Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable contamination levels

  1. Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R

    1995-10-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

  2. Distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes in an aquifer having multiple contaminant sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Bruce, B.W.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and H2 in groundwater were measured to determine the distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) in an alluvial aquifer having multiple contaminant sources. Upgradient contaminant sources included two separate hydrocarbon point sources, one of which contained the fuel oxygenate methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE). Infiltrating river water was a source of dissolved NO31 SO4 and organic carbon (DOC) to the downgradient part of the aquifer. Groundwater downgradient from the MTBE source had larger concentrations of electron acceptors (dissolved O2 and SO4) and smaller concentrations of TEAP end products (dissolved inorganic C, Fe2+ and CH4) than groundwater downgradient from the other hydrocarbon source, suggesting that MTBE was not as suitable for supporting TEAPs as the other hydrocarbons. Measurements of dissolved H2 indicated that SO4 reduction predominated in the aquifer during a period of high water levels in the aquifer and river. The predominant TEAP shifted to Fe3+ reduction in upgradient areas after water levels receded but remained SO4 reducing downgradient near the river. This distribution of TEAPs is the opposite of what is commonly observed in aquifers having a single contaminant point source and probably reflects the input of Dec and SO4 to the aquifer from the river. Results of this study indicate that the distribution of TEAPs in aquifers having multiple contaminant sources depends on the composition and location of the contaminants and on the availability of electron acceptors.

  3. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... competence in his or her current position, and the employee has not been given a performance rating in any... acceptable level of competence, the within-grade increase will be granted retroactively to the beginning...

  4. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence determinations. 531.409 Section 531.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of...

  5. Defining Acceptable Levels for Ecological Indicators: An Approach for Considering Social Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Robyn L.; Watzin, Mary C.; Manning, Robert E.

    2007-03-01

    Ecological indicators can facilitate an adaptive management approach, but only if acceptable levels for those indicators have been defined so that the data collected can be interpreted. Because acceptable levels are an expression of the desired state of the ecosystem, the process of establishing acceptable levels should incorporate not just ecological understanding but also societal values. The goal of this research was to explore an approach for defining acceptable levels of ecological indicators that explicitly considers social perspectives and values. We used a set of eight indicators that were related to issues of concern in the Lake Champlain Basin. Our approach was based on normative theory. Using a stakeholder survey, we measured respondent normative evaluations of varying levels of our indicators. Aggregated social norm curves were used to determine the level at which indicator values shifted from acceptable to unacceptable conditions. For seven of the eight indicators, clear preferences were interpretable from these norm curves. For example, closures of public beaches because of bacterial contamination and days of intense algae bloom went from acceptable to unacceptable at 7-10 days in a summer season. Survey respondents also indicated that the number of fish caught from Lake Champlain that could be safely consumed each month was unacceptably low and the number of streams draining into the lake that were impaired by storm water was unacceptably high. If indicators that translate ecological conditions into social consequences are carefully selected, we believe the normative approach has considerable merit for defining acceptable levels of valued ecological system components.

  6. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  7. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  8. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  9. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  10. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in...

  12. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in...

  13. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in...

  14. Use of blood levels to infer carcass levels of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensler, G.L.; Stout, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Inferences may be made about the carcass levels of a contaminant based on the contaminant level in blood samples. A method is given for comparing such populations that utilizes bivariate normal distributions and their principal axes, thereby avoiding a dilemma arising from the use of regression techniques. Confidence intervals and power calculations are given. Data from captive barn owls provide partial justification for the use of this method.

  15. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  16. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  17. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository.

  18. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  19. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  20. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  1. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  2. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  3. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  4. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  5. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  6. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  7. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  8. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  9. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  10. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    SciTech Connect

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H.; Lesperance, A.; Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area`s (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE`s technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders.

  11. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.; Callahan, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  12. PCB contaminated dust on indoor surfaces--health risks and acceptable surface concentrations in residential and occupational settings.

    PubMed

    Kuusisto, Sari; Lindroos, Outi; Rantio, Tiina; Priha, Eero; Tuhkanen, Tuula

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in diverse purposes such as indoor paints. Removal of these paints with dust creating techniques, like sandblasting, will result in contamination of building surfaces with PCB-containing dust. Objectives of this study was to analyze the PCB concentrations on surfaces after sandblasting with silica using wipe samples and estimate the resulting health risks and further calculate the risk based acceptable PCB surface concentrations that do not cause incremental lifetime cancer risk higher that 10(-5) or does not cause immunosupression effects in residential use or in occupational settings. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches were used. The total PCB concentrations on surfaces ranged from 10 to 1100 microg/m(2). Estimated cancer risk was 1.2 x 10(-4) for childhood exposure, 1.3 x 10(-5) for adult residents and 1.5 x 10(-5) for occupational exposure. Probabilistic risk assessment revealed that point estimates were quite reasonable and located between 45th and 79th percentiles on probabilistic distribution of risk. The noncancer risks were calculated as hazard quotients (HQ) which ranged from 3.3 to 35 depending on the exposure scenario. Acceptable surface concentrations based on noncancer effects that are protective for 95% of exposed population were 7 microg/m(2) for residential use, 65 microg/m(2) for residential use if only adults will be exposed and 140 microg/m(2) for occupational use. Preliminary cleanup experiment revealed that when contaminated dust was carefully removed with industrial vacuum cleaner and further washed with terpene containing liquid the surface concentration dropped below the acceptable levels calculated in this study.

  13. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Huggett, A; Petersen, B J; Walker, R; Fisher, C E; Notermans, S H; Rombouts, F M; Abbott, P; Debackere, M; Hathaway, S C; Hecker, E F; Knaap, A G; Kuznesof, P M; Meyland, I; Moy, G; Narbonne, J F; Paakkanen, J; Smith, M R; Tennant, D; Wagstaffe, P; Wargo, J; Würtzen, G

    1998-06-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure to reach these goals. The interaction between risk assessors and risk managers is considered vital to this procedure. This paper reports the outcome of a meeting of risk assessors and risk managers on specific aspects of risk analysis and its application to international standard setting for food additives and contaminants. Case studies on aflatoxins and aspartame were used to identify the key steps of the interaction process which ensure scientific justification for risk management decisions. A series of recommendations were proposed in order to enhance the scientific transparency in these critical phases of the standard setting procedure.

  14. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  15. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  16. Fuzzy measurement based image testing for oil particles contamination level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xianming; Li, Chuan; Chen, Bin

    2010-11-01

    The oil contamination level testing is important for its using and maintenance which is the basement of the oil contamination control is required higher by the developing device system, and the testing method is urgently needed to be studied for improving the process method and the maintenance quality of the contaminated oil. To classify the level of particles contamination in lubricant, CCD imaging technology is used to capture microscopic digital image of the oil particles sample . The digital image was processed and segmented in order that the computer can recognize and understand the particle targets by using image testing algorithm to measure the sizes, amounts and distributions of particles. The oil contamination level can be measured effectively by the economical and convenient method in which there is little air bubble and bead leading to false particle targets. To improve the influence produced by the false particle targets, One method is that a series of dynamical image samples from the contaminated oil in the multi-period and the multi-state are captured and used to test the particle targets, and the further method is to employ the fuzzy measurement using Gaussian subjection function, which describes the distribution of the standard evidences and the distribution of the testing data, and the testing probabilities of the evidence are weighed by the matching degree of the two distributions, which is used to classify the oil particles contamination level .The test shows that the oil particles contamination level diagnosis reliability is improved and the diagnosis uncertainty is reduced. This method combining with other testing methods by using the multi-information fusion method will be further studied later.

  17. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-02-28

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application.

  18. Eyewear contamination levels in the operating room: infection risk.

    PubMed

    Lange, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    We investigated eyewear contamination levels in the operating room to assess infection risk and inform protocol development. Microbial contamination after use was found in 37.7% of disposable and 94.9% of reusable eyewear pieces. After disinfection, 74.4% of reusable eyewear also cultured positive. Disposable eyewear may reduce intercase contamination risk. Reusable eyewear may carry ongoing bioburden and, thus, contribute to operating room environment risk. Eyewear with antimicrobial material or components could reduce risk. Alternative decontamination methods for reusable eyewear should be evaluated.

  19. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  20. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  1. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  2. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  3. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  4. Lead and cadmium contamination levels in edible vegetables

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Estrada, B.; Rincon, F.; Pozo, R.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this research is to reveal the level of lead and cadmium pollution in fresh vegetable samples from the Cordovan fertile lowland region of the Guadalquivir River and to establish a base level of contamination to serve as a reference point in further studies. At the same time, the possible health risks for the consumer are discussed.

  5. Calculation of isotope-specific exemption levels for surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope-specific exemption levels for surface contamination are calculated for representative radionuclides in general nuclear power plants by developing a deterministic dose assessment model for surface contamination that can be applied to radiation, transport and waste safety, and a practical idea of judging exemption for gross surface contamination by measuring gross gamma-ray emission has been proposed. In the dose assessment model, the objects with surface contamination are classified into three types: manually handled, closely handled and remotely handled objects, and the exemption criteria are chosen to be 0.01mSv/yr in the case of using realistic exposure parameters and 1mSv/yr in the case of using low-probability exposure parameters in accordance with the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7. Taking into account the distribution area of surface contamination assumed in the dose assessment model, instead of using the evaluation area of 100cm(2) without variation, the exemption levels for gross surface contamination are found to be higher than those obtained by the conventional method for some radionuclides such as Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Nb-94, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Eu-154.

  6. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum... pose an acute risk to health. (c) A public water system must determine compliance with the MCL...

  7. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum... pose an acute risk to health. (c) A public water system must determine compliance with the MCL...

  8. Levels of chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated contaminants in birds of prey spanning multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Yordy, Jennifer E; Rossman, Sam; Ostrom, Peggy H; Reiner, Jessica L; Bargnesi, Keely; Hughes, Stacy; Elliot, James D

    2013-04-01

    Birds of prey occupy high trophic levels and can consequently bioaccumulate high levels of environmental contaminants. To evaluate exposure to past- and current-use pollutants, we measured legacy contaminants (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]; organochlorine pesticides, e.g., DDT), contaminants of emerging concern (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs]; perfluorinated compounds [PFCs]), and stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) in 26 birds of prey (10 species) from coastal South Carolina (USA) sampled in 2009 and 2010. Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N) ranged from 5.2% to 13.7%, indicating the birds of prey spanned two to three trophic levels. Legacy contaminant levels were highly variable but generally comparable to levels reported previously for birds of prey in the southeast US, suggesting exposure has not declined substantially over the past 40 yr. Despite their status as newly emerging environmental contaminants, PFC levels were within the same order of magnitude as legacy contaminants. Although PBDEs were less prevalent, levels were among the greatest observed in wildlife to date (∑PBDEs max. 200 μg/g lipid). Relative contaminant profiles also varied between birds of prey utilizing low and high trophic levels; specifically PFCs contributed to a larger proportion of the contaminant burden in birds utilizing high trophic levels, whereas the legacy pesticide mirex was a larger contributor in low-trophic-level birds, indicating that relative exposure is in part dependent on foraging ecology. This study demonstrates that birds of prey continue to face exposure to legacy contaminants as well as newly emerging contaminants at levels of concern. PMID:23568910

  9. Contaminant levels in fish tissue from San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, R.; Taberski, K.

    1995-12-31

    Edible fish species were collected from thirteen locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminants levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut Sixty six composite tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening levels established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ppb in all sixty six tissue samples, with the highest concentrations (638 ppb) found near San Francisco`s industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 ppm) in forty of the sixty-six samples with the highest levels (1.26 ppm) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordanes and total DDTs exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as TEQs) were elevated (above 0.15 ppt) in 16 of the 19 samples analyzed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay.

  10. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

  11. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Vinicius R.; Oades, Lindsay G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412

  12. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Vinicius R; Oades, Lindsay G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412

  13. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Vinicius R; Oades, Lindsay G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness.

  14. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  15. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  16. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  17. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  18. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  19. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER...) Interfere with disinfection; (2) Prevent maintenance of an effective disinfectant agent throughout...

  20. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  1. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  2. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  3. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  4. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  5. Comparative carcinogenicity of the PAHs as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various PAHs in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific PAHs were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these PAHs varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various PAHs relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific PAHs. BaP is the only carcinogenic PAH for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific PAHs a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic PAHs in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various PAHs be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific PAH, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all PAHs. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.

  6. A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

  7. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  8. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796

  9. Influence of music and music preference on acceptable noise levels in listeners with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E

    2007-05-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is defined as the maximum level of background noise that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background noise does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background noise than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background noise than twelve-talker babble.

  10. Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Objectives Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. Methods A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Results Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Conclusions Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. PMID:22436583

  11. Relationship between Acceptable Noise Level and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between acceptable noise levels (ANLs) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB; R. M. Cox & G. C. Alexander, 1995). This study further examined the APHAB's ability to predict hearing aid use. Method: ANL and APHAB data were collected for 191 listeners with impaired hearing,…

  12. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  13. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. Analytical methodology for determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements. [pilot workload and acceptance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic analytical approach to the determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements is formulated. The approach is based upon the hypothesis that pilot acceptance level or opinion rating of a given system is inversely related to the degree of pilot involvement in the control task. A nonlinear simulation of the helicopter approach to landing task incorporating appropriate models for UH-1H aircraft, the environmental disturbances and the human pilot was developed as a tool for evaluating the pilot acceptance hypothesis. The simulated pilot model is generic in nature and includes analytical representation of the human information acquisition, processing, and control strategies. Simulation analyses in the flight director mode indicate that the pilot model used is reasonable. Results of the simulation are used to identify candidate pilot workload metrics and to test the well known performance-work-load relationship. A pilot acceptance analytical methodology is formulated as a basis for further investigation, development and validation.

  15. WRAP low level waste restricted waste management (LLW RWM) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1997-11-24

    On April 22, 1997, the Low Level Waste Restricted Waste Management (LLW RWM) glovebox was tested using acceptance test procedure 13027A-87. Mr. Robert L. Warmenhoven served as test director, Mr. Kendrick Leist acted as test operator and test witness, and Michael Lane provided miscellaneous software support. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine glovebox control system interlocks, operator Interface Unit (OIU) menus, alarms, and messages. Basic drum port and lift table control sequences were demonstrated. OIU menus, messages, and alarm sequences were examined, with few exceptions noted. Barcode testing was bypassed, due to the lack of installed equipment as well as the switch from basic reliance on fixed bar code readers to the enhanced use of portable bar code readers. Bar code testing was completed during performance of the LLW RWM OTP. Mechanical and control deficiencies were documented as Test Exceptions during performance of this Acceptance Test. These items are attached as Appendix A to this report.

  16. Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

  17. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  18. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  19. Acceptance of background noise as a function of speech presentation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Clifford A.; Nabelek, Anna K.; Burchfield, Samuel B.

    2003-04-01

    The acceptance of background noise while listening to speech (ANL) at different speech presentation levels was assessed. Twenty listeners (10 male) between 18-30 years with normal hearing listened to a narrative at speech presentation levels of 20, 34, 48, 62, and 76 dB HL, then adjusted the background noise to the highest intensity level that they would be willing to accept for an extended listening period. The ANL is the intensity of the speech presentation level minus the intensity level of the background noise. The group mean ANLs for presentation levels of 20, 34, 48, 62, and 76 dB HL were 10.60, 14.25, 17.10, 21.80, and 24.55 dB, respectively. The group mean ANLs differ by approximately three and one half decibels between each presentation level. This difference between adjacent speech presentation levels is representative of a linear function. The average MCL was 43 dB HL with a standard deviation of 6.7 dB. The group mean ANL for speech presented at MCL was 15.5 dB with a standard deviation of 7.27 dB. A MANOVA for repeated measures indicated a statistically significant main effect for speech presentation level (F=18.624, p=0.001). [Work partially supported by NIDCD (NIH) R01 DC 05018.

  20. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  1. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  2. Research to Support the Determination of Spacecraft Maximum Acceptable Concentrations of Potential Atmospheric Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In many ways, the typical approach to the handling of bibliographic material for generating review articles and similar manuscripts has changed little since the use of xerographic reproduction has become widespread. The basic approach is to collect reprints of the relevant material and place it in folders or stacks based on its dominant content. As the amount of information available increases with the passage of time, the viability of this mechanical approach to bibliographic management decreases. The personal computer revolution has changed the way we deal with many familiar tasks. For example, word processing on personal computers has supplanted the typewriter for many applications. Similarly, spreadsheets have not only replaced many routine uses of calculators but have also made possible new applications because the cost of calculation is extremely low. Objective The objective of this research was to use personal computer bibliographic software technology to support the determination of spacecraft maximum acceptable concentration (SMAC) values. Specific Aims The specific aims were to produce draft SMAC documents for hydrogen sulfide and tetrachloroethylene taking maximum advantage of the bibliographic software.

  3. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-52 - Low level contaminated personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... However, recipients shall be advised where levels of radioactive contamination require specific controls... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low level contaminated... level contaminated personal property. If monitoring of suspect personal property indicates...

  4. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-52 - Low level contaminated personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... However, recipients shall be advised where levels of radioactive contamination require specific controls... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low level contaminated... level contaminated personal property. If monitoring of suspect personal property indicates...

  5. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-52 - Low level contaminated personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... However, recipients shall be advised where levels of radioactive contamination require specific controls... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low level contaminated... level contaminated personal property. If monitoring of suspect personal property indicates...

  6. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-52 - Low level contaminated personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... However, recipients shall be advised where levels of radioactive contamination require specific controls... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Low level contaminated... level contaminated personal property. If monitoring of suspect personal property indicates...

  7. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-52 - Low level contaminated personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... However, recipients shall be advised where levels of radioactive contamination require specific controls... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low level contaminated... level contaminated personal property. If monitoring of suspect personal property indicates...

  8. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades. PMID:18833794

  9. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  10. Impact of extreme metal contamination at the supra-individual level in a contaminated bay ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic stressors impact the global environment and adversely affect the health of organisms and humans. This study was designed as an attempt to evaluate the ecological consequences of severe metal contamination at the supra-individual level based on a field investigation in Jinzhou Bay (JZB), North China in 2010. The chemical results showed high concentrations of metals in the sediment of JZB that were ~129 times greater than the local geochemical background. Furthermore, the measured metals exhibited considerably high toxicity potential indicated by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). The mean SQGs quotients suggested the overall toxicity incidence was >70% in locations neighboring the Wulihe River mouth. Biomonitoring revealed 116 individuals distributed among a mere 6 species, 4 of which were polychaetes, at 33% of the sampling sites. Thus, few benthic organisms were present in the damaged community structures across the region, which was consistent with the extreme metal contamination. Moreover, the sediment quality assessment, in a weight of evidence framework, demonstrated that the sediment throughout the entire JZB was moderately to severely impaired, especially in the vicinity of the Wulihe River mouth. By synthesizing the present and previous chemical-biological monitoring campaigns, a possible cause-effect relationship between chemical stressors and benthic receptors was established. We also found that the hydrodynamics, sediment sources, and geochemical characteristics of the metals (in addition to the sources of the metals) were responsible for the geochemical distribution of metals in JZB. The significance of the overall finding is that the deleterious responses observed at the community level may possibly be linked to the extreme chemical stress in the sediment of JZB. PMID:26994798

  11. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs.

  12. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed Central

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  13. Contamination Revealed by Indicator Microorganism Levels during Veal Processing.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    During site visits of veal processors, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has reported processing deficiencies that likely contribute to increased levels of veal contamination. Here, we report the results of measuring aerobic plate count bacteria (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms (CF), and Escherichia coli during eight sample collections at five veal processors to assess contamination during the harvest of bob veal and formula-fed veal before (n = 5 plants) and after (n = 3 plants) changes to interventions and processing practices. Hides of veal calves at each plant had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 6.02 to 8.07, 2.95 to 5.24, 3.28 to 5.83, and 3.08 to 5.59, respectively. Preintervention carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 3.08 to 5.22, 1.16 to 3.47, 0.21 to 3.06, and -0.07 to 3.10, respectively, before and 2.72 to 4.50, 0.99 to 2.76, 0.69 to 2.26, and 0.33 to 2.12, respectively, after changes were made to improve sanitary dressing procedures. Final veal carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 0.36 to 2.84, -0.21 to 1.59, -0.23 to 1.59, and -0.38 to 1.45 before and 0.44 to 2.64, -0.16 to 1.33, -0.42 to 1.20, and 0.48 to 1.09 after changes were made to improve carcass-directed interventions. Whereas the improved dressing procedures resulted in improved carcass cleanliness, the changes to carcass-directed interventions were less successful, and veal processors are urged to use techniques that ensure uniform and consistent delivery of antimicrobials to carcasses. Analysis of results comparing bob veal to formula-fed veal found bob veal hides, preintervention carcasses, and final carcasses to have increased (P < 0.05) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli (with the exception of hide Enterobacteriaceae; P > 0.05) relative to formula fed veal. When both veal categories were harvested at the same plant on

  14. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment.

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Henning; Eriksson, Mats; Nielsen, Sven P; Joensen, Hans Pauli

    2004-09-20

    Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of 137Cs, 90Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of 137Cs. Reindeer and lamb contain the largest observed 137Cs concentrations in the terrestrial environment--up to 80 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight have been observed in reindeer. Due to special environmental conditions, 137Cs is transferred to landlocked Arctic char with extremely high efficiency in South Greenland leading to concentrations up to 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight. In these cases very long ecological half-lives are seen. Concentrations of 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and in marine biota decrease in the order North-East Greenland and the coastal East Greenland current > South-West Greenland > Central West Greenland and North-West Greenland > Irmiger Sea-Faroe Islands. The general large-scale oceanic circulation combined with European coastal discharges and previous contamination of the Arctic Ocean causes this. As the same tendency is seen for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) DDT and PCB in marine biota, it is suggested that long-distance oceanic transport by coastal currents is a significant pathway also for POPs in the Greenland marine environment. The peak 99Tc discharge from Sellafield 1994-1995 has only been slightly visible in the present survey year 2000. The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low--and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is

  15. Contamination Revealed by Indicator Microorganism Levels during Veal Processing.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    During site visits of veal processors, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has reported processing deficiencies that likely contribute to increased levels of veal contamination. Here, we report the results of measuring aerobic plate count bacteria (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms (CF), and Escherichia coli during eight sample collections at five veal processors to assess contamination during the harvest of bob veal and formula-fed veal before (n = 5 plants) and after (n = 3 plants) changes to interventions and processing practices. Hides of veal calves at each plant had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 6.02 to 8.07, 2.95 to 5.24, 3.28 to 5.83, and 3.08 to 5.59, respectively. Preintervention carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 3.08 to 5.22, 1.16 to 3.47, 0.21 to 3.06, and -0.07 to 3.10, respectively, before and 2.72 to 4.50, 0.99 to 2.76, 0.69 to 2.26, and 0.33 to 2.12, respectively, after changes were made to improve sanitary dressing procedures. Final veal carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 0.36 to 2.84, -0.21 to 1.59, -0.23 to 1.59, and -0.38 to 1.45 before and 0.44 to 2.64, -0.16 to 1.33, -0.42 to 1.20, and 0.48 to 1.09 after changes were made to improve carcass-directed interventions. Whereas the improved dressing procedures resulted in improved carcass cleanliness, the changes to carcass-directed interventions were less successful, and veal processors are urged to use techniques that ensure uniform and consistent delivery of antimicrobials to carcasses. Analysis of results comparing bob veal to formula-fed veal found bob veal hides, preintervention carcasses, and final carcasses to have increased (P < 0.05) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli (with the exception of hide Enterobacteriaceae; P > 0.05) relative to formula fed veal. When both veal categories were harvested at the same plant on

  16. [A Systematic Review of the Acceptable Intake Level of Vitamin K among Warfarin Users].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Murata, Miyuki; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of warfarin and vitamin K is a clinically significant issue. This study investigated the acceptable intake level of vitamin K among warfarin users by means of a systematic review. We searched two databases (PubMed and "Igaku chuo zasshi")for articles about adverse events arising from interaction of warfarin and vitamin K, published until October 2014. Of 1,310 citations retrieved, 16 studies met the selection criteria for examination of the upper limit, and 6 studies dealt with amounts below the limit. The intake of vitamin K in warfarin patients was acceptable in the range of 25-325 μg/day, with a maximum daily variation of 292 μg, and a value of 150 μg/day seemed optimum. When these results were applied to usual foods, except for dietary supplements or health foods, the only prohibited foods were fermented soybean (natto) and foods containing it, while green leafy vegetables could be acceptable if their intake is limited. PMID:26346860

  17. Assessment of natural background levels in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Molinari, A; Chidichimo, F; Straface, S; Guadagnini, A

    2014-04-01

    The estimation of natural background levels (NBLs) of dissolved concentrations of target chemical species in subsurface reservoirs relies on a proper assessment of the effects of forcing terms driving flow and transport processes taking place within the system and whose dynamics drive background concentration values. We propose coupling methodologies based on (a) global statistical analyses and (b) numerical modeling of system dynamics to distinguish between the impacts of different types of external forcing components influencing background concentration values. We focus on the joint application of a statistical methodology based on Component Separation and experimental/numerical modeling studies of groundwater flow and transport for the NBL estimation of selected chemical species in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers. We consider a site which is located in Calabria, Italy, and constitutes a typical example of a Mediterranean coastal aquifer which has been subject to intense industrial development. Our study is keyed to the characterization of NBLs of manganese and sulfate and is geared to the proper identification of the importance of a natural external forcing (i.e., seawater intrusion) on NBL assessment. Results from the Component Separation statistical approach are complemented by numerical simulations of the advective-dispersive processes that could influence the distribution of chemical species (i.e., sulfate) within the system. Estimated NBLs for manganese are consistent with the geochemical composition of soil samples. While Component Separation ascribes the largest detected sulfate concentrations to anthropogenic sources, our numerical modeling analysis suggests that they are mainly related to the natural process of seawater intrusion. Our results indicate that the use of statistical methodologies in complex groundwater systems should be assisted by a detailed characterization of the dynamics of natural (and/or induced) processes to distinguish

  18. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  19. Catastrophic injury in rugby union: is the level of risk acceptable?

    PubMed

    Fuller, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Rugby union is a full contact sport with a relatively high overall risk of injury and a small specific risk of fatal and catastrophic spinal injury. Although catastrophic injuries in rugby union cause public concern and generate strong emotive reactions, the magnitude of society's concern about this type of injury is often dominated by people's perceptions rather than by actual levels of risk. This article assesses published values for the risk of catastrophic injuries in rugby union, evaluates these against the risk standards of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and compares the values with the risks associated with other common sport and non-sport activities. The assessment showed that the risks of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England (0.8/100,000 per year), Ireland (0.9/100,000 per year) and Argentina (1.9/100,000 per year) were within the HSE's 'acceptable' region of risk (0.1-2/100,000 per year), whilst the risks in New Zealand (4.2/100,000 per year), Australia (4.4/100,000 per year) and Fiji (13/100,000 per year) were within the 'tolerable' region of risk (2-100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union was generally lower than or comparable with the levels reported for a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (2/100,000 per year). In addition, the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in work-based situations and lower than that experienced by motorcyclists, pedestrians and car occupants. Whilst ranking risks provides an effective way of assessing their acceptability, it is recognized that representing risks by a single risk value can be misleading, as account must also be taken of the public's perception of the risks and the inherent differences in the types of risk being considered. However, an acceptable level of risk is often regarded as

  20. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  1. Contamination level of alginate impressions arriving at a dental laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sofou, A; Larsen, T; Fiehn, N-E; Owall, B

    2002-09-01

    The contamination level of alginate impressions delivered to a large dental laboratory in Sweden was determined. One hundred and seven consecutive alginate impressions were included during 7 days. Samples were taken and transferred into sterile physiological saline and analysed microbiologically for colony-forming units (cfu) as well as nonhemolytic, alpha-hemolytic, and beta-hemolytic colonies. After sampling, the clinics were contacted and asked to fill in simple questionnaires about their routines of disinfecting impressions. The questionnaire study revealed that about half of the clinics had some kind of disinfection routine, while the others rinsed in running water only. Seventy-two percent of the impressions yielded growth of bacteria, with a median number of 1.3x10(2) cfu. Thirteen per cent of the samples yielded >10(3) cfu, with a maximum number of 3.4x10(4) cfu. The majority of isolates were non- and alpha-hemolytic bacteria. Growth was recorded in 61.3% of disinfected impressions, and the numbers of bacteria in disinfected and nondisinfected impressions were similar. These findings raise the question of whether impressions need to be disinfected or if proper handling and hygienic procedures are sufficient to block the possible route of infection. PMID:12271349

  2. Contamination level of alginate impressions arriving at a dental laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sofou, A; Larsen, T; Fiehn, N-E; Owall, B

    2002-09-01

    The contamination level of alginate impressions delivered to a large dental laboratory in Sweden was determined. One hundred and seven consecutive alginate impressions were included during 7 days. Samples were taken and transferred into sterile physiological saline and analysed microbiologically for colony-forming units (cfu) as well as nonhemolytic, alpha-hemolytic, and beta-hemolytic colonies. After sampling, the clinics were contacted and asked to fill in simple questionnaires about their routines of disinfecting impressions. The questionnaire study revealed that about half of the clinics had some kind of disinfection routine, while the others rinsed in running water only. Seventy-two percent of the impressions yielded growth of bacteria, with a median number of 1.3x10(2) cfu. Thirteen per cent of the samples yielded >10(3) cfu, with a maximum number of 3.4x10(4) cfu. The majority of isolates were non- and alpha-hemolytic bacteria. Growth was recorded in 61.3% of disinfected impressions, and the numbers of bacteria in disinfected and nondisinfected impressions were similar. These findings raise the question of whether impressions need to be disinfected or if proper handling and hygienic procedures are sufficient to block the possible route of infection.

  3. Microbial contamination detection at low levels by [125]I radiolabeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, David; Karouia, Fathi

    Contamination of mission spacecraft is an ongoing issue. A broad diversity of microorganisms have been detected in clean rooms where spacecraft are assembled. Some of which, depicted as oligotroph, are of special regard, as they are capable of colonizing inorganic surfaces like metal, and have been shown to be a concern for forward contamination of pristine celestial bodies. Currently, the NASA standard assay is the only approved assay intended for the enumeration of spores and heterotrophic microbial populations. However, culture-based microbial detection methods underestimate the viable microbial population. More recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays, which employ measure-ments of selected metabolic products as a proxy of biomass, have been used successfully to circumvent the necessity of the growth of microorganisms in order to estimate the biodurdens associated with spacecraft assembly facility. However, these methods have limitation in the amount of cells that can be detected, i.e., 103 cells, and the type of microorganisms respec-tively. This work seeks to develop a new highly sensitive method for the determination of bioburdens (and the detection of microorganisms and life) that is independant of the type of organism while preserving a good turn-around time for analysis for planetary protection purposes. The assay is based on the detection of the organism's protein by labeling them by radioiodination, 125 I, of aromatic rings on tyrosine amino acids residues. Radiolabeling techniques are inherently sensitive and 125 I, in particular, benefits from a 60 day half-life, providing greater activity and signal per unit number of labels. Furthermore, microorganisms can contain over 50% of protein by dry weight. Thus, just one label per protein increases the sensitivity, compared to the ATP and LAL assays, by one and three orders of magnitude by using standard detection methods and the use of multiphoton

  4. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  5. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  6. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  7. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  8. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  9. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  10. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  11. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-04-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995.

