporting discriminant validity. Conclusion This study provides support for the construct validity of the PROMIS GI scales in SSc. Future research is needed to assess the responsiveness to change of these scales in patients with SSc. PMID:24692332

  2. Learning Computerese: The Role of Second Language Learning Aptitude in Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Janis A.; Koufteros, Xenophon; Verghese, Anto

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new construct coined as Computer User Learning Aptitude (CULA). To establish construct validity, CULA is embedded in a nomological network that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM). Specifically, CULA is posited to affect perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, the two underlying TAM constructs.…

  3. Constructing and validating a global student-centered nursing curriculum learning efficacy scale: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fang

    2013-10-01

    Previous evidence-based studies have lacked a comprehensive student-centered scale to measure the learning efficacy of pre-registered nursing students. This study developed and validated a global scale for measuring learning efficacy among pre-registered nurses in Taiwan. Evaluated nursing courses included fundamental nursing, medical-surgical nursing, maternal-newborn nursing, pediatric nursing, psychiatric nursing, and community health nursing. All participants had previously completed the nursing professional curricula. This study comprised four phases, which were design of the initial study questionnaire, testing of the validity of the responses of experts to the questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis based on random sampling, and confirmatory factor analysis based on a large-scale investigation. The content validity index for the questionnaire was .89. Item analysis results yielded a Cronbach's α coefficient of between .90 and .92. Item-total correlation coefficients ranged from .51 to .76. The critical ratio, obtained from t-test results, ranged from 6.07 to 9.96. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that factor loadings for individual items ranged from .46 to .96, and eigenvalues ranged from 1.43 to 8.19. The three factors "learning preparation," "advancement of competency," and "learning evaluation" explained 63.5% of total factor loading. In the confirmatory factor analysis, the overall internal consistency reliability coefficient was .95; convergent reliability was .96, and convergent validity was .59. Evaluation scales demonstrated well construct validity and goodness-of-fit for the model. The comprehensive student-centered evaluation scale revealed rigorous construct validity. This scale can serve as an index of learning effectiveness in professional nursing curricula.

  4. A mixed method approach to clarify the construct validity of interprofessional collaboration: an empirical research illustration.

    PubMed

    Ødegård, Atle; Bjørkly, Stål

    2012-07-01

    The rapid development of empirical studies in the field of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) calls for a wide array of scientific approaches ranging from recruitment and motivation to measurement and design questions. Regardless of whether researchers choose qualitative or quantitative approaches, they must substantiate their findings. We argue that more attention should be given to reliability and validity issues to improve our understanding of IPC as a phenomenon and practice. A mixed methods approach is presented as a relevant design format for the study of IPC. This paper aims to argue that a combination of methodologies may be a feasible way to enhance our understanding of IPC, with a special focus on reliability and validity issues; illustrate the application of different methodologies in an IPC research project; and emphasize the distinction between validity and validation to mitigate possible obstacles in integrating qualitative and quantitative research in the study of IPC.

  5. Construction and validation of indicators and respective definitions for the nursing outcome Swallowing Status1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to develop indicators for the nursing outcome Swallowing Status and the respective conceptual and operational definitions validated by experts and in a clinical setting among patients after having experienced a stroke. METHOD: methodological study with concept analysis and content and clinical validations. The Content Validation Index was verified for the scores assigned by 11 experts to indicators. Two pairs of nurses assessed 81 patients during the clinical validation: one pair used an instrument with definitions and the other used an instrument without definitions. The resulting assessments were compared using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Friedman's test, and Minimal Important Difference calculation. RESULTS: All the indicators, with the exception of the indicator Ability to bring food to mouth, presented Content Validation Index above 0.80. The pair using the instrument with definitions presented an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient above 0.80 for all the indicators and similarity was found in all the assessments, according to the Minimal Important Difference calculation. The pair using the instrument without definitions presented a low coefficient (ρ<0.75) for all the indicators. CONCLUSION: the results showed that greater uniformity and accuracy was achieved by the pair of nurses using the conceptual and operational definitions for the indicators of the nursing outcome Swallowing Status. PMID:26155008

  6. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (<3 years). Methods Data were from 462 mothers and children (age 21–27 months) from the NOURISH trial. Items from five questionnaires and two study-specific items were submitted to a priori item selection, allocation and verification, before theoretically-derived factors were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Construct validity of the new factors was examined by correlating these with child eating behaviours and weight. Results Following expert review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach’s α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: ‘Distrust in Appetite’, ‘Reward for Behaviour’, ‘Reward for Eating’, and ‘Persuasive Feeding’. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: ‘Structured Meal Setting’, ‘Structured Meal Timing’, ‘Family Meal Setting’, ‘Overt Restriction’ and ‘Covert Restriction’. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. Conclusion The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children’s hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required. PMID:24898364

  7. The construct validity of the stanford-binet 5 measures of working memory.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Mark; Custer, Michael

    2005-09-01

    This study examines the validity of the measures of verbal and nonverbal working memory on the Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5). The validity evidence included Rasch-based, criterion-referenced item mapping, correlations with other clinical measures of memory, and prediction of reading and mathematics scores. The item mapping clearly demonstrates a parallel between increasing item difficulty and a progression of item characteristics that placed increasing demands on verbal and nonverbal working memory. The higher correlations of the SB5 verbal and nonverbal working memory subtests with other measures of verbal and nonverbal memory, respectively, and lower correlations with nonverbal and verbal memory measures, respectively, clearly show convergent and divergent validity. The higher correlations between SB5 verbal working memory and reading skills and between SB5 nonverbal memory and mathematics skills are consistent with past research.

  8. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Taiwan Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…

  9. Correlates of Attachment at Age 3: Construct Validity of the Preschool Attachment Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Mongeau, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane

    2004-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment at age 3 to further validate preschool separation-reunion measures. Three-year-olds (N = 150) and their mothers participated in a separation-reunion protocol, the Preschool Attachment Classification System (PACS: J. Cassidy & R. S. Marvin with the MacArthur Working Group on Attachment, 1992), and a…

  10. Validity as Process: A Construct Driven Measure of Fidelity of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ryan Seth

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of fidelity of implementation are essential to interpret the effects of educational interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While random assignment protects against many threats to validity, and therefore provides the best approximation to a true counterfactual condition, it does not ensure that the treatment condition…

  11. Measuring Student Graduateness: Reliability and Construct Validity of the Graduate Skills and Attributes Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Melinde

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation of the Graduate Skills and Attributes Scale which was initially administered to a random sample of 272 third-year-level and postgraduate-level, distance-learning higher education students. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis. In a second study, the scale was administered to a…

  12. Construct Validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in Cancer Survivors: Analyses Based on Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…

  13. Validating Questionnaire Constructs in International Studies: Two Examples from PISA 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    One of the most salient requirements for international educational research is the use of comparable measures. For the comparison of student performance across countries the use of item response theory (IRT) scaling techniques facilitates the collection of cross-nationally comparable measures. But there is also a need for valid and comparable…

  14. Applying Methods to Evaluate Construct Validity in the Context of A Level Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria; Shaw, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Validity is a central principle of assessment relating to the appropriateness of the uses and interpretations of test results. Usually, one of the inferences that we wish to make is that the score reflects the extent of a student's learning in a given domain. Thus, it is important to establish that the assessment tasks elicit performances that…

  15. Validating Constructs of a U.S.-Based Transfer Instrument in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Chih; Holton, Elwood F., III.; Bates, Reid A.

    2004-01-01

    Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) is the only research-based instrument of transfer learning in the U.S.A. to be used in diagnosing strengths and weaknesses of organizational transfer systems. This study validated the LTSI for use in Taiwan. The sample contained 583 responses collected from 20 different organizations. The results of…

  16. The Construct Validity of an Inventory for the Measurement of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Abilities in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2003-01-01

    In recent years metacognition has been receiving increased attention in mathematics education. Special attention has been focused on metacognition and its essential role in achievement settings. The basic difficulty of the study on the field of metacognition is to develop and use valid tasks in order to measure metacognitive ability especially for…

  17. Support for the Construct Validity of the Supports Intensity Scale Based on Clinician Rankings of Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona; Tasse, Marc J.; Durbin, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) is designed as a measure of support needs for individuals with intellectual disability. The current validity study required five experienced clinicians to rank a total of 50 cases as having Low, Medium, or High Support Need based on descriptions that were part of an assessment package for services. These rankings…

  18. Construct Validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and Reanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Presents an alternative theoretical analysis of several analyses presented by R. Sternberg and his colleagues of studies designed to validate the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. Makes the case that "g" theory is required to understand the relationships obtained by Sternberg and his colleagues. (SLD)

  19. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  20. Multidimensional Motivation and Engagement for Writing: Construct Validation with a Sample of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Martin, Andrew J.; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2016-01-01

    Given recent concerns around boys' literacy, this study examined multidimensional writing motivation and engagement among boys. We explored internal and external validity of 11 adaptive (e.g. self-efficacy for writing) and maladaptive (e.g. disengagement from writing) factors of writing motivation and engagement. The sample comprised 781 male…

  1. Nomological Research in Self-Perceptions: Implications for Construct Validity in Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    The varying perspectives of self, as determined by distinct or discrete situations and individual perceptions within a multitrait-multimethod framework, were tested, and evidence for the validity of the measures was found. Six hundred ninety-eight students in grades 1-12 were randomly selected from suburban classrooms in the Northeast and…

  2. The Work-Related Flow Inventory: Construction and Initial Validation of the WOLF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.