  12. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  14. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  15. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  16. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  17. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  18. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. A Polio Immunization Pamphlet with Increased Appeal and Simplified Language Does Not Improve Comprehension to an Acceptable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…

  20. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.125 Section 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.125 Section 102-80.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility...

  2. A Bayesian Method for Identifying Contaminated Detectors in Low-Level Alpha Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Maclellan, Jay A.; Strom, Daniel J.; Joyce, Kevin E.

    2011-11-02

    Analyses used for radiobioassay and other radiochemical tests are normally designed to meet specified quality objectives, such relative bias, precision, and minimum detectable activity (MDA). In the case of radiobioassay analyses for alpha emitting radionuclides, a major determiner of the process MDA is the instrument background. Alpha spectrometry detectors are often restricted to only a few counts over multi-day periods in order to meet required MDAs for nuclides such as plutonium-239 and americium-241. A detector background criterion is often set empirically based on experience, or frequentist or classical statistics are applied to the calculated background count necessary to meet a required MDA. An acceptance criterion for the detector background is set at the multiple of the estimated background standard deviation above the assumed mean that provides an acceptably small probability of observation if the mean and standard deviation estimate are correct. The major problem with this method is that the observed background counts used to estimate the mean, and thereby the standard deviation when a Poisson distribution is assumed, are often in the range of zero to three counts. At those expected count levels it is impossible to obtain a good estimate of the true mean from a single measurement. As an alternative, Bayesian statistical methods allow calculation of the expected detector background count distribution based on historical counts from new, uncontaminated detectors. This distribution can then be used to identify detectors showing an increased probability of contamination. The effect of varying the assumed range of background counts (i.e., the prior probability distribution) from new, uncontaminated detectors will be is discussed.

  3. High levels of contaminants in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from the Russian and Norwegian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Miljeteig, Cecilie; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Volkov, Andrey; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2009-07-15

    We found high levels of contaminants, in particular organochlorines, in eggs of the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea, a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminants. An 80% decline in the ivory gull breeding population in the Canadian Arctic the last two decades has been documented. Because of the dependence of the ivory gull on sea ice and its high trophic position, suggested environmental threats are climate change and contaminants. The present study investigated contaminant levels (organochlorines, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated alkyl substances, and mercury) in ivory gull eggs from four colonies in the Norwegian (Svalbard) and Russian Arctic (Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya). The contaminant levels presented here are among the highest reported in Arctic seabird species, and we identify this as an important stressor in a species already at risk due to environmental change.

  4. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, M.J.; Kromrey, G.B.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in 'put and take' fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the preharvest level: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Szonyi, Barbara; Gautam, Raju; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of risk factors for contamination of fruits and vegetables with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the preharvest level. Relevant studies were identified by searching six electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB Abstracts, AGRIS, AGRICOLA, and FSTA, using the following thesaurus terms: L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli O157 AND fruit, vegetable. All search terms were exploded to find all related subheadings. To be eligible, studies had to be prospective controlled trials or observational studies at the preharvest level and had to show clear and sufficient information on the process in which the produce was contaminated. Of the 3,463 citations identified, 68 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of these studies were on leafy greens and tomatoes. Six studies assessed produce contamination with respect to animal host-related risk factors, and 20 studies assessed contamination with respect to pathogen characteristics. Sixty-two studies assessed the association between produce contamination and factors related to produce, water, and soil, as well as local ecological conditions of the production location. While evaluations of many risk factors for preharvest-level produce contamination have been reported, the quality assessment of the reviewed studies confirmed the existence of solid evidence for only some of them, including growing produce on clay-type soil, the application of contaminated or non-pH-stabilized manure, and the use of spray irrigation with contaminated water, with a particular risk of contamination on the lower leaf surface. In conclusion, synthesis of the reviewed studies suggests that reducing microbial contamination of irrigation water and soil are the most effective targets for the prevention and control of produce contamination. Furthermore, this review provides an inventory of the evaluated risk factors, including those requiring more

  6. Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the preharvest level: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Szonyi, Barbara; Gautam, Raju; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of risk factors for contamination of fruits and vegetables with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the preharvest level. Relevant studies were identified by searching six electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB Abstracts, AGRIS, AGRICOLA, and FSTA, using the following thesaurus terms: L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli O157 AND fruit, vegetable. All search terms were exploded to find all related subheadings. To be eligible, studies had to be prospective controlled trials or observational studies at the preharvest level and had to show clear and sufficient information on the process in which the produce was contaminated. Of the 3,463 citations identified, 68 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of these studies were on leafy greens and tomatoes. Six studies assessed produce contamination with respect to animal host-related risk factors, and 20 studies assessed contamination with respect to pathogen characteristics. Sixty-two studies assessed the association between produce contamination and factors related to produce, water, and soil, as well as local ecological conditions of the production location. While evaluations of many risk factors for preharvest-level produce contamination have been reported, the quality assessment of the reviewed studies confirmed the existence of solid evidence for only some of them, including growing produce on clay-type soil, the application of contaminated or non-pH-stabilized manure, and the use of spray irrigation with contaminated water, with a particular risk of contamination on the lower leaf surface. In conclusion, synthesis of the reviewed studies suggests that reducing microbial contamination of irrigation water and soil are the most effective targets for the prevention and control of produce contamination. Furthermore, this review provides an inventory of the evaluated risk factors, including those requiring more

  7. A Review of Research Instruments Assessing Levels of Student Acceptance of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection, called evolution for short, is perceived as a unifying theme in biology, forming a major part of all biology syllabuses. It is reported that student acceptance of evolution associates with conceptual understandings of biological contents, nature of science, as well as motivations to…

  8. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  9. Measuring Levels of End-Users' Acceptance and Use of Hybrid Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibenderana, Prisca; Ogao, Patrick; Ikoja-Odongo, J.; Wokadala, James

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the adoption of Information Communication Technology (ICT) services in libraries. The study collected 445 usable data from university library end-users using a cross-sectional survey instrument. It develops, applies and tests a research model of acceptance and use of such services based on an existing UTAUT model by Venkatesh,…

  10. Contaminant effect endpoints in terrestrial vertebrates at and above the individual level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Golden, N.H.; Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Use of biochemical, physiological, anatomical, reproductive and behavioral characteristics of wild terrestrial vertebrates to assess contaminant exposure and effects has become commonplace over the past 3 decades. At the level of the individual organism, response patterns have been associated with and sometimes causally linked to contaminant exposure. However, such responses at the organismal level are rarely associated with or causally linked to effects at the population level. Although the ultimate goal of ecotoxicology is the protection of populations, communities, and ecosystems, most of the existing science and regulatory legislation focus on the level of the individual. Consequently, much of this overview concentrates on contaminant effects at the organismal level, with some extrapolation to higher-level effects. In this chapter, we review the state of the science for the evaluation of biotic end-points used to assess contaminant exposure and effects at or above the level of the individual. In addition, we describe extant contaminant concentration thresholds, guidelines, or standards (toxicant criteria) in environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil, sediment, foods) that have been developed to protect wild terrestrial vertebrates. Suggestions are provided to develop and embellish the use and value of such endpoints and criteria for extrapolation of effects to higher levels of biological organization. Increasing focus on populations, communities, and ecosystems is needed to develop biologically meaningful regulatory guidelines that will protect natural resources.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  12. Norwegian consumers' acceptability of boar tainted meat with different levels of androstenone or skatole as related to their androstenone sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lunde, K; Skuterud, E; Hersleth, M; Egelandsdal, B

    2010-11-01

    The aim of work was to study Norwegian consumers' acceptance of pork meat with different levels of skatole and androstenone. One group of androstenone sensitive consumers (N=46) and one group of non sensitive consumers (N=55) participated in a home test and evaluated 11 samples with different skatole (range 0-0.35 ppm) and androstenone (range 0-9.0 ppm) levels. Liking of odour during frying and odour and flavour of the fried meat were evaluated. Results showed that the non sensitive consumers accepted all levels of androstenone in the samples. Sensitive consumers gave a significantly lower liking score for androstenone samples containing 3 ppm (and more) than the reference sample when evaluating these samples above the frying pan, but no significant difference were found between 3 ppm samples and reference samples when liking of fried meat was evaluated. This indicated that the sensitive consumers accepted 3 ppm in fried meat, but not if 3 ppm was present in the sample during the frying process. The same consumer's differentiated skatole samples with regard to flavour at 0.15 ppm. The Norwegian established practise with a threshold value of 0.21 ppm skatole is higher than the value accepted by the consumers. PMID:20615617

  13. Exposure to varying levels of contaminants and symptoms among workers in two office buildings.

    PubMed Central

    Menzres, D; Tamblyn, R M; Nunes, F; Hanley, J; Tamblyn, R T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that exposure to contaminants would be associated with symptoms reported by office workers. METHODS: In two mechanically ventilated office buildings in. Montreal, the outdoor air supply was manipulated for 6 weeks, while symptoms were reported and environmental parameters were measured at multiple sites. RESULTS: Contaminant concentrations varied considerably, in part related to experimental changes in outdoor air supply. Eye symptoms were reported with higher dust and with higher concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. Mucosal symptoms were increased with higher TVOCs, higher nitrogen dioxide, and higher total contaminant load. Systemic symptoms were associated with higher dust levels. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms reported by the workers were associated with increased concentrations of several contaminants and a summary measure of all contaminants. PMID:8916534

  14. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste.

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  16. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  17. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  18. Evaluation of aromatic pathway induction for creosote contaminated soils in slurried soil media designed to achieve environmentally acceptable treatment endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; McCauley, P.; Potter, C.; Herrmann, R.; Dosani, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) are commonly associated with the use of creosote for wood preservation and the process residues left by municipal gas production. The biological treatment of this set of organic compounds has been found to be difficult since they have low water solubility and reactivity in soil systems. Liquid culture studies have shown that inducer chemicals may assist the biotreatment of PAH contaminated soils. A set of designed experimental treatments were conducted to evaluate the incorporation of potential inducer compounds. The inducers chosen for evaluation were 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid with treatment controls of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and terephthalic acid at three concentrations in slurried creosote-contaminated soil. An abiotic treatment control of formaldehyde was used for contrast. The designed treatment evaluation used 250mL Erlenmeyer flask slurry reaction vessels. The flask study used an orbital shaker to maintain slurry suspension. At selected time points throughout the study individual flask reactors were sacrificed and the contents were analyzed for PAH concentration, nutrients, and biomass (FAME Analysis). Depletion of individual PAHs, total PAHs, 2 and 3-ring, and 4 and 6-ring PAHs was correlation with the biomass. The effect of selected surfactant addition was also evaluated. Rates of PAH depletion and applications to larger scale investigations will be discussed.

  19. Temporal variations in parameters reflecting terminal-electron-accepting processes in an aquifer contaminated with waste fuel and chlorinated solvents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Long, David T.; Hyndman, David W.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Klug, Michael J.; Velbel, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental issue in aquifer biogeochemistry is the means by which solute transport, geochemical processes, and microbiological activity combine to produce spatial and temporal variations in redox zonation. In this paper, we describe the temporal variability of TEAP conditions in shallow groundwater contaminated with both waste fuel and chlorinated solvents. TEAP parameters (including methane, dissolved iron, and dissolved hydrogen) were measured to characterize the contaminant plume over a 3-year period. We observed that concentrations of TEAP parameters changed on different time scales and appear to be related, in part, to recharge events. Changes in all TEAP parameters were observed on short time scales (months), and over a longer 3-year period. The results indicate that (1) interpretations of TEAP conditions in aquifers contaminated with a variety of organic chemicals, such as those with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, must consider additional hydrogen-consuming reactions (e.g., dehalogenation); (2) interpretations must consider the roles of both in situ (at the sampling point) biogeochemical and solute transport processes; and (3) determinations of microbial communities are often necessary to confirm the interpretations made from geochemical and hydrogeological measurements on these processes.

  20. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    PubMed

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses.

  1. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    PubMed

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses. PMID:20202342

  2. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NAKAMA, Akiko; NISHINO, Yukari; FUKUI, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; KAI, Akemi; SADAMASU, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000–2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006–2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3–1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951

  3. Biomarker responses and decreasing contaminant levels in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Hans; Krafft, Bjørn A; van Bavel, Bert; Helgason, Lisa B; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2008-01-01

    Blubber was analyzed for a wide range of contaminants from five sub-adult and eight adult male ringed seals sampled in 2004, namely, for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphenes, chlordanes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Contaminant levels were compared to previously sampled animals from the same area, as well as data from literature for other arctic wildlife species from a wide variety of locations. Ringed seals sampled in 2004 showed 50-90% lower levels of legacy contaminants such as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides compared to animals sampled in 1996 of similar age (14 sub-adults and 7 adult males), indicating that the decline of chlorinated contaminants observed during the 1990s in a variety of arctic wildlife species is continuing into the 21st century. The results also indicated that PBDE declined in ringed seals; levels in 2004 were about 70-80% lower than in animals sampled in 1998. This is one of the first observations of reduced exposure to these compounds and might be a first indication that restrictions of production and use of these contaminants have resulted in lower exposures in the Arctic. The PCB pattern shifted toward the less chlorinated (i.e., less persistent) PCBs, especially in adult ringed seals, possibly as a result of reduced overall contaminant exposures and a consequently lower cytochrome P-450 (CYP) induction, which results in a slower metabolism of less persistent PCBs. The overall effect would be relative increases in the lower chlorinated PCBs and a relative decreases in the higher chlorinated PCB. Possibly due to low exposure and consequent low induction levels, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity proved to be a poor biomarker for contaminant exposure in ringed seals in the present study. The close negative correlation (r(2) = 70.9%)between EROD activity and percent blubber indicates that CYP might respond to increased bioavailability of the

  4. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  5. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  6. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  7. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  8. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  9. Acceptability of entire male pork with various levels of androstenone and skatole by consumers according to their sensitivity to androstenone.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, M; Chevillon, P

    2012-02-01

    Consumer acceptability of entire male pork at eating was assessed in three experiments. The 140 consumers involved in each experiment were classified as insensitive (INSENS) to the odor of pure androstenone or sensitive perceiving it as pleasant (SENS-PLEA) or unpleasant (SENS-UNPL). Entire male pork with very low skatole and androstenone levels (LS-LA) was as well accepted as gilt pork, whatever the consumer category. Entire male pork with elevated levels in both skatole and androstenone (HS-HA) was clearly differentiated from LS-LA pork by SENS-UNPL, but not by SENS-PLEA or INSENS consumers. Whatever the consumer category, entire male pork with elevated levels of androstenone and very low levels of skatole (LS-HA and LS-HHA) were not significantly differentiated from LS-LA pork. The results suggest that, in the conditions of the present experiment, androstenone and skatole totally explain boar taint at eating and that the acceptability threshold for androstenone, in the absence of skatole, is in the range of 2-3 μg/g liquid fat. PMID:21862238

  10. Correlation of BTEX levels and toxicity of condensate contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, J.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.; Hardisty, P.

    1995-12-31

    The concentration of BTEX was determined for 60 groundwater samples collected from 6 gas plants in Western Canada, using conventional purge-and-trap GC/MS procedures. The gas plants were selected to cover different types of operations with different amine process chemicals employed for the sweetening of the raw sour-gas condensates. Aliquots of the ground water samples were subjected to toxicity screening tests, specifically, (a) bacterial luminescence (microtox) ; (b) daphnia mortality and (c) fathead minnow mortality. For the toxicity tests, sample handling procedures were developed to minimize the loss of volatile organics during the experiments. To account for possible losses, the levels of BTEX were monitored at the start and upon completion of these tests. The results indicated that the toxicity of the groundwater was in general, well correlated to the concentration of BTEX (primarily xylene). Approximately 5% of the samples, however, were observed to be toxic although the concentration of BTEX were below the method detection limit (1 {micro}g/1). Thiophenic volatile organics were implicated for the latter. Based on the laboratory results, the remediation of BTEX is expected to correlate with the removal of the toxicity of the groundwater. These findings are of direct relevance to present technologies employed for remediation of ground water at the Sourgas plants.

  11. Numeric removal action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. Update 2. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This document is an updated table of numeric action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. It was originally published as an attachment to 9360.1-02 (Oct. 93) which described the new methodology used by OERR to calculate removal action levels (RALs) in drinking water.

  12. Evaluating the adequacy of maximum contaminant levels as health-protective cleanup goals: an analysis based on Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Finley, B L; Scott, P; Paustenbach, D J

    1993-12-01

    At many sites in the United States, health-based remediation goals for contaminated groundwater have been set at levels far below USEPA's drinking water standards (i.e., maximum contaminant levels or MCLs). This is due to the fact that, while the USEPA must often consider technical and economic factors (e.g., cost of compliance, risk/benefit analysis) when setting MCLs for public water systems, cleanup goals for contaminated groundwater are often based solely on conservative "point" estimates of exposure. One of the more recent refinements in the risk assessment process is the use of ranges of exposure estimates or "probability density functions" (PDFs), rather than fixed point estimates, to estimate exposure and chemical uptake. This approach provides a more thorough description of the range of potential risks, rather than a single "worst-case" value, and allows one to understand the conservatism inherent in assessments based on regulatory default parameters. This paper uses a number of PDFs and the Monte Carlo technique to assess whether the USEPA's MCLs for drinking water are sufficiently low to protect persons exposed to these levels. A case study involving daily exposure to tapwater containing MCL concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, chloroform, bromoform, and vinyl chloride is presented. Several direct and indirect exposure pathways are evaluated, including inhalation and dermal contact while showering, direct ingestion, and inhalation of emissions from household fixtures and appliances. PDFs for each exposure factor are based on the most recent and applicable data available. Our analysis indicates that the estimated increased cancer risks at the 50th and 95th percentile of exposure are within the range of increased cancer risks typically considered acceptable at Superfund sites (10(-4)-10(-6)). These results suggest that, at least for some chemicals, groundwater need not be cleaned-up to concentrations less than drinking water standards (i.e., MCLs) to

  13. A multi-level assessment methodology for determining the potential for groundwater contamination by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Crowe, A S; Booty, W G

    1995-05-01

    A multi-level pesticide assessment methodology has been developed to permit regulatory personnel to undertake a variety of assessments on the potential for pesticide used in agricultural areas to contaminate the groundwater regime at an increasingly detailed geographical scale of investigation. A multi-level approach accounts for a variety of assessment objectives and detail required in the assessment, the restrictions on the availability and accuracy of data, the time available to undertake the assessment, and the expertise of the decision maker. The level 1: regional scale is designed to prioritize districts having a potentially high risk for groundwater contamination from the application of a specific pesticide for a particular crop. The level 2: local scale is used to identify critical areas for groundwater contamination, at a soil polygon scale, within a district. A level 3: soil profile scale allows the user to evaluate specific factors influencing pesticide leaching and persistence, and to determine the extent and timing of leaching, through the simulation of the migration of a pesticide within a soil profile. Because of the scale of investigation, limited amount of data required, and qualitative nature of the assessment results, the level 1 and level 2 assessment are designed primarily for quick and broad guidance related to management practices. A level 3 assessment is more complex, requires considerably more data and expertise on the part of the user, and hence is designed to verify the potential for contamination identified during the level 1 or 2 assessment. The system combines environmental modelling, geographical information systems, extensive databases, data management systems, expert systems, and pesticide assessment models, to form an environmental information system for assessing the potential for pesticides to contaminate groundwater.

  14. Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-05-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high.

  15. Point-of-Use Interventions to Decrease Contamination of Drinking Water: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study on Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Acceptability of Closed Containers, Moringa oleifera, and In-home Chlorination in Rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high. PMID:20439952

  16. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants. PMID:25190554

  17. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

  18. Contaminant levels and toxicity of sediments and water of Baltimore Harbor and Back River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.T.; Jacobs, F.; Mehrotra, N.

    1995-12-31

    The Patapsco and Back River Watershed drains the Baltimore metropolitan area, Maryland`s most heavily industrialized and urbanized region. Due to the intensive development and industrialization of the Baltimore metropolitan area over the past 250 years, high levels of contaminants have been discharged into Baltimore Harbor on the Patapsco River and into the Back River. Pollutants historically discharged include heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, cyanide, sewage, other organic chemicals, and nutrients. Sources have included industrial and municipal discharges, sewerage overflows, urban runoff, and leaks and spills from vessels and on-land facilities. The Maryland Department of the Environment undertook this study of ambient conditions as part of a developing strategy to assess and improve conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Past studies were compiled, evaluated, and synthesized to identify the areas of degraded conditions and contaminants of possible concern. Sediment contaminant levels were assessed using historical sediment chemistry data, Effects Range Low and Median concentrations (ER-L and ER-M) as toxicological benchmarks, and a sum of toxicity units approach for multiple contaminants. Data on toxicity testing and biological monitoring was compared to sediment and water quality data. Fish tissue data were used to examine bioaccumulated chemicals. A computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to manipulate and display complex geographical data. The final identification of areas and chemicals of potential concern relied on a syntheses of these results as well as information on present and past contaminant loadings.

  19. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  20. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  1. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  2. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  8. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2009-12-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students' views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  9. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño C., Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students’ views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  10. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  11. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  12. Contaminant levels in eggs of American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, from Chase Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial nesters, making them susceptible to site-specific mortality factors. One of the largest known breeding colonies is at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota. In 2004, this colony suffered total reproductive failure. In 2005, we collected abandoned eggs from this colony to test for environmental contaminants. Nine eggs were analyzed for 28 organochlorine pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and 26 inorganic elements. Based on concentrations in this sample of eggs and levels linked to reproductive problems in birds, adult pelicans in the Chase Lake breeding colony are not at known risk from any of the environmental contaminants we measured.

  13. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  14. Reproductive ecology of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.P.; Secord, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    Tree swallows(Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB-contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. Related work has shown that PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994, reproductive success at PCB-contaminated sites was significantly impaired relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely due to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. In 1995, reproductive output was normal, but higher than expected rates of abandonment and supernormal clutches persisted. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Given the levels of contamination in this population, the success of most Hudson River tree swallows reinforces the importance of understanding interspecific differences in the effects of contaminants.

  15. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  16. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.

  17. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  18. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  19. Changes in contaminant levels in New Jersey osprey eggs and prey, 1989 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Clark, K E; Stansley, W; Niles, L J

    2001-02-01

    Ospreys are good indicators of the health of estuarine areas because they feed almost exclusively on fish with the balance on other aquatic biota. Through the 1980s, ospreys nesting on Delaware Bay in New Jersey had reduced reproductive success relative to those nesting on the Atlantic coast and the Maurice River, a tributary of Delaware Bay. Earlier research suggested that elevated levels of DDT and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminants identified in addled osprey eggs contributed to this reduced productivity. We repeated egg and prey sampling initially conducted in 1989 to evaluate the trends of contaminants in the last decade. Most organochlorine contaminants declined in osprey eggs in 1998 relative to 1989. Across three study areas, PCBs decreased from 4.1-7.7 ppm in 1989 to 1.8-3.2 ppm in 1998; DDE decreased from 1.2-3.2 ppm in 1989 to 0.7-1.2 ppm in 1998. Lead in eggs increased from an average of 0.01 to 0.30 ppm wet weight, and mercury averaged 0.12 ppm and increased only in Atlantic coast eggs. Most of these contaminant changes were also found in typical prey fish: PCBs decreased from 0.18-1.2 ppm in 1989 to 0.06-0.43 ppm in 1998; DDE decreased from 0.05-0.69 ppm in 1989 to 0.03-0.13 ppm in 1998. Lead and mercury increased in most fish samples. The improvement in most organochlorine contaminants in osprey eggs and prey reflected improved nest success in the Delaware Bay study area, and the nesting populations in the Atlantic and Maurice River study areas increased approximately 200% since 1989. PCBs and DDE in osprey eggs were below levels considered to be toxic to egg development. This study documents significant improvements in organochlorine contaminants in southern New Jersey ospreys, but justifies continued monitoring of heavy metals, such as lead and mercury, in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:11243331

  20. Making leaps in amphibian ecotoxicology: translating individual-level effects of contaminants to population viability.

    PubMed

    Willson, J D; Hopkins, W A; Bergeron, C M; Todd, B D

    2012-09-01

    Concern that environmental contaminants contribute to global amphibian population declines has prompted extensive experimental investigation, but individual-level experimental results have seldom been translated to population-level processes. We used our research on the effects of mercury (Hg) on American toads (Bufo americanus) as a model for bridging the gap between individual-level contaminant effects and amphibian population viability. We synthesized the results of previous field and laboratory studies examining effects of Hg throughout the life cycle of B. americanus and constructed a comprehensive demographic population model to evaluate the consequences of Hg exposure on population dynamics. Our model explicitly considered density-dependent larval survival, which is known to be an important driver of amphibian population dynamics, and incorporated two important factors that have seldom been considered in previous amphibian modeling studies: environmental stochasticity and sublethal effects. We demonstrated that decreases in embryonic survival and sublethal effects (e.g., reduced body size) that delay maturation have minor effects on population dynamics, whereas contaminant effects that reduce late-larval or post-metamorphic survival have important population-level consequences. We found that excessive Hg exposure through maternal transfer or larval diet, alone, had minor effects on B. americanus populations. Simultaneous maternal and dietary exposure resulted in reduced population size and a dramatic increase in extinction probability, but explicit prediction of population-level effects was dependent on the strength of larval density dependence. Our results suggest that environmental contaminants can influence amphibian population viability, but that highly integrative approaches are needed to translate individual-level effects to populations.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of broiler carcasses: Population dynamics and genetic profiles at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Kušar, Darja; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2015-09-01

    Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To assess the contamination dynamics of the carcasses, the analyses were always conducted on neck-skin samples from the same pre-selected and carefully marked carcasses in each batch. The skin samples were taken sequentially at three successive slaughter-line locations in the evisceration room, after three-day refrigeration and after three-day freezing procedure. Caecal samples from the same animals were also tested, as well as samples from the slaughterhouse environment before and after slaughtering. The samples were analysed by the ISO10272 isolation method; campylobacters from neck-skin samples were also quantified. Isolates were species-identified and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On average, the highest C. jejuni skin contamination was detected at the first sampling point (post-plucking), suggesting that the majority of Campylobacter contamination actually occurs before the entrance to the eviscerating room, probably during the preceding plucking stage. In two out of five positive batches, an additional increase in contamination was recorded after the evisceration step. An evident trend of increasing contamination level was detected when successive batches were compared at each of two initial sampling sites in the evisceration room, indicating an accumulation of contaminating C. jejuni at some point before the evisceration room. Three-day refrigeration and three-day freezing caused a 4.5- and 142-fold drop in mean C. jejuni CFU counts, respectively. All pre-slaughtering samples from the slaughterhouse environment were negative and all post-slaughtering samples, except water from the scalding tank, were positive. Pulsotypes were limited: altogether five different types were detected

  2. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of broiler carcasses: Population dynamics and genetic profiles at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Kušar, Darja; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2015-09-01

    Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To assess the contamination dynamics of the carcasses, the analyses were always conducted on neck-skin samples from the same pre-selected and carefully marked carcasses in each batch. The skin samples were taken sequentially at three successive slaughter-line locations in the evisceration room, after three-day refrigeration and after three-day freezing procedure. Caecal samples from the same animals were also tested, as well as samples from the slaughterhouse environment before and after slaughtering. The samples were analysed by the ISO10272 isolation method; campylobacters from neck-skin samples were also quantified. Isolates were species-identified and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On average, the highest C. jejuni skin contamination was detected at the first sampling point (post-plucking), suggesting that the majority of Campylobacter contamination actually occurs before the entrance to the eviscerating room, probably during the preceding plucking stage. In two out of five positive batches, an additional increase in contamination was recorded after the evisceration step. An evident trend of increasing contamination level was detected when successive batches were compared at each of two initial sampling sites in the evisceration room, indicating an accumulation of contaminating C. jejuni at some point before the evisceration room. Three-day refrigeration and three-day freezing caused a 4.5- and 142-fold drop in mean C. jejuni CFU counts, respectively. All pre-slaughtering samples from the slaughterhouse environment were negative and all post-slaughtering samples, except water from the scalding tank, were positive. Pulsotypes were limited: altogether five different types were detected

  3. Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  4. Microbiological analysis of multi-level borehole samples from a contaminated groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickup, R. W.; Rhodes, G.; Alamillo, M. L.; Mallinson, H. E. H.; Thornton, S. F.; Lerner, D. N.

    2001-12-01

    A range of bacteriological, geochemical process-related and molecular techniques have been used to assess the microbial biodegradative potential in groundwater contaminated with phenol and other tar acids. The contaminant plume has travelled 500 m from the pollutant source over several decades. Samples were obtained from the plume using a multi-level sampler (MLS) positioned in two boreholes (boreholes 59 and 60) which vertically transected two areas of the plume. Activity of the microbial community, as represented by phenol degradation potential and ability to utilise a range of substrates, was found to be influenced by the plume. Phenol degradation potential appeared to be influenced more by the concentration of the contaminants than the total bacterial cell numbers. However, in the areas of highest phenol concentration, the depression of cell numbers clearly had an effect. The types of bacteria present were assessed by culture and DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial groups or processes associated with major geochemical processes, such as methanogenesis, sulphate reduction and denitrification, that have the potential to drive contaminant degradation, were detected at various borehole levels. A comparative molecular analysis of the microbial community between samples obtained from the MLS revealed the microbial community was diverse. The examination of microbial activity complemented those results obtained through chemical analysis, and when combined with hydrological data, showed that MLS samples provided a realistic profile of plume effects and could be related to the potential for natural attenuation of the site.

  5. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable.

  6. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  7. Enzymatic GST levels and overall health of mullets from contaminated Brazilian Lagoons.

    PubMed

    Bastos, F F; Hauser-Davis, R A; Tobar, S A L; Campos, R C; Ziolli, R L; Bastos, V L F Cunha; Bastos, J Cunha

    2013-01-15

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) assays in non-mammalian organisms are usually conducted inappropriately, since no previous standardization of the optimal concentrations of proteins and substrates and adequate pH is conducted. Standardization is a key task to adjust enzyme assays at their kinetically correct maximal initial velocities, if one wants these velocities to indicate the amount of enzyme in a sample. In this paper GST assays were standardized in liver cytosol to compare seasonal GST levels in liver of mullet from two contaminated lagoons in the Rio de Janeiro to those from a reference bay. GST potential as a biomarker of sublethal intoxication in this species was also evaluated. Mullet liver GST levels assayed with substrates that corresponded to three different GST isoenzymes varied throughout the year. The differences indicated that mullets are suffering from sublethal intoxication from contaminants in these lagoons. Seasonal variations of activity were relevant, since these could indicate differences in xenobiotic input into the areas. An analysis of overall mullet health condition using a morphological index (the Fulton Condition Factor) and macroscopic abnormalities corroborated the differences in GST levels, with fish from one of the sites in worse overall health condition showing lower and significantly different FCF when compared to the reference site. Therefore, GST standardized activity levels are useful biomarkers of environmental contamination for mullet.

  8. Lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Winter, N L; Eberly, S; Yakir, B; Tanner, M; Emond, M; Matte, T D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the relationship between lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels. METHODS: A random-sample survey was used to identify and enroll 205 children, 12 to 31 months of age, who had resided in the same house since at least 6 months of age. Children's blood and household dust, water, soil, and paint were analyzed for lead, and interviews were conducted to ascertain risk factors for elevated blood lead (> or = 10 micrograms/dL). RESULTS: Children's mean blood lead level was 7.7 micrograms/dL. In addition to dust lead loading (micrograms of lead per square foot), independent predictors of children's blood lead were Black race, soil lead levels, ingestion of soil or dirt, lead content and condition of painted surfaces, and water lead levels. For dust lead standards of 5 micrograms/sq ft, 20 micrograms/sq ft, and 40 micrograms/sq ft on noncarpeted floors, the estimated percentages of children having blood lead levels at or above 10 micrograms/dL were 4%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, after adjusting for other significant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Lead-contaminated house dust is a significant contributor to lead intake among urban children who have low-level elevations in blood lead. A substantial proportion of children may have blood lead levels of at least 10 micrograms/dL at dust lead levels considerably lower than current standards. PMID:8876511

  9. Dietary intakes and plasma organochlorine contaminant levels among Great Lakes fish eaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Sheeshka, Judy; Murkin, Elaine J; Kearney, Jill; Scott, Fran; Ferron, Lilliane A; Weber, Jean-Phillippe

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional intakes and contaminant burdens should be assessed jointly in individuals who are at high risk of environmental exposures to contaminants through food. In this study, the authors used shore surveys and community contacts to recruit 91 individuals who frequently consumed Great Lakes fish. These individuals provided dietary intake information and fasting blood samples for lipid and contaminant analyses. Participants ate an annual median of 88 meals of Great Lakes fish. Asian-Canadians consumed more total fish meals (i.e., Great Lakes, non-Great Lakes, and other) (medians = 213.0 females, 223.0 males) than Euro-Canadians (medians = 131.0 females, 137.5 males). The higher total fish consumption by Asian-Canadians was associated with a lower percentage of energy derived from fat, higher protein and iron intakes, and higher plasma concentrations of omega-3 essential fatty acids (e.g., median docosahexaenoic acid levels [microgram/l] in Asian-Canadian females = 5.48, males = 4.38; in Euro-Canadian females = 2.93, males = 2.27). Plasma organochlorine contaminant lipid weight concentrations varied by country of origin and by gender (e.g., median total polychlorinated biphenyls [microgram/kg] in Asian-Canadian females = 490.6, males = 729.0; in Euro-Canadian females = 339.6, males = 355.5). Age was the most consistent predictor (+ve) of contaminant concentrations, followed by years spent in Canada (for Asian-Canadians). Associations with sport fish consumption variables were less consistent than for the aforementioned predictors. Given both the health benefits and potential risks of fish consumption, policies that address diverse ethnocultural groups should support continued consumption of sport fish, but from less-contaminated sources than are currently used.

  10. A Study to Develop a Scale for Determining the Social Acceptance Levels of Special-Needs Students, Participating in Inclusion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Erdinc; Sahbaz, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale of social acceptance for determining the social acceptance levels of special-needs students, participating in inclusion practices. The target population of the research is 8th grade students of all primary schools in the provincial center of Burdur in the 2008 to 2009 academic year and the target study…

  11. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  12. Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the

  13. Determination of an acceptable assimilable organic carbon (AOC) level for biological stability in water distribution systems with minimized chlorine residual.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan because of increasing complaints about a chlorinous odor in drinking water. However, minimizing the chlorine residual causes the microbiological water quality to deteriorate, and stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water is thus needed to maintain biological stability during water distribution. In this investigation, an acceptable level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) for biologically stable water with minimized chlorine residual was determined based on the relationship between AOC, the chlorine residual, and bacterial regrowth. In order to prepare water samples containing lower AOC, the fractions of AOC and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in tap water samples were reduced by converting into biomass after thermal hydrolysis of BOM at alkaline conditions. The batch-mode incubations at different conditions of AOC and chlorine residual were carried out at 20 °C, and the presence or absence of bacterial regrowth was determined. The determined curve for biologically stable water indicated that the acceptable AOC was 10.9 μg C/L at a minimized chlorine residual (0.05 mg Cl(2)/L). This result indicated that AOC removal during current water treatment processes in Japan should be significantly enhanced prior to minimization of the chlorine residual in water distribution.

  14. High-Level Waste Tanks Multi-Dimensional Contaminant Transport Model Development Enhancements for 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-09-21

    A suite of multi-dimensional computer models was developed in 1999 (Collard and Flach) to analyze the transport of residual contamination from high-level waste tanks through the subsurface to seeplines. Enhancements in 2000 to those models include investigate the effect of numerical dispersion, develop a solubility-limited case for U and Pu, and develop a plan for a database as part of the Rapid Screening Tool and start to implement that plan.

  15. Mercury contamination in vicinity of secondary copper smelters in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China: levels and contamination in topsoils.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuebin; Yao, Chunxia; Song, Jing; Li, Zhibo; Zhang, Changbo; Qian, Wei; Bi, De; Li, Chenxi; Teng, Ying; Wu, Longhua; Wan, Hongdong; Luo, Yongming

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we aim to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg, particularly by anthropogenic Hg, and tentatively estimate the total Hg (Hg(T)) accumulation in topsoils (0-15 cm) in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province--a secondary Cu smelter of China. The results show that the levels of soil Hg in the vicinity of the smelters have been substantially elevated following local smelting activities. The spatial distribution of soil Hg in this area reveals a rapid decrease as the distance from the smelter reaches 1.5 km, which is probably due to the quick deposition process of particulate Hg and reactive gaseous Hg emitted from the smelters. The total accumulation of Hg(T) in the topsoils of the study area of 10.9 km(2) is approximately 365-561 kg and of which 346-543 kg might be contributed by anthropogenic emission alone with an annual emission of 17.3-27.2 kg Hg to the topsoils. PMID:19304360

  16. Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2004-01-01

    Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238U kg(-1)) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238U kg(-1)). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha(-1), respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production. PMID:15162854

  17. Molecular-Level Processes Governing the Interaction of Contaminants with Iron and Manganese Oxides - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., G. E.; Chambers, S. A.

    1999-10-31

    Many of the inorganic and organic contaminants present in sediments at DOE sites can be altered or destroyed by reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions occurring at mineral surfaces. A fundamental understanding of such redox processes provided by molecular-level studies on structurally and compositionally well-defined mineral surfaces will lead to: (i) improved models of contaminant fate and transport in geochemical systems, and (ii) optimized manipulation of these processes for remediation purposes. To contribute to this understanding, we will study, both experimentally and theoretically, redox processes involving three important contaminants - chromate ion, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene TCE, on the following iron and manganese oxides - hematite, magnetite, maghemite, and pyrolusite. These oxides and their hydroxylated analogs commonly occur as coatings on minerals or as interfaces in the subsurface environment. Single-crystal surfaces of these oxides will be synthesized in carefully controlled fashion by molecular beam epitaxy. These surfaces, as well as high surface are powdered samples of these oxides, will be used in spectroscopic and kinetic experiments in both aqueous and gas phases. Our goal is to identify products and to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of surface-catalyzed redox reaction of Cr(VI) and CR(III), and the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride and TCE. The combination of theory and experiment will provide the base information needed to scale from the molecular level to the microscopic grain level minerals.

  18. Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine as part-per-trillion levels drinking waters and contaminated groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) may be quantitated routinely at ultratrace (ng/L) levels in drinking water or contaminated groundwater. NDMA is selectively detected using a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) operated in its nitrosamine-selective mode. The reporting limit for this procedure, evaluated using two independent statistically unbiased protocols, is 2 ng of NDMA/L. A related procedure, employing an automatic sampler instead of the short-path thermal desorber, provides convenient analysis of heavily contaminated samples and exhibits a reporting limit (same protocols cited previously) of 110 ng of NDMA/L. When the two methods are used together in a `two-tiered` protocol, NDMA concentrations spanning 4 orders of magnitude (ng/L to {mu}g/L levels) may be measured routinely. The low-level procedure employing only the short-path thermal desorber was applied successfully to three sources of drinking water, where NDMA concentrations ranged between 2 and 10 ng of NDMA/L. The two-tiered protocol was applied to a series of contaminated groundwaters whose NDMA concentrations ranged between approximately 10-7000 ng of NDMA/L. The results agreed with those obtained from an independent collaborating laboratory, which used a different analytical procedure. 39 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Overview of the International Space Station System Level Trace Contaminant Injection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, James D.; Perry, Jay L.; Franks, Gerald D.

    1997-01-01

    Trace contaminant control onboard the International Space Station will be accomplished not only by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly but also by other Environmental Control and Life Support System subassemblies. These additional removal routes include absorption by humidity condensate in the Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchanger and adsorption by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. The Trace Contaminant Injection Test, which was performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, investigated the system-level removal of trace contaminants by the International Space Station Atmosphere Revitalization, and Temperature/Humidity Control Subsystems, (November-December 1997). It is a follow-on to the Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Test conducted in 1996. An estimate for the magnitude of the assisting role provided by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and the Temperature and Humidity Control unit was obtained. In addition, data on the purity of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly carbon dioxide product were obtained to support Environmental Control and Life Support System Air Revitalization Subsystem loop closure.

  20. New Remote Method for Estimation of Contamination Levels of Reactor Equipment - 13175

    SciTech Connect

    Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Potapov, Victor; Semenov, Sergey; Semin, Ilya; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Volkovich, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Projects for decommissioning of shutdown reactors and reactor facilities carried out in several countries, including Russia. In the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactor MR (Material Testing Reactor) has been initiated. The research reactor MR has a long history and consists of nine loop facilities for experiments with different kinds of fuel. During the operation of main and auxiliary equipment of reactors it was subjected to strong radioactive contamination. The character of this contamination requires individual strategies for the decontamination work. This requires information about the character of the distribution of radioactive contamination of equipment in the premises. A detailed radiation survey of these premises using standard dosimetric equipment is almost impossible because of high levels of radiation and high-density of the equipment that does not allow identifying the most active fragments using standard tools of measurement. The problem can be solved using the method of remote measurements of distribution of radioactivity with help of the collimated gamma-ray detectors. For radiation surveys of the premises of loop installations remotely operated spectrometric collimated system was used [1, 2, 3]. As a result of the work, maps of the distribution of activity and dose rate for surveyed premises were plotted and superimposed on its photo. The new results of measurements in different areas of the reactor and at its loop installations, with emphasis on the radioactive survey of highly-contaminated samples, are presented. (authors)

  1. Decreasing Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) food contamination level with bacteriophages: prospects and problems

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Sophie; Boissin‐Delaporte, Catherine; Michot, Lise; Iversen, Carol; Diep, Benjamin; Brüssow, Harald; Breeuwer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Summary Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause rare, but life‐threatening infections in neonates and infants through feeding of a contaminated milk formula. We isolated 67 phages from environmental samples and tested their lytic host range on a representative collection of 40 E. sakazakii strains. A cocktail of five phages prevented the outgrowth of 35 out of 40 test strains in artificially contaminated infant formula. Two E. sakazakii phages represented prolate head Myoviridae. Molecular tests identified them as close relatives of Escherichia coli phage T4. The remaining three phages represented isometric head Myoviridae with large genome size of 140 and 200 kb, respectively, which belonged to two different DNA hybridization groups. A high dose of 108 pfu ml−1 of phage could effectively sterilize a broth contaminated with both high and low pathogen counts (106 and 102 cfu ml−1). In contrast, broth inoculated with 104 phage and 102 bacteria per ml first showed normal bacterial growth until reaching a cell titre of 105 cfu ml−1. Only when crossing this threshold, phage replication started, but it could not reduce the contamination level below 100 cfu ml−1. Phages could be produced with titres of 1010 pfu ml−1 in broth culture, but they were not stable upon freeze‐drying. Addition of trehalose or milk formula stabilized the phage preparation, which then showed excellent storage stability even at elevated temperature. PMID:21261874

  2. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.K. |; Gillette, J.; Jackson, J.

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ``Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities`` (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning.

  3. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  4. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  5. The degree of acceptability of swine blood values at increasing levels of hemolysis evaluated through visual inspection versus automated quantification.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gagliazzo, Laura; McCormick, Wanda; Gabai, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2015-05-01

    The pronounced fragility that characterizes swine erythrocytes is likely to produce a variable degree of hemolysis during blood sampling, and the free hemoglobin may then unpredictably bias the quantification of several analytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of acceptability of values obtained for several biochemical parameters at different levels of hemolysis. Progressively increased degrees of physical hemolysis were induced in 3 aliquots of 30 nonhemolytic sera, and the relative effects on the test results were assessed. To define the level of hemolysis, we used both visual estimation (on a scale of 0 to 3+) and analytical assessment (hemolytic index) and identified the best analytical cutoff values for discriminating the visual levels of hemolysis. Hemolysis led to a variable and dose-dependent effect on the test results that was specific for each analyte tested. In mildly hemolyzed specimens, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, β1-globulin, β2-globulin, α1-globulin, γ-globulin, sodium, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were not significantly biased, whereas α2-globulin, albumin, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, nonesterified fatty acids, bilirubin, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, lipase, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, unbound iron-binding capacity, and uric acid were significantly biased. Chloride and total protein were unbiased even in markedly hemolyzed samples. Analytical interference was hypothesized to be the main source of this bias, leading to a nonlinear trend that confirmed the difficulty in establishing reliable coefficients of correction for adjusting the test results. PMID:26038480

  6. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  7. Direct simulation Monte Carlo prediction of on-orbit contaminant deposit levels for HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.; Rault, Didier F. G.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional version of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is adapted to assess the contamination environment surrounding a highly detailed model of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Emphasis is placed on simulating a realistic, worst-case set of flow field and surface conditions and geometric orientations for the satellite in order to estimate an upper limit for the cumulative level of volatile organic molecular deposits at the aperture of the Halogen Occultation Experiment. A detailed description of the adaptation of this solution method to the study of the satellite's environment is also presented. Results pertaining to the satellite's environment are presented regarding contaminant cloud structure, cloud composition, and statistics of simulated molecules impinging on the target surface, along with data related to code performance. Using procedures developed in standard contamination analyses, along with many worst-case assumptions, the cumulative upper-limit level of volatile organic deposits on HALOE's aperture over the instrument's 35-month nominal data collection period is estimated at about 13,350 A.

  8. High-Level Waste Tanks Multi-Dimensional Contaminant Transport Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    1999-11-15

    A suite of multi-dimensional computer models was developed to analyze the transport of residual contamination from high-level waste tanks through the subsurface to seeplines. Cases analyzed ranged from all the tanks in the F- and H-tank farms for an overall look; to the Tank 17-20 4-pack to study plume interaction; to individual tanks, such as Tank 17 and 20 for comparison with one-dimensional and modeling. The main purpose of this work was to develop and test the models, so only two relatively conservative contaminants were examined, Tc-99 and I-129. More complex analyses, such as solubility-limited species and radionuclides that head a decay chain were not addressed in this study.

  9. Comparison of Microbial Contamination Levels Among Hospital Operating Rooms and Industrial Clean Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Martin S.; Puleo, John R.; Marshall, James H.; Oxborrow, Gordon S.

    1968-01-01

    Microbial contamination in industrial clean rooms was compared quantitatively and qualitatively with that of hospital operating rooms. The number of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms which accumulated on stainless-steel strips exposed for periods up to 21 weeks to the intramural air of four operating rooms was at least 1 log higher than the accumulation on strips exposed in four clean rooms, and was essentially the same as that found in two factory areas. Volumetric air samplings showed that there were significantly higher numbers of airborne viable particles per cubic foot of air in operating rooms than in industrial clean rooms. In contrast to clean rooms, where most of the airborne contaminants were those associated with human hair, skin, and respiratory tract, the hospital operating rooms showed a very high level of microorganisms associated with dust and soil. Images Fig. 4 PMID:5649862

  10. No enhancement in bioconcentration of organic contaminants by low levels of DOM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haitzer, M.; Akkanen, J.; Steinberg, C.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to systematically study the effect of low concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioconcentration of organic contaminants, in order to show whether the phenomenon of enhanced bioconcentration factors (BCFs), that has been reported in the literature, is generally found at low levels of DOM or if BCF enhancements are more likely due to a random scatter in the experimental data. The first part of the study tested the hypothesis that low levels of DOM affect the uptake kinetics of organic contaminants, leading to transient enhancements of BCFs, relative to DOM-free controls, which could have been reported as BCF enhancements in short-term studies. We found that the presence of low concentrations of two different types of DOM consistently decreased the bioconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the water flea Daphnia magna at all exposure times (1-24 h), and that no transient BCF enhancements occurred. The second part of the study systematically investigated if low concentrations of DOM from a wide range of different aquatic systems can cause enhancements in the bioconcentration of organic contaminants. Water fleas were exposed to combinations of four different organic contaminants (BaP, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorophenol and naphthalene) with low concentrations of 12 different types of DOM that had been collected from various regions throughout Europe. In several of the DOM treatments, we found mean BCFs being higher than mean BCFs in the controls (especially for naphthalene). This shows that the experimental setup used in this study (and similarly in previous studies) can produce seeming BCF enhancements at low concentrations of DOM. However, statistical analyses showed that treatment means were not significantly different from control means. Thus, this systematic study suggests that the BCF enhancements that have been reported in the literature are more likely the result of random, experimental variations than the

  11. Dose coefficients and derived guidance and clinical decision levels for contaminated wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, Luiz; Toohey, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    The NCRP Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment has been combined with the ICRP element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. Those coefficients have been used to generate derived guidance levels (i.e., the activity in a wound that would result in an effective dose of 20 or 50 mSv, or in some cases, a committed organ equivalent dose of 500 mSv), and clinical decision levels (i.e., activity levels that would indicate the need for consideration of medical intervention to remove activity from the wound site or administration of decorporation therapy or both), typically set at 5 times the derived guidance levels. Data are provided for the radionuclides commonly encountered at nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons, fuel fabrication or recycling, waste disposal, medical and research facilities. These include: {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 210}Po, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 228,232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242,244}Cm, and {sup 252}Cf.

  12. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and intensified insulin therapy. Acceptability and efficacy in childhood diabetes.

    PubMed

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Lippe, B M; Scott, M L

    1983-06-01

    Prospective studies have shown that children and adolescents with diabetes have a high prevalence of serious complications and a sharp reduction in life expectancy. Recently, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels has become available and, for the first time, provides a method for determining the concentration of blood glucose with considerable accuracy. We have introduced this method of control assessment to our pediatric diabetic patient population in conjunction with a program of intensified insulin administration (two or more injections per day). This is a report of the ready acceptance of these methods by children and adolescents and their parents (53/63, or 84%). The effectiveness of this program is evidenced by a progressive and significant reduction in the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin during a period of 18 months in a majority of the subjects. These observations suggest that improved glycemic control can be achieved in young diabetics by using multiple insulin injections and self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Whether such control can lead to a better long-term outlook for diabetics remains to be seen.

  13. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values.

  14. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Korosi, Jennifer B; Hargan, Kathryn E; Williams, Trisha; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Palmer, Michael J; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2016-08-17

    Giant Mine, located in the city of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), is a dramatic example of subarctic legacy contamination from mining activities, with remediation costs projected to exceed $1 billion. Operational between 1948 and 2004, gold extraction at Giant Mine released large quantities of arsenic and metals from the roasting of arsenopyrite ore. We examined the long-term ecological effects of roaster emissions on Pocket Lake, a small lake at the edge of the Giant Mine lease boundary, using a spectrum of palaeoenvironmental approaches. A dated sedimentary profile tracked striking increases (approx. 1700%) in arsenic concentrations coeval with the initiation of Giant Mine operations. Large increases in mercury, antimony and lead also occurred. Synchronous changes in biological indicator assemblages from multiple aquatic trophic levels, in both benthic and pelagic habitats, indicate dramatic ecological responses to extreme metal(loid) contamination. At the peak of contamination, all Cladocera, a keystone group of primary consumers, as well as all planktonic diatoms, were functionally lost from the sediment record. No biological recovery has been inferred, despite the fact that the bulk of metal(loid) emissions occurred more than 50 years ago, and the cessation of all ore-roasting activities in Yellowknife in 1999. PMID:27534958

  15. Changes in contaminant distributions with trophic level in a marine food chain study

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Taplin, B.K.; McGovern, D.G.; Montmarquet, B.T.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory study was designed to investigate the transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants from sediments to marine biota in a simplified marine food chain. Sediments collected from the Passaic River, NJ, which contained high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, were used as the contamination source. Polychaete worms (Nereis virens) were exposed to Passaic River sediment for 70 days to allow steady-state concentrations to be achieved and then these organisms were fed to a crustacean, the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Contaminant distributions were altered significantly as they passed from sediments to polychaetes and then to the lobster. PCDDs and PCDFs containing four or five chlorines were accumulated by the polychaetes and lobster; however, the highly chlorinated congeners were not accumulated. PCB patterns in lobsters indicated that these organisms metabolized many PCB congeners. Coplanar PCBs did not appear to be metabolized and therefore became enriched relative to total PCB levels in the lobsters. Lobsters also greatly altered the ratios of chlordane and DDT series compounds relative to those in the sediments and polychaetes.

  16. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  17. Water level management and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Dummer, P.M.; Custer, Christine M.; Li, A.U.; Warburton, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a water drawdown on Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to increase aquatic vegetation production and thereby improve fish and wildlife habitat. Flooding of previously dried wetlands, however, may increase the rate of mercury methylation and make mercury more available to terrestrial vertebrates that feed in aquatic environments. Our objective was to determine if mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants were more available to vertebrates following the 2001 drawdown. Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected at two sites on Pool 8 and a nearby Reference site in 2000 (pre-2001 drawdown), 2001 (pre-2001 drawdown) and 2002 (post-2001 drawdown) and tissues were analyzed for mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants. Bioindicator measurements of genetic damage, oxidative stress, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and the ratio of liver to nestling mass were also measured in nestlings at all sites and all years. Based on a multivariate analysis, the 2001 drawdown of Pool 8 did not influence element concentrations, organochlorine concentrations, or bioindicator response. Concentrations of inorganic and organochlorine contaminants in tree swallow eggs and nestlings were not at toxic levels. Hatching success did not differ among years and was comparable to the nationwide average.

  18. Water level management and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Li, Azusa U; Warburton, David; Melancon, Mark J; Hoffman, David J; Matson, Cole W; Bickham, John W

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a water drawdown on Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to increase aquatic vegetation production and thereby improve fish and wildlife habitat. Flooding of previously dried wetlands, however, may increase the rate of mercury methylation and make mercury more available to terrestrial vertebrates that feed in aquatic environments. Our objective was to determine if mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants were more available to vertebrates following the 2001 drawdown. Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected at two sites on Pool 8 and a nearby Reference site in 2000 (pre-2001 drawdown), 2001 (pre-2001 drawdown) and 2002 (post-2001 drawdown) and tissues were analyzed for mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants. Bioindicator measurements of genetic damage, oxidative stress, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and the ratio of liver to nestling mass were also measured in nestlings at all sites and all years. Based on a multivariate analysis, the 2001 drawdown of Pool 8 did not influence element concentrations, organochlorine concentrations, or bioindicator response. Concentrations of inorganic and organochlorine contaminants in tree swallow eggs and nestlings were not at toxic levels. Hatching success did not differ among years and was comparable to the nationwide average. PMID:17286172

  19. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches.

  20. DDT in zebra mussels from Lake Maggiore (N. Italy): level of contamination and endocrine disruptions.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Andrea; Bacchetta, Renato; Mantecca, Paride; Ricciardi, Francesco; Provini, Alfredo; Vailati, Giovanni

    2004-08-10

    The DDT contamination of Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) has been monitored since a serious pollution event occurred in 1996. To assess the environmental risk associated with this contamination, bioaccumulation data coupled with histopathological markers were evaluated on zebra mussel populations from two different contaminated sites from April 2001 to April 2002. Biomonitoring results showed high DDT pollution in 2001 because of a flood which transported DDTs still contained in the sediments of a polluted river to the lake. DDT concentrations reached values of 4-5 microg/g lipids, higher than those recorded in other industrialized countries but comparable to levels measured in developing ones. In the ovaries of the most highly polluted mussels, histological analyses showed a delay in oocyte maturation and a high incidence of pathological pictures mainly referable to oocyte degeneration and haemocytic infiltration. Moreover, despite the presence of mature sperms, in 2001 first male gamete release occurred about 2 months later than in females. These results indicated a neuroendocrine interference of DDT on Dreissena polymorpha reproduction and also showed that these invertebrates can be successfully used to evaluate ecological implications due to exposure to endocrine disruptors in freshwater environments.

  1. Incidence and levels of deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and zearalenone contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, In-Hye; Do, Woo-Hyun; Nam, Woo-Seon; Li, Hua; Jang, Han-Sub; Lee, Chan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early) feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds. PMID:24366207

  2. Incidence and levels of deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and zearalenone contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, In-Hye; Do, Woo-Hyun; Nam, Woo-Seon; Li, Hua; Jang, Han-Sub; Lee, Chan

    2013-12-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early) feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  3. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, In-Hye; Do, Woo-Hyun; Nam, Woo-Seon; Li, Hua; Jang, Han-Sub; Lee, Chan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early) feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds. PMID:24366207

  4. Contaminant levels in fish and shellfish from the EMAP-Estuaries Louisiana Province

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, W.H.; O`Neal, J.M.; Allgood, J.C.; Summers, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries (EMAP-E) is a research program designed to assess the ecological condition of the nation`s near-coastal ecosystems. The program is specifically designed to assess changes in ecological condition over broad biogeographic regions and over long time periods. The authors examined approximately 150 sites in the Gulf of Mexico between Anclote Anchorage, FL and the Rio Grande, TX during the summer of 1993. Species collected for chemical analyses included Atlantic croaker, catfish and shrimp. Results will be presented for contaminant levels in edible flesh analyzed for organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, PCB congeners, butlytins, and a suite of trace elements.

  5. Assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in soil at a contaminated sawmill site in Sweden--a GIS and PCA approach to interpret the contamination pattern and distribution.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, S; Hagberg, J; Bäckström, M; Persson, I; Lindström, G

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in soil from a Swedish sawmill site where chlorophenols (CPs) had been used more than 40 years ago. The most contaminated area at the site was the preservation subarea where the PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQ level was 3450 times higher than the current Swedish guideline value of 200 ng TEQ/kg soil for land for industrial use. It was also shown that a fire which destroyed the sawmill might have affected the congener distribution at the concerned areas. To get a broader picture of the contamination both GIS (spatial interpolation analysis) and multivariate data analysis (PCA) were applied to visualize and compare PCDD/F levels as well as congener distributions at different areas at the site. It is shown that GIS and PCA are powerful tools in decisions on future investigations, risk assessments and remediation of contaminated sites.

  6. Survival of enterohemorrhagic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from spinach plants after overhead irrigation with (currently acceptable) contamination levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In response to the growing food safety issues surrounding fresh cut lettuce and other leafy green commodities in the U.S., the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) proposes new commodity-specific guidelines that encompass all steps on the production-to-distribution continuum to ensur...

  7. The relationship between hearing aid frequency response and acceptable noise level in patients with sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238

  8. Tracking Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin Levels in Andean Adults Working in a Lead Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4 and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007 and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Pb exposure of the workers need to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  9. Levels of asymmetry in Formica pratensis Retz. (Hymenoptera, Insecta) from a chronic metal-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Rabitsch, W.B.

    1997-07-01

    Asymmetries of bilaterally symmetrical morphological traits in workers of the ant Formica pratensis Retzius were compared at sites with different levels of metal contamination and between mature and pre-mature colonies. Statistical analyses of the right-minus-left differences revealed that their distributions fit assumptions of fluctuating asymmetry (FA). No direct asymmetry or antisymmetry were present. Mean measurement error accounts for a third of the variation, but the maximum measurement error was 65%. Although significant differences of FA in ants were observed, the inconsistent results render uncovering a clear pattern difficult. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in the ants decreased with the distance from the contamination source, but no relation was found between FA and the heavy metal levels. Ants from the premature colonies were more asymmetrical than those from mature colonies but accumulated less metals. The use of asymmetry measures in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring is criticized, but should remain widely applicable if statistical assumptions are complemented by genetic and historical data.

  10. Oil contamination of fish in the North Sea. Determination of levels and identification of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, S.; Restucci, R.; Klungsoyr, J.

    1996-12-31

    Two fish species, cod and haddock have been sampled from five different regions in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, the Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea, Three of the five sampling areas were located in regions with no local oil or gas production, while the remaining two areas represented regions with high density of oil and gas production fields. A total of 25 specimen of each of the two fish species were collected, and liver (all samples) and muscle (10 samples from each group) were analyzed for the content of total hydrocarbons (THC), selected aromatic compounds (NPD and PAH) and bicyclic aliphatic decalines. The present paper outlines the results of liver samples analyses from four of the sampled regions, & northern North Sea region and the three reference regions Egersundbanken, Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea. In general, no significant difference was observed between the hydrocarbon levels within the sampled regions. The only observed exception was a moderate, but significant increase in decaline levels in haddock liver from the Northern North Sea region. The qualitative interpretation of the results showed that the sources of hydrocarbon contamination varied within the total sampling area. This observation indicates that the local discharge sources in areas with high petroleum production activity are the sources of hydrocarbons in fish from such areas. However, it was not possible to identify single discharges as a contamination source from the present results.

  11. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwater with gradient of contaminant levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-04-01

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17?70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  12. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  13. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Patricia J; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Schadt, Chris W; He, Zhili; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Palumbo, Anthony V; Hazen, Terry C; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-05-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, titrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between differentwells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  14. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effects of decontamination at varying contamination levels of Campylobacter jejuni on broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Boysen, L; Wechter, N S; Rosenquist, H

    2013-05-01

    When assessing effects of decontamination techniques on counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat, it is essential that the results reflect the variations that may exist. Decontamination studies often use high inoculation levels (10(7) to 10(8) cfu) and one or few strains of Campylobacter jejuni, thereby restricting the results to reflect only a limited part of the true situation. This study presents results from physical and chemical decontamination of broiler meat medallions using different strains and different initial concentrations of C. jejuni. For 3 strains of C. jejuni, mean log reductions obtained by freezing at -20°C for 7 d was significantly higher for an initial concentration of 10(7) cfu/sample on the meat compared with an initial concentration of 10(3) cfu/sample. For freezing at -20°C for 24 h or application of 6% tartaric acid and subsequent storage for 24 h, no statistically significant difference in reductions was found for initial concentrations ranging from 10(3) to 10(7) cfu per sample. The mean log reductions obtained by all techniques were strongly dependent on the strain tested. The results reveal that reductions obtained with high inoculation levels of C. jejuni (10(7) cfu/sample) or single or few strains of the species (or both) should not be interpreted as a generic result for the species. If inoculation studies cannot be replaced by investigations of naturally contaminated meat, we advise using a mixture of strains found in the production environment at levels as close as possible to the natural contamination level.

  16. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable quality...

  17. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  18. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen.

  19. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  20. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion.