    2008-01-01

    The WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF) measures flow at work, defined as a short-term peak experience characterized by absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation. Results of Study 1 among 7 samples of employees (total N=1346) from different occupational groups offer support for the factorial validity and reliability of the WOLF.…

  3. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  4. The Psychopathy Q-Sort. Construct Validity Evidence in a Nonclinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2007-01-01

    Scant research has examined the validity of instruments that permit observer ratings of psychopathy. Using a nonclinical (undergraduate) sample, the authors examined the associations between both self- and observer ratings on a psychopathy prototype (Psychopathy Q-Sort, PQS) and widely used measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and…

  5. Construct Validation of the Louisiana School Analysis Model (SAM) Instructional Staff Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray-Clark, Nikki; Bates, Reid

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Louisiana SAM Instructional Staff Questionnaire, a key component of the Louisiana School Analysis Model. The model was designed as a comprehensive evaluation tool for schools. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was used to uncover the underlying structure of the SISQ. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Self-Efficacy for Science Teaching Scale Development: Construct Validation with Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangin, Selami; Sidekli, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of teacher self-efficacy has a history of more than 30 years. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the development and validation of a new scale to measure the science teaching self-efficacy of elementary school teachers. Therefore, a scale has been created to measure elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and…

  7. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  8. Construct Validity Evidence for Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition, Spanish Form Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Arlene; Clinton, Amanda; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was examined for scores on the Spanish Record Form of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition (BSRA-3). Participants included a sample of 68 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 5 years enrolled in preschool programs in Puerto Rico. Scores obtained from the BSRA-3 Spanish Record…

  9. Validity and Construct Contamination of the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Serna, George S.

    1998-01-01

    A series of analyses (correlations, multiple regressions, and confirmatory modeling) was conducted on data (N=275) collected to explore the psychometric properties of the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Long Form (RIAS-L). Results were mixed, generally revealing limited support for the RIAS-L's validity and highlighting concerns regarding the…

  10. Internal-External Locus of Control in Middle and Later Life: The Search for Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…

  11. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW): Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanierman, Lisa B.; Heppner, Mary J.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW), which operationalizes the idea that racism has a host of psychosocial costs for White individuals. Data from 727 participants were collected in 3 interrelated studies that subjected the items to the rigors of both…

  12. Construct Validation of Bachman and Palmer's (1996) Strategic Competence Model over Time in EFL Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a large-scale study that aims to validate the theory of strategic competence proposed by Bachman and Palmer (1996) through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). The present study examines the relationship of test-takers' long-term strategic knowledge (i.e., trait strategies) and actual strategy use (i.e., state…

  13. An Application-Based Discussion of Construct Validity and Internal Consistency Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.; Campbell, Kathleen T.

    Several techniques for conducting studies of measurement integrity are explained and illustrated using a heuristic data set from a study of teachers' participation in decision making (D. L. Taylor, 1991). The sample consisted of 637 teachers. It is emphasized that validity and reliability are characteristics of data, and do not inure to tests as…

  14. The construction and validation of an instrument for the assessment of graduates of undergraduate nursing courses 1

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; de Domenico, Edvane Birelo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to construct an instrument for the assessment of graduates of undergraduate nursing courses and to validate this instrument through the consensus of specialists. Method: methodological study. In order to elaborate the instrument, documental analysis and a literature review were undertaken. Validation took place through use of the Delphi Conference, between September 2012 and September 2013, in which 36 specialists from Brazilian Nursing participated. In order to analyze reliability, the Cronbach alpha coefficient, the item/total correlation, and the Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated. Results: the instrument was constructed with the participation of specialist nurses representing all regions of Brazil, with experience in lecturing and research. The first Delphi round led to changes in the first instrument, which was restructured and submitted to another round, with a response rate of 94.44%. In the second round, the instrument was validated with a Cronbach alpha of 0.75. Conclusion: the final instrument possessed three dimensions related to the characterization of the graduate, insertion in the job market, and evaluation of the professional training process. This instrument may be used across the territory of Brazil as it is based on the curricular guidelines and contributes to the process of regulation of the quality of the undergraduate courses in Nursing. PMID:27305184

  15. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  16. Rapid Construction of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation and Control System Validation for the THX Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Jiang, Z.; Hu, F.; Zhang, W.

    2015-09-01

    The rapid construction of hardware-in-the-loop simulation(HILS) system and validation of the flight control approach for the TianHang eXperimental(THX) rocket are investigated. Firstly, the six degree of freedom simulation system is accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink, and the simulation models are classified and masked into various blocks by their functions. And then, the integrated design of testing and debugging of the flight control devices and the HILS system construction is proposed based on the dSPACE real-time platform. The test and calibration of the gyroscope and rudder system and the flight control code automatically generation are carried out, and various leve's of HILS are achieved. Finally, the optimal linear quadratic regulator with the integrate part is proposed for the three channels of the flight vehicle. The numerical and HILS results demonstrated the effective performance of the proposed control approach. As the control system design implements only on the MATLAB/Simulink platform, a large of repeated work is overleaped. Therefore, the rapid construction of the HILS is accomplished, and the flight control design and validation period is decreased, which implies the remarkable value in engineering application.

  17. Constructing valid density matrices on an NMR quantum information processor via maximum likelihood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of quantum states is an important step in any quantum information processing experiment. A naive reconstruction of the density matrix from experimental measurements can often give density matrices which are not positive, and hence not physically acceptable. How do we ensure that at all stages of reconstruction, we keep the density matrix positive? Recently a method has been suggested based on maximum likelihood estimation, wherein the density matrix is guaranteed to be positive definite. We experimentally implement this protocol on an NMR quantum information processor. We discuss several examples and compare with the standard method of state estimation.

  18. Construct validity of the Chinese version of the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation Questionnaire (PRWE-Hong Kong Version).

    PubMed

    Wah, Josephine Wong Man; Wang, Mike Kwan Wing; Ping, Cecilia Li-Tsang Wai

    2006-01-01

    With increasing economic globalization, including health care, it is important to use standardized outcome measures applicable to a broad spectrum of patients in a wide array of countries. The purpose of this study was to verify construct and content validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation Questionnaire (PRWE-Hong Kong version). The PRWE was translated into Chinese, and face validity was established by inviting experts and patients to participate in the panel review of the questionnaire. A correlation field study was performed using a convenience sample of 47 patients with wrist injuries. Patients were assessed at baseline and six weeks after the initial measurement. The following measures were taken: the Chinese version of the PRWE and the Medical Outcome Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, active wrist range of motion, grip strength, and the Jebsen Hand Function Test. Statistical analysis consisted of Pearson correlation coefficients (convergent validity), factor analysis (content validity), paired t-test (convergent validity), and the Cronbach alpha (internal consistency). Clinically relevant correlations existed between "Pain at rest" and the VAS "resting pain" (r=0.785, p<0.0001) as well as between "Pain on repeated wrist movement" and the VAS "exertion pain" (r=0.872, p<0.0001). The "Physical Component Summary" of the SF-36 was found significantly correlated with the PRWE function subset total score (r=-0.618, p<0.0001), and the PRWE total score (r=-0.645, p<0.0001). The specific function subset score also correlated with the wrist flexion range (r=-0.308, p<0.0001) and the grip strength (r=-0.488, p=0.035). Two factors were found that accounted for 61% of the variance. The Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from 0.7805 to 0.9502, indicating that the internal consistency of the questionnaire items was sound and reliable. Positive correlations between the wrist ranges of

  19. Construct Validity, Reliability and Cross-Cultural Equivalence of the LSP's Cognitive Dimension: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardigan, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    The Learning Style Profile (LSP) is one of the first assessment instruments that measures cognitive skills as well as affective and environmental preferences. Developed for use with sixth-through twelfth-grade learners, the LSP consists of 126 questions representing 24 sub-scales These 24 subscales represent four higher-order constructs: (1)…

  20. Construction, Calibration, and Validation of a Simple Patch-Clamp Amplifier for Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouzrokh, Ali; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmed; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2009-01-01

    A modular patch-clamp amplifier was constructed based on the Strickholm design, which was initially published in 1995. Various parts of the amplifier such as the power supply, input circuit, headstage, feedback circuit, output and nulling circuits were redesigned to use recent software advances and fabricated using the common lithographic printed…

  1. Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps in Validity Maintenance for Automated Scoring of Constructed Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.