  1. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion. PMID:27213675

  2. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  3. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Adler, Sven; Garthe, Stefan

    2015-01-15

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe′s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. - Highlights: • Contaminants in Oystercatchers from the Elbe river and a non-riverine site were measured. • Mean levels of contaminants were higher at the river than at the non-riverine site. • Levels of most contaminants in serum and feathers were significantly related. • No relationship between trophic level (δ15N) and contaminant level was found. • One of Europe′s largest river systems is associated

  4. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  5. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  6. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology.

  7. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J

    2012-08-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  9. Level of contamination by metallic trace elements and organic molecules in the seagrass beds of Guadeloupe Island.

    PubMed

    Bouchon, Claude; Lemoine, Soazig; Dromard, Charlotte; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass bed ecosystems occupy the most important part of coastal shelf in the French West Indies. They also constitute nurseries for many invertebrates and fishes harvested by local fisheries. In Guadeloupe, coastal fish stocks are declining meanwhile several agroecosystems revealed to be heavily contaminated by pollutants (agricultural lands, rivers, mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs). Considering these facts, a study of the contamination of seagrass beds (8000 ha) of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (GCSM) bay was conducted on their sediments and marine phanerogams. The analyses concerned six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V, Zn), tributyltin, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 38 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dithiocarbamates (CS2 residues), and 225 pesticide molecules.Overall, the level of contamination of the seagrass beds was low for both sediments and phanerogams. Metallic trace elements were the main pollutants but with higher concentrations recorded in coastal sites, and their distribution can be explained by the proximity of river mouths and current patterns. The level of contamination was lower in plants than in sediments. However, the level of contamination between these two compartments was significantly correlated. The conclusion of this study is that, unlike other coastal ecosystems of Guadeloupe such as mangroves, the seagrass beds in the GCSM present a low degree of pollution. The observed level of contaminants does not seem to threaten the role of nursery played by the seagrass beds and does not likely present a risk for the reintroduction of manatees. PMID:26538258

  10. Level of contamination by metallic trace elements and organic molecules in the seagrass beds of Guadeloupe Island.

    PubMed

    Bouchon, Claude; Lemoine, Soazig; Dromard, Charlotte; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass bed ecosystems occupy the most important part of coastal shelf in the French West Indies. They also constitute nurseries for many invertebrates and fishes harvested by local fisheries. In Guadeloupe, coastal fish stocks are declining meanwhile several agroecosystems revealed to be heavily contaminated by pollutants (agricultural lands, rivers, mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs). Considering these facts, a study of the contamination of seagrass beds (8000 ha) of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (GCSM) bay was conducted on their sediments and marine phanerogams. The analyses concerned six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V, Zn), tributyltin, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 38 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dithiocarbamates (CS2 residues), and 225 pesticide molecules.Overall, the level of contamination of the seagrass beds was low for both sediments and phanerogams. Metallic trace elements were the main pollutants but with higher concentrations recorded in coastal sites, and their distribution can be explained by the proximity of river mouths and current patterns. The level of contamination was lower in plants than in sediments. However, the level of contamination between these two compartments was significantly correlated. The conclusion of this study is that, unlike other coastal ecosystems of Guadeloupe such as mangroves, the seagrass beds in the GCSM present a low degree of pollution. The observed level of contaminants does not seem to threaten the role of nursery played by the seagrass beds and does not likely present a risk for the reintroduction of manatees.

  11. [Influence of the consumption of radioactive contaminated food on the formation of the irradiation levels and health of the inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, I M; Omel'yanets, N I

    2014-01-01

    Within all these years after the Chernobyl disaster the population of contaminated areas of the Rivne region was shown to consume radioactive contaminated foodstuffs. The main components of the formation of the internal irradiation of the population in them were and remain locally sourced milk and meat, forest mushrooms and berries. After 1991, the largest annual internal doses in persons observed in 1997 varied from 2,2 to 1,45 mSv/year and in 2011--in the inhabitants of the village of El'no they were yet reaching 1.43 mSv/year. After 2003, exposure levels in most inhabitatants of affected areas exceeded the criterion specified by national legislation for residents of the tightened radioecological control zone (0,5 mSv/year). The long-term residence in the contaminated area, elevated levels of chronic internal exposure, lack of radioactively sound foodstuffs and involuntary consumption in 1987-2011 radioactively contaminated food of local production were noted to led to an increase in general morbidity, and incidence of endocrine diseases rate and their separate nosological forms.

  12. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L.; Skriba, M.C.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics` perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM`93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  13. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L. . Denver Environmental Services); Skriba, M.C. ); Wade, J.F. )

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  14. Geomicrobiology of High Level Nuclear Waste-Contaminated Vadose Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Balkwill, David L.; Kennedy, David W.; Li, Shu-Mei W.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Daly, Michael J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2004-07-07

    Sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume were collected as part of investigations to evaluate the potential fate and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The plume originated from a leak that occurred in 1962 from a waste tank consisting of high concentrations of alkali, nitrate, aluminate, Cr(VI), 137Cs, and 99Tc. Investigations were initiated to determine the distribution of viable microorganisms in the vadose sediment samples, probe the phylogeny of cultivated and uncultivated members, and evaluate the ability of the cultivated organisms to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation. The populations of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were generally low, from below detection to {approx}104 7 CFU g-1 but viable microorganisms were recovered from 11 of 16 samples including several of the most radioactive ones (e.g., > 10 ?Ci/g 137Cs). The isolates from the contaminated sediments and clone libraries from sediment DNA extracts were dominated by members related to known Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Arthrobacter species were the most common isolates among all samples but other high G+C phyla were also represented including Rhodococcus and Nocardia. Two isolates from the second most radioactive sample (>20 ?Ci 137Cs g-1) were closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and were able to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation approaching 20kGy. Many of the Gram-positive isolates were resistant to lower levels of gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that Gram-positive bacteria, predominantly high G+C phyla, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste.

  15. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  16. Microbial communities in contaminated sediments, associated with bioremediation of uranium to submicromolar levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Weimin; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack M; Carroll, Sue L; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David B; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A.; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James M.

    2008-03-01

    Microbial enumeration, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the in situ biological reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) in a long-term experiment (more than 2 years) conducted at a highly uranium-contaminated site (up to 60 mg/liter and 800 mg/kg solids) of the U.S. Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, TN. Bioreduction was achieved by conditioning groundwater above ground and then stimulating growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria in situ through weekly injection of ethanol into the subsurface. After nearly 2 years of intermittent injection of ethanol, aqueous U levels fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water and groundwater (<30 {micro}g/liter or 0.126 {micro}M). Sediment microbial communities from the treatment zone were compared with those from a control well without biostimulation. Most-probable-number estimations indicated that microorganisms implicated in bioremediation accumulated in the sediments of the treatment zone but were either absent or in very low numbers in an untreated control area. Organisms belonging to genera known to include U(VI) reducers were detected, including Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Acidovorax spp. The predominant sulfate-reducing bacterial species were Desulfovibrio spp., while the iron reducers were represented by Ferribacterium spp. and Geothrix spp. Diversity-based clustering revealed differences between treated and untreated zones and also within samples of the treated area. Spatial differences in community structure within the treatment zone were likely related to the hydraulic pathway and to electron donor metabolism during biostimulation.

  17. Deep level transient spectroscopy assessment of silicon contamination in AlGaAs layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, E.; Sanchez, F.; Muñoz, E.; Gibart, P.; Powell, A.; Roberts, J. S.

    1995-08-01

    A systematic silicon contamination has been detected by deep level transient spectroscopy in undoped and n-type doped (Te, Se, Sn) AlGaAs layers, grown in two different metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy reactors. DX center generation by substitutional donors, with very specific capture and emission thermal barriers (fingerprints), is the key to unambiguously identifying their presence, with detection limits well below the standard secondary ion mass spectroscopy capability. We comment on the potential sources of Si contamination (most common in this epitaxial technique), and on the relevance of such contamination to interpreting correctly experimental data related to the microscopic structure of DX centers.

  18. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values. PMID:26923228

  19. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  20. Quality and consumer acceptability of salt and phosphate enhanced goat loin from goats fed varying levels of pine bark.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Broadway, P R; Solaiman, S; Behrends, J M

    2012-03-01

    Goat loins (n=22) were evaluated to test effects of 0, 15, and 30% dietary pine bark (PB) and salt, water, and phosphate enhancement on shelf-life, shear force (WBSF) and consumer acceptability. No interactions existed between PB and enhancement. Dietary PB did not affect objective color, but enhancement increased a* and b* values (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased from d 1 to d 5 of storage (P<0.0001), but were not affected by PB or enhancement. The WBSF for 30% PB was less than that of 0% PB (P=0.0199), and enhancement decreased WBSF (P=0.0010). Texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were greater (P<0.05) for 15 and 30% PB compared to 0% PB. Enhanced loin samples had greater appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability scores (P<0.05). Results indicated that enhancement improved tenderness and consumer acceptability of goat loin, and PB had minimal impact on goat loin quality.

  1. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  2. Methylmercury levels and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web of a highly mercury-contaminated reservoir.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436 μg/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from the surveyed area, methylmercury (MeHg) values in fish individuals have never been reported. Accordingly, in order to investigate bioaccumulation patterns at different levels of the aquatic food web of such polluted area, crayfish and various fish species, were analysed for THg and MeHg content. At the hot spot, THg mean values of crayfish muscle tissue and hepatopancreas were 10 and 15 times, respectively, greater than the local background level. Higher mean THg concentrations were detected in piscivorous (THg=0.848 ± 0.476 μg/g wet weight (ww); MeHg=0.672 ± 0.364 μg/g ww) than in non-piscivorous fish (THg=0.305 ± 0.163 μg/g ww; MeHg=0.278 ± 0.239 μg/g ww). Although these results indicated that THg in fish increased significantly with increasing trophic position, the percentage of the methylated form of Hg was not strongly influenced by differences in relative trophic position. This is an important finding, since the fraction of THg as MeHg in the top fish predator was unexpectedly lower than for other species of the aquatic food chain. Moreover, mean THg concentrations in piscivorous fish exceed the maximum level recommended for human consumption. From our findings, it is clear that for this specific polluted system, speciation becomes almost mandatory when risk assessment is based on MeHg, since single measurements of THg are inadequate and could lead to an over- or under-estimation of contamination levels.

  3. Social acceptability of phytoremediation: The role of risk and values.

    PubMed

    Weir, Ellen; Doty, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    A former gas production site that was converted to a public park was chosen as the research location for the present study. Some of the contaminants at the site have been remediated; however, much of the soil is still contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are toxic pollutants that have been shown to have numerous negative health effects. The primary form of remediation at the site has been capping, which is usually considered a temporary remediation strategy since it does not remove contaminants from the site but simply covers them, and this requires repeated re-capping efforts. Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation using willow shrubs is an alternative remediation strategy that could improve soil quality and permanently reduce contaminant levels in the soil. The goal of the present study was to explore the social acceptability of utilizing phytoremediation strategies. Surveys were used to explore public perceptions of the park and of using phytoremediation to clean up existing contamination. Results indicated a high level of social acceptability of phytoremediation at the park. Additionally, ecocentrism was shown to be a significant predictor of phytoremediation acceptability. Risk and anthropocentrism were not significant predictors of acceptability. Results suggest that messages intended to encourage the use and acceptability of phytoremediation should focus on the environmental benefits of phytoremediation.

  4. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths.

  5. Blood lead levels in children and environmental lead contamination in Miami inner city, Florida.

    PubMed

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M; Siegel, Kristy A; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-09-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 microg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 microg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 microg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05). However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami.

  6. Blood Lead Levels in Children and Environmental Lead Contamination in Miami Inner City, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Gasana, Janvier; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Siegel, Kristy A.; Chamorro, Armando; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that the environmental conditions of the home are important predictors of health, especially in low-income communities. Understanding the relationship between the environment and health is crucial in the management of certain diseases. One health outcome related to the home environment among urban, minority, and low-income children is childhood lead poisoning. The most common sources of lead exposure for children are lead paint in older, dilapidated housing and contaminated dust and soil produced by accumulated residue of leaded gasoline. Blood lead levels (BLL) as low as 10 μg/dL in children are associated with impaired cognitive function, behavior difficulties, and reduced intelligence. Recently, it is suggested that the standard for intervention be lowered to BLL of 5 μg/dl. The objectives of our report were to assess the prevalence of lead poisoning among children under six years of age and to quantify and test the correlations between BLL in children and lead exposure levels in their environment. This cross-sectional analysis was restricted to 75 children under six years of age who lived in 6 zip code areas of inner city Miami. These locations exhibited unacceptably high levels of lead dust and soil in areas where children live and play. Using the 5 μg/dL as the cutoff point, the prevalence of lead poisoning among the study sample was 13.33%. The study revealed that lead levels in floor dust and window sill samples were positively and significantly correlated with BLL among children (p < 0.05). However, the correlations between BLL and the soil, air, and water samples were not significant. Based on this pilot study, a more comprehensive environmental study in surrounding inner city areas is warranted. Parental education on proper housecleaning techniques may also benefit those living in the high lead-exposed communities of inner city Miami. PMID:16968968

  7. The contribution of urban runoff to organic contaminant levels in harbour sediments near two Norwegian cities.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pettersen, Arne; Nesse, Elisabeth; Eek, Espen; Helland, Aud; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2008-03-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare the quality of particle emissions (urban runoff and settling particles in rivers and harbours) to the quality of top-layer bed sediments, for two Norwegian harbours (Oslo and Drammen). A sub-aim was to investigate whether non-industrial urban runoff contributed to the organotin load of sediments, apart from leaching from ship hulls. Time-integrated samples of stormwater runoff were obtained in an innovative manner, by sampling man-holes in the stormwater system. Settling particles were sampled with sediment traps. The study focused on PAHs, PCBs and organotin compounds. Contaminant levels were generally a factor of 2-10 (PAHs) and 3-30 (TBT) lower in emitted riverine and runoff particles than in top-layer bed sediments, except for PCBs in Oslo harbour (only 20-30% lower). Significant levels of tributyltin (TBT; median 140mug/kg) were shown in runoff particles, showing that TBT can also be emitted via urban sources, since the sampled man-holes were not in areas where dry-docking activities take place. Possible land-based TBT sources include long-lasting house paint and use of TBT as PVC stabilizer and timber preservative. Since there are ongoing emissions into the two studied harbour areas, it is concluded that the addition of an actively sorbing capping material such as activated carbon might be the best remediation alternative. PMID:18230401

  8. Landscape-level patterns of mercury contamination of fish in North Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wente, Stephen P; McGuire, Mandy; Drenner, S Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg and sulfate deposition and have high coverage of forests and wetlands and low coverage of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to test this conceptual model using concentrations of Hg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 145 reservoirs in four ecoregions of North Texas. The highest level of Hg contamination in fish was in the South Central Plains, the ecoregion that receives the highest levels of Hg and sulfate deposition and contains extensive forest and wetland habitat and little agriculture. The present study has important implications for other areas of the United States, because the South Central Plains extend into parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas, covering a total area of 152,132 km(2) of the southern United States. PMID:21647946

  9. Landscape-level patterns of mercury contamination of fish in North Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wente, Stephen P; McGuire, Mandy; Drenner, S Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg and sulfate deposition and have high coverage of forests and wetlands and low coverage of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to test this conceptual model using concentrations of Hg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 145 reservoirs in four ecoregions of North Texas. The highest level of Hg contamination in fish was in the South Central Plains, the ecoregion that receives the highest levels of Hg and sulfate deposition and contains extensive forest and wetland habitat and little agriculture. The present study has important implications for other areas of the United States, because the South Central Plains extend into parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas, covering a total area of 152,132 km(2) of the southern United States.

  10. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  11. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed Central

    Mariën, K

    1996-01-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams. PMID:8959413

  12. Application and assessment of a regular environmental monitoring of the antineoplastic drug contamination level in pharmacies - the MEWIP project.

    PubMed

    Kiffmeyer, Thekla K; Tuerk, Jochen; Hahn, Moritz; Stuetzer, Hartmut; Hadtstein, Claudia; Heinemann, André; Eickmann, Udo

    2013-05-01

    A large-scale study was carried out in order to determine the contamination level of antineoplastic drugs in pharmacies and to investigate the suitability and effects of wipe sample monitoring at regular intervals. A specific study design was developed. The 130 participating pharmacies were divided into a study and a control group, carrying out five and two wipe sampling cycles, respectively. The work practice was analyzed using questionnaires to identify factors that influence the contamination level. From 1269 wipe samples, 774 (61%) were contaminated with at least one of the analyzed cytotoxic drugs: cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, ifosfamide, methotrexate, and paclitaxel. A significant decrease of the contamination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil was observed in the study group. The Monitoring-Effect Study of Wipe Sampling in Pharmacies method has proven to be a reliable and affordable tool for contamination control. Based on the 90th percentile of the contamination values, a substance-independent performance-based guidance value of 0.1ng cm(-2) has been derived. PMID:23125441

  13. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER... pathogenic contamination, a treatment lapse or deficiency, or a problem in the operation or maintenance...

  14. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER... pathogenic contamination, a treatment lapse or deficiency, or a problem in the operation or maintenance...

  15. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals. PMID:26190253

  16. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals.

  17. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís M F; Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Mendes, Susana; Correia, João P S; Lemos, Marco F L; Novais, Sara C

    2016-09-01

    Marine ecosystems are constantly being threatened by contaminants produced by human activities. There is an urge to better understand their impacts on marine organisms and develop reliable tools for biomonitoring studies, while also assessing their potential impacts on human health. Given their position on top of food webs, sharks are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation, making them potential sentinel species of marine contamination. The main objective of this study was to find suitable biomarkers for future marine pollution biomonitoring studies by correlating biochemical responses with tissue contaminant body burden in blue sharks (Prionace glauca), a species heavily caught and consumed by humans, while also addressing their general health. The chemical contaminants analysed comprised different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) families from polychlorinated compounds to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and different trace and heavy metals. Concentrations of some contaminants in sharks' tissues were found to be above the legally allowed limits for human consumption. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed and some strong associations were found between biochemical responses and contaminants' accumulation levels. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the inhibition of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, were the main effects and consequences of contamination. The impact of contamination on these vital macromolecules underlines the suboptimal conditions of the sampled P. glauca, which can ultimately lead to the degradation of core ecological aspects, such as swimming, feeding, and reproduction. It can be concluded that P. glauca demonstrates great potential to be used as environmental sentinel and suitable biomarker candidates were identified in this work. Moreover, this study also highlights the risks that the consumption of blue shark derived products can pose to human

  18. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís M F; Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Mendes, Susana; Correia, João P S; Lemos, Marco F L; Novais, Sara C

    2016-09-01

    Marine ecosystems are constantly being threatened by contaminants produced by human activities. There is an urge to better understand their impacts on marine organisms and develop reliable tools for biomonitoring studies, while also assessing their potential impacts on human health. Given their position on top of food webs, sharks are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation, making them potential sentinel species of marine contamination. The main objective of this study was to find suitable biomarkers for future marine pollution biomonitoring studies by correlating biochemical responses with tissue contaminant body burden in blue sharks (Prionace glauca), a species heavily caught and consumed by humans, while also addressing their general health. The chemical contaminants analysed comprised different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) families from polychlorinated compounds to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and different trace and heavy metals. Concentrations of some contaminants in sharks' tissues were found to be above the legally allowed limits for human consumption. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed and some strong associations were found between biochemical responses and contaminants' accumulation levels. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the inhibition of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, were the main effects and consequences of contamination. The impact of contamination on these vital macromolecules underlines the suboptimal conditions of the sampled P. glauca, which can ultimately lead to the degradation of core ecological aspects, such as swimming, feeding, and reproduction. It can be concluded that P. glauca demonstrates great potential to be used as environmental sentinel and suitable biomarker candidates were identified in this work. Moreover, this study also highlights the risks that the consumption of blue shark derived products can pose to human

  19. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  20. Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Jason W; Neaman, Alexander; Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-12-15

    Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils ( 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.

  1. Measuring eco-efficiency of contaminated soil management at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Kielenniva, Nea; Antikainen, Riina; Sorvari, Jaana

    2012-10-30

    Eco-efficiency and sustainable development are the key environmental topics and goals for today's society that we should strive for in all activities, including contaminated soil management (CSM). However, particularly at the regional level, CSM is studied to a lesser extent from this perspective and practical means to monitor and assess sustainability or eco-efficiency are not widely available. This study aims to fill this gap by developing indicators to measure and monitor the development of regional eco-efficiency of CSM. The indicators can be used to support decision-making at the regional level since many CSM decisions, such as prioritisation of sites and the number of soil treatment and storing facilities, are made regionally. To start with, we surveyed the methods available for determining eco-efficiency and suitable indicators to monitor and measure the development of CSM regionally. We used life cycle analysis (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) to identify factors that the environmental indicators should cover, and also involved economic indicators. We ended up with a selection of 28 indicators, which can be classed into three different categories: background indicators, environmental indicators and economic indicators. We further demonstrated the use of the indicators by applying data from three different regions in Finland, and evaluated their suitability. On the basis of the results we recommended 15 indicators for continuous follow-up and decision-making purposes. Even though these indicators are suitable for monitoring and measuring the eco-efficiency of CSM at the regional level, unfortunately we found several data gaps related to the actual remediation projects which impede their use in practice. The data collection practices therefore need to be regionally developed.

  2. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  3. Effectiveness of countermeasures applied in Belarus to produce milk and meat with acceptable levels of radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Firsakova, S K

    1993-09-24

    Countermeasures taken in Belarus to reduce transfer of radiocaesium from feeds to animals have combined live monitoring and monitoring of radiocaesium (137Cs and 134Cs) in bulk milk on dairy farms with the setting of upper limits for radionuclide contents for animal feeds. Only uncontaminated feeds have been used in the final fattening of animals before slaughter. Combined with widespread soil management programmes these measures have allowed the continued use of the majority of contaminated agricultural lands without substantial changes in farming practices.

  4. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p < 0.05). The enrichment factor using the mass ratio of lead to the major crustal elements (Al, Sr, Ti and Fe) indicates significant lead enrichment in atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil.

  5. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin from feed at cross-contamination levels to various poultry matrices.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-09-01

    Residues of veterinary drugs and feed additives used extensively in animal husbandry are sometimes found in edible matrices. In this study, broilers received experimental feed, containing either flubendazole or tylosin, at cross-contamination levels of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% of the therapeutic dose to determine the transfer ratio of these molecules from feed to poultry matrices. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion periods and then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The parent molecule flubendazole and its 2 major metabolites were quantified. After 3 to 5 d, a plateau phase was reached, and a few days after withdrawal of the experimental feed, a depletion of residues was noted. Significant difference between both muscle types was noted for flubendazole. Strong metabolization of flubendazole in the liver was seen. For tylosin, no residue concentrations above the limit of quantification could be detected in muscle. None of the residue concentrations for either molecule exceeded the corresponding maximum residue limits.

  6. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  7. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  8. Contaminating levels of zinc found in commonly-used labware and buffers affect glycine receptor currents

    PubMed Central

    Cornelison, Garrett L.; Mihic, S. John

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Because of zinc’s high potency at the glycine receptor, there exists a possibility that effects attributed solely to exogenously-applied glycine in fact contain an undetected contribution of zinc acting as an allosteric modulator. We found that glycine solutions made up in standard buffers and using deionized distilled water produced effects that could be decreased by the zinc chelator tricine. This phenomenon was observed in three different vials tested and persisted even if vials were extensively washed, suggesting the zinc was probably present in the buffer constituents. In addition, polystyrene, but not glass, pipets bore a contaminant that enhanced glycine receptor function and that could also be antagonized by tricine. Our findings suggest that without checking for this effect using a chelator such as tricine, one cannot assume that responses elicited by glycine applied alone are not necessarily also partially due to some level of allosteric modulation by zinc. PMID:24177173

  9. Contaminating levels of zinc found in commonly-used labware and buffers affect glycine receptor currents.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Garrett L; Mihic, S John

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Because of zinc's high potency at the glycine receptor, there exists a possibility that effects attributed solely to exogenously-applied glycine in fact contain an undetected contribution of zinc acting as an allosteric modulator. We found that glycine solutions made up in standard buffers and using deionized distilled water produced effects that could be decreased by the zinc chelator tricine. This phenomenon was observed in three different vials tested and persisted even if vials were extensively washed, suggesting the zinc was probably present in the buffer constituents. In addition, polystyrene, but not glass, pipets bore a contaminant that enhanced glycine receptor function and that could also be antagonized by tricine. Our findings suggest that without checking for this effect using a chelator such as tricine, one cannot assume that responses elicited by glycine applied alone are not necessarily also partially due to some level of allosteric modulation by zinc.

  10. The influence of trophic level and feeding location of the levels of organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, K.; Jarman, W.M.; Bott, J.A.; Bacon, C.E.; Sydeman, W.

    1994-12-31

    Seabird eggs have been used extensively to assay contaminants in marine food webs, but links to trophic level or feeding location have remained poorly understood due to limitations inherent in conventional dietary studies. Stable-isotope analysis of bird eggs may be used to infer trophic position and feeding location of adult seabirds and can be readily correlated with measurements of egg contaminant levels. The authors measured stable-carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope abundance, and organochlorine contaminants (DDTs, PCBs, chlordanes, etc.) in eggs from Cassin`s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleutica), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba). Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Brandt`s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), and Western Gull (Larus) from Southeast Farallon Island together with rockfish (Sebastes spp.), anchovy (Engraulis spp.), and euphausiid prey from the Gulf of the Farallones. Consistent with its planktivorous diet and pelagic feeding habits, Cassin`s Auklet showed the lowest mean {delta}{sup 15}N value and the least enriched {delta}{sup 13}C values. Measures of trophic level and foraging location were constructed for all other seabirds relative to these isotopic endpoints. Contaminant levels in the eggs and fish will be interpreted in light of the stable-isotope results.

  11. Persistence of Microbial Contamination on Transvaginal Ultrasound Probes despite Low-Level Disinfection Procedure

    PubMed Central

    M'Zali, Fatima; Bounizra, Carole; Leroy, Sandrine; Mekki, Yahia; Quentin-Noury, Claudine; Kann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study In many countries, Low Level Disinfection (LLD) of covered transvaginal ultrasound probes is recommended between patients' examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of LLD under routine conditions on a range of microorganisms. Materials and Methods Samples were taken over a six month period in a private French Radiology Center. 300 specimens derived from endovaginal ultrasound probes were analyzed after disinfection of the probe with wipes impregnated with a quaternary ammonium compound and chlorhexidine. Human papillomavirus (HPV) was sought in the first set of s100 samples, Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmas were searched in the second set of 100 samples, bacteria and fungi in the third 100 set samples. HPV, C. trachomatis and mycoplasmas were detected by PCR amplification. PCR positive samples were subjected to a nuclease treatment before an additional PCR assay to assess the likely viable microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi were investigated by conventional methods. Results A substantial persistence of microorganisms was observed on the disinfected probes: HPV DNA was found on 13% of the samples and 7% in nuclease-resistant form. C. trachomatis DNA was detected on 20% of the probes by primary PCR but only 2% after nuclease treatment, while mycoplasma DNA was amplified in 8% and 4%, respectively. Commensal and/or environmental bacterial flora was present on 86% of the probes, occasionally in mixed culture, and at various levels (10->3000 CFU/probe); Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 4% of the probes (10-560 CFU/probe). No fungi were isolated. Conclusion Our findings raise concerns about the efficacy of impregnated towels as a sole mean for disinfection of ultrasound probes. Although the ultrasound probes are used with disposable covers, our results highlight the potential risk of cross contamination between patients during ultrasound examination and emphasize the need for reviewing the disinfection

  12. Combined effects of temperature changes and metal contamination at different levels of biological organization in yellow perch.

    PubMed

    Grasset, Julie; Ollivier, Élodie; Bougas, Bérénice; Yannic, Glenn; Campbell, Peter G C; Bernatchez, Louis; Couture, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we measured the effects of temperature (9°C, 20°C, and 28°C), metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) and their interaction on yellow perch (Perca flavescens) using liver enzymatic and transcriptomic endpoints and biometric indices. Kidney metal concentrations increased with a rise of temperature. The biometric indices analysed (Fulton condition factor, pyloric cæca, hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices) generally decreased with an increase of temperature but not with metal contamination. At the enzymatic level, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), involved in antioxidant response, was affected by both temperature and metal contamination, whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), involved in energy accumulation but also in antioxidant response, was only affected by metal exposure. The response of perch to the stressors at the transcriptional level differed from the metabolic response. In particular, the transcription level of the cco and g6pdh genes sharply decreased with increasing temperature, while the activities of the corresponding enzymes remained stable. The normal response of the transcription level of the apoptotic gene (diablo) to heat stress was also altered in metal-contaminated fish. The combination of metal and temperature stresses also modified the response of antioxidant metabolism induced by these stressors individually. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influences of natural stressors like temperature on biomarkers commonly used in ecotoxicological studies and will facilitate their interpretation in the context of multiple stressors characteristic of field situations. PMID:27351718

  13. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  14. Occurrence of halogenated contaminants in inland and coastal fish from Ghana: levels, dietary exposure assessment and human health implications.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Isobe, Tomohiko; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Muto, Mamoru; Agyakwah, Seth Koranteng; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-08-01

    Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of toxic contaminants, such as PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in fish could pose health hazards. These contaminants were measured in tilapia fish species collected from Ghana. Mean levels were PCBs (62 ng/g lw), PBDEs (7.3 ng/g lw) and HBCDs (1.2 ng/g lw) and the predominance of CB-153, CB-138, CB-180, BDE-47 and α-HBCD is in concordance with scientific literature. The congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in the fish suggest that sources of Penta- and Deca-BDE technical mixtures as well as technical PCB mixture (Clophen A60) exist in Ghana, while textile operations and associated release of untreated wastewater are likely to be significant sources of HBCDs. Comparison of the results with some reported studies showed moderate contamination in Ghana although Ghana is a developing country in Africa. Concentrations of PCBs measured in all the specimens in this study were below the food safety guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration, USA and the European Commission. The calculated hazard index levels of the target contaminants were below the threshold value of one, indicating that the levels of the target contaminants do not seem to constitute a health risk via fish consumption, with regard to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs, based on the limited number of samples that was accounted for in this study. However, due to the continuous discharge of untreated effluents, follow up studies are warranted as the consumption of fish is the primary route of human exposure to PCBs. This maiden report on the status of PBDEs and HBCDs in fish from Ghana will contribute to the knowledge about environmental contamination by POPs in a less industrialized region of the world so far sparsely covered in the literature. PMID:23743250

  15. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  16. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  17. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  18. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  19. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  20. ISSUES IN ASSESSING LOW LEVEL IONIZABLE CONTAMINANT PARTITIONING IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solubilization has profound implications for such diverse risk assessment activities as assessing sediment contaminant porewater exposures to benthic fauna, determining half lives of refractory toxicants in natural soils and sediments, and assessing the fate and transport of th...