    As the automated scoring of constructed responses reaches operational status, monitoring the scoring process becomes a primary concern, particularly if automated scoring is intended to operate completely unassisted by humans. Using actual candidate selections from the Architectural Registration Examination (n=326), this study uses Kohonen…

  2. What Is Measured in Mathematics Tests? Construct Validity of Curriculum-Based Mathematics Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Robin Schul; Shinn, Mark R.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) is one tool that has been developed for formative evaluation in mathematics. This study examines what constructs M-CBM actually measures in the context of a range of other mathematics measures. Results indicated that a two-factor model of mathematics where Computation and Applications were distinct…

  3. The Attitudes & Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory-Revised and Revisited: A Continuation of Construct Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…

  4. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  5. Some Evidence for the Construct Validity of the Map of College Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary

    1988-01-01

    Examined the relationships of the similarity or dissimilarity of beginning and ending college majors with a test of career decisiveness and the number of college changes in major. Calculated a freshman-senior college major similarity index based on Holland's calculus construct. Found the index to be moderately related to career decisiveness and…

  6. Constructing and Validating a Q-Matrix for Cognitive Diagnostic Analyses of a Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic analyses have been advocated as methods that allow an assessment to function as a formative assessment to inform instruction. To use this approach, it is necessary to first identify the skills required for each item in the test, known as a Q-matrix. However, because the construct being tested and the underlying cognitive…

  7. Factorial and Construct Validity of a New Instrument for the Assessment of Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefele, Ulrich; Schaffner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Reading motivation has been defined consistently as a multidimensional construct. However, there is some disagreement regarding the number and nature of the dimensions of reading motivation. In particular, there is a lack of studies investigating the dimensional structure and measurement invariance (e.g., across gender) of reading motivation…

  8. Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Two-Factor Model with Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Christopher J.; Edens, John F.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Benning, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the research on psychopathy has treated it as a unitary construct operationalized by total scores on one (or more) measures. More recent studies on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) suggest the existence of two distinct facets of psychopathy with unique external correlates. Here, the authors report reanalyses of two offender…

  9. Meeting the Challenges of Curriculum Construction and Change: Revision and Validity Evaluation of a Placement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgalina, Anastasia; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of advanced literacy as a goal of foreign language (FL) study within the available amount of time requires that FL departments construct a well-articulated program and optimize student learning at each stage of the curriculum. One essential element of such optimization is the development of assessment procedures to place students into…

  10. Construct validity of the Chinese version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-HKPWH).

    PubMed

    Lee, E W C; Chung, M M H; Li, A P S; Lo, S K

    2005-02-01

    The study evaluated the construct validity of the Chinese Hong Kong version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-HKPWH). Three hundred and thirty four patients with a broad range of upper extremity disorders were recruited into the study. Each completed DASH-HKPWH and SF-36 forms and their pain intensity (numeric pain rating scale) and grip strength were also measured. The mean DASH-HKPWH score was 40 (SD=20). Principal component factor analysis identified a single factor, which accounted for 47% of the total variance. Pearson correlation was applied to assess convergent and divergent validity of the DASH-HKPWH by comparison with the above-mentioned subjective and objective measurements. Our findings were comparable to the DASH of other languages.

  11. Construct validity and reliability of the Single Checking Administration of Medications Scale.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Beverly; Hawkins, Mary; Ockerby, Cherene

    2013-06-01

    Research indicates that single checking of medications is as safe as double checking; however, many nurses are averse to independently checking medications. To assist with the introduction and use of single checking, a measure of nurses' attitudes, the thirteen-item Single Checking Administration of Medications Scale (SCAMS) was developed. We examined the psychometric properties of the SCAMS. Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected from 503 nurses across a large Australian health-care service. Analyses using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported by structural equation modelling resulted in a valid twelve-item SCAMS containing two reliable subscales, the nine-item Attitudes towards single checking and three-item Advantages of single checking subscales. The SCAMS is recommended as a valid and reliable measure for monitoring nurses' attitudes to single checking prior to introducing single checking medications and after its implementation.

  12. Construction and validation of a distance learning module on premedication antisepsis for nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Barbara Juliana da Costa; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Beatriz Maria, Jorge; Mazzo, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this descriptive study, carried out at a public university, was to design, develop, and validate a distance learning module on intramuscular premedication antisepsis. The content was introduced in the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, based on the Systematic Model for Web-Based Training projects. Ten nurses and information technologists at work consented to participate, in compliance with ethical guidelines, and answered a questionnaire to validate the Virtual Learning Environment. The educational aspects of the environment interface were mostly evaluated as "excellent," whereas the assessment of didactic resources indicated interactivity difficulties. It is concluded that distance learning is an important tool for the teaching of premedication antisepsis. To ensure its effectiveness, appropriate methods and interactive devices must be used.

  13. Construction and validation of the community and socio-political participation scale (SCAP).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, M Pilar; Ríos Rodríguez, M Luisa; Martín, Macarena Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a new instrument, the scale (SCAP) which measures community participation (CP) and socio-political participation (SPP). The sample consists of 756 participants in Málaga, residents whose average age is 38.78 years old (SD = 13.96) and of whom 58.5% are women. The results endorse the psychometric qualities of the instrument. We present descriptive analysis of the items, the dimensionality of the scale and its internal consistency. The external evidence of validity shows positive and statistically significant correlations with sense of community and empowerment, variables theoretically related to participation. A confirmatory factor analysis confirms the two-dimensional structure (CP and SPP). Further analysis show a higher CP in women. This instrument extends the quantitative research on citizen participation.

  14. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis: reliability and construct validation of the OMERACT RA Flare Core Domain Set

    PubMed Central

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H; Lin, Daming; Alten, Rieke; Christensen, Robin; Furst, Daniel E; Hewlett, Sarah; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn; Woodworth, Thasia; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Jamal, Shahin; Keystone, Edward C; Pope, Janet; Tin, Diane; Thorne, J Carter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reliability of concurrent flare identification using 3 methods (patient, rheumatologist and Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 criteria), and construct validity of candidate items representing the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) RA Flare Core Domain Set. Methods Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares was assessed using the agreement coefficient. Construct validity of flare questions was examined: convergent (Spearman's r); discriminant (mean differences between flaring/non-flaring patients); and consequential (proportions with prior treatment reductions and intended therapeutic change postflare). Results The 849 patients were 75% female, 81% white, 42% were in remission/low disease activity (R/LDA), and 16–32% were flaring at the second visit. Agreement of flare status was low–strong (κ's 0.17–0.88) and inversely related to RA disease activity level. Flare domains correlated highly (r's≥0.70) with each other, patient global (r's≥0.66) and corresponding measures (r's 0.49–0.92); and moderately highly with MD and patient-reported joint counts (r's 0.29–0.62). When MD/patients agreed the patient was flaring, mean flare domain between-group differences were 2.1–3.0; 36% had treatment reductions prior to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. Conclusions Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with/without flare and have strong evidence of construct and consequential validity. Ongoing work will identify optimal scoring and cut points to identify RA flares. PMID

  15. Modeling Computer Usage Intentions of Tertiary Students in a Developing Country through the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afari-Kumah, Eben; Achampong, Akwasi Kyere

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer usage intentions of Ghanaian Tertiary Students. The Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the theoretical framework to ascertain whether it could help explain behavioral intentions of individuals to accept and use technology. Factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the initial…

  16. Addressing the Lack of Measurement Invariance for the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) was constructed to be a single-factor instrument that assesses an individual's overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. The MATE was validated and the scores resulting from the MATE were found to be reliable for the population of inservice high school biology teachers. However,…

  17. Assessing musical abilities objectively: construction and validation of the profile of music perception skills.

    PubMed

    Law, Lily N C; Zentner, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals' extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS) that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch), qualitative (timbre, tuning), temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo), and dynamic (loudness). The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85) and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85). Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon's Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo), the Musical Ear Test (rhythm), and sample instrumental sounds (timbre). Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01). An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery's discriminant validity (-.05, ns). The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery. PMID:23285071

  18. Assessing musical abilities objectively: construction and validation of the profile of music perception skills.

    PubMed

    Law, Lily N C; Zentner, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals' extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS) that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch), qualitative (timbre, tuning), temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo), and dynamic (loudness). The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85) and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85). Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon's Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo), the Musical Ear Test (rhythm), and sample instrumental sounds (timbre). Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01). An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery's discriminant validity (-.05, ns). The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery.