  1. Levels and profiles of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in Southern Hemisphere humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Secchi, Eduardo R; Dirtu, Alin C; Weijs, Liesbeth; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Bassoi, Manuela; Cunha, Haydée A; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The study documents the levels and profiles of selected contaminants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)] in blubber biopsy samples collected from humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic Peninsula waters. In addition, we investigated year-to-year and sex-related differences in the bioaccumulation patterns. Except for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), whose concentrations were in the same range as those found in whales from the Northern Hemisphere, levels of all other compounds were lower in Southern Hemisphere whales compared to literature data on animals from the Arctic and subarctic region. The mean contribution to the sum of all anthropogenic organohalogen compounds (ΣOHC) decreased in the following order ΣPCBs (44%)>HCB (31%)>ΣDDXs (13%)>ΣCHLs (4.6%)>ΣHCHs (4.4%)>ΣPBDEs (0.9%). The predominant compounds within each chemical class were: PCBs 153, 149, 101 and 138; p,p'-DDE; γ-HCH; trans-nonachlor; PBDEs 99 and 47. The most dominant MeO-PBDE congener was 6-MeO-BDE 47. As samples were collected during three consecutive summer seasons, year-to-year trends could be assessed indicating a significant decrease from 2000 to 2003 for ΣCHL levels. Higher ΣPBDE concentrations and higher values of the ΣPBDE / ΣMeO-PBDE ratio, as well as higher ratios between the two MeO-BDEs (2'-MeO-BDE 68/6-MeO-BDE 47) were found in females compared to males. Higher ΣMeO-PBDE concentrations and higher values of the ratios between the lower chlorinated and the higher chlorinated PCBs were found in males than in females. In addition, five out of six significant differences found through discriminant function analysis were gender-related. The literature reports both feeding in mid- to low-latitudes and sex-related differences in migration patterns for humpback whales from the Southern Hemisphere, indicating that the hypothesis of dietary differences between males and

  2. Cleaning level acceptance criteria and a high pressure liquid chromatography procedure for the assay of Meclizine Hydrochloride residue in swabs collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Lunn, M J; Keeley, F J; George, R C; Bodenmiller, J R

    1999-04-01

    A method using pharmacologically based and visual limit of detection criteria to determine the acceptable residue level for Meclizine Hydrochloride (MH) on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces after cleaning is described. A formula was used in order to determine the pharmacologically safe cleaning level for MH. This level was termed as specific residual cleaning Level (SRCL) and calculated to be 50 microg 100 cm(-2). The visual limit of detection (VLOD) was determined by spiking different levels of MH on stainless steel plates and having the plates examined by a group of observers. The lowest level that could be visually detected by the majority of the observers, 62.5 microg 100 cm(-2), was considered as the VLOD for MH. The lower of the SRCL and VLOD values, i.e. 50 microg 100 cm(-2), was therefore chosen as the cleaning acceptance criterion. A sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of MH in swabs used to test equipment surfaces. Using this method, the mean recoveries of MH from spiked swabs and '180-Grit' stainless steel plates were 87.0 and 89.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of +/- 3.3 and +/- 2.4%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the assay of actual swab samples collected from the equipment surfaces. The stability of MH on stainless steel plates, on cleaning swabs and in the extraction solution was investigated. PMID:10698538

  3. The cultural and community-level acceptance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among traditional healers in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Justin M; Sterk, Claire E; Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has profoundly impacted South Africa's healthcare system, greatly hampering its ability to scale-up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART). While one way to provide comprehensive care and prevention in sub-Saharan African countries has been through collaboration with traditional healers, long-term support specifically for ART has been low within this population. An exploratory, qualitative research project was conducted among 25 self-identified traditional healers between June and August of 2006 in the Lukhanji District of South Africa. By obtaining the opinions of traditional healers currently interested in biomedical approaches to HIV/AIDS care and prevention, this formative investigation identified a range of motivational factors that were believed to promote a deeper acceptance of and support for ART. These factors included cultural consistencies between traditional and biomedical medicine, education, as well as legal and financial incentives to collaborate. Through an incorporation of these factors into future HIV/AIDS treatment programs, South Africa and other sub-Saharan countries may dramatically strengthen their ability to provide ART in resource-poor settings.

  4. The incidence and level of contamination of British fresh sausages and ingredients with salmonellas.

    PubMed Central

    Banks, J. G.; Board, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    A five-tube most probable number (MPN) method, with the pre-enrichment and enrichment stages, was used in a study of the incidence of salmonella contamination of British fresh sausages and the ingredients used in their manufacture. All samples were taken from a large factory in the course of routine production. There was an incidence of 65% contamination of pork (n = 20) and 55% (n = 20) in pork and beef sausages. The incidences of contamination of uncooked ingredients varied from 95% for mechanically recovered meat (n = 20) to 10% for another type of meat. Cooked and/or dried ingredients were rarely contaminated with these organisms, and when contamination occurred, coliforms were also important. The numbers of salmonellas isolated ranged from 7-40 for pork sausages, from 8-24 for beef and pork sausages and from 0.8-378 organisms/g for ingredients. The following salmonella serotypes were isolated (ranked in descending order or incidence): S. derby, S. dublin, S. newport, S. stanley. S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. infantis and S. agona. PMID:6339611

  5. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    PubMed

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  6. The incidence and level of contamination of British fresh sausages and ingredients with salmonellas.

    PubMed

    Banks, J G; Board, R G

    1983-04-01

    A five-tube most probable number (MPN) method, with the pre-enrichment and enrichment stages, was used in a study of the incidence of salmonella contamination of British fresh sausages and the ingredients used in their manufacture. All samples were taken from a large factory in the course of routine production. There was an incidence of 65% contamination of pork (n = 20) and 55% (n = 20) in pork and beef sausages. The incidences of contamination of uncooked ingredients varied from 95% for mechanically recovered meat (n = 20) to 10% for another type of meat. Cooked and/or dried ingredients were rarely contaminated with these organisms, and when contamination occurred, coliforms were also important. The numbers of salmonellas isolated ranged from 7-40 for pork sausages, from 8-24 for beef and pork sausages and from 0.8-378 organisms/g for ingredients. The following salmonella serotypes were isolated (ranked in descending order or incidence): S. derby, S. dublin, S. newport, S. stanley. S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. infantis and S. agona. PMID:6339611

  7. Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle is influenced by the level of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Gautam, R; Kulow, M; Park, D; Gonzales, T K; Dahm, J; Shiroda, M; Stasic, A J; Döpfer, D; Kaspar, C W; Ivanek, R

    2015-01-01

    A pen infection-transmission experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of pathogen strain and environmental contamination in transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECO157) in cattle. Five steers were inoculated with a three-strain mixture of ECO157 and joined with five susceptible steers in each of two experimental replicates. Faecal and environmental samples were monitored for ECO157 presence over 30 days. One ECO157 strain did not spread. Transmission rates for the other two strains were estimated using a generalized linear model developed based on a modified 'Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible' mathematical model. Transmission rates estimated for the two strains (0·11 and 0·14) were similar. However, the rates significantly (P = 0·0006) increased 1·5 times for every 1-unit increase in the level of environmental contamination measured as log10 c.f.u. Depending on the level of environmental contamination, the estimated basic reproduction numbers varied from <1 to 8. The findings indicate the importance of on-farm measures to reduce environmental contamination for ECO157 control in cattle that should be validated under field conditions.

  8. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management. PMID:27085675

  9. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management.

  10. Geochemistry, biota and natural background levels in an arsenic naturally contaminated volcanic aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Parrone, Daniele; Rossi, David; Ghergo, Stefano; Lungarini, Silvia; Zoppini, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The tight links between chemical and ecological status are largely acknowledged as for surface water bodies, while aquifers are still considered as hidden groundwater reservoirs, rather than ecosystems to be preserved. Geochemical and biological interactions play a key role in all subterranean processes, including the dynamics of the fate of anthropogenic contaminants. Studies on groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDE) were mainly focused on karst aquifers so far, but an increased awareness on the importance of water-rock interactions and methodological improvements in microbial ecology are rapidly increasing the level of characterization of groundwater ecosystems in various hydrogeological contexts. Similarly, knowledge about groundwater biodiversity is still limited, especially if porous habitats are concerned. Yet, groundwater and GDEs are populated by a diverse and highly adapted biota, dominated by crustaceans, which provide important ecosystem services and act as biological indicators of chemical and quantitative impact on groundwater resources. In a previous research (Amalfitano et al. 2014), we reported that the microbial community heterogeneity may reflect the lithological and hydrogeological complexity within volcanic and alluvial facies transition in a groundwater body. The quantitative tracking of the microbial community structure allowed disentangling the natural biogeochemical processes evolving within the aquifer flow path. The analyses of groundwater crustaceans assemblages may contribute to shed more light upon the state and dynamics of such ecosystems. In the present research, a comprehensive study of a water table aquifer flowing through a quaternary volcanic district is being performed, including the geochemical (inorganic) composition, the microbial composition, and the analysis of crustacean assemblages . Groundwater samples are periodically collected from private wells and springs under a low anthropic impact. The key issues within the

  11. Evaluation of uncertainties in in situ and ex situ gamma measurements on land areas with low contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Peter D; Heathcote, John A; Ramsey, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Previous work on the characterisation of land areas with moderate contamination levels showed that in situ measurements made with a gamma detector can achieve lower levels of the random component of uncertainty than laboratory measurements of extracted samples. This was found when the variance caused by small-scale lateral heterogeneity of contaminants was included in the uncertainty estimation. The present paper documents the results of applying the same techniques of uncertainty estimation to an area with contamination levels that were lower by a factor of 10. If the same counting times were used, it would be expected that both measurement types would be affected by higher levels of random uncertainty in the individual measurements because of increased uncertainty from counting statistics and other factors such as interpretation of gamma spectra. However, when uncertainty due to sampling was included, it was found that both measurements methods were subject to similar combined uncertainties at individual locations. Using an assumption of the depth distributions of radionuclides that was supported by ex situ measurements, in situ measurements were able to produce averaging estimates with an approximate reduction of 50% in the standard error on the mean at ~50% of the cost of the ex situ measurements.

  12. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-05-30

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet.

  13. The Implications of Contamination for Educational Experiments with Two Levels of Nesting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evaluations that involve the educational system usually involve a hierarchical structure (students are nested within classrooms that are nested within schools, etc.). Concerns about contamination, where research subjects receive certain features of an intervention intended for subjects in a different experimental group, have often led…

  14. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  15. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.608...

  16. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.608...

  17. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing §...

  18. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  19. Impacts on microbial communities and cultivable isolates from groundwater contaminated with high levels of nitric acid-uranium waste.

    PubMed

    Fields, Matthew W; Yan, Tingfen; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Carroll, Susan L; Jardine, Phil M; Watson, David B; Criddle, Craig S; Zhou, Jizhong

    2005-08-01

    Microbial communities were characterized at contaminated sites that had elevated levels of nitrate, nickel, aluminum, and uranium (up to 690 mM, 310 microM, 42 mM, and 30 microM, respectively). The bacterial community structure based upon clonal libraries of the SSU rRNA genes (screened clones = 876) was diverse at the background site, but the three acidic samples had decreased diversity and the majority of clones were closely related to Azoarcus and Pseudomonas species. Arthrobacter and Novosphingobium sequences were recovered from the background samples but not the acidic sites, and similar pseudomonad populations were present at the background and acidic sites albeit at different relative abundances. Heterologous sequence coverage analyses indicated the microbial communities at the contaminated sites were very similar (p = 0.001) but different from the background site. Bacterial isolates (n = 67) classified as beta-or gamma-Proteobacteria, high G+C Gram-positive or low G+C Gram-positive were obtained from the background and one contaminated sample, and some of the isolates had less than 95% sequence identity with previously observed microorganisms. Despite variations in nitrate and heavy metal levels and different proximities to the source ponds, the three acidic samples had similar microbial populations. However, the least contaminated site (lowest nitrate and aluminum) had increased diversity compared to the other acidic samples. The results suggested that the combined contamination has decreased the microbial diversity, and Azoarcus populations were observed at a drastically increased frequency compared to the background site that had a more even distribution of multiple taxa.

  20. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H₂/O₂ mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N₂O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N₂O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N₂O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in

  1. Phthalates in Belgian cow's milk and the role of feed and other contamination pathways at farm level.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in raw cow's milk and feed from Belgian farms in order to determine their most relevant contamination pathways in milk. Measurable levels of DMP, DEP, DnBP, DCHP and DnOP were found in various feed samples, although they were not observed in milk. A plausible explanation for this is that they are rapidly metabolised in cows. DEHP and in a smaller degree also DiBP and BBP levels in milk seemed to vary across seasons and farms. DiBP and BBP levels were lower in summer than in winter milk, which was in contrast with what was observed for DEHP. This is possibly due to another feed composition during summer and winter. Comparing BBP and DEHP concentrations in manually with those in mechanically obtained milk revealed that, besides environmental contamination via feed ingestion, contact materials used during the mechanical milking process is another important contamination pathway. Concentrations observed in this study confirm the decreasing trend of DEHP in European cow's milk owing to the substitution of DEHP by other plasticisers.

  2. Evaluation of sensory irritation of delta3-carene and turpentine, and acceptable levels of monoterpenes in occupational and indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, J P; Pasanen, A L; Pasanen, P; Liesivuori, J; Kosma, V M; Alarie, Y

    1999-05-28

    The standard mouse bioassay was used for obtaining the RD50 (i.e., the concentration that causes a 50% decrease in respiratory frequency) and for estimating the irritation properties of d-delta3-carene (i.e., (+)-delta3-carene) and commercial turpentine. The chemicals studied possess mainly sensory irritation properties similar to the previously studied monoterpenes, pinenes. The irritation potency of d-delta3-carene (RD50 = 1345 ppm) was almost equal to that of d-pinenes. Thus, d-delta3-carene was about four times more potent as a sensory irritant than I-beta-pinene, whereas the difference with I-alpha-pinene was more marked; as a sensory irritant, I-alpha-pinene is almost inactive. Based on sensory irritation potency and physicochemical and structural properties of pinenes and delta3-carene, the potency of a closely related monoterpene, limonene, is discussed. For commercial turpentine, a mixture of monoterpenes (mainly d-delta3-carene, I-beta-pinene, alpha-pinenes, and limonenes), the RD50 (1173 ppm) was the same order of magnitude as those of d-pinenes and d-delta3-carene. Apparently, d-monoterpenes are responsible for the sensory irritation caused by turpentine. In the wood industry and in the indoor air of nonindustrial environments, monoterpenes are thought to be one of the causative agents for irritation symptoms. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) of turpentine (100 ppm in Finland and the United States) is also used for individual monoterpenes, excluding limonene. Using results from this and our previous study, proposed OELs and recommended indoor levels (RILs) for selected monoterpenes and turpentine were determined based on their RD50 values. According to our studies, the present OEL of turpentine (100 ppm; 560 mg/m3) in Finland and in the United States seems to be suitable only for I-pinenes. For d-monoterpenes and turpentine, an OEL about three times lower is suggested. Our results show that recommended indoor levels (RILs) for monoterpenes are high

  3. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained. PMID:21779942

  4. A preliminary survey on the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contaminating red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Nik Iskandar Putra; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2013-05-01

    Red rice is a fermented product of Monascus spp. It is widely consumed by Malaysian Chinese who believe in its pharmacological properties. The traditional method of red rice preparation disregards safety regulation and renders red rice susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. A preliminary study was undertaken aiming to determine the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contamination on red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia. Fifty red rice samples were obtained and subjected to fungal isolation, enumeration, and identification. Citrinin, aflatoxin, and ochratoxin-A were quantitated by ELISA based on the presence of predominant causal fungi. Fungal loads of 1.4 × 10(4) to 2.1 × 10(6) CFU/g exceeded Malaysian limits. Monascus spp. as starter fungi were present in 50 samples (100%), followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (62%), Aspergillus niger (54%), and Aspergillus flavus (44%). Citrinin was present in 100% samples (0.23-20.65 mg/kg), aflatoxin in 92% samples (0.61-77.33 μg/kg) and Ochratoxin-A in 100% samples (0.23-2.48 μg/kg); 100% citrinin and 76.09% aflatoxin exceeded Malaysian limits. The presence of mycotoxigenic fungi served as an indicator of mycotoxins contamination and might imply improper production, handling, transportation, and storage of red rice. Further confirmatory analysis (e.g., HPLC) is required to verify the mycotoxins level in red rice samples and to validate the safety status of red rice.

  5. Molecular-level processes governing the interaction of contaminants with iron and manganese oxides. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, S.A.; Brown, G.

    1997-06-01

    'The central tenet of this proposal is that a fundamental understanding of specific mineral surface-site reactivities will substantially improve reactive transport models of contaminants in geologic systems, and will allow more effective remediation schemes to be devised. Most large-scale, macroscopic models employ global chemical reaction kinetics and thermochemistry. However, such models do not incorporate molecular-level input critical to the detailed prediction of how contaminants interact with minerals in the subsurface. A first step leading to the incorporation of molecular-level processes in large-scale macroscopic models is the ability to understand which molecular-level processes will dominate the chemistry at the microscopic grain level of minerals. To this end, the research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of redox chemistry at mineral surfaces. As much of this chemistry in sediments involves the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II) couples, the authors focus on mineral phases containing these species. Of particular interest is the effect of the local coordination environment of Fe and Mn atoms on their reactivity toward contaminant species. Studies of the impact of local atomic structure on reactivity in combination with knowledge about the types and amounts of various surfaces on natural grain- size minerals provide the data for statistical models. These models in turn form the basis of the larger-scale macroscopic descriptions of reactivity that are needed for reactive transport models. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms will enhance the ability to design much greater performance efficiency, cost effectiveness, and remediation strategies that have minimal negative impact on the local environment. For instance, a comprehensive understanding of how minerals that contain Fe(II) reduce oxyanions and chlorinated organics should enable the design of other Fe(II)-containing remediation materials in a way that is synergistic with existing

  6. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use. PMID:26481414

  7. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use.

  8. Phytofiltration of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata L.: effect of plant density and nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Saha, Uttam K; Ma, Lena Q

    2008-01-01

    This field-scale hydroponic experiment investigated the effects of plant density and nutrient levels on arsenic (As) removal by the As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern). All ferns were grown in plastic tanks containing 30 L of As-contaminated groundwater (130 microg x L(-1) As) collected from South Florida. The treatments consisted of four plant densities (zero, one, two, or four plants per 30 L), two nitrogen (N) concentrations (50% or 100% of 0.25-strength Hoagland solution [HS]), and two phosphorous (P) concentrations (15% and 30% of 0.25 strength HS). While low P was more effective than high P for plant As removal initially, N levels showed little effect. At 15% P, it took 3 wk for the ferns at a plant density of four to reduce As to less than 10 microg L(-1) (USEPA and WHO standard), whereas it took 4-6 wk at plant densities of one or two. For reused ferns, established plants with more extensive roots than "first-time" ferns, a low plant density of one plant/30 L was more effective, reducing As in water to less than 10 microg L(-1) in 8 h. This translates to an As removal rate of 400 microg h(-l) plant(-1), which is the highest rate reported to date. Arsenic-concentration in tanks with no plants as a control remained high throughout the experiment. Using more established ferns supplemented with dilute nutrients (0.25 HS with 25% N and 15% P) with optimized plant density (one plant per 30 L) reduced interplant competition and secondary contamination from nutrients, and can be recommended for phytofiltration of As-contaminated groundwater. This study demonstrated that P. vittata is effective in remediating As-contaminated groundwater to meet recommended standards.

  9. Eggshell thinning and contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs from Arizona, 1977 to 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, T.G.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kiff, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The mean eggshell thickness of 11 eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuccocephalus) and 21 samples of eggshell fragments (n = 32) collected from 14 nests in Arizona during 1977 to 1985 was 0.539 mm, 8.8% thinner than the pre-1947 (pre-DDT) mean for eggs from southern California and Baja California, Mexico. Eleven eggs analyzed for contaminants contained slightly elevated concentrations of DDE (3.3pmm wet weight) and mercury (0.14 ppm). Productivity of sampled pairs was low but improving. The predictive equations of Wiemeyer et al. (1984) were also verified.

  10. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method. PMID:23702571

  11. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method.

  12. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  13. Optimum P levels for arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by Pteris vittata L. of different ages.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jorge A G; Gonzaga, Maria I Silva; Ma, Lena Q

    2010-08-15

    Optimization of arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata may reduce the remediation time and cost of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. This greenhouse experiment evaluated the effects of five doses of P (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 microM P) and two fern ages (45 and 90 d old) on the effectiveness of arsenic removal using 18 L of contaminated groundwater per plant. Arsenic-depletion was monitored weekly over a period of 74 d. It took 38 d for 45-d ferns in the no P treatment to deplete the arsenic to the target concentration of 10 microg L(-1) from 126 microg L(-1). During the 74-d study, the best treatment for 90-d ferns was at 150 microM of P, reducing the arsenic concentration to 12 microg L(-1). Because arsenic uptake and removal is inversely related to the P-status, P-free Hoagland solution would maximize arsenic uptake in a short term. However, on a long-term basis, ministering the 0.2-strength Hoagland solution at 150 microM P may be an effective approach for maximizing plant biomass production and arsenic removal.

  14. Role of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in heavy metal-contaminated wetlands with various soil moisture levels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S; Wang, C; Shen, Z; Quan, Y; Liu, X

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an efficient heavy metal (HM) control method in HM-contaminated wetlands with varied soil moisture levels through the introduction of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) into natural wetland soil containing indigenous AMF species. A pot culture experiment was designed to determine the effect of two soil water contents (5-8% and 25-30%), five extrinsic AMF inoculants (Glomus mosseae, G. clarum, G. claroideum, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices), and HM contamination on root colonization, plant growth, and element uptake of common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel) plantlets in wetland soils. This study showed the prevalence of mycorrhizae in the roots of all P. australis plantlets, regardless of extrinsic AMF inoculations, varied soil moisture or HM levels. It seems that different extrinsic AMF inoculations effectively lowered HM concentrations in the aboveground tissues of P. australis at two soil moisture levels. However, metal species, metal concentrations, and soil moisture should also be very important factors influencing the elemental uptake performance of plants in wetland ecosystems. Besides, the soil moisture level significantly influenced plant growth (including height, and shoot and root dry weight (DW)), and extrinsic AMF inoculations differently affected shoot DW.

  15. Reduction of High Levels of Internal Radio-Contamination by Dietary Intervention in Residents of Areas Affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Disaster: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130–15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7–216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  16. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  17. Hydrogeology and trichloroethene contamination in the sea-level aquifer beneath the Logistics Center, Fort Lewis, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of waste trichloroethene (TCE) and other materials in the East Gate Disposal Yard near the Logistics Center on Fort Lewis, Washington, from the 1940s to the early 1970s. As a result, ground water contaminated with primarily TCE extends more than 3 miles downgradient from the East Gate Disposal Yard. The site is underlain by a complex and heterogeneous sequence of glacial and non-glacial deposits that have been broadly categorized into an upper and a lower aquifer (the latter referred to as the sea-level aquifer). TCE contamination was detected in both aquifers. This report describes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the source, migration, and attenuation of TCE in the sea-level aquifer. A refined conceptual model for ground-water flow and contaminant migration into and through the sea-level aquifer was developed in large part from interpretation of environmental tracer data. The tracers used included stable isotopes of oxygen (18O), hydrogen (2H), and carbon (13C); the radioactive hydrogen isotope tritium (3H); common ions and redox-related analytes; chlorofluorocarbons; and sulfur hexafluoride. Tracer and TCE concentrations were determined for samples collected by the USGS from 37 wells and two surface-water sites in American Lake during 1999-2000. Ground-water levels were measured by the USGS in more than 40 wells during 2000-01, and were combined with measurements by the U.S. Army and others to create potentiometric-surface maps. Localized ground-water flow features were identified that are of particular relevance to the migration of TCE in the study area. A ridge of ground water beneath American Lake diverts the flow of TCE-contaminated ground water in the sea-level aquifer to the west around the southern end of the lake. Tracer data provided clear evidence that American Lake is a significant source of recharge to the sea-level aquifer that has created that ridge of ground water. High ground-water altitudes at

  18. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  19. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  20. 1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    At contaminated field sites, the complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is rarely achieved since a portion of these compounds remain tightly bound to the soil matrix. The concentration of PAHs in soil typically decreases until a plateau is reached, at which point the remaining contaminant is considered non- bioavailable. Numerous soil extraction techniques, including cyclodextrin extraction, have been developed to estimate contaminant bioavailability. However, these are indirect methods that do not directly measure the response of organisms to chemical exposure in soil. Earthworm metabolomics offers a promising new way to directly evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in soil. Metabolomics involves the measurement of changes in small-molecule metabolites, including sugars and amino acids, in living organisms due to an external stress, such as contaminant exposure. The objective of this study was to compare cyclodextrin extraction of soil (a bioavailability proxy) and 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of aqueous earthworm tissue extracts as indicators of contaminant bioavailability. A 30 day laboratory experiment was conducted using phenanthrene-spiked sphagnum peat soil and the OECD recommended earthworm species for toxicity testing, Eisenia fetida. The initial phenanthrene concentration in the soil was 320 mg/kg. Rapid biodegradation of phenanthrene occurred and concentrations decreased to 16 mg/kg within 15 days. After 15 days, phenanthrene biodegradation slowed and cyclodextrin extraction of the soil suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that the metabolic profile of phenanthrene exposed earthworms differed from control earthworms throughout the 30 day experiment. This suggests that the residual phenanthrene remaining in the soil after 15 days continued to elicit a metabolic response, even though it was not

  1. Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine at part-per-trillion levels in drinking waters and contaminated groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H; Higgins, C E

    1995-12-01

    The carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) may be quantitated routinely at ultratrace (ng/L) levels in drinking water or contaminated groundwater. The aqueous sample is passed through a preconditioned Empore C18 filter disk to remove neutral nonpolar species and then extracted continuously overnight with highest purity dichloromethane. The latter is then concentrated to 1 mL, and a large aliquot (up to 200 microL) is loaded onto a dual-stage carbon sorbent trap, after which the solvent is removed with ultrapure helium. The concentrated residues are then injected onto a gas chromatographic column using a short-path thermal desorber. NDMA is selectively detected using a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) operated in its nitrosamine-selective mode. The reporting limit for this procedure, evaluated using two independent statistically unbiased protocols, is 2 ng of NDMA/L. A related procedure, employing an automatic sampler instead of the short-path thermal desorber, provides convenient analysis of heavily contaminated samples and exhibits a reporting limit (same protocols cited previously) of 110 ng of NDMA/L. When the two methods are used together in a "two-tiered" protocol, NDMA concentrations spanning 4 orders of magnitude (ng/L to microgram/L levels) may be measured routinely. The low-level procedure employing only the short-path thermal desorber was applied successfully to three sources of drinking water, where NDMA concentrations ranged between 2 and 10 ng of NDMA/L. The two-tiered protocol was applied to a series of contaminated groundwaters whose NMDA concentrations ranged between approximately 10-7000 ng of NDMA/L. The results agreed with those obtained from an independent collaborating laboratory, which used a different analytical procedure. PMID:8633779

  2. Diversification of cadmium-binding proteins due to different levels of contamination in Arion lusitanicus.

    PubMed

    Janssen, H H; Dallinger, R

    1991-01-01

    Individuals of Arion lusitanicus were collected in the former mining area of Braubach (Federal Republic of Germany) which is highly polluted by various metals. The animals were transferred to the laboratory and fed contaminated litter from their original habitat. Groups of animals from a quarry near Heidelberg were reared in the laboratory and fed diets of different cadmium concentrations. Slugs fed uncontaminated food were used as controls. The concentration of cadmium in the midgut gland of cadmium-fed slugs increased in proportion with the metal concentration of the food. High amounts of zinc and copper were found in the midgut glands of slugs from Braubach. After centrifugation of homogenates, specific patterns of distribution between cytosolic components and pellets were observed for different metals. Cadmium and copper were predominantly bound to cytosolic components, whereas the main portion of zinc was associated with the pellet. In laboratory-fed slugs the increase of cadmium concentration in the food correlated with an increase of the metal content in the homogenate and in two components (supernatant, pellet) of the midgut gland. This correlation was most clearly expressed in the cytosolic components which contained 93-100% of total midgut gland cadmium. Total cadmium in control slugs was associated with components with a molecular weight of more than 15,000. In Braubach and in cadmium-loaded slugs, all the cadmium was bound to a protein with a molecular weight of 10,000, which also contained low amounts of zinc and copper. In highly contaminated individuals fed on the most concentrated cadmium diet, however, a spillover effect was observed, some cadmium being bound to an additional component with a molecular weight of more than 15,000. PMID:1996905

  3. Elimination of cadmium from Cd-contaminated Tilapia zilli in media containing EDTA and freshwater: Changes in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kargin, F.

    1996-10-01

    Cadmium is not an essential metal for aquatic organisms. It enters the aquatic environment through anthropogenic sources such as industry and agriculture. Kay et al. indicated that in the USA and Belgium 40-50% of Salmo gairdneri contained 1-20 {mu}g Cd/L. Various agents are known to reduce metal accumulation in tissues of aquantic animals. This study investigates cadmium elimination from the tissues of cadmium contaminated Tilapia zilli and changes in protein levels in the tissues after exposures to cadmium, EDTA and freshwater. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Levels of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast milk (2002-2006), and factors that may predict the level of contamination.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Skaare, J U; Skjerve, E; Løken, K B; Eggesbø, M

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 423 breast milk samples from women living in Norway. Various predictors for the contaminant levels were also investigated. The samples were collected in six counties, representing South, Central and North Norway in 2002-2006. Initial results showed significantly lower levels of OCPs in breast milk from ethnic Norwegians (N=377) compared to ethnic non-Norwegians (N=46). Median concentrations (range) of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH and oxychlordane in breast milk of the Norwegian women, all parities included, were 103 (34-450), 41 (5.4-492), 11 (3.6-24), 4.7 (0.9-37) and 2.8 (0.5-16) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Results indicated that sum of 18 PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH are good predictors for monitoring of PCB, DDT and HCH levels in Norwegian breast milk. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that age was strongly associated with increasing OC levels (P<0.001), whereas parity was associated with decreasing OC levels (P<0.001). Smoking was associated with higher levels of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH. The models explained from 17 to 35% of the variance. Median levels of OCs in the present Norwegian primparaes seemed to be 29-62% lower than corresponding results found in a Norwegian study from 2000-2002.

  5. Defining conditions where long-term glucocorticoid treatment has an acceptably low level of harm to facilitate implementation of existing recommendations: viewpoints from an EULAR task force.