  19. Assessing Musical Abilities Objectively: Construction and Validation of the Profile of Music Perception Skills

    PubMed Central

    Law, Lily N. C.; Zentner, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals’ extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS) that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch), qualitative (timbre, tuning), temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo), and dynamic (loudness). The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85) and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85). Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon’s Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo), the Musical Ear Test (rhythm), and sample instrumental sounds (timbre). Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01). An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery’s discriminant validity (−.05, ns). The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery. PMID:23285071

  20. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    PubMed Central

    Colado, Juan C.; Garcia-Masso, Xavier; Triplett, N. Travis; Calatayud, Joaquin; Flandez, Jorge; Behm, David; Rogers, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB) was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM) and overall body (O) ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB). Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise. Key points This new resistance intensity scale is an appropriate and valid tool for assessing perceived exertion during strength training with elastic bands

  1. Construction and validation of a low-cost surgical trainer based on iPhone technology for training laparoscopic skills.

    PubMed

    Pérez Escamirosa, Fernando; Ordorica Flores, Ricardo; Minor Martínez, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we describe the construction and validation of a laparoscopic trainer using an iPhone 5 and a plastic document holder case. The abdominal cavity was simulated with a clear plastic document holder case. On 1 side of the case, 2 holes for entry of laparoscopic instruments were drilled. We added a window to place the camera of the iPhone, which works as our camera of the trainer. Twenty residents carried out 4 tasks using the iPhone Trainer and a physical laparoscopic trainer. The time of all tasks were analyzed with a simple paired t test. The construction of the trainer took 1 hour, with a cost of

  2. Evaluating the validities of different DSM-IV-based conceptual constructs of tobacco dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Prochaska, Judith J.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To compare the concurrent and predictive validities of two subsets of DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence (tolerance and withdrawal; withdrawal; difficulty controlling use; and use despite harm) to the concurrent and predictive validity of the full DSM-IV criteria. Design Analysis of baseline and outcome data from three randomized clinical trials of cigarette smoking treatment. Setting San Francisco, California. Participants Two samples of cigarette smokers (n = 810 and 322), differing with regard to baseline characteristics and treatment received, derived from three randomized clinical trials. Measurements DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria were measured at baseline with a computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). Additional baseline measures included the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), number of cigarettes smoked per day, breath carbon monoxide (CO) level, the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS), the Michigan Nicotine Reinforcement Questionnaire (M-NRQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence was assessed at week 12. Findings Full DSM-IV criteria displayed greater concurrent validity than either of the two subsets of criteria. However, DSM-IV symptoms accounted for only a nominal amount of the variance in baseline smoking-related characteristics and were unrelated to smoking abstinence at week 12. Cigarettes smoked per day was the only significant predictor of abstinence at week 12. Conclusions Although the findings do not provide a compelling alternative to the full set of DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria, its poor psychometric properties and low predictive power limit its clinical and research utility. PMID:18554351

  3. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  4. A new self-report inventory of dyslexia for students: criterion and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-02-01

    The validity of a Dutch self-report inventory of dyslexia was ascertained in two samples of students. Six biographical questions, 20 general language statements and 56 specific language statements were based on dyslexia as a multi-dimensional deficit. Dyslexia and non-dyslexia were assessed with two criteria: identification with test results (Sample 1) and classification using biographical information (both samples). Using discriminant analyses, these criteria were predicted with various groups of statements. All together, 11 discriminant functions were used to estimate classification accuracy of the inventory. In Sample 1, 15 statements predicted the test criterion with classification accuracy of 98%, and 18 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 97%. In Sample 2, 16 statements predicted the biographical criterion with classification accuracy of 94%. Estimations of positive and negative predictive value were 89% and 99%. Items of various discriminant functions were factor analysed to find characteristic difficulties of students with dyslexia, resulting in a five-factor structure in Sample 1 and a four-factor structure in Sample 2. Answer bias was investigated with measures of internal consistency reliability. Less than 20 self-report items are sufficient to accurately classify students with and without dyslexia. This supports the usefulness of self-assessment of dyslexia as a valid alternative to diagnostic test batteries.

  5. Establishing construct validity of the Biology I Subject Area Testing program in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis

    Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.

  6. Design, construction and validation of a computer controlled system for functional loading of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Vera; Correro, Maria Rita; Riener, Robert; Weber, Franz E; Gallo, Luigi M

    2011-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease affecting body joints. Abnormal mechanical loading could be an initiating factor of cartilage damage, by influencing chondrocytes activity. To date, devices performing mechanical studies of viable tissues are mostly uniaxial. In this work, we developed and validated a multi-axial device for static and dynamic mechanical testing of viable soft tissues. The system, named RPETS, is composed of a motor driven indenter, moving vertically and horizontally along the bottom of a tank containing tissue samples and it can apply combined compression, sliding, and rolling on viable samples. Validation studies were performed with standard rubber and bovine nasal cartilage tissue. Static tests demonstrated that the system is comparable to existing uniaxial devices, with a maximum force control error smaller than 0.5N and a positioning resolution of 5 μm. Dynamic tests performed with different motion profiles showed that the system can exert a load of 100N with a maximum velocity of 100mm/s maintaining the force control error within 10% of the desired value. Sinusoidal motion frequency can vary between 0.05 and 0.5Hz. In practical tests, viability staining of dynamically loaded cartilage slices showed extents of cell death to depend on the indenter velocity.

  7. The Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (REMS): construction, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Kevin L

    2011-10-01

    Racial microaggressions are subtle statements and behaviors that unconsciously communicate denigrating messages to people of color. In recent years, a theoretical taxonomy and subsequent qualitative studies have introduced the types of microaggressions that people of color experience. In the present study, college- and Internet-based samples of African Americans, Latina/os, Asian Americans, and multiracial participants (N = 661) were used to develop and validate the Racial and Ethnic Microaggression Scale (REMS). In Study 1, an exploratory principal-components analyses (n = 443) yielded a 6-factor model: (a) Assumptions of Inferiority, (b) Second-Class Citizen and Assumptions of Criminality, (c) Microinvalidations, (d) Exoticization/Assumptions of Similarity, (e) Environmental Microaggressions, and (f) Workplace and School Microaggressions, with a Cronbach's alpha of .912 for the overall model and subscales ranging from .783 to .873. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 218) supported the 6-factor model with a Cronbach's alpha of .892. Further analyses indicate that the REMS is a valid measure of racial microaggressions, as evidenced by high correlations with existing measures of racism and participants' feedback. Future research directions and implications for practice are discussed.

  8. Factor structure and construct validity of the temporal experience of pleasure scales.

    PubMed

    Ho, Paul M; Cooper, Andrew J; Hall, Phillip J; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Feelings of pleasure felt in the moment of goal attainment (consummatory pleasure) are thought to be dissociable from feelings of desire connected with the motivated approach of goals (anticipatory pleasure). The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scales (TEPS; Gard, Gard, Kring, & John, 2006) was developed to assess individual differences in these distinct processes. Recently, an independent evaluation of the psychometric characteristics of a Chinese-translated TEPS suggested a more complex factor structure (Chan et al., 2012). This study aimed to reexamine the factor structure and convergent and divergent validity of the TEPS in two previously unexamined multiethnic samples. University students in the United Kingdom (N = 294) completed the TEPS and university students in Australia (N = 295) completed the TEPS as well as a battery of conceptually related questionnaires. A confirmatory factor analysis of Gard et al.'s (2006) 2-factor model produced inadequate fit, which model-modification indexes suggested might be due to item cross-loadings. This issue was examined further using an exploratory factor analysis, which revealed a clear 2-factor solution despite cross-loadings among some items. Finally, mixed evidence for convergent-divergent validity was obtained, in terms of relationships between the TEPS and measures of anhedonia, approach-motivation, and positive emotion. PMID:25101907

  9. Do we understand children's restlessness? Constructing ecologically valid understandings through reflexive cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Per-Einar; Stige, Brynjulf

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most widely used children's mental health diagnosis today, but the validity of the diagnosis is controversial, for instance, because it might conceal relational and ecological dimensions of restlessness. We invited parents and professionals from one local community in western Norway to participate in cooperative group discussions on how to conceptualize and understand children's restlessness. We carried out a thematic and reflexive analysis of the cooperative group discussions on ADHD and children's restlessness, and present findings related to three ecological levels inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model. At the level of the individual, restlessness was discussed as individual trait, as the expectation to be seen and heard, and as a result of traumatization. At the level of dyad, group or family, restlessness was discussed as a relational phenomenon and as parents' problems. At the level of community, restlessness was discussed as lack of cooperation and lack of structures or resources. Our findings show how contextualized and cooperative reflexivity can contribute to more valid understandings of children's restlessness, and how cooperative inquiry can stimulate reflections about solidarity and sustainability in relation to adult's actions. PMID:26701898

  10. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed.