    PubMed

    Strehl, Cindy; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; de Wit, Maarten; Boers, Maarten; Caeyers, Nele; Cutolo, Maurizio; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Dixon, William G; Geenen, Rinie; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kent, Alison; de Thurah, Annette Ladefoged; Listing, Joachim; Mariette, Xavier; Ray, David W; Scherer, Hans U; Seror, Raphaèle; Spies, Cornelia M; Tarp, Simon; Wiek, Dieter; Winthrop, Kevin L; Buttgereit, Frank

    2016-06-01

    There is convincing evidence for the known and unambiguously accepted beneficial effects of glucocorticoids at low dosages. However, the implementation of existing recommendations and guidelines on the management of glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases is lagging behind. As a first step to improve implementation, we aimed at defining conditions under which long-term glucocorticoid therapy may have an acceptably low level of harm. A multidisciplinary European League Against Rheumatism task force group of experts including patients with rheumatic diseases was assembled. After a systematic literature search, breakout groups critically reviewed the evidence on the four most worrisome adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy (osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia/diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and infections) and presented their results to the other group members following a structured questionnaire for final discussion and consensus finding. Robust evidence on the risk of harm of long-term glucocorticoid therapy was often lacking since relevant study results were often either missing, contradictory or carried a high risk of bias. The group agreed that the risk of harm is low for the majority of patients at long-term dosages of ≤5 mg prednisone equivalent per day, whereas at dosages of >10 mg/day the risk of harm is elevated. At dosages between >5 and ≤10 mg/day, patient-specific characteristics (protective and risk factors) determine the risk of harm. The level of harm of glucocorticoids depends on both dose and patient-specific parameters. General and glucocorticoid-associated risk factors and protective factors such as a healthy lifestyle should be taken into account when evaluating the actual and future risk. PMID:26933146

  6. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective.

  7. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  8. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint. PMID:26773971

  9. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.

  10. Pathways involved in mild gastrointestinal inflammation induced by a low level exposure to a food contaminant.

    PubMed

    Anton, Pauline M; Theodorou, Vassilia; Roy, Sabine; Fioramonti, Jean; Bueno, Lionel

    2002-06-01

    Chronic gut inflammation is associated with radical oxygen species (ROS) genesis. ROS may activate certain transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kappaB), which regulates cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Diquat, a food contaminant, is responsible for oxidative stress. This work aimed to establish the involvement of ROS and prostanoids on diquat-induced gastrointestinal inflammation and mast cell hyperplasia. Diquat increased gastrointestinal MPO activity and mast cell number. Its effect on gastric MPO activity was reversed by PD 138,387 (a COX-2 selective inhibitor) and PDTC (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation) but not by DMSO (a hydroxyl radical scavenger) and allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor). In contrast, increased jejunal MPO activity was blocked by both DMSO, PD 138,387, and PDTC, while allopurinol enhanced it. PD 138,387 and PDTC reduced gastrointestinal mast cell number while DMSO and allopurinol did not Diquat-induced inflammation involves a gastrointestinal NF-kappaB activation and COX-2 dependent proinflammatory prostanoid synthesis. Furthermore, the hydroxyl radical is involved in intestinal but not gastric inflammation.

  11. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult. PMID:26352664

  12. Bacterial Contamination of Clothes and Environmental Items in a Third-Level Hospital in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cataño, J. C.; Echeverri, L. M.; Szela, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluates the bacterial contamination rate of items in the hospital setting that are in frequent contact with patients and/or physicians. By determining the bacterial species and the associated antibiotic resistance that patients are exposed to. Methods. Hospital-based cross-sectional surveillance study of potential bacterial reservoirs. Cultures from 30 computer keyboards, 32 curtains, 40 cell phones, 35 white coats, and 22 ties were obtained. Setting. The study was conducted an urban academic 650-bed teaching hospital providing tertiary care to the city of Medellin, Colombia. Results. In total, 235 bacterial isolates were obtained from 159 surfaces sampled. 98.7% of the surfaces grew positive bacterial cultures with some interesting resistance profiles. Conclusion. There are significant opportunities to reduce patient exposure to frequently pathogenic bacteria in the hospital setting; patients are likely exposed to many bacteria through direct contact with white coats, curtains, and ties. They may be exposed to additional bacterial reservoirs indirectly through the hands of clinicians, using computer keyboards and cell phones. PMID:22536231

  13. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  14. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  15. [Study on the absorption of environmental contaminants in low-level exposure by pharmacokinetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Hao, S; Yin, S; Li, G; Cui, J

    2000-03-30

    A dynamic generating toxic gas system and a nose-only exposure system were used for the pharmacokinetic study of inhaled environmental contaminants for benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, styrene, isopropyl benzene, tetrachloroethylene, nonane and methylcyclohexane in male guinea pig. The change of these substances in blood with time was determined simultaneously by solid phase micro-extraction(SPME) gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that the fraction of absorption of benzene at low (121 micrograms/m3) exposure was 4.8 times higher than that at high(12.1 mg/m3) exposure. The pharmacokinetics of these substances were evaluated by using linear compartment models. The data showed that more styrene was absorbed than tetrachloroethylene at low-exposure. The metabolic elimination of these compounds at various exposure concentrations was extrapolated by using estimated pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, not only should the differences in absorption quantities be considered in evaluation of potential risk assessment, the metabolic elimination rates should also be considered although the exposure concentrations in gas for all chemicals were equal. The data presented in this paper was fundamental data used for risk assessment.

  16. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    PubMed

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  17. Incidence and contamination level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat meat products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, S S

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence and contamination levels of different Listeria monocytogenes serovars in ready-to-eat meat products (RTE-MP) collected from different outlets and processing plants in Jordan in order (i) to provide information to Jordanian health authorities on the incidence of L. monocytogenes in RTE-MP sold and consumed in Jordan and (ii) to ascertain the risks of these products for consumers. Two hundred forty RTE-MP samples, 120 beef and 120 poultry, were analyzed. European International Organization for Standardization (EN ISO) 11290-1 and -2 standard protocols were used for detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes. The identity of suspected L. monocytogenes was confirmed using PCR. Three Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, and L. welshimeri, were isolated. L. innocua and L. welshimeri were the most and least frequently isolated with 56 and 36 samples, respectively. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 41 samples (17.1%): 23 from beef and 18 from poultry samples. The contamination levels of L. monocytogenes were 100 CFU/g was found. The L. monocytogenes strains isolated fell into two serotypes (1 and 4) and four different serovars (1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b).

  18. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    PubMed

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample. PMID:26837380

  19. Combined effects of lactic acid and nisin solution in reducing levels of microbiological contamination in red meat carcasses.

    PubMed

    Barboza de Martinez, Yasmina; Ferrer, Kenna; Salas, Enrique Marquez

    2002-11-01

    Changes in bacterial counts on beef carcasses at specific points during slaughter and fabrication were determined, and the effectiveness of nisin, lactic acid, and a combination of the lactic acid and nisin in reducing levels of microbiological contamination was assessed. Swab samples were obtained from the surfaces of randomly selected beef carcasses. Carcasses were swabbed from the neck, brisket, and renal site after skinning, splitting, and washing. Treatments involving lactic acid (1.5%), nisin (500 IU/ml), or a mixture of nisin and lactic acid were applied after the neck area was washed. A control group was not sprayed. Results indicated that the highest prevalence of aerobic plate counts (APCs), total coliforms, and Escherichia coli was found in the neck site after splitting, and the lowest level of microbial contamination was found after skinning. Washing with water did not significantly reduce the bacterial load. The largest reduction in APCs, total coliforms, and E. coli occurred on carcasses treated with a mixture of nisin and lactic acid. A mixture of nisin and lactic acid can be applied to beef carcasses through spray washing and can reduce bacterial populations by 2 log units. PMID:12430703

  20. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in plant foliage: an indication of the tropospheric contamination level

    SciTech Connect

    Gaggi, C.; Bacci, E.; Calamari, D.; Fanelli, R.

    1985-01-01

    Levels of some chlorinated hydrocarbons in foliage from the Italian peninsula and other countries of the world are reported. The use of plant leaves in monitoring and for a prediction of potential environmental distribution of persistent hydrophobic pollutants is discussed.

  2. Relation of nitrate contamination of groundwater with methaemoglobin level among infants in Gaza.

    PubMed

    Abu Naser, A A; Ghbn, N; Khoudary, R

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in 3 areas of the Gaza Strip, Palestine, in 2002, to determine the factors associated with high methaemoglobin (Met-Hb) levels in infants and the relationship with nitrate concentration in drinking water wells. Drinking water sources were likely to be the main factor for high levels of Met-Hb. Out of 338 infants attending for vaccination, having supplemental feeding, use of boiled water and age 3-6 months were associated with high Met-Hb levels. The highest mean Met-Hb level was in Khan-Younis, where the highest mean nitrate concentration was recorded in drinking water. The results emphasize the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for infants < 6 months old, and the choice of a suitable source of water for these infants.

  3. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  4. Impact of organochlorine contamination on levels of sex hormones and external morphology of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    de Solla, S R; Bishop, C A; Van der Kraak, G; Brooks, R J

    1998-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that contaminants in the environment may influence sex differentiation and reproductive endocrine function in wildlife. Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (total polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides) were higher in the blood plasma of snapping turtles from contaminated sites than in those from reference sites. The ratio of the precloacal length to the posterior lobe of the plastron (PPR) is sexually dimorphic in snapping turtles. There were significant reductions in the PPR at three contaminated sites versus two reference sites. The magnitude of the response was such that a significantly higher proportion of PPRs of males from a contaminated site (Cootes Paradise) overlapped with those of females than PPRs of males from a reference site (Lake Sasajewun). Observers can incorrectly identify the sex of turtles at the contaminated site based on secondary sexual characteristics alone. Unlike the changes to the morphology, there were few changes in 17 beta-estradiol or testosterone levels, and where differences occurred, there was more variation among reference sites than between the reference and contaminated sites. Our results suggest that environmental contaminants may affect sexually dimorphic morphology in snapping turtles without affecting circulating testosterone or estrogen levels in the adults. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9518475

  5. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  6. [Contamination level of aflatoxin B1 in lotus seeds rapid screening by indirect competitive ELISA method].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xian-feng; Dou, Xiao-wen; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Chong; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    A simple and cost-effective indirect competitive enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed to rapidly screen the content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in lotus seeds, and the results were confirmed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry( UFLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibration expressed a good linearity ranging from 0. 171 to 7. 25 µg · L(-1) for AFB, with R2 > 0.978. The medium inhibitory concentration( IC50 ) for AFB1 was 1.29 µg · L(-1), the recovery for AFB1 was 74.73% to 126.9% with RSD < 5%, and the limit of detection (IC10) was 0.128 µg · L(-1). The developed ic-ELSIA method was applied to rapid analysis of AFB, in 20 lotus seeds samples and the results indicated that the contents of AFB, in samples 1-15 were in the range of 1. 19- 115. 3 µg · kg(-1) and in 40% of the samples exceeded the legal limit(5 µg · kg(-1)), while the contamination rate of AFB, in samples 16-20 was 40%. Pearson correlation coefficient(r) reached 0.997 for AFB1 content in the samples detected by ic-ELSIA and UFLC-MS/MS methods. The results proved that the developed ic-ELISA method is simple, sensitive and reliable, and can be used for rapid and high-throughput screening of AFB1 in lotus seeds

  7. Statistical criteria to set alarm levels for continuous measurements of ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Brandl, A; Jimenez, A D Herrera

    2008-08-01

    In the course of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the site of the Austrian Research Centers at Seibersdorf, the operator and licensee, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, conducted an extensive site survey and characterization to demonstrate compliance with regulatory site release criteria. This survey included radiological characterization of approximately 400,000 m(2) of open land on the Austrian Research Centers premises. Part of this survey was conducted using a mobile large-area gas proportional counter, continuously recording measurements while it was moved at a speed of 0.5 ms(-1). In order to set reasonable investigation levels, two alarm levels based on statistical considerations were developed. This paper describes the derivation of these alarm levels and the operational experience gained by detector deployment in the field. PMID:18617795

  8. Statistical criteria to set alarm levels for continuous measurements of ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Brandl, A; Jimenez, A D Herrera

    2008-08-01

    In the course of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the site of the Austrian Research Centers at Seibersdorf, the operator and licensee, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, conducted an extensive site survey and characterization to demonstrate compliance with regulatory site release criteria. This survey included radiological characterization of approximately 400,000 m(2) of open land on the Austrian Research Centers premises. Part of this survey was conducted using a mobile large-area gas proportional counter, continuously recording measurements while it was moved at a speed of 0.5 ms(-1). In order to set reasonable investigation levels, two alarm levels based on statistical considerations were developed. This paper describes the derivation of these alarm levels and the operational experience gained by detector deployment in the field.

  9. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners.

  10. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25569577

  11. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level for fluoride. 142.61 Section 142.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Identification of Best Technology, Treatment Techniques or Other Means Generally Available § 142.61 Variances...)(A) of the Act, hereby identifies the following as the best technology, treatment techniques or...

  12. Final guidance on numeric removal action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to transmit the final OERR methodology and guidance on the calculation of numeric removal action levels (RALs), to assist Superfund personnel in deciding whether to provide alternate sources of drinking water to populations adversely affected by releases of hazardous substances into the environment.

  13. Comparison of ochratoxin A levels in edible pig tissues and in biological fluids after exposure to a contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Kudumija, Nina; Kovačević, Dragan; Scortichini, Giampiero; Milone, Salvatore; Kmetič, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in pig tissues and biological fluids after animal exposure to contaminated diet (250 μg OTA/kg of feed) during 4 weeks of fattening. OTA concentrations were quantified using a validated immunoassay method (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The highest mean OTA concentration in pig tissues was determined in kidneys of exposed animals (13.87 ± 1.41 μg/kg), followed by lungs (10.47 ± 1.97 μg/kg), liver (7.28 ± 1.75 μg/kg), spleen (4.81 ± 0.99 μg/kg), muscle tissue (4.72 ± 0.86 μg/kg), fat tissue (4.11 ± 0.88 μg/kg), heart (3.71 ± 1.09 μg/kg), and brain (3.01 ± 0.25 μg/kg). Furthermore, on the last day of exposure (day 28), significantly higher mean OTA levels were determined in urine (16.06 ± 3.09 μg/L) in comparison to serum (4.77 ± 1.57 μg/L) showing that OTA urine analysis could be a good marker to identify elevated levels of this contaminant in porcine tissues used for human consumption. This study gave guidelines for the most efficient OTA control in pig-derived biological materials that can be exercised at slaughterhouses. PMID:27056395

  14. Contaminant transport in unconfined aquifer, input to low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, A.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-14

    This report describes briefly the Hanford sitewide groundwater model and its application to the Low-Level Tank Waste Disposal (LLTWD) interim Performance Assessment (PA). The Well Intercept Factor (WIF) or dilution factor from a given areal flux entering the aquifer released from the LLTWD site are calculated for base case and various sensitivity cases. In conjunction with the calculation for released fluxes through vadose zone transport,the dose at the compliance point can be obtained by a simple multiplication. The relative dose contribution from the upstream sources was also calculated and presented in the appendix for an equal areal flux at the LLTWD site. The results provide input for management decisions on remediation action needed for reduction of the released fluxes from the upstream facilities to the allowed level to meet the required dose criteria.

  15. In-situ stabilization of radioactively contaminated low-level solid wastes buried in shallow trenches: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, H.S.; Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J.

    1980-09-01

    The potential effectiveness of materials for in-situ encapsulation of low-level, radioactively contaminated solid waste buried in shallow trenches is enumerated. Cement, clay materials, and miscellaneous sorbents, aqueous and nonaqueous gelling fluids and their combinations are available to solidify contaminated free water in trenches, to fill open voids, and to minimize radionuclide mobility. The success of the grouting technique will depend on the availability of reliable geohydrologic data and laboratory development of a mix with enhanced sorption capacity for dominant radionuclides present in the trenches. A cement-bentonite-based grout mix with low consistency for pumping, several hours controlled rate of hardening, negligible bleeding, and more than 170 kPa (25 psi) compressive strength are a few of the suggested parameters in laboratory mix development. Cost estimates of a cement-bentonite-based grout mix indicate that effective and durable encapsulation can be accomplished at a reasonable cost (about $113 per cubic meter). However, extensive implementation of the method suggests the need for a field demonstration of the method. 53 references.

  16. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  17. Organochlorine contamination in the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus): effects on eggshell thickness and egg steroid levels.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Serena; Galassi, Silvana; Melone, Giulio; Saino, Nicola; Porte, Cinta; Bettinetti, Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Eggs of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) were collected from a breeding area on Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) from 2001 to 2005 in the vicinity of a p,p'-DDT manufacturer, whose production was stopped in 1996. DDT homologue and PCB congener levels were determined and compared to levels in eggs collected from other breeding areas on Lake Maggiore and in a presumably less contaminated area on Lake Garda. Although Lake Garda eggs on average possessed a lower level of p,p'-DDE than Lake Maggiore eggs, they had significantly higher levels of PCBs and could not be used as a reference population for the measurement of eggshell thickness. Nevertheless, a negative linear relationship was found between p,p'-DDE concentration and eggshell thickness for eggs collected from both lakes, indicating a possible causal relationship. Testosterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were also determined for eggs collected from both lakes in 2004. Average concentrations of both hormones were the lowest in eggs from Lake Maggiore; however, the very high variability within broods did not result in any significant difference between the lakes.

  18. Organochlorine contamination in the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus): effects on eggshell thickness and egg steroid levels.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Serena; Galassi, Silvana; Melone, Giulio; Saino, Nicola; Porte, Cinta; Bettinetti, Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Eggs of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) were collected from a breeding area on Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) from 2001 to 2005 in the vicinity of a p,p'-DDT manufacturer, whose production was stopped in 1996. DDT homologue and PCB congener levels were determined and compared to levels in eggs collected from other breeding areas on Lake Maggiore and in a presumably less contaminated area on Lake Garda. Although Lake Garda eggs on average possessed a lower level of p,p'-DDE than Lake Maggiore eggs, they had significantly higher levels of PCBs and could not be used as a reference population for the measurement of eggshell thickness. Nevertheless, a negative linear relationship was found between p,p'-DDE concentration and eggshell thickness for eggs collected from both lakes, indicating a possible causal relationship. Testosterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were also determined for eggs collected from both lakes in 2004. Average concentrations of both hormones were the lowest in eggs from Lake Maggiore; however, the very high variability within broods did not result in any significant difference between the lakes. PMID:18644614

  19. Cancer risks and long-term community-level exposure to pentachlorophenol in contaminated areas, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pan; Zhang, Qinghe; Shan, Xiaomei; Shen, Denghui; Wang, Bingshuang; Tang, Zhenhai; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Chi; Huang, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in schistosomiasis endemic areas had led to ubiquitous exposure to PCP and its residues. Numerous studies had revealed that occupational PCP exposure probably increased risk of cancers, but whether long-term community-level exposure to PCP generates the similarly carcinogenic effect, seldom studies focused on it. This study was to explore the cancer risks of long-term community-level PCP exposure from drinking water in a Chinese general population. Incident (2009-2012) cancer records were identified by local government national registry. And PCP concentration of raw drinking water samples in each district was measured by GC-MS/MS analysis for further division of three PCP exposure categories by interquartile range (high vs. medium vs. low). Internal comparisons were performed, and standard rate ratio was calculated to describe the relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risks by using low-exposure group as the reference group. PCP was detected in all 27 raw drinking water samples ranging from 11.21 to 684.00 ng/L. A total of 6,750 cases (4,409 male and 2,341 female cases) were identified, and age-standardized rate (world) was 154.95 per 100,000 person-years. The cancer incidence for the high-exposure group was remarkably high. Internal comparisons indicated that high PCP exposure might be positively associated with high cancer risks in the community population, particularly for leukemia (SRR = 5.93, 95 % CI = 5.24-6.71), maligant lymphoma (SRR = 2.27, 95 % CI = 2.10-2.54), and esophageal cancer (SRR = 2.42, 95 % CI = 2.35-2.50). Long-term community-level exposure to PCP was probably associated with hemolymph neoplasm, neurologic tumors, and digestive system neoplasm. PMID:25138560

  20. Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on γ-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Pietro P; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different (232)Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating γ-radiation shielding (γRS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the γ-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that γRS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, γRS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated γRS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations. PMID:25710096

  1. Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on γ-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Pietro P; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different (232)Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating γ-radiation shielding (γRS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the γ-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that γRS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, γRS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated γRS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations.

  2. A method linking the toxic effects at community-level with contaminant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyou; Su, Rongguo; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we developed a method to quantify and link the toxic effects in community-level ecosystems with concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons. The densities of Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis, Isochrysis galbana, and Brachionus plicatilis in single-species tests and customized ecosystems were examined in response to a concentration gradient of petroleum hydrocarbons ranging from 0 to 8.0mgL(-1). A three-population ecological model with interspecies competition-grazing relationships was used to characterize population sizes with concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons. A threshold concentration of the simplified plankton ecosystem of 0.376mgL(-1) for petroleum hydrocarbons was calculated from the proposed model, which was higher than the no-effect concentration of 0.056mgL(-1) derived from the single-species toxicity tests and the predicted no-effect concentration of 0.076mgL(-1) calculated from the species sensitivity distribution. This finding indicates that interspecies competition and grazing reduced the toxic effect of petroleum hydrocarbons at the community level. The sensitivity analysis for model parameters demonstrates that plankton population biomasses are highly sensitive to filtration rates. Antagonism between interspecies interactions and petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity was attributed to the reduced filtration rate and zooplankton grazing pressure. The proposed method is a simple means to address the concern regarding the impacts of ecological interactions on ecological risk assessments of pollutants.

  3. Interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa and coexisting amoxicillin contaminant at different phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-10-30

    Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-5 mg L(-1) of phosphorus and exposed to 200-500 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for seven days. Amoxicillin presented no significant effect (p>0.05) on the growth of M. aeruginosa at phosphorus levels of 0.05 and 0.2 mg L(-1), but stimulated algal growth as a hormesis effect at phosphorus levels of 1 and 5 mg L(-1). Phosphorus and amoxicillin affected the contents of chlorophyll-a, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and malondialdehyde, the expression of psbA and rbcL, as well as the activities of adenosinetriphosphatase and glutathione S-transferase in similar manners, but regulated the production and release of microcystins and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in different ways. Increased photosynthesis activity was related with the ATP consumption for the stress response to amoxicillin, and the stress response was enhanced as the phosphorus concentration increased. The biodegradation of amoxicillin by M. aeruginosa increased from 11.5% to 28.2% as the phosphorus concentration increased. Coexisting amoxicillin aggravated M. aeruginosa pollution by increasing cell density and concentration of microcystins, while M. aeruginosa alleviated amoxicillin pollution via biodegradation. The interactions between M. aeruginosa and amoxicillin were significantly regulated by phosphorus (p<0.05) and led to a complicated situation of combined pollution. PMID:25956638

  4. Soy in wheat--contamination levels and food allergy risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Remington, Benjamin C; Taylor, Steve L; Marx, David B; Petersen, Barbara J; Baumert, Joseph L

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, packaged food ingredients derived from allergenic sources must be clearly labeled. However, no requirement exists to declare the presence of residues of raw agricultural commodities due to agricultural commodity comingling. Clinical reports of allergic reactions to undeclared soy in wheat-based products do not exist suggesting that a rather low degree of risk is posed by wheat-based products that are comingled with soy. Detectable soybean residues (>2.5 ppm soy flour) were found in 62.8% of commercially available wheat flours at concentrations of 3-443 ppm soy flour (1.6-236 ppm soy protein). Conservative probabilistic risk assessments predict a risk of allergic reaction among the most sensitive soy-allergic individuals of 2.8±2.0 per 1000 soy-allergic user eating occasions of foods containing wheat flour. However, the predicted reactions occur at exposure levels below the lowest eliciting dose observed to provoke objective reactions in clinical oral soy challenges. Given this low level of predicted risk and the lack of evidence for allergic reactions among soy-allergic consumers to wheat-based products, the avoidance of wheat-based products by soy-allergic consumers does not appear to be necessary.

  5. Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Forensic facial approximation assessment: can application of different average facial tissue depth data facilitate recognition and establish acceptable level of resemblance?

    PubMed

    Herrera, Lara Maria; Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) are important guidelines for modeling faces from skull. Amid so many FSTT data, Forensic artists have to make a subjective choice of a dataset that best meets their needs. This study investigated the performance of four FSTT datasets in the recognition and resemblance of Brazilian living individuals and the performance of assessors in recognizing people, according to sex and knowledge on Human Anatomy and Forensic Dentistry. Sixteen manual facial approximations (FAs) were constructed using three-dimensional (3D) prototypes of skulls (targets). The American method was chosen for the construction of the faces. One hundred and twenty participants evaluated all FAs by means of recognition and resemblance tests. This study showed higher proportions of recognition by FAs conducted with FSTT data from cadavers compared with those conducted with medical imaging data. Targets were also considered more similar to FAs conducted with FSTT data from cadavers. Nose and face shape, respectively, were considered the most similar regions to targets. The sex of assessors (male and female) and the knowledge on Human Anatomy and Forensic Dentistry did not play a determinant role to reach greater recognition rates. It was possible to conclude that FSTT data obtained from imaging may not facilitate recognition and establish acceptable level of resemblance. Grouping FSTT data by regions of the face, as proposed in this paper, may contribute to more accurate FAs.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/4(2), 1/4(3), and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4-5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2-5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals. PMID:27493608

  8. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/42, 1/43, and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4–5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2–5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals. PMID:27493608

  9. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  10. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure. PMID:25501644

  11. Geomicrobiology of High-Level Nuclear Waste-Contaminated Vadose Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Balkwill, David L.; Kennedy, David; Li, Shu-mei W.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Daly, Michael J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume were collected as part of investigations to evaluate the potential fate and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The plume originated from a leak that occurred in 1962 from a waste tank consisting of high concentrations of alkali, nitrate, aluminate, Cr(VI), 137Cs, and 99Tc. Investigations were initiated to determine the distribution of viable microorganisms in the vadose sediment samples, probe the phylogeny of cultivated and uncultivated members, and evaluate the ability of the cultivated organisms to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation. The populations of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were generally low, from below detection to ∼104 CFU g−1, but viable microorganisms were recovered from 11 of 16 samples, including several of the most radioactive ones (e.g., >10 μCi of 137Cs/g). The isolates from the contaminated sediments and clone libraries from sediment DNA extracts were dominated by members related to known gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Arthrobacter species were the most common isolates among all samples, but other phyla high in G+C content were also represented, including Rhodococcus and Nocardia. Two isolates from the second-most radioactive sample (>20 μCi of 137Cs g−1) were closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and were able to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation approaching 20 kGy. Many of the gram-positive isolates were resistant to lower levels of gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that gram-positive bacteria, predominantly from phyla high in G+C content, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and that some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste. PMID:15240306

  12. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/4(2), 1/4(3), and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4-5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2-5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals.

  13. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  14. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-11-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  15. [Assessment of erythrocytes pathology level in peripheral blood in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Stiazhkina, E V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Osipov, D I; Akleev, A V

    2012-01-01

    In summer 2009, the level of pathology of erythrocytes was assessed in the peripheral blood of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from the reservoirs for water-storage of low level radioactive waste of PA "Mayak". Roach from the Shershny reservoir and the Buffer reservoir (Chelyabinsk region) was used as a control. Radionuclide maintenance in water, sediment, and roach was determined and dose rates for the roach were calculated using the software package ERICA Assessment Tool 1.0 May 2009. It is revealed that chronic radiation exposure with the dose rates in the range from 0.8 up to 19 mGy/d leads to a twofold increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in peripheral blood, dose-dependent increase in the frequency of red blood cells with the nuclear pyknosis and causes no significant increase in the level oferythrocyte amitosis. It is suggested that the frequency rate of apoptosis in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the fish could be used in the biological monitoring of contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  16. [Assessment of erythrocytes pathology level in peripheral blood in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Stiazhkina, E V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Osipov, D I; Akleev, A V

    2012-01-01

    In summer 2009, the level of pathology of erythrocytes was assessed in the peripheral blood of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from the reservoirs for water-storage of low level radioactive waste of PA "Mayak". Roach from the Shershny reservoir and the Buffer reservoir (Chelyabinsk region) was used as a control. Radionuclide maintenance in water, sediment, and roach was determined and dose rates for the roach were calculated using the software package ERICA Assessment Tool 1.0 May 2009. It is revealed that chronic radiation exposure with the dose rates in the range from 0.8 up to 19 mGy/d leads to a twofold increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in peripheral blood, dose-dependent increase in the frequency of red blood cells with the nuclear pyknosis and causes no significant increase in the level oferythrocyte amitosis. It is suggested that the frequency rate of apoptosis in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the fish could be used in the biological monitoring of contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23516893

  17. Assessment of heavy metal and organic contaminants levels along the Libyan coast using transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Galgani, Francois; Chiffoleau, Jean Francois; Barrah, Mahmoud; Drebika, Usama; Tomasino, Corinne; Andral, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    Within the framework of the MYTIOR project in 2009, heavy metals and organic compounds contaminations were assessed in transplanted mussels in 16 different stations along the coasts of Libya. These stations were located at miles offshore industrial/urban sources but in open sea providing original results related to the background contamination rather than linked to a specific coastal source of pollutants. Results indicated mercury (Hg, 0.045-0.066 mg/kg dry weight (dw)), lead (Pb, 0.44-0, 71 mg/kg dw) and copper (Cu, 3.56-4.21 mg/kg dw) were in the same range or at lower value than control for all stations. Chromium (Cr) in Meleta (3.08 mg/kg dw) and Bomba (3.80 mg/kg dw) and Cadmium values in all stations (1.21-2.41 mg/kg dw) were above control. Meleta, stations from the gulf of Syrt and the three eastern stations were the most affected stations by nickel (max at 5.83 mg/kg dw in Syrt) when zinc was in the same range (141-197 mg/kg dw) and above the control (92 mg/kg dw) at all stations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were found in the range of 16.8-42.8 mg/kg (dry weight) indicating low levels along the Libyan coast with acenaphthene and benzo (a, b, k) pyrenes detected mainly in western Libya. The study of PAH ratios indicated a mixed petrogenic/pyrolytic origin. The only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in Libya were PCB 101 in one location and PCB 153 in Tripoli, Garrapoli, Syrt, Ras Lanuf and Benghazi (1.2-1.9 μg/kg dw). Insecticides were lower than control in all stations except DDT, only detected in Misratah (3.5 μg/kg dw). Overall, the results indicated a low background contamination and a low pollution extent according to the environmental pressure occurring offshore the Libyan coast.

  18. Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadou, Lida; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Iossifidou, Eleni; Tzafettas, John; Zournatzi-Koiou, Vassiliki; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (RfD). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece. PMID:26367190

  19. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons étudié la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilités différentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grêle, moelle osseuse) après irradiation de rats par contamination interne à l'eau tritiée dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles débits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au débit de dose inférieure à 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses supérieures à 10 cGy. Par contre, le débit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramètre étudié à partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentuée pour la rate, l'intestin grêle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et débits de doses très faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dépendance inverse par rapport au débit de dose.

  20. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  1. Handling and Treatment of Uranium Contaminated Combustible Radioactive Low Level Waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzen, J,; Lindberg, M.; Luvstrand, J.

    2002-02-26

    Studsvik RadWaste in Sweden has many years of experience in handling of low-level radioactive waste, such as burnable waste for incineration and scrap metal for melting. In Erwin, TN, in the USA, Studsvik Inc also operates a THOR (pyrolysis) facility for treatment of various kinds of ion-exchange resins. The advantage of incineration of combustible waste as well as of ion-exchange resins by pyrolysis, is the vast volume reduction which minimizes the cost for final storage and results in an inert end-product which is feasible for safe final disposal. The amount of uranium in the incinerable waste has impact on the quality of the resulting ash. The quality improves with lower U-content. One way of reducing the Ucontent is leaching using a chemical process before and if necessary also after the incineration. Ranstad Mineral AB has been established in the 1960s to support the Swedish national program for uranium mining in southern Sweden. Ranstad Mineral works among others wit h chemical processes to reduce uranium content by leaching. During 1998-2000 about 150 tons/year have been processed. The goal was to reach uranium residues of less than 0.02% for disposal on the municipal waste disposal.

  2. Blood lead levels in Noranda children following removal of smelter-contaminated yard soil.

    PubMed

    Gagné, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1979, children two to five years of age living in Rouyn-Noranda, QC, in an urban district located within 1 km from a copper smelter had mean (geometric) blood lead levels (BLL) of 21 micrograms/dL. Afterwards, stack emissions were lowered. In 1989, mean (geom.) BLL were reduced to 11 micrograms/dL; 50% of the district children had BLL less than 10 micrograms/dL. In 1990-91, a $3 million top soil removal operation took place; residential lots having more than 500 ppm soil lead were decontaminated. In 1991, BLL were reduced to 7 micrograms/dL; 75% of the children had less than 10 micrograms/dL. Geographic analysis of the 1991 results showed that children with the highest BLL lived nearest to the smelter, where atmospheric dustfall to the ground reached 36 mg/m2/month. Follow-up pediatric blood lead campaigns are planned in 1993 and 1995, to evaluate the effects of an ongoing program for further reduction of atmospheric smelter emissions.

  3. Individual and molecular level effects of produced water contaminants on nauplii and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise Kiel; Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Song, You; Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Hansen, Elisabeth Lindbo; Brooks, Steven J; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and extraction of petroleum products is expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishment of the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea may potentially introduce a new source of contamination to the area, as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine effects of exposure to several compounds found in produced water-a mixture of selected organic compounds (APW), radium-226 ((226)Ra), barium (Ba), and a scale inhibitor-on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus. Experiments were performed using exposure concentrations at realistic levels based on those detected in the vicinity of known discharge points. The influence of lethal and sublethal effects on early life stages was determined and significantly lower survival in the APW exposure groups was found. In the Ba treatment the life stage development did not proceed to the same advanced stages as observed in the control (filtered sea water). The scale inhibitor and (226)Ra treatments showed no significant difference from control. In addition, adult females were exposed to APW, (226)Ra, and a mixture of the two. Both individual-level effects (egg production and feeding) and molecular-level effects (gene expression) were assessed. On the individual level endpoints, only treatments including APW produced an effect compared to control. However, on the molecular level the possibility that also (226)Ra induced toxicologically relevant effects cannot be ruled out. PMID:27484140

  4. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a

  5. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-11-16

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a

  6. Contaminant levels in sediments and asteroids (Asterias rubens L., Echinodermata) from the Belgian coast and Scheldt estuary: polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Danis, B; Wantier, P; Dutrieux, S; Flammang, R; Dubois, Ph; Warnau, M

    2004-10-15

    The Southern Bight of the North Sea is particularly exposed to anthropogenic contamination, due to heavy urbanisation and industrialisation of its catchment area. The present work focuses on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and metal contamination of the marine environment along and off the Belgian coast. Its objectives were to compare the concentrations of seven PCB congeners and four heavy metals in the sediments (a repository for anthropogenic contaminants) and in the asteroid Asterias rubens (a recognized bioindicator species). Nineteen sampling stations were considered between the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary and the southern limit of the Belgian coast (asteroids were found in 10 out of the 19 stations). PCB and metal concentrations measured in sediments and asteroids were in the range of values reported in previous studies. Stations under direct influence of the Scheldt were the most impacted by the considered contaminants. Metal concentrations varied according to the grain-size fraction considered. In asteroids, PCBs and metals were found to be selectively distributed among body compartments, and pyloric caeca were found to most efficiently discriminate between sampling stations contamination levels. PCB and metal analysis of sediments provided a physicochemical evaluation of the contamination, whereas analysis of asteroids introduced a biological dimension to the approach by taking into account bioavailability of the contaminants.

  7. Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 μg/ml and 0.1-0.9 μg/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by

  8. Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 μg/ml and 0.1-0.9 μg/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by

  9. Elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Fermented Dry Sausages at an Organoleptically Acceptable Level of Microencapsulated Allyl Isothiocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Pedro A.; Muthukumarasamy, Parthiban; Holley, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Four sausage batters (17.59% beef, 60.67% pork, and 17.59% pork fat) were inoculated with two commercial starter culture organisms (>7 log10 CFU/g Pediococcus pentosaceus and 6 log10 CFU/g Staphylococcus carnosus) and a five-strain cocktail of nonpathogenic variants of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to yield 6 to 7 log10 CFU/g. Microencapsulated allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added to three batters at 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm to determine its antimicrobial effects. For sensory analysis, separate batches with starter cultures and 0, 500, or 750 ppm microencapsulated AIT were produced. Sausages were fermented at ≤26°C and 88% relative humidity (RH) for 72 h. Subsequently sausages were dried at 75% RH and 13°C for at least 25 days. The water activity (aw), pH, and levels of starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7, and total bacteria were monitored during fermentation and drying. All sausages showed changes in the initial pH from 5.57 to 4.89 and in aw from 0.96 to 0.89 by the end of fermentation and drying, respectively. Starter culture numbers were reduced during sausage maturation, but there was no effect of AIT on meat pH reduction. E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 6.5 log10 CFU/g in sausages containing 750 and 1,000 ppm AIT after 21 and 16 days of processing, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 4.75 log10 CFU/g after 28 days of processing in treatments with 500 ppm AIT, and the organism was not recovered from this treatment beyond 40 days. During sensory evaluation, sausages containing 500 ppm AIT were considered acceptable although slightly spicy by panelists. PMID:16672446

  10. Lead Levels in the Breast Milk of Nursing Andean Mothers Living in a Lead-Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando; Chiriboga, Roberto; Correa, Rommy; Collaguaso, María Angela

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb) in breast milk (PbM) and blood (PbB) were measured in a current cohort of lactating mothers living in Andean communities where women of child-bearing age engage in the occupational use of Pb, and compared to results obtained in earlier studies. Mean PbM concentration in the current group of breastfeeding mothers tested in 2012/2013 was 3.73 μg/l (SD: 7.3; range: 0.049 - 28.04), and significantly lower than the 9.83 μg/l (SD: 12.75; range: 0.2 - 49) previously observed in breastfeeding mothers in the study area from 1999 to 2007. Breastfeeding women in the current cohort showed an average PbM/PbB ratio of 3.6%, which is in agreement with other studies. The mean PbB level obtained for the current cohort was 7.8 μg/dl (SD: 5.2; range: 1.4 - 21), and significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 20.8 μg/dl (SD: 16.4; range: 4-73) obtained for the comparison group of breastfeeding mothers tested between 1999-2007. A correlation of .687 between paired PbM and maternal PbB was found, indicating that maternal PbB level is a significant predictor of PbM. Current PbM levels remain higher than international averages, but indicate that maternal Pb exposure has declined over time in the environmentally Pb-contaminated study area. The current reduction in Pb in milk and blood of breastfeeding mothers may be due to adherence to a Pb-exposure education and prevention program initiated by the authors in the study area years earlier, as well as recent improvements in local healthcare delivery. PMID:25072821

  11. A manual for applying the allowable residual contamination level method for decommissioning facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Piepel, G.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the modifications that have been made to enhance the original Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method to make it more applicable to site-specific analyses. This version considers the mixture of radionuclides present at the time of site characterization, the elapsed time after decommissioning when exposure to people could occur, and includes a calculation of the upper confidence limit of the potential dose based on sampling statistics that are developed during the site characterization efforts. The upper confidence limit of potential exposure can now be used for comparison against applicable radiation dose limits (i.e., 25 mrem/yr at Hanford). The level of confidence can be selected by the user. A wide range of exposure scenarios were evaluated; the rationale used to select the most limiting scenarios is explained. The radiation dose factors used for the inhalation and ingestion pathways were also updated to correspond with the radiation dosimetry methods utilized in the International Commission of Radiological Protection Publications 26 and 30 (ICRP 1977; 1979a,b, 1980, 1981, 1982a,b). This simplifies the calculations, since ''effective whole body'' doses are now calculated, and also brings the dosimetry methods used in the ARCL method in conformance with the rationale used by DOE in developing the 25 mrem/yr limit at Hanford. 46 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Foliar concentrations of volunteer willows growing on polluted sediment-derived sites versus sites with baseline contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Quataert, Paul; De Vos, Bruno; Tack, Filip M G; Muys, Bart

    2004-04-01

    Many alluvial soils along navigable waterways are affected by disposal of dredged sediments or overbank sedimentation and contain metal concentrations that are elevated compared to baseline levels. Uptake patterns for metals and other elements by several volunteer Salix species growing on these sites were determined during a growing season in field plots and compared with the same species growing on soils with baseline contamination levels. For Cd and Zn, foliar concentrations were clearly higher on dredged sediment landfills. Uptake patterns differed significantly between species. A high uptake of Mn and low uptake of Cu, K and S in S. cinerea was attributed to wetland soil chemistry. Site effects on metal uptake were evaluated in more detail for Salix cinerea and S. alba growing on different sediment-derived sites under field conditions. Foliar Cd concentrations were higher in S. cinerea than in S. alba. This appeared to be a genetic feature not influenced by soil chemical properties, as it was observed both on clean sites and polluted sediment-derived sites. For S. cinerea, soil chemistry was reflected in foliar concentrations, while foliar Cd concentrations and bioavailability were found to be independent of the thickness of the polluted horizon. Dredged sediment landfills and freshwater tidal marshes with comparable Cd soil pollution had significantly different foliar Cd concentrations.

  13. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    PubMed

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination.

  14. Biochemical effects in crabs (Carcinus maenas) and contamination levels in the Bizerta Lagoon: an integrated approach in biomonitoring of marine complex pollution.

    PubMed

    Ben-Khedher, Sana; Jebali, Jamel; Kamel, Naouel; Banni, Mohamed; Rameh, Mohamed; Jrad, Amel; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2013-04-01

    The biochemical effects in Carcinus maenas and contamination levels in seawater and sediments of Bizerta Lagoon (northeast of Tunisia) were investigated. The levels of metals and hydrocarbons were higher in seawater and sediments in Menzel Bourguiba and Cimentery in February and July than in the other sampling sites. Differences among sites for glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase activities, and the content of lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins in two important organs which accumulated contaminants (the gills and the digestive gland) of the C. maenas were found and possibly related to differences in metal and hydrocarbon levels. The seasonal variation of biomarkers was possibly associated with chemical contamination and also with the high fluctuation of physico-chemical characteristics of the sites. The integrated biomarker response values found in the five sites is in good agreement with hydrocarbon and trace metal concentrations detected in the water and sediments of the stressful places where crabs are living. PMID:22976048

  15. Biochemical effects in crabs (Carcinus maenas) and contamination levels in the Bizerta Lagoon: an integrated approach in biomonitoring of marine complex pollution.

    PubMed

    Ben-Khedher, Sana; Jebali, Jamel; Kamel, Naouel; Banni, Mohamed; Rameh, Mohamed; Jrad, Amel; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2013-04-01

    The biochemical effects in Carcinus maenas and contamination levels in seawater and sediments of Bizerta Lagoon (northeast of Tunisia) were investigated. The levels of metals and hydrocarbons were higher in seawater and sediments in Menzel Bourguiba and Cimentery in February and July than in the other sampling sites. Differences among sites for glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase activities, and the content of lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins in two important organs which accumulated contaminants (the gills and the digestive gland) of the C. maenas were found and possibly related to differences in metal and hydrocarbon levels. The seasonal variation of biomarkers was possibly associated with chemical contamination and also with the high fluctuation of physico-chemical characteristics of the sites. The integrated biomarker response values found in the five sites is in good agreement with hydrocarbon and trace metal concentrations detected in the water and sediments of the stressful places where crabs are living.

  16. Solder Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1999-02-22

    There are two sources of contamination in solder alloys. The first source is trace elements from the primary metals used in the as-manufactured product, be that product in ingot, wire, or powder form. Their levels in the primary metal are determined by the refining process. While some of these trace elements are naturally occurring materials, additional contamination can result from the refining and/or forming processes. Sources include: furnace pot liners, debris on the cutting edges of shears, rolling mill rollers, etc. The types and levels of contaminants per solder alloy are set by recognized industrial, federal, military, and international specifications. For example, the 63Sn-37Pb solder purchased to the ASTM B 32 standard can have maximum levels of contamination for the following metals: 0.08(wt.)%Cu, 0.001 %Cd, 0.005%Al, 0.25%Bi, 0.03%As, 0.02%Fe, and 0.005 %Zn. A second cause of contamination in solders, and solder baths in particular, is their actual use in soldering operations. Each time a workpiece is introduced into the bath, some dissolution of the joint base metal(s), protective or solderable coatings, and fixture metal takes place which adds to contamination levels in the solder. The potential impurities include Cu; Ni; Au or other noble metals used as protective finishes and Al; Fe; and Zn to name a few. Even dissolution of the pot wall or liner is a source of impurities, typically Fe.

  17. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Christina B. Behr-Andres

    2001-10-01

    The objective of the Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As a result of contract changes approved by National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) representatives to incorporate activities previously conducted under another NETL agreement, there are now an additional task and an expansion of activities within the stated scope of work of the ETA program. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement, funded by NETL (No. DE-FC26-00NT40840), consists of four tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, Technology Verification, and System Engineering. As currently conceived, ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. There are currently four technical subtasks: Long-Term Stewardship Initiative at the Mound Plant Site; Photocatalysis of Mercury-Contaminated Water; Subcritical Water Treatment of PCB and Metal-Contaminated Paint Waste; and Vegetative Covers for Low-Level Waste Repositories. This report covers activities during the second six months of the three-year ETA program.

  18. Is the reproduction of Donax trunculus affected by their sites of origin contrasted by their level of contamination?

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiène; Métais, Isabelle; Ayache, Nadia; Boussetta, Hamadi; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The reproductive cycle of bivalves is regulated by several natural environmental factors but exposure to chemical pollutants can also interfere and may result in advanced or delayed spawning season. To our knowledge, the gametogenic cycle of the suspension-feeder bivalve Donax trunculus has not yet been used as biomonitoring tool in ecotoxicological surveys. The aim of this study was to examine over a year physiological reproductive endpoints (sex-ratio, gametogenic and energy reserve cycles) and biological indices (condition index, allometry) in D. trunculus originating from two sites differing by their level of contamination. Specimens were collected bimonthly from November 2008 to October 2009 from a polluted site (Radès Méliane) and a comparatively reference site (Sidi Jehmi) in the Gulf of Tunis (Tunisia). Five stages were depicted by histological examination of gonads: undifferentiated, developing, mature, spawn and spent. Differences in the gametogenic cycle according to the site of origin of bivalves were observed. The spawning period began in March and was maximum in May in bivalves from both sites, but the percentage of spawning animals was higher in the polluted site vs the reference site. The spawning period was shorter in animals from the polluted site comparatively to the reference site. Energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) were higher in March and May comparatively to the other studied periods in bivalves from both sites. Lower energy reserves levels were usually observed in animals from the polluted site compared to the reference site. Seasonal variations of the condition index were associated to the reproductive and nutritive status of bivalves. Differences in allometry were depicted between bivalves from both studied sites. If we try to link allometry, energy reserves and reproduction, it can be hypothesized that for bivalves from the reference site, energy reserves are allocated to gametogenesis and length growth. For bivalves from the polluted

  19. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  20. Contaminants still high in top-level carnivores in the Southern California Bight: levels of DDT and PCBs in resident and transient pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Blasius, Mary Ellen; Goodmanlowe, Gwen D

    2008-12-01

    Highly industrialized areas, such as the Southern California Bight, often have high levels of contaminants in marine sediments, which can cause chronic exposure to organisms long after their use has ceased. tDDT and tPCB were analyzed in the blubber of 145 stranded pinnipeds that died at local marine mammal centers between 1994 and 2006. Resident species (California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal) had significantly higher concentrations of tDDT and tPCB than the transient species (northern elephant seal). Adult female California sea lions had significantly lower concentrations of tDDT and tPCB than pups, yearlings, and adult males. Concentrations of both tDDT and tPCB in California sea lions significantly declined over time, but did not change in northern elephant seals. Current concentrations of tDDT and tPCB in California sea lions and harbor seals are among the highest values reported worldwide for marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause adverse health effects. PMID:18835609

  1. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning the 115-F and 117-F facilities at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for the 115-F and 117-F facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. Information on restricted and controlled use is provided to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. Procedures are presented for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations and to determine instrument responses for various mixtures of radionuclides. Finally, a comparison is made between existing decommissioning guidance and the ARCL values calculated for unrestricted release of the 115-F and 117-F facilities. The comparison shows a good agreement.

  2. Evaluation of serum pesticide residue levels and liver function in persons exposed to dairy products contaminated with heptachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Wohlleb, J.C.; Royce, W.; Head, S.L.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied a group of 45 dairy farm family members who had consumed undiluted raw milk products known to be contaminated with residues of the pesticide heptachlor at concentrations as high as 89.2 ppm (fat basis). They compared results of serum pesticide assays for these exposed persons with results for an unexposed group of 94 persons from the same geographic area and the results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The exposed group had significantly higher mean levels of primary heptachlor metabolites-i.e., heptachlor epoxide and oxychlordane than the unexposed group. In the exposed group, 21.2% had evaluated serum concentrations of these same metabolites; this rate was significantly greater than the rates in both the unexposed farm family members (heptachlor epoxide, 3.8%; oxychlordane, 6.3%) and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample (2.5% for both metabolites). However they found no evidence of related acute and/or subacute hepatic effects in these exposed persons regardless of their serum concentrations of pesticide residues.

  3. Level and Contamination Assessment of Soil along an Expressway in an Ecologically Valuable Area in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Radziemska, Maja; Fronczyk, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Express roads are a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding environment. The Warsaw Expressway (E30) is one of the busiest roads in the capital of Poland and cuts through the ecologically valuable area (Mazowiecki Natural Landscape Park). Soil samples were collected at distances of 0.5, 4.5 and 25 m from the expressway. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soils by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS). Soils located in the direct proximity of the analyzed stretch of road were found to have the highest values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which decreased along with an increase in the distance from the expressway. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn were found to be higher than Polish national averages, whereas the average values of Ni and Pb were not exceeded. The pollution level was estimated based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and the pollution index (PI). The results of Igeo and PI indexes revealed the following orders: Cu < Zn < Ni < Cd < Pb and Cu < Ni < Cd < Zn < Pb, and comparison with geochemical background values showed higher concentration of zinc, lead and cadmium. PMID:26512684

  4. Level and Contamination Assessment of Soil along an Expressway in an Ecologically Valuable Area in Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Radziemska, Maja; Fronczyk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Express roads are a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding environment. The Warsaw Expressway (E30) is one of the busiest roads in the capital of Poland and cuts through the ecologically valuable area (Mazowiecki Natural Landscape Park). Soil samples were collected at distances of 0.5, 4.5 and 25 m from the expressway. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soils by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS). Soils located in the direct proximity of the analyzed stretch of road were found to have the highest values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which decreased along with an increase in the distance from the expressway. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn were found to be higher than Polish national averages, whereas the average values of Ni and Pb were not exceeded. The pollution level was estimated based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and the pollution index (PI). The results of Igeo and PI indexes revealed the following orders: Cu < Zn < Ni < Cd < Pb and Cu < Ni < Cd < Zn < Pb, and comparison with geochemical background values showed higher concentration of zinc, lead and cadmium. PMID:26512684

  5. Level and Contamination Assessment of Soil along an Expressway in an Ecologically Valuable Area in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Radziemska, Maja; Fronczyk, Joanna

    2015-10-23

    Express roads are a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding environment. The Warsaw Expressway (E30) is one of the busiest roads in the capital of Poland and cuts through the ecologically valuable area (Mazowiecki Natural Landscape Park). Soil samples were collected at distances of 0.5, 4.5 and 25 m from the expressway. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soils by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS). Soils located in the direct proximity of the analyzed stretch of road were found to have the highest values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which decreased along with an increase in the distance from the expressway. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn were found to be higher than Polish national averages, whereas the average values of Ni and Pb were not exceeded. The pollution level was estimated based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and the pollution index (PI). The results of Igeo and PI indexes revealed the following orders: Cu < Zn < Ni < Cd < Pb and Cu < Ni < Cd < Zn < Pb, and comparison with geochemical background values showed higher concentration of zinc, lead and cadmium.

  6. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  7. Levels and profile of several classes of organic contaminants in matched indoor dust and serum samples from occupational settings of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadeem; Mehdi, Toufeer; Malik, Riffat N; Eqani, Syed A M A S; Kamal, Atif; Dirtu, Alin C; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Dust ingestion is an important route of human exposure to organic contaminants, especially for flame retardants (FRs) in occupational settings. Several classes of organic contaminants were analyzed in matched dust and serum samples from academics and workers in electronics and clothing stores of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The concentrations of contaminants varied in dust as follow: organophosphate FRs (∑PFRs) > novel brominated FRs (∑NBFRs) > polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs) > organochlorine pesticides (∑OCPs) > polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCBs), while, in serum, concentration varied: ∑OCPs > bromophenols (∑BPs) > ∑PCBs > ∑HO-PCBs ≈ ∑PBDEs. Two NBFRs, namely 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), were detected in <10% of the serum samples. p,p'-DDE was the major contaminant in serum contributing to ∼75% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of Penta-BDE congeners in serum and dust were significantly correlated (r = 0.64, p < 0.01) for the academics, suggesting dust ingestion as an important determinant for their serum levels. PMID:25069086

  8. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  9. [Present-day 90Sr and 137Cs contamination levels of soil and agricultural products in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace area].

    PubMed

    Kazachenok, N N; Popova, I Ia; Kostiuchenko, V A; Mel'nikov, V S; Usol'tsev, D V

    2009-01-01

    Data represent present-day 90Sr and 137Cs contamination levels of soil and agricultural products (grain, vegetables and forage crops, milk and meat) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace area, and the accumulation coefficients of these radionuclides in cash crop.

  10. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  11. Fixation Mechanisms and Desorption Rates of Sorbed Cs in High-Level Waste Contaminated Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Future Behavior and In-Ground Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; McKinley, James P.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Serne, R. Jeff

    2002-06-01

    Research is investigating mineralogic and geochemical factors controlling the desorption rate of 137Cs+ from subsurface sediments on the Hanford Site contaminated with different types of high level waste. The project will develop kinetic data and models that describe the release rates of 137Cs+ from contaminated sediments over a range of potential geochemical conditions that may evolve during waste retrieval from overlying tanks, or in response to meteoric water infiltration. Scientific understanding and computational techniques will be established to predict the future behavior of sorbed, in-ground 137Cs+.

  12. Effect of feeding crude red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and grain amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus) to hens on total lipids, cholesterol, PUFA levels and acceptability of eggs.

    PubMed

    Punita, A; Chaturvedi, A

    2000-01-01

    Eggs, though a very nutritious food, also have high amounts of cholesterol and hence are not recommended to be consumed regularly by persons having hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this context, an attempt was made in this study to reduce the cholesterol content of eggs by diet manipulation, using two naturally available and already proved hypocholesteromic agents [red palm oil (RPO) and grain amaranth]. Thirteen experimental rations using raw and popped grain Amaranth and RPO were fed to 24 weeks old hens for a period of 6 weeks, singularly and in combinations. Total lipids, cholesterol and PUFA contents were analyzed in the experimental and control eggs. The results showed that RPO and RPO + popped amaranth feeding resulted in a maximum reduction in total lipids and cholesterol contents. Significant increase was observed in linoleic acid content in RPO + popped amaranth; raw amaranth and RPO fed groups. Acceptability studies showed that the products made from lower cholesterol eggs were well accepted. PMID:10898484

  13. Metal(loid) levels in biological matrices from human populations exposed to mining contamination--Panasqueira Mine (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Solange; Silva, Susana; Walter, Alan; Ranville, James; Sousa, Ana C A; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Marta; García-Lestón, Julia; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Harrington, Chris; Taylor, Andrew; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mining activities may affect the health of miners and communities living near mining sites, and these health effects may persist even when the mine is abandoned. During mining processes various toxic wastes are produced and released into the surrounding environment, resulting in contamination of air, drinking water, rivers, plants, and soils. In a geochemical sampling campaign undertaken in the Panasqueira Mine area of central Portugal, an anomalous distribution of several metals and arsenic (As) was identified in various environmental media. Several potentially harmful elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se), were quantified in blood, urine, hair, and nails (toe and finger) from a group of individuals living near the Panasqueira Mine who were environmentally and occupationally exposed. A group with similar demographic characteristics without known exposure to mining activities was also compared. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and percentages of different lymphocyte subsets were selected as immunotoxicity biomarkers. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis showed elevated levels of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb in all biological samples taken from populations living close to the mine compared to controls. Genotoxic and immunotoxic differences were also observed. The results provide evidence of an elevated potential risk to the health of populations, with environmental and occupational exposures resulting from mining activities. Further, the results emphasize the need to implement preventive measures, remediation, and rehabilitation plans for the region. PMID:22788375

  14. Metal(loid) levels in biological matrices from human populations exposed to mining contamination--Panasqueira Mine (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Solange; Silva, Susana; Walter, Alan; Ranville, James; Sousa, Ana C A; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Marta; García-Lestón, Julia; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Harrington, Chris; Taylor, Andrew; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mining activities may affect the health of miners and communities living near mining sites, and these health effects may persist even when the mine is abandoned. During mining processes various toxic wastes are produced and released into the surrounding environment, resulting in contamination of air, drinking water, rivers, plants, and soils. In a geochemical sampling campaign undertaken in the Panasqueira Mine area of central Portugal, an anomalous distribution of several metals and arsenic (As) was identified in various environmental media. Several potentially harmful elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se), were quantified in blood, urine, hair, and nails (toe and finger) from a group of individuals living near the Panasqueira Mine who were environmentally and occupationally exposed. A group with similar demographic characteristics without known exposure to mining activities was also compared. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and percentages of different lymphocyte subsets were selected as immunotoxicity biomarkers. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis showed elevated levels of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb in all biological samples taken from populations living close to the mine compared to controls. Genotoxic and immunotoxic differences were also observed. The results provide evidence of an elevated potential risk to the health of populations, with environmental and occupational exposures resulting from mining activities. Further, the results emphasize the need to implement preventive measures, remediation, and rehabilitation plans for the region.

  15. Comparative analyses of soil contaminant levels and plant species diversity at developing and disused oil well sites in Qianjiang oilfield, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Z.T.; Hu, H.X.; Wang, Y.X.

    1997-04-01

    Oilfield development contaminates soils and waters with crude oil, brine and heavy metals. Oil well sites are probably the most contaminated places in oilfields. During drilling and crude oil extraction from underground stores, a significant amount of oil and brine discharges into soils at oil well sites by blowouts, container spillages and pipeline ruptures. In oilfields in China, it was estimated that about 0.77 - 1.85% crude oil discharged into soils at oil well sites during oilfield development. Exposure to oil and salt contaminants could evoke toxicological effects in plants. Responses of plants to the contaminant exposure include inhibition of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, cessation of growth, reduced reproductive success and mortality. These harmful impacts on plants would be expected to result in remarkable loss of biodiversity. Qianjiang oilfield has been developed for about thirty-five years. Oil well sites in it have long been contaminated with oil and brine since, and plants at the well sites are rare. In the last three years however some wells have fallen into disuse. In result, a few plant species have intruded into the disuse well sites and formed new populations, and plant species diversity in these places has increased thereby. For benefit of restoration of the disuse well sites, it is interesting to know the relationships between contaminant levels and plant biodiversity. The present paper focuses the attention on comparative analyses of soil contaminations by crude oil, salt and some heavy metals and plant species diversity at developing and disuse oil well sites. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Eric Paul

    2000-09-01

    DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

  17. Role of initial contamination levels, biofilm maturity and presence of salt and fat on desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hingston, Patricia A; Stea, Emma C; Knøchel, Susanne; Hansen, Truelstrup

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of initial contamination levels, biofilm maturity and presence of salt and fatty food soils on desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel (SS) coupons. L. monocytogenes cultures grown (at 15 °C for 48 h) in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB-glu) containing either 0.5 or 5% (w/v) NaCl were re-suspended in TSB-glu containing either 0.5 or 5% NaCl and used to contaminate SS coupons at levels of 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 log CFU/cm². Desiccation (at 15 °C for 20 days, 43% RH) commenced immediately (non-biofilm) or following biofilm formation (at 15 °C for 48 h, 100% RH). To study the impact of food lipids, non-biofilm L. monocytogenes cells were suspended in TSB-glu containing either canola oil (5-10%) or lard (20-60%) and desiccated as above on SS coupons. Following desiccation for 20 days, survivors decreased by 1.4-3.7 log CFU/cm² for non-biofilm L. monocytogenes cells. The contamination level had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on survival kinetics. SEM micrographs showed mature biofilms on coupons initially contaminated with 5.5 and 7.5 log CFU/cm². Mature biofilm cells were significantly (p < 0.05) more desiccation resistant than cells in immature biofilms formed by the lowest contamination level. Besides biofilm maturity/formation, previous osmoadaptation, exposure to lard (20-60%) or salt (5%) during desiccation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the bacterium's survival. In conclusion, L. monocytogenes desiccation survival can be greatly reduced by preventing presence of mature biofilms and salty or fatty soils on food contact surfaces.

  18. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    -assisted extraction techniques used either concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) or aqua regia (a mixture of HNO3 and HCl, in 1:4 ratio) for elemental extraction. Statistical tools such as F-test, paired-data test, t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the analytical results between ICP-OES and XRF and the indoor/outdoor sampling study. This study concluded that no statistical differences existed between the indoor and outdoor levels in the studied households for Pb and As concentrations. The results also showed that the most important sources of PM10 and Pb in the indoor environment were the transport and resuspension of external dust. The result further indicated that the inorganic As is associated with the fine particulate matter and is for the most part naturally occurring. In general the hypothesis that the exposure to environmental particulate matter, Pb and As is the same for indoor and outdoor environments can be accepted for the majority of the sampling houses. The isotopic ratios for the indoor samples were somewhat larger than the corresponding outdoor isotopic Pb sample ratios, reaching background levels from several regions around the world. The outdoor Pb isotopic ratios are similar to those found in the polluted-zones from smelting activities. The digestion of soil using HNO3 and aqua regia did not affect the extraction of Pb and As. The analytical techniques XRF and ICP-OES produced similar results for the determination of As in soil samples. However, these techniques produced different results for Pb determinations. These differences were, more than likely, associated to the digestion/extraction methodology. XRF techniques can successfully substitute other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES in the quantification of some trace elements in soil samples.

  19. Strategy to evaluate persistent contaminant hazards resulting from sea-level rise and storm-derived disturbances—Study design and methodology for station prioritization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Focazio, Michael J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Zinecker, Elizabeth K.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.; Schill, William B.