  11. The Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits: a construct-validational analysis in an at-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Berg, Joanna M; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Reddy, Sheethal D; Latzman, Robert D; Roose, Annelore; Craighead, Linda W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Raison, Charles L

    2013-10-01

    The Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU), developed to assess callous/unemotional (CU) traits, has recently experienced increased attention in light of the proposal to add a CU specifier to the conduct disorder diagnosis in DSM-5. In a sample of 70 at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17 years) in the foster care system who received a contemplative intervention program, the present study placed the ICU within a nomological network of correlates, including anxiety, depression, hopefulness, loneliness, and physiological measures of stress (e.g., cortisol). The findings offered some support for the ICU's construct validity, including significant negative associations with measures of compassion toward others. Nevertheless, unexpected substantial positive correlations emerged with multiple measures of psychological distress, raising questions concerning other aspects of the ICU's construct validity. Taken together, results of the current study suggest that rather than assessing a dearth of all major emotions as implied by its name and some previous descriptions, the ICU may be heavily saturated with negative emotionality and global maladjustment. PMID:23344913

  12. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. PMID:25622226

  13. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  14. The Abbreviated Dimensions of Temperament Survey: Factor Structure and Construct Validity Across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; Wallander, Jan L; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS-R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning.

  15. Reliability and Construct Validity of Two Versions of Chalder Fatigue Scale among the General Population in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Meng-Juan; Lin, Wei-Quan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Ji; Tang, Jie; Jiang, En-She; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    The 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is widely used, while the 11-item version is seldom to be found in current research in mainland China. The objectives of the present study is to compare the reliability and construct validity between these two versions and to confirm which may be better for the mainland Chinese setting. Based on a cross-sectional health survey with a constructive questionnaire, 1887 individuals aged 18 years or above were selected. Socio-demographic, health-related, gynecological data were collected, and 11-item and 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were used to assess fatigue. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were performed to test the fit of models of the two versions. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two versions of CFS did not support the two-factor theorized models. In addition, a three-factor ESEM model of the 11-item version, but not the 14-item version, showed better factor structure and fitness than the other models examined. Both the versions had good internal consistency reliability and a satisfactory internal consistency (Ω = 0.78–0.96, omega coefficient indicates the internal consistency reliability) was obtained from the optimal model. This study provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and structural validity for the three-factor model of the 11-item version, which was proven to be superior to the 14-item version for this data. PMID:26805863

  16. The Abbreviated Dimensions of Temperament Survey: Factor Structure and Construct Validity Across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N.; Wallander, Jan L.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS–R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS–R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning. PMID:25932505

  17. Factor structure and construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory in a forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J

    2013-01-01

    A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior.

  18. Factor structure and construct validity of the psychopathic personality inventory in a forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Valerie M; McLawsen, Julia E; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J

    2013-01-01

    A wealth of research has underscored the strong relationship between PCL-R scores and recidivism. However, mounting criticism cites the PCL-R's cumbersome administration procedures and failure to adequately measure core features associated with the construct of psychopathy (Skeem, Polaschek, Patrick, & Lilienfeld, 2011). In light of these concerns, this study examined the PPI and the PPI-R, which were designed to measure core personality features associated with psychopathy (Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). Study one examined the PPI relative to the PCL-R and examined its factor structure. The instruments shared few significant correlations and neither the PCL-R nor the PPI significantly predicted recidivism. Study two examined the PPI-R relative to the PCL-R, the PPI, both history of violence and future criminal activity and measure of related constructs. The PPI-R was significantly correlated with measures of empathy and criminal thinking and the factors were related to a history of violence and predicted future violent criminal behavior. PMID:23399313

  19. Construction and validation of the Measurement of Acculturation Strategies for People of African Descent (MASPAD).

    PubMed

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Leong, Frederick T L

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the development of the Measurement of Acculturation Strategies for People of African Descent (MASPAD), a bidimensional instrument designed to assess acculturation strategies (i.e., Traditionalist, Integrationist, Assimilationist, and Marginalist). Two studies were conducted to describe the development of the MASPAD and to assess its psychometric properties. Data were collected from 367 African American participants in Atlanta, GA; Columbus, OH; Los Angeles; and New York City, NY. The MASPAD consistently produced scores with adequate reliability and independent raters provided initial evidence for face and content validity. Pearson correlation coefficients supported the purported orthogonality of the MASPAD subscales. The MASPAD was found to be a significant predictor of cultural worldview and values. The bidimensional model of acculturation theorized to exist in the MASPAD was supported with a confirmatory factor analysis on data collected from 831 participants. Future directions for this body of research are discussed. PMID:21058816

  20. Construct validity of the Children's Hand-Skills ability Questionnaire (CHSQ) in children with disabilities: a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Wen; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The Children's Hand-Skill ability Questionnaire (CHSQ) is a new parent-report questionnaire that assesses children's manual ability in three domains: leisure and play, school/education, and activities of daily living. The CHSQ can be used with children presenting with a range of disabilities and works as a companion assessment before detailed performance-based observations of hand skill are completed. This study further investigated the internal and external construct validity of the CHSQ. Participants included 53 Australian children and 70 Taiwanese children with known disabilities ranging age from 2 to 12 years. Rasch analysis results confirmed the appropriateness of the CHSQ's 3-level rating scale in this combined group of children. Twenty-one of the 22 items in the CHSQ formed three individual unidimensional scales representing with the domains of leisure and play, school/education, and activities of daily living. The CHSQ also exhibited sufficient person-response validity (all the three domains) and item-difficulty range (all but one domain) when applied to children with disabilities. Less than half of the CHSQ items were found to exhibit differential item functioning with regards to gender (4 items) and cultural difference (7 items). In addition, moderate to high correlations (0.61 ≤ Pearson's r coefficients ≤ 0.76, p<0.01) were found with the assessments of self-care and hand skill performance. Therefore, the CHSQ exhibits preliminary evidence of construct validity for its clinical use in obtaining children's manual ability based on parent-report information. PMID:22502851

  1. The construct validity of the Short Form-36 Health Survey for patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Grietje E; Jorritsma, Wim; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported disability related to neck pain can be measured using general health questionnaires. The validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP) in a tertiary outpatient rehabilitation setting is unknown. This study investigates construct validity of the SF-36 in these patients using 16 a-priori formulated hypotheses. Ninety-one patients admitted for rehabilitation completed the SF-36 before the rehabilitation program. SF-36 domain scores of patients with CNP were compared with general population reference values and standardized differences were calculated. For both the SF-36 physical and the mental component summary (PCS and MCS), differences between primary and tertiary care setting, men and women, age groups, litigants and nonlitigants, patients with and without compensation, and with ≥3 versus≤2 concomitant complaints were analyzed using independent t-tests. Differences between PCS and MCS scores were analyzed using a paired t-test. Twelve hypotheses were not rejected and four were rejected. All SF-36 domain scores were significantly lower than the general population references values. The domain scores 'role physical', 'bodily pain', 'vitality', 'social functioning,' and 'role emotional' were relevantly (≥1 SD) lower. SF-36-PCS and SF-36-MCS scores were significantly lower in tertiary care. The SF-36-PCS score was significantly lower for patients with workers compensation and patients with at least three concomitant complaints. The SF-36-MCS score was significantly lower for the age group of at least 39 years. The SF-36 has good construct validity and can be used to measure self-reported general health in patients with nonspecific CNP in outpatient tertiary rehabilitation.

  2. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  3. A multitrait-multimethod validation of the Implicit Association Test: implicit and explicit attitudes are related but distinct constructs.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Smyth, Frederick L

    2007-01-01

    Recent theoretical and methodological innovations suggest a distinction between implicit and explicit evaluations. We applied Campbell and Fiske's (1959) classic multitrait-multimethod design precepts to test the construct validity of implicit attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants (N = 287) were measured on both self-report and IAT for up to seven attitude domains. Through a sequence of latent-variable structural models, systematic method variance was distinguished from attitude variance, and a correlated two-factors-per-attitude model (implicit and explicit factors) was superior to a single-factor-per-attitude specification. That is, despite sometimes strong relations between implicit and explicit attitude factors, collapsing their indicators into a single attitude factor resulted in relatively inferior model fit. We conclude that these implicit and explicit measures assess related but distinct attitude constructs. This provides a basis for, but does not distinguish between, dual-process and dual-representation theories that account for the distinctions between constructs.

  4. Design, Construction, and Validation of Artificial MicroRNA Vectors Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Expression System.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Han, Dianwei; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology utilizes microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway to produce artificially selected small RNAs using miRNA gene backbone. It provides a feasible strategy for inducing loss of gene function, and has been applied in functional genomics study, improvement of crop quality and plant virus disease resistance. A big challenge in amiRNA applications is the unpredictability of silencing efficacy of the designed amiRNAs and not all constructed amiRNA candidates would be expressed effectively in plant cells. We and others found that high efficiency and specificity in RNA silencing can be achieved by designing amiRNAs with perfect or almost perfect sequence complementarity to their targets. In addition, we recently demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system can be used to validate amiRNA constructs, which provides a simple, rapid and effective method to select highly expressible amiRNA candidates for stable genetic transformation. Here, we describe the methods for design of amiRNA candidates with perfect or almost perfect base-pairing to the target gene or gene groups, incorporation of amiRNA candidates in miR168a gene backbone by one step inverse PCR amplification, construction of plant amiRNA expression vectors, and assay of transient expression of amiRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration, small RNA extraction, and amiRNA Northern blot.

  5. Construct Validity of Multiple-choice and Performance-based Assessments of Basic Science Process Skills: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James E.

    Science process skills are described as a set of broadly transferable abilities, appropriate to all of the science disciplines and reflective of the true behavior of scientists. While science process skills have gained wide acceptance as an integral part of the science curricula, the development of valid and reliable instruments to assess those…

  6. Construction and validation of a measure of integrative well-being in seven languages: The Pemberton Happiness Index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We introduce the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), a new integrative measure of well-being in seven languages, detailing the validation process and presenting psychometric data. The scale includes eleven items related to different domains of remembered well-being (general, hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being) and ten items related to experienced well-being (i.e., positive and negative emotional events that possibly happened the day before); the sum of these items produces a combined well-being index. Methods A distinctive characteristic of this study is that to construct the scale, an initial pool of items, covering the remembered and experienced well-being domains, were subjected to a complete selection and validation process. These items were based on widely used scales (e.g., PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Psychological Well-Being Scales). Both the initial items and reference scales were translated into seven languages and completed via Internet by participants (N = 4,052) aged 16 to 60 years from nine countries (Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA). Results Results from this initial validation study provided very good support for the psychometric properties of the PHI (i.e., internal consistency, a single-factor structure, and convergent and incremental validity). Conclusions Given the PHI’s good psychometric properties, this simple and integrative index could be used as an instrument to monitor changes in well-being. We discuss the utility of this integrative index to explore well-being in individuals and communities. PMID:23607679

  7. Teacher Autonomy in the United States: Establishing a Standard Definition, Validation of a Nationally Representative Construct and an Investigation of Policy Affected Teacher Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaltney, Kevin Dale

    2012-01-01

    This effort: 1) establishes an autonomy definition uniquely tailored for teaching, 2) validates a nationally generalizable teacher autonomy construct, 3) demonstrates that the model describes and explains the autonomy levels of particular teacher groups, and 4) verifies the construct can represent teacher autonomy in other empirical models. The…

  8. Motivation and Engagement across the Academic Life Span: A Developmental Construct Validity Study of Elementary School, High School, and University/College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    From a developmental construct validity perspective, this study examines motivation and engagement across elementary school, high school, and university/college, with particular focus on the Motivation and Engagement Scale (comprising adaptive, impeding/maladaptive, and maladaptive factors). Findings demonstrated developmental construct validity…

  9. [Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT): elements for construct validity in Portuguese adolescents].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ema; Almeida, Leandro; Ferrándiz, Carmen; Ferrando, Mercedes; Sainz, Marta; Prieto, María Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the unidimensional and multidimensional nature of creativity when assessed through divergent thinking tasks, as proposed in Torrance's battery (Torrance Creative Thinking Test, TTCT). This battery is made up of various tasks with verbal and figurative content, aimed at estimating the level of creativity according to the dimensions or cognitive functions of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration of the individuals' ideas. This work used a sample of 595 Portuguese students from 5th and 6th grade. The results of confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the unidimensional model (a general factor of creativity) and the model of factors as a function of the cognitive dimensions of creativity, based on task content, do not fit well. The model with the best fit has a hierarchical factor structure, in which the first level comprises the factors for each of the subtests applied and the second level includes verbal or figurative content. The difficulty to verify the structural validity of the TTCT is noted, and the need for further studies to achieve, in practice, better individual creativity scores.

  10. Design, construction, and validation of a modular library of sequence diversity standards for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Baum, Paul D; Young, Jennifer J; Zhang, Qianjun; Kasakow, Zeljka; McCune, Joseph M

    2011-04-01

    Methods to measure the sequence diversity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA lack standards for use as assay calibrators and controls. Here we present a general and economical method for developing customizable DNA standards of known sequence diversity. Standards ranging from 1 to 25,000 sequences were generated by directional ligation of oligonucleotide "words" of standard length and GC content and then amplified by PCR. The sequence accuracy and diversity of the library were validated using AmpliCot analysis (DNA hybridization kinetics) and Illumina sequencing. The library has the following features: (i) pools containing tens of thousands of sequences can be generated from the ligation of relatively few commercially synthesized short oligonucleotides; (ii) each sequence differs from all others in the library at a minimum of three nucleotide positions, permitting discrimination between different sequences by either sequencing or hybridization; (iii) all sequences have identical length, GC content, and melting temperature; (iv) the identity of each standard can be verified by restriction digestion; and (v) once made, the ends of the library may be cleaved and replaced with sequences to match any PCR primer pair. These standards should greatly improve the accuracy and reproducibility of sequence diversity measurements.

  11. Construction and validation of a quality of life instrument for young adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Gordan, Kathy; Dufur, Rebecca; Smailes, Elizabeth

    2004-05-01

    Assessment of quality of life (QOL) in young adults has become an increasingly important field of research as information on the QOL of children and adults accumulates. The purpose of this study is to report on the development of the Young Adult Quality Of Life (YAQOL) instrument, a measure of QOL for young adults aged 18-25. The YAQOL, which is comprised of 14 multi-item scales that assess physical health and aspects of psychological well-being, social relationships, role function, and environmental context, was administered to a general population sample of 751 young adults. Scale structure was confirmed by item-internal consistency, item discriminant validity, and inter-scale correlations. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.63 across scales (mean = 0.73). Eight YAQOL scales discriminated clearly between young adults with and without chronic physical conditions, 12 scales discriminated between young adults with and without personality disorder, and negative associations were demonstrated between YAQOL scale scores and psychiatric disorder symptoms. Demographic differences in the YAQOL scales were consistent with theoretical expectations and previous empirical work. Overall, findings support the reliability and utility of the YAQOL as a measure of QOL in young adults in the general population. Additional psychometric properties will continue to be evaluated as more data become available.

  12. Methodology and validity in the construction of computational models of cognitive deficits following brain damage.

    PubMed

    Mayall, K

    1998-05-01

    Over recent years, neural network models of several cognitive neuropsychological disorders have been developed. These include word recognition difficulties, face recognition difficulties, attentional deficits, visual processing impairments, semantic deficits, and aphasia. These models are useful in various ways. Firstly, they require detailed specifications of theories, and can focus attention on critical assumptions. Secondly, they can query alternative theories, and provide predictions which can be verified by testing patients. In this paper, issues relating both to the methodology and validity of attempts to model cognitive deficits using neural networks will be discussed, providing examples from several studies. Issues discussed will include the requirement for models to perform normally prior to damage, and to show potential effects of rehabilitation or partial recovery following damage. A single model should be able to incorporate multiple symptoms of a deficit and ideally also multiple syndromes when different lesions are introduced. The model must also be able to handle variability between patients with the same syndrome, and even with the same patient at different test sessions.

  13. A test of the construct validity of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Campbell, W Keith

    2013-01-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a Five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In a sample of undergraduates (N = 283), the relations among the FFNI scales, grandiose and vulnerable dimensions, and an array of relevant criteria were examined including self- and informant reports of the Big Five domains, measures of the Dark Triad, ratings of the interpersonal circumplex, externalizing and internalizing behaviors and symptoms, and romantic and attachment styles. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions demonstrated good convergent and criterion validity. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable dimensions manifested converging (e.g., disagreeableness, low love/communion, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Ludus/Manic love styles) and diverging (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, dominance, externalizing, internalizing, attachment anxiety) relations in a manner largely consistent with predictions. The FFNI joins the Pathological Narcissism Inventory as a measure that can simultaneously assess both grandiose and vulnerable dimensions of narcissism. PMID:23186210

  14. Methodology and validity in the construction of computational models of cognitive deficits following brain damage.

    PubMed

    Mayall, K

    1998-05-01

    Over recent years, neural network models of several cognitive neuropsychological disorders have been developed. These include word recognition difficulties, face recognition difficulties, attentional deficits, visual processing impairments, semantic deficits, and aphasia. These models are useful in various ways. Firstly, they require detailed specifications of theories, and can focus attention on critical assumptions. Secondly, they can query alternative theories, and provide predictions which can be verified by testing patients. In this paper, issues relating both to the methodology and validity of attempts to model cognitive deficits using neural networks will be discussed, providing examples from several studies. Issues discussed will include the requirement for models to perform normally prior to damage, and to show potential effects of rehabilitation or partial recovery following damage. A single model should be able to incorporate multiple symptoms of a deficit and ideally also multiple syndromes when different lesions are introduced. The model must also be able to handle variability between patients with the same syndrome, and even with the same patient at different test sessions. PMID:9654377

  15. Construction and validation of a list of common Middle Eastern surnames for epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Kiumarss

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Middle Eastern (ME) population is rapidly growing in the US but cannot be easily identified in cancer registry or other databases for epidemiological research. The purpose of this study was to develop a list of common Middle Eastern surnames and validate it by linking with a cancer registry incidence files. Methods Surnames and place of birth in the Middle East were obtained from various sources. After exclusion of the non-specific entries, the final combined list included 49,610 surnames and was matched with the California Cancer Registry incidence file for 1988-2003. Results Overall, 1.4% of all registered cases were positively identified as ME that is similar to the proportion of ME population in California. Two third of the identified cases had known place of birth in the Middle East and of those, 70% were non-Arabs. The sensitivity of the list in detecting ME birth in men and women are 91% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive values for men and women are 72% and 65%. The specificity and negative predictive values are universally over 99 percent. Conclusion The high accuracy reported for this Middle Eastern surname list (MESL) makes it a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of this ethnic population. PMID:18023539

  16. International Adaptations of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: Construct Validity and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gina; Derksen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the influence of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) as a clinical and research instrument beyond the borders of the United States. The MCMI's theoretical and empirical grounding, its alignment with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and scales that can be interpreted both categorically and dimensionally, are the primary features that make the test attractive. We begin with studies that evaluated the construct equivalence of the different language adaptations. Data from the most widely researched non English-language forms (Danish, Dutch, and Spanish) show excellent comparability with Millon's original. Nevertheless, significant problems were noted in efforts to create clinical groups that would allow for equivalence of diagnostic accuracy when using the cutoff scores. Although dimensional aspects of the scale scores were not affected by this, the adapted measures might show attenuated diagnostic accuracy compared with Millon's original. Next, we present MCMI studies conducted in clinical settings to document where the adapted tests have made their greatest impact in the international literature. A wide variety of clinical applications demonstrated broad utility, and given the high number of issues addressed, we think Millon's influence will certainly stand the test of time in different domains and settings.

  17. International Adaptations of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: Construct Validity and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gina; Derksen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the influence of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) as a clinical and research instrument beyond the borders of the United States. The MCMI's theoretical and empirical grounding, its alignment with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and scales that can be interpreted both categorically and dimensionally, are the primary features that make the test attractive. We begin with studies that evaluated the construct equivalence of the different language adaptations. Data from the most widely researched non English-language forms (Danish, Dutch, and Spanish) show excellent comparability with Millon's original. Nevertheless, significant problems were noted in efforts to create clinical groups that would allow for equivalence of diagnostic accuracy when using the cutoff scores. Although dimensional aspects of the scale scores were not affected by this, the adapted measures might show attenuated diagnostic accuracy compared with Millon's original. Next, we present MCMI studies conducted in clinical settings to document where the adapted tests have made their greatest impact in the international literature. A wide variety of clinical applications demonstrated broad utility, and given the high number of issues addressed, we think Millon's influence will certainly stand the test of time in different domains and settings. PMID:26473456

  18. Learning in a Physics Classroom Community: Physics Learning Identity Construct Development, Measurement and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sissi L.

    At the university level, introductory science courses usually have high student to teacher ratios which increases the challenge to meaningfully connect with students. Various curricula have been developed in physics education to actively engage students in learning through social interactions with peers and instructors in class. This learning environment demands not only conceptual understanding but also learning to be a scientist. However, the success of student learning is typically measured in test performance and course grades while assessment of student development as science learners is largely ignored. This dissertation addresses this issue with the development of an instrument towards a measure of physics learning identity (PLI) which is used to guide and complement case studies through student interviews and in class observations. Using the conceptual framework based on Etienne Wenger's communities of practice (1998), I examine the relationship between science learning and learning identity from a situated perspective in the context of a large enrollment science class as a community of practice. This conceptual framework emphasizes the central role of identity in the practices negotiated in the classroom community and in the way students figure out their trajectory as members. Using this framework, I seek to understand how the changes in student learning identity are supported by active engagement based instruction. In turn, this understanding can better facilitate the building of a productive learning community and provide a measure for achievement of the curricular learning goals in active engagement strategies. Based on the conceptual framework, I developed and validated an instrument for measuring physics learning identity in terms of student learning preferences, self-efficacy for learning physics, and self-image as a physics learner. The instrument was pilot tested with a population of Oregon State University students taking calculus based

  19. Proposal and validation of a method to construct confidence intervals for clinical outcomes around FROC curves for mammography CAD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornefalk, Hans

    2005-04-01

    This paper introduces a method for constructing confidence intervals for possible clinical outcomes around the FROC curve of a mammography CAD system. Given the architecture of a CAD classifying machine, there is one and only one system threshold that will yield a desired sensitivity on a certain population. The limited training sample size leads to a sampling error and an uncertainty in determining the optimal system threshold. This leads to an uncertainty in the operating point in the direction along the FROC curve which can be captured by a Bayesian approach where the distribution of possible thresholds is estimated. This uncertainty contributes to a large and spread-out confidence interval which is important to consider when one is intending to make comparisons between CAD algorithms trained on different data sets. The method is validated using a Monte Carlo method designed to capture the effect of correctly determining the system threshold.

  20. The R-CRAS and insanity evaluations: a re-examination of construct validity. Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales.

    PubMed

    Rogers, R; Sewell, K W

    1999-01-01

    Insanity evaluations are characterized by continued professional debate and the paucity of empirical research. To address the latter, the construct validity of the Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales (R-CRAS; Rogers, 1984) was examined via an extensive re-analysis of 413 insanity cases. A series of six separate discriminant analyses was examined to address major components of insanity evaluations. These analyses yielded highly discriminating patterns (M hit rates of 94.3%) and accounted for substantial proportion of the variance (M=63.7%). In general, predicted relationships between individual variables and the discriminant functions were supported. We also addressed the usefulness of the R-CRAS additional variables for the assessment of insanity. We found that these variables contributed substantially to the determination of criminal responsibility. Finally, we pose important and polemical issues for forensic experts conducting evaluations of criminal responsibility.

  1. A review of the content, criterion-related, and construct-related validity of assessment center exercises.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Brian J; Kennedy, Colby L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Monahan, Elizabeth L; Lance, Charles E

    2015-07-01

    This study uses meta-analysis and a qualitative review of exercise descriptions to evaluate the content, criterion-related, construct, and incremental validity of 5 commonly used types of assessment center (AC) exercises. First, we present a meta-analysis of the relationship between 5 types of AC exercises with (a) the other exercise types, (b) the 5-factor model of personality, (c) general mental ability (GMA), and (d) relevant criterion variables. All 5 types of exercises were significantly related to criterion variables (ρ = .16-.19). The nomological network analyses suggested that the exercises tend to be modestly associated with GMA, Extraversion and, to a lesser extent, Openness to Experience but largely unrelated to Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability. Finally, despite sparse reporting in primary studies, a content analysis of exercise descriptions yielded some evidence of complexity, ambiguity, interpersonal interaction, and fidelity but not necessarily interdependence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings

    PubMed Central

    Roizen, Mariana; Rodríguez, Susana; Bauer, Gabriela; Medin, Gabriela; Bevilacqua, Silvina; Varni, James W; Dussel, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Background To validate the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Argentinean children and adolescents with chronic conditions and to assess the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on the instrument's comprehensibility and acceptability. Reliability, and known-groups, and convergent validity were tested. Methods Consecutive sample of 287 children with chronic conditions and 105 healthy children, ages 2–18, and their parents. Chronically ill children were: (1) attending outpatient clinics and (2) had one of the following diagnoses: stem cell transplant, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, end stage renal disease, complex congenital cardiopathy. Patients and adult proxies completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 and an overall health status assessment. Physicians were asked to rate degree of health status impairment. Results The PedsQL™ 4.0 was feasible (only 9 children, all 5 to 7 year-olds, could not complete the instrument), easy to administer, completed without, or with minimal, help by most children and parents, and required a brief administration time (average 5–6 minutes). People living below the poverty line and/or low literacy needed more help to complete the instrument. Cronbach Alpha's internal consistency values for the total and subscale scores exceeded 0.70 for self-reports of children over 8 years-old and parent-reports of children over 5 years of age. Reliability of proxy-reports of 2–4 year-olds was low but improved when school items were excluded. Internal consistency for 5–7 year-olds was low (α range = 0.28–0.76). Construct validity was good. Child self-report and parent proxy-report PedsQL™ 4.0 scores were moderately but significantly correlated (ρ = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and both significantly correlated with physician's assessment of health impairment and with child self-reported overall health status. The PedsQL™ 4.0 discriminated between healthy and chronically ill children (72

  3. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  4. Validation of a low-cost modified technique for constructing tissue microarrays for canine mammary tumor analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Franciele Basso Fernandes; Leite, Juliana da Silva; de Mello, Marcela Freire Vallim; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis

    2016-09-01

    Compared with conventional histological paraffin blocks, tissue microarray (TMA) represents a "high-throughput tool" that provides rapid results, a time- and cost-effective approach and simultaneous investigation of several tissue samples under the same conditions. Given the large number of cases of dogs affected with mammary tumors, the complexity of these tumors and their similarity with breast cancer in women, this study aimed to validate a low-cost modified method to construct TMAs for canine mammary tumor analysis using immunomarkers. Carcinoma cases were selected from canine mammary carcinomas in mixed tumors (CMT) because this tumor type is the most heterogeneous among the histopathological types of mammary tumors observed in female dogs. Through a histopathological examination, tumor representativity was compared between conventional sections and histological sections obtained from the TMA block; both were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. An immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to compare the percentages of immunoreactive cells obtained in whole tissue sections versus those obtained from sections from the TMA block. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex and anti-PCNA, anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies were used. Statistical analysis consisted of the nonparametric Friedman's test (p≤0.05) and descriptive statistical analysis. Histopathological analysis showed tumor representativity in all TMA cores selected for the study. There was no difference between the immunohistochemical analysis of mammary tumors using conventional histological sections or sections obtained from a single 1-mm-diameter TMA core, regardless of the marker used: PCNA (p=0.279), pancytokeratin (p=0.243) and vimentin (p=0.967). The results did not change even when the means of any number of cores were compared among each other and with the conventional histological section: PCNA (p=0.413), pancytokeratin (p=0.177) and vimentin (p=1.0). Therefore, this study

  5. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, B; Salazar, A; Dueñas, M; Torres, L M; Mico, J A; Failde, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001); HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001) and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001); MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001); and the physical (0.49, p < .001) and mental components (0.55, p < .001) of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  6. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, B.; Salazar, A.; Dueñas, M.; Torres, L. M.; Mico, J. A.; Failde, I.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the “Test Your Memory” (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001); HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001) and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001); MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001); and the physical (0.49, p < .001) and mental components (0.55, p < .001) of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations. PMID:27119165

  7. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, B; Salazar, A; Dueñas, M; Torres, L M; Mico, J A; Failde, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001); HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001) and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001); MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001); and the physical (0.49, p < .001) and mental components (0.55, p < .001) of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations. PMID:27119165

  8. Validity of Questionnaire and Representativeness of Objective Methods for Measurements of Mechanical Exposures in Construction and Health Care Work

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Markus; Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Gjulem, Tonje; Knardahl, Stein; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the criterion validity of a questionnaire on physical exposures compared to objective measurements at construction and health care sites and to examine exposure variation over several working days. Methods Five hundred ninety-four construction and health care workers answered a baseline questionnaire. The daily activities (standing, moving, sitting, number of steps), postures (inclination of the arm and the trunk), and relative heart rate of 125 participants were recorded continuously over 3–4 working days. At the end of the first measurement day, the participants answered a second questionnaire (workday questionnaire). Results All objective activity measurements had significant correlations to their respective questions. Among health care workers, there were no correlations between postures and relative heart rate and the baseline questionnaire. The questionnaires overestimated the exposure durations. The highest explained variance in the adjusted models with self-reported variables were found for objectively measured sitting (R2 = 0.559) and arm inclination > 60° (R2 = 0.420). Objective measurements over several days showed a higher reliability compared to single day measurements. Conclusions Questionnaires cannot provide an accurate description of mechanical exposures. Objective measurements over several days are recommended in occupations with varying tasks. PMID:27649499

  9. Construction and validation of a scale of assessment of self-care behaviors with arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta Jesus Silva; Dias, Vanessa Filipa Ferreira; Teles, Paulo; Martins, Maria Manuela

    2015-04-01

    Several guidelines recommend the importance of educating the patient about the care of vascular access. Nurses have a key role in promoting the development of self-care behaviors by providing the necessary knowledge to patients, so that they develop the necessary skills to take care of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This article describes the process of building a scale of assessment of self-care behaviors with arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis (ASBHD-AVF). This is a cross-sectional study in which the development, construction, and validation process followed the directions of the authors Streiner and Norman. This is a convenience sample, sequential, and nonprobabilistic constituted by 218 patients. The study was conducted in two stages during 2012-2014. The first phase corresponds to the scale construction process, 64 patients participated, while the second corresponds to the evaluation of metric properties and 154 patients participated. The principal component analysis revealed a two-factor structure, with factorial weights between 0.805 and 0.511 and between 0.700 and 0.369, respectively, explaining 39.12% of the total variance of the responses. The Cronbach's alpha of the subscale management of signs and symptoms is 0.797 and from the subscale prevention of complications is 0.722. The ASBHD-AVF revealed properties that allow its use to assess the self-care behaviors in the maintenance and conservation of the AVF.

  10. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-child questionnaire on energy balance-related behaviours and their potential determinants: the ENERGY-project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insight in children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) and their determinants is important to inform obesity prevention research. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. Objective To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the child questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, measuring EBRBs and their potential determinants among 10-12 year old children. Methods We collected data among 10-12 year old children (n = 730 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 96 in the construct validity study) in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent face-to-face interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. Results Of the 150 questionnaire items, 115 (77%) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Test-retest reliability was moderate for 34 items (23%) and poor for one item. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 70 (47%) of the 150 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 80 items, construct validity was moderate for 39 (26%) and poor for 41 items (27%). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ENERGY-child questionnaire, assessing EBRBs of the child as well as personal, family, and school-environmental determinants related to these EBRBs, has good test-retest reliability and moderate to good construct validity for the large majority of items. PMID:22152048

  11. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children. PMID:25952145

  12. Applying the Technology Acceptance Model and flow theory to Cyworld user behavior: implication of the Web2.0 user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hee; Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Won-Young

    2008-06-01

    This study explores attitudinal and behavioral patterns when using Cyworld by adopting an expanded Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A model for Cyworld acceptance is used to examine how various factors modified from the TAM influence acceptance and its antecedents. This model is examined through an empirical study involving Cyworld users using structural equation modeling techniques. The model shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated. The results not only confirm the model but also reveal general factors applicable to Web2.0. A set of constructs in the model can be the Web2.0-specific factors, playing as enhancing factor to attitudes and intention.

  13. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  17. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  18. Conception et validation d'un modele d'analyse et de suivi pour une politique energetique durable et acceptable de l'energie eolienne: Une etude comparative France-Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurtey, Evariste

    In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership

  19. Criterion and construct validity of prosthesis-integrated measurement of joint moment data in persons with transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke; Smith, Roger O; Briggs, Douglas; Hafner, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    Prosthesis-integrated sensors are appealing for use in clinical settings where gait analysis equipment is unavailable, but accurate knowledge of patients' performance is desired. Data obtained from load cells (inferring joint moments) may aid clinicians in the prescription, alignment, and gait rehabilitation of persons with limb loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of prosthesis-integrated load cells for routine use in clinical practice. Level ground walking of persons with transtibial amputation was concurrently measured with a commercially available prosthesis-integrated load cell, a 10-camera motion analysis system, and piezoelectric force plates. Ankle and knee flexion/extension moments were derived and measurement methods were compared via correlation analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.661 for ankle pronation/supination moments to 0.915 for ankle flexion/extension moments (P < .001). Root mean squared errors between measurement methods were in the magnitude of 10% of the measured range and were explainable. Differences in results depicted differences between systems in definition and computation of measurement variables. They may not limit clinical use of the load cell, but should be considered when data are compared directly to conventional gait analysis data. Construct validity of the load cell (ie, ability to measure joint moments in-situ) is supported by the study results.

  20. Bifactor analysis and construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) in non-clinical Spanish samples.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Jaume; Luciano, Juan V; Cebolla, Ausias; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Soler, Joaquim; García-Campayo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in three Spanish samples using structural equation modeling (SEM). Pooling the FFMQ data from 3 Spanish samples (n = 1191), we estimated the fit of two competing models (correlated five-factor vs. bifactor) via confirmatory factor analysis. The factorial invariance of the best fitting model across meditative practice was also addressed. The pattern of relationships between the FFMQ latent dimensions and anxiety, depression, and distress was analyzed using SEM. FFMQ reliability was examined by computing the omega and omega hierarchical coefficients. The bifactor model, which accounted for the covariance among FFMQ items with regard to one general factor (mindfulness) and five orthogonal factors (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judgment, and non-reactivity), fit the FFMQ structure better than the correlated five-factor model. The relationships between the latent variables and their manifest indicators were not invariant across the meditative experience. Observing items had significant loadings on the general mindfulness factor, but only in the meditator sub-sample. The SEM analysis revealed significant links between mindfulness and symptoms of depression and stress. When the general factor was partialled out, the acting with awareness facet did not show adequate reliability. The FFMQ shows a robust bifactor structure among Spanish individuals. Nevertheless, the Observing subscale does not seem to be adequate for assessing mindfulness in individuals without meditative experience. PMID:25914664