    2015-10-26

    Coastal communities are uniquely vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR) and severe storms such as hurricanes. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms that could adversely affect the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a strategy to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health (EH) stressors (hereafter referred to as the Sediment-Bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response [SCoRR] strategy). A tiered, multimetric approach will be used to (1) identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors, (2) define the baseline mixtures of EH stressors present in sediments and correlations of relevance, (3) document post-event changes in EH stressors present in sediments, and (4) establish and apply metrics to quantify changes in coastal resilience associated with sediment-bound contaminants. Integration of this information provides a means to improve assessment of the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and SLR (incremental) disturbances. This report describes the purpose and design of the SCoRR strategy and the methods used to construct a decision support tool to identify candidate sampling stations vulnerable to contaminants that may be mobilized by coastal storms.

  20. Fixation Mechanisms and Desorption Rates of Sorbed Cs in High-Level Waste Contaminated Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Future Behavior and In-Ground Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; McKinley, James P.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Serne, R. Jeff

    2001-06-01

    The high-yield fission product 137Cs is a major contaminant of the vadose zone at Hanford and other DOE sites. Over 100 kCi of 137Cs was discharged to the vadose zone in the S-SX tank farm at Hanford through the leakage of high-level waste from tanks SX-108 and SX-109. Although 137Cs is strongly sorbed by subsurface sediments, certain waste characteristics, such as high Na+, can expedite its migration and reduce its retardation to low values. This project is focused on defining the in-ground geochemistry of sorbed 137Cs released from high-level waste tanks, so that better future projections can be made of Cs mobility in the vadose zone. The project will study Cs-contaminated subsurface sediments from various Hanford tank farms to (1) determine the mineralogic and surface site residence of sorbed Cs in contaminated sediments varying in current Cs content and original waste composition, (2) establish geochemical factors and processes controlling Cs desorbability and desorption kinetics from contaminated sediment and Cs-enriched sediment particles, and (3) define and parameterize a kinetic model for Cs desorption that incorporates multi-site behavior and heterogeneous intraparticle Cs distribution.

  1. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  2. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  3. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  4. Mapping Zn, Cu and Cd contents at the small catchment level after dispersion of contaminants by agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion of trace metals into the rural environment through the use of sewage sludge, fertilizers and manure has been worldwide reported. In El Abelar (Coruña province, Spain), pig slurry was discharged during years intensively into an agricultural field by means of a device which constituted a point source of contamination. The application point was located near the head of an elementary basin, so that slurry was dispersed by runoff into neighboring grassland and maize fields. In addition, diffuse pollution was also present in the study area as a consequence of cattle grazing. Water quality was monitored during and after slurry application at the outlet of a small catchment (about 10.7 ha in surface) draining the study fields. High levels of nutrients, including heavy metals, were found in drainage water. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the spatial variability of Cu, Zn and Cd as extracted by NO3H, EDTA and Ca2Cl and to evaluate the risk of accumulation of these heavy metals at the small catchment level. A set of 55 soil samples were taken from the top soil layer (0-20 cm) of the studied catchment, following a random sampling scheme. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd contents were determined i) after digestion by nitric acid in a microwave (USEPA-SW-846 3051) ii) after extraction with EDTA and iii) after extraction with Cl2Ca. Element contents in the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. Summary statistics indicate that variability in Cu, Zn and Cd contents over the study area was very high. For example, after NO3H digestion Zn contents ranged from 29.66 to 141.77 3 mg kg-1 and Cu contents varied from 10.45 to 72.7 3 mg kg-1. High Cu and Zn contents result from accumulation as a consequence of slurry discharge. Also, some hot spots with high levels of Cd (> 3 mg kg-1 after NO3H) with respect to background values were recorded. Geostatistics provides all necessary tools to analyze the spatial variability of soil properties over a landscape. The spatial

  5. Assessment of the level of microbial contamination in cotton and synthetic fibers destined for the use in nonwoven applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial burden measurements are crucial for certain converter uses of nonwoven materials. Currently, the microbial burden of natural fibers such as cotton have not been quantified and little consideration has been given to the potential contamination introduced by synthetic fibers during the proc...

  6. Metabolic and genomic analysis elucidates strain-level variation in Microbacterium spp. isolated from chromate contaminated sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a soluble carcinogen, has caused widespread contamination of soil and water in many industrial nations. Bacteria have been shown to play an active role in the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), which is insoluble and less toxic, however, the biological ...

  7. Sea ice-associated diet change increases the levels of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in polar bears.

    PubMed

    Mckinney, Melissa A; Peacock, Elizabeth; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-06-15

    Two global environmental issues, climate change and contamination by persistent organic pollutants, represent major concerns for arctic ecosystems. Yet, it is unclear how these two stressors interact in the Arctic. For instance, the influence of climate-associated changes in food web structure on exposure to pollutants within arctic ecosystems is presently unknown. Here, we report on recent changes in feeding ecology (1991-2007) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the western Hudson Bay subpopulation that have resulted in increases in the tissue concentrations of several chlorinated and brominated contaminants. Differences in timing of the annual sea ice breakup explained a significant proportion of the diet variation among years. As expected from climate change predictions, this diet change was consistent with an increase in the consumed proportions of open water-associated seal species compared to ice-associated seal species in years of earlier sea ice breakup. Our results demonstrate that climate change is a modulating influence on contaminants in this polar bear subpopulation and may pose an additional and previously unidentified threat to northern ecosystems through altered exposures to contaminants.

  8. Assessing Nation-wide Distributions of Contaminant Levels in Selected Finfish and Shellfish from the Estuaries of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of mercury is well documented and has led to laws and regulations governing its use and disposal; however mercury contamination of coastal and estuarine biota continues to be of public concern. The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program provided da...

  9. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly (p < 0.05) greater rates of degradation for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions were observed in treatments (III-IV) compared to treatments (I-II), and this was especially the case with the degradative rates for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil.

  10. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  11. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R.; Meltzer, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  12. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  13. Changes in microbial contamination levels of porcine carcasses and fresh pork in slaughterhouses, processing lines, retail outlets, and local markets by commercial distribution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Park, H J; Jang, H I; Kim, S A; Imm, J Y; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in microbial contamination levels of each porcine carcass and fresh pork in a general distribution process. A total of 100 commercial pigs were sampled (six sampling sites per individual, total 600 samples) at four sequential stages: slaughterhouse (after carcass grading and boning), processing line, retail outlet, and local market. No significant differences were observed in the contaminant percentages among sampling sites and sample collection years (P>0.05) with the exception of Bacillus cereus. The contaminant percentage of B. cereus at 1st collection year was higher than these of 2nd collection year (28.31% vs. 12.26%, P<0.05). B. cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently detected pathogenic bacteria in the slaughterhouse and markets, respectively. On the other hand, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected in carcasses or pork collected from any carcass sites and pork samples. However, the frequency of pathogenic bacteria in end-products at local markets was not highly related to the initial contamination of porcine carcasses in the slaughterhouse. Thus, the improvement of microbial safety for pork end-products requires hygienic control of porcine carcasses and meat cutting during all operations in the slaughterhouse, processing line, retail outlet, and local market.

  14. Water-related infrastructure in a region of post-earthquake Haiti: high levels of fecal contamination and need for ongoing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Jocelyn M; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Morrissey, B David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K; Johnson, Judith A; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-10-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km(2)) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water.

  15. Trace metal and metalloid contamination levels in soils and in two native plant species of a former industrial site: evaluation of the phytostabilization potential.

    PubMed

    Testiati, Eti; Parinet, Julien; Massiani, Catherine; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Lenoble, Véronique; Masotti, Véronique; Prudent, Pascale

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at identifying the extent and type of contamination of a former lead smelting site in the area of Marseille, France, dating from the industrial revolution, and to evaluate environmental hazards and opportunities for phytoremediation, a promising sustainable technology. Amongst the native plants growing in this semiarid shrub ecosystem, two perennials Globularia alypum L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were selected. Twenty-one soil/plant couples were collected and seventeen additional soil samples were added to better characterize the soil pollution of the area. A multi-contamination by Pb, As, Sb, Zn, Cu was demonstrated, with huge variations within the contamination levels. The soils highest concentrations were encountered along the horizontal chimney and on the slag heaps area. However, both sites differed from each other. The former was characterized by the highest Pb, As and Sb concentrations that could reach 130, 7.0 and 9.0gkg(-1) respectively, the latter, by high Cu, Fe, Mn, S concentrations, even if it was also heavily contaminated by Pb and Zn. G. alypum and R. officinalis were shown to be metal-tolerant and to accumulate trace metals and As. Due to the low bioconcentration and translocation factors determined, both species may not be used for phytoextraction, but seem to be good candidates for phytostabilization.

  16. Water-Related Infrastructure in a Region of Post-Earthquake Haiti: High Levels of Fecal Contamination and Need for Ongoing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Alam, Meer T.; Morrissey, B. David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K.; Johnson, Judith A.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km2) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water. PMID:25071005

  17. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  18. Metabolic and genomic analysis elucidates strain-level variation in Microbacterium spp. isolated from chromate contaminated sediment

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Michael W.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Kourtev, Peter S.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Dunn, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a soluble carcinogen that has caused widespread contamination of soil and water in many industrial nations. Bacteria have the potential to aid remediation as certain strains can catalyze the reduction of Cr(VI) to insoluble and less toxic Cr(III). Here, we examine Cr(VI) reducing Microbacterium spp. (Cr-K1W, Cr-K20, Cr-K29, and Cr-K32) isolated from contaminated sediment (Seymore, Indiana) and show varying chromate responses despite the isolates’ phylogenetic similarity (i.e., identical 16S rRNA gene sequences). Detailed analysis identified differences based on genomic metabolic potential, growth and general metabolic capabilities, and capacity to resist and reduce Cr(VI). Taken together, the discrepancies between the isolates demonstrate the complexity inter-strain variation can have on microbial physiology and related biogeochemical processes. PMID:26587353

  19. Comparison of Campylobacter contamination levels on chicken carcasses between modern and traditional types of slaughtering facilities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rejab, Saira Banu Mohamed; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard; Patchanee, Prapas

    2012-01-01

    A total of 360 samples including fresh fecal droppings, neck skins, and swab samples was collected from 24 broiler flocks and processed by 12 modern processing plants in 6 states in Malaysia. Ninety samples from 10 traditional wet markets located in the same states as modern processing plants were also collected. Microbiological isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006 (E). The overall rate of contamination for Campylobacter in modern processing plants and in traditional wet markets was 61.1% (220/360) and 85.6% (77/90), respectively. Campylobacter jejuni was detected as the majority with approximately 70% for both facilities. In the modern processing plants, the contamination rate for Campylobacter gradually declined from 80.6% before the inside-outside washing to 62.5% after inside-outside washing and to 38.9% after the post chilling step. The contamination rate for Campylobacter from processed chicken neck skin in traditional wet markets (93.3%) was significantly (P<0.01) higher than in modern processing plants (38.9%).

  20. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-10-15

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review.

  1. Response Mechanisms of Bacterial Degraders to Environmental Contaminants on the Level of Cell Walls and Cytoplasmic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial strains living in the environment must cope with the toxic compounds originating from humans production. Surface bacterial structures, cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, surround each bacterial cell and create selective barriers between the cell interior and the outside world. They are a first site of contact between the cell and toxic compounds. Organic pollutants are able to penetrate into cytoplasmic membrane and affect membrane physiological functions. Bacteria had to evolve adaptation mechanisms to counteract the damage originated from toxic contaminants and to prevent their accumulation in cell. This review deals with various adaptation mechanisms of bacterial cell concerning primarily the changes in cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall. Cell adaptation maintains the membrane fluidity status and ratio between bilayer/nonbilayer phospholipids as well as the efflux of toxic compounds, protein repair mechanisms, and degradation of contaminants. Low energy consumption of cell adaptation is required to provide other physiological functions. Bacteria able to survive in toxic environment could help us to clean contaminated areas when they are used in bioremediation technologies. PMID:25057269

  2. The importance of exogenous contamination on heavy metal levels in bird feathers. A field experiment with free-living great tits, Parus major.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel; Veerle, Jaspers; Tom, Dauwe; Rianne, Pinxten; Lieven, Bervoets; Ronny, Blust; Marcel, Eens

    2004-04-01

    Feathers have been used extensively as non-destructive biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Birds excrete heavy metals into growing feathers during moult. After feather formation, the feathers become isolated from the rest of the body, suggesting that the feathers contain information of circulating heavy metal concentrations in the blood at the time of their development. However, heavy metal levels may change due to exogenous contamination, resulting in higher concentrations in feathers that are exposed most to exogenous conditions. We studied the effect of exogenous contamination in free-living adult great tits (Parus major) by measuring--within the same individual--the concentrations of twelve heavy metals (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Tl and Zn) in three outermost tail feathers that were exposed to exogenous contamination for different periods of time. In particular, for each individual heavy metal levels in the removed left outermost tail feather were compared with levels in the regrown left and the right outermost tail feather, that were both removed 40 days after removal of the original left feather. This study revealed that, with the exception of mercury, the concentration of all heavy metals was significantly different among the three outermost tail feathers. Our results suggest that concentrations of most heavy metals build up with increasing age of the feather, indicating that exogenous contamination may be an important source of heavy metals in feathers. However, we found no significant differences in Hg concentrations and we found only small differences in Zn concentrations among tail feathers. Consequently, the concentrations of zinc and mercury in feathers are probably primarily due to endogenous deposition. PMID:15054546

  3. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  4. Characterization of and waste acceptance radionuclide to be reported for the 2nd macro-batch of high-level waste sludge being vitrified in the DWPF melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T.L.

    2000-01-26

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), is currently processing the second million gallon batch (Macro-Batch 2) of radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass for permanent geological disposal. To meet the reporting requirements as specified in the Department of Energy's Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), for the final glass product, the nonradioactive and radioactive compositions must be provided for a Macro-Batch of material. In order to meet this requirement, sludge slurry samples from Macro-Batch 2 were analyzed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). This information is used to complete the necessary Production Records at DWPF so that the final glass product, resulting from Macro Batch 2, may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. This paper describes the results obtained from the analyses of the sludge slurry samples taken from Macro-Batch 2 to meet the reporting requirements of the WAPS. Twenty eight elements were identified for the nonradioactive composition and thirty one for the radioactive composition. The reportable radioisotopes range from C-14 to Cm-246.

  5. Multifactorial Effects of Ambient Temperature, Precipitation, Farm Management, and Environmental Factors Determine the Level of Generic Escherichia coli Contamination on Preharvested Spinach

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only. PMID:25636850

  6. Multifactorial effects of ambient temperature, precipitation, farm management, and environmental factors determine the level of generic Escherichia coli contamination on preharvested spinach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-04-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only.

  7. Use of Multi-Level Wells in Developing a 3-Dimensional Understanding of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Migration at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K M; Nichols, R L; Flach, G P; Sappington, F; Simmons, J L; Betivas, C R; Shoffner, L R; Falise, F R

    2003-02-25

    Understanding the flow of groundwater and contaminants in 3-dimensions, along with hydraulic properties, is instrumental in selection and implementation of successful remediation efforts. Advances in multi-level groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are enabling engineers and geologists to collect the needed characterization data in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The SRS has developed a new multi-level groundwater monitoring well, "StrataSampler", which is being deployed for characterization and monitoring at several large groundwater plumes on the SRS. The installation method used allowed collection of data during the drilling process allowing optimization of screen placement within the aquifers and minimization of drilling costs and waste generation. Data generated during the installation of the StrataSamplers along with data collected from the installed wells is being used to understand the 3-dimensional nature of contaminant fate and transport. The L-Area Southern Groundwater Operable Unit is the first full-scale deployment of StrataSampler wells at SRS. Twenty-two StrataSampler wells with a total of 52 sampling zones were installed. The installation, development, hydraulic testing, sampling of the StrataSamplers at this unit and the resulting understanding of the contaminant plumes will be discussed in the paper and presentation.

  8. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  9. Seasonal differences in the physiology of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) from estuaries with varying levels of anthropogenic contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jones, Malcolm B.

    2011-07-01

    This study reports the seasonal variability in aspects of the physiology of the shore crab Carcinus maenas from three estuaries in South-west England, each with varying anthropogenic inputs: Avon Estuary ('relatively low' impact), Yealm Estuary ('intermediate' impact) and Plym Estuary ('relatively high' impact). Crabs collected over 12 months from the Avon had a significantly 'lower' physiological condition in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn; in particular, haemocyte phagocytic capability (a general indicator of immune function) was significantly higher in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn, and total haemolymph antioxidant status (an indicator of oxidative stress) was significantly lower in winter compared to the remainder of the year. Potentially, shore crabs may be more susceptible to the effects of contaminant exposure, such as increased immunotoxicity (thus, reduction of immune function) and/or oxyradicals (or reactive oxygen species) exposure) especially in seasons of increased susceptibility i.e. summer/autumn (lower phagocytic capability) and winter (lowest antioxidant function). As the Avon was taken to represent the 'reference' site, this pattern is considered to reflect the 'normal' seasonal variability in shore crab physiology. Shore crab physiological condition from the 'relatively high' impact estuary (Plym) revealed increased cellular viability and antioxidant status in autumn and winter compared with that of the 'standard' pattern (Avon) However, crabs from the intermediate impact estuary (Yealm) only demonstrated significant physiological differences in summer as shown by a lower cellular viability. All crabs had been exposed to PAHs (confirmed by the presence of PAH metabolites in their urine) which may account for the observed differences in shore crab physiology. In conclusion, to aid understanding of the potential contaminant impacts on biota it is imperative that the 'normal' seasonal variability of physiological

  10. Treatment of Navy landfill leachate contaminated with low levels of priority pollutants. Final report, Jun 89-Mar 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, C.; Regan, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses remediation of landfill leachate and contaminated ground water at selected Naval facilities. A conventional treatment train (air stripping, ion exchange, and carbon adsorption) was used to illustrate the treatment potential for a diluted leachate at Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. The treatment removed specified organics to below 29 ppb and specified metals to below California's drinking water standards. Available costs for conventional and innovative treatment trains were considered. Treatment technologies include oil water separators, activated sludge, trickling filter, powdered activated carbon, neutralization, oxidation reduction, precipitation/floculation/sedimentation, and air stripping.

  11. Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Smuin, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both {sup 99}Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators.

  12. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  13. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  14. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  15. HOW TO DEAL WITH WASTE ACCEPTANCE UNCERTAINTY USING THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS CAPABILITY SYSTEM (WACFACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Redus, K. S.; Hampshire, G. J.; Patterson, J. E.; Perkins, A. B.

    2002-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria Forecasting and Analysis Capability System (WACFACS) is used to plan for, evaluate, and control the supply of approximately 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous wastes from over 60 environmental restoration projects between FY02 through FY10 to the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). WACFACS is a validated decision support tool that propagates uncertainties inherent in site-related contaminant characterization data, disposition volumes during EMWMF operations, and project schedules to quantitatively determine the confidence that risk-based performance standards are met. Trade-offs in schedule, volumes of waste lots, and allowable concentrations of contaminants are performed to optimize project waste disposition, regulatory compliance, and disposal cell management.

  16. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  17. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  18. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  19. Beta Emitter Radionuclides (90Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting

    PubMed Central

    Iammarino, Marco; dell’Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg–1). All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1). In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human. PMID:27800378

  20. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  1. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth. PMID:15963553

  2. Assessment of trace metals contamination level, bioavailability and toxicity in sediments from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-11-01

    Trace metals have the potential to associate with sediments that have been recognised as significant source of contamination for the benthic environment. The current study aims assessing the trace metals contamination level in sediments from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary, and to examine their bioavailability to predict potential toxicity of sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected between June 2012 and January 2013 in three sampling periods from eight stations. Trace metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. Geoaccumulation indexes (Igeo) showed strong pollution by Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb confirmed by enrichment factor (EF) suggesting that these metals derived from anthropogenic sources. Toxicity indexes exceeded one in several sites suggesting the potential effects on sediment-dwelling organisms, which may constitute a risk to populations' health. However, seasonal variability of metal bioavailability was noted, revealing the best period to monitor metal contamination. From an ecotoxicological point of view, concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were above the effects range low threshold limit of the sediment quality guidelines for adverse biological effects. In addition, with Pb concentrations above the effect range medium values in some sites, biological effects may occur.

  3. Assessment of persistent brominated and chlorinated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders, Belgium: Levels, profiles and health risk.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Eulaers, Igor; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Pooled yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, collected between 2000 and 2009 from 60 locations in Flanders (Belgium) were investigated for persistent contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). The current study expands the knowledge regarding these contaminant concentrations, their patterns and distribution profiles in aquatic ecosystems. PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs, and DDTs were detected in all eel samples and some samples had high concentrations (up to 1400, 9500, 41,600 and 7000ng/g lw, respectively). PCB levels accounted for the majority of the contamination in most samples. The high variability in PBDE, HBCD, PCB and DDT concentrations reported here is likely due to the variety in sampling locations demonstrating variable local pollution pressures, from highly industrialised areas to small rural creeks. Among PBDEs, BDE-47 (57% contribution to the sum PBDEs), -100 (19%) and -99 (15%) were the predominant congeners, similar to the composition reported in the literature in eel samples. For HBCDs, α-HBCD (74%) was predominant followed by γ-(22%) and β-HBCD (4%) isomers in almost all eel samples. CB-153 (19%) was the most dominant PCB congener, closely followed by CB-138 (11%), CB-180 (9%), CB-187 (8%) and CB-149 (7%). The contribution to the total human exposure through local wild eel consumption was also highly variable. Intake of PBDEs and HBCDs, through consumption of wild eel, was below the RfD values for the average population (consuming on average 2.9g eel/day). At 16 out 60 sites, eels exceeded largely the new EU consumption threshold for PCBs (300ng/g ww for the sum of 6 indicator PCBs). The current data shows an on-going exposure of Flemish eels to PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs and DDTs through indirect release from contaminated sediments or direct releases from various industries.

  4. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  5. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Dupuy, A. E. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  6. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that Type IV

  7. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food

  8. Summary Of Identification Of Rrgulatory Acceptability Of Enhanced Attenuation Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K

    2006-01-04

    Chlorinated solvents once introduced to the subsurface are a persistent contaminant. Though many types of active treatments have been developed and deployed to treat contaminated sites, most sites will ultimately incorporate the use of passive treatments into the remediation process. A process favored by many is the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation that relies on the natural attenuation processes occurring within the system to remediate the contaminants. However, it is likely there will be instances where the natural attenuation processes will be insufficient to reduce the level of contamination to acceptable levels in an acceptable span of time. Rather than redeploying source treatments, the Department of Energy along with the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) are developing the concept of Enhanced Attenuation (EA). An enhancement is any type of intervention that might be implemented in a source-plume system that increases the magnitude of attenuation by natural processes beyond that which occurs without intervention. Enhanced Attenuation is the result of applying an enhancement or intervention technique that will sustainably manipulate a natural attenuation process leading to an increased reduction in mass flux of contaminants. Efforts are moving forward along several fronts in developing this concept. This effort is a follow-on to initial discussions with site owners, regulators and stakeholder organizations in the development of the concepts of Enhanced Attenuation, the use of mass balance to evaluate the stability of a waste site/groundwater plume, and identification of tools that will support characterization and monitoring efforts for MNA and EA treatments. Those discussions are documented in the report titled ''Summary Document of Workshops for Hanford, Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site as part of the Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation for Chlorinated Solvents-DOE Alternative Project for Technology

  9. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  10. Spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration, and risk assessment of nitrate contamination in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kelin; Huang, Yuangfang; Li, Hong; Li, Baoguo; Chen, Deli; White, Robert Edlin

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, nitrate (NO3) contamination of groundwater has become a growing concern for people in rural areas in North China Plain (NCP) where groundwater is used as drinking water. The objective of this study was to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3 pollution in groundwater in Quzhou County in the NCP. Ordinary Kriging (OK) method was used to analyze the spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) and NO3-N concentrations, and Indictor Kriging (IK) method was used to analyze the data with NO3-N concentrations equal or greater than the groundwater NO3 pollution threshold (20 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that groundwater level averaged 9.81 m, a level 6 m lower than in 1990. The spatial correlation distances for groundwater level, EC and NO3-N concentration were 21.93, 2.19 and 3.55 km, respectively. The contour map showed that shallow groundwater level areas extended from north to south across the County. Groundwater EC was above 3 dS m(-1) in the most part of the northern county. Groundwater NO3 pollution (NO3-N> or =20 mg L(-1)) mainly occurred in the County Seat areas due to wastewater irrigation and excessive fertilizer leaching from agricultural fields. At Henantuang town, besides suburban of the County Seat, groundwater was also contaminated by NO3 shown by the map generated using the IK method, which was not reflected in the map generated using the OK method. The map generated using the OK method could not reflect correctly the groundwater NO3 pollution status. The IK method is useful to assess the risk of NO3 pollution by giving the conditional probability of NO3 concentration exceeding the threshold value. It is suggested that risk assessment of NO3 pollution is useful for better managing groundwater resource, preventing soil salinization and minimizing NO3 pollution in groundwater.

  11. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-01

    production chain, and the concerning situation of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species. The findings also indicated that Campylobacter isolates from retail broiler meats were associated with fecal contamination in the slaughterhouse, underlying the need for improved measures for reducing carcass contamination in slaughter plants.

  12. A role for transforming growth factor-{beta} apoptotic signaling pathway in liver injury induced by ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael, A.I.; Almeida, A.; Santos, P.; Parreira, I.; Madeira, V.M.S.; Alves, R.; Cabrita, A.M.S.; Alpoim, M.C.

    2007-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure is commonly associated with lung cancer. Although other adverse health effects have been reported, some authors, on assuming that orally ingested Cr(VI) is efficiently detoxified upon reduction by body fluids, believe that Cr(VI) do not target cells other than respiratory tract cells. In rodents, ingested Cr(VI)-contaminated water was reported to induce, in the liver, increases in TGF-{beta} transcripts. As TGF-{beta} dependent signaling pathways are closely associated with hepatic injury, the present study was undertaken addressing two specific issues: the effects of ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI) in rat liver structure and function; and the role of the TGF-{beta} pathway in Cr(VI)-induced liver injury. Examination of Wistar rats exposed to 20 ppm Cr(VI)-contaminated water for 10 weeks showed increased serum glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Liver histological examination revealed hepatocellular apoptosis, further confirmed by immunohystochemical study of Caspase 3 expression. Liver gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of Smad2/Smad4 and Dapk, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-{beta} pathway in the apoptotic process. Since no changes in Smad3 expression were observed it appears apoptosis is using a Smad3-independent pathway. Increased expression of both Caspase 8 and Daxx genes suggests also the involvement of the Fas pathway. Gene expression analysis also revealed that a p160{sup ROCK}-Rho-independent pathway operates, leading to cell contraction and membrane blebbing, characteristic apoptotic features. These findings suggest that either the amount of Cr(VI) ingested overwhelmed the body fluids reductive capacity or some Cr(VI) escapes the reductive protection barrier, thus targeting the liver and inducing apoptosis.

  13. Selected morphological characteristics, lead uptake and phytochelatin synthesis by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.) grown in elevated levels of lead-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria F T

    2011-06-01

    Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb), and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods) were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted.

  14. Selected Morphological Characteristics, Lead Uptake and Phytochelatin Synthesis by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.) Grown in Elevated Levels of Lead-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria F. T.

    2011-01-01

    Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb), and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods) were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted. PMID:21776237

  15. Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine at part-per-trillion levels in drinking waters and contaminated groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine is a high, carcinogenic manufacturing by-product of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine a component of rocket fuel. Prior disposal practices resulted in the contamination of groundwater near certain military installations with both species. The current regulatory threshold promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for NDMA in surface waters designated for drinking is 0.7 ng NDMA/L (0.7 pptr)L. Existing procedures for determining NDMA in aqueous samples typically employ dichloromethane extraction followed by concentration to a final volume of 1 mL, and gas chromatographic analysis of a 2 {mu}L aliquot of concentrate using either a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), mass spectrometric detector, or chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND). Such a protocol does not permit detection of NDMA at the desired health-based criterion unless high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detectors are employed. The analytical procedure described in this work employed an initial solid-phase extraction of groundwater samples with a preconditioned Empore C{sub 18} disk, used to remove interfering neutral species including di-isopropylmethane phosphonate (DIMP), prior to continuous overnight extraction.

  16. Assessment of trace metal contamination level and toxicity in sediments from coastal regions of West Bengal, eastern part of India.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Mondal, Priyanka; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-30

    The work investigated concentration of trace metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm; < 63 μm grain size) from 15 sampling sites of diverse environmental stresses covering Hugli River Estuary (HRE) and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland (SMW), eastern coastal part of India. The trace metal concentrations in sediments exhibited an overall decreasing trend as follows: Cr (21.2-60.9)>Cu (11.60-102.47)>Ni (19.10-52.60)>Pb (7.09-183.88)>As (4.41-11.46)>Cd (0.02-4.4)>Ag (0.02-0.87). Both the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) values revealed significant pollution by Ag, Cd and Pb at Nurpur of HRE. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) (61.21 ± 112.40) showed wide range of variations from low (19.76) to serious (463.20) ecological risk. A positive significant correlation was found between metals and organic carbon in sediments. The ecological risk associated with the trace metals in sediment was considered on the consensus based Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The work suggests that the trace metals present in sediments posed adverse effects on the sediment-dwelling organisms. PMID:26581818

  17. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  18. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  19. Determination of contaminant levels and remediation efficacy in groundwater at a former in situ recovery uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Borch, Thomas; Roche, Nicholas; Johnson, Thomas E

    2012-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in uranium mining in the United States via in situ recovery techniques. One of the main environmental concerns with in situ uranium mining is the potential for spreading groundwater contamination. There is a dearth of detailed analysis and information regarding the outcome of in situ uranium mine remediation to ascertain the environmental impacts. Regulatory measurements performed at a Wyoming in situ uranium mine were collected and analysed to ascertain the efficacy of remediation and potential long term environmental impact. Based on the measurements, groundwater sweeping followed by reverse osmosis (RO) treatment proved to be a highly efficient method of remediation. However, injection of a reductant in the form of H(2)S after groundwater sweeping and RO did not further reduce the aqueous concentration of U, Mn, or Fe. Low concentrations of target species at monitoring wells outside the mined area appear to indicate that in the long term, natural attenuation is likely to play a major role at reductively immobilizing residual (after remediation) concentrations of U(VI) thus preventing it from moving outside the mined area. Our analysis indicates the need for additional monitoring wells and sampling in conjunction with long term monitoring to better understand the impacts of the different remediation techniques.

  20. Assessment of trace metal contamination level and toxicity in sediments from coastal regions of West Bengal, eastern part of India.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Mondal, Priyanka; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-30

    The work investigated concentration of trace metals in surface sediments (0-10 cm; < 63 μm grain size) from 15 sampling sites of diverse environmental stresses covering Hugli River Estuary (HRE) and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland (SMW), eastern coastal part of India. The trace metal concentrations in sediments exhibited an overall decreasing trend as follows: Cr (21.2-60.9)>Cu (11.60-102.47)>Ni (19.10-52.60)>Pb (7.09-183.88)>As (4.41-11.46)>Cd (0.02-4.4)>Ag (0.02-0.87). Both the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) values revealed significant pollution by Ag, Cd and Pb at Nurpur of HRE. Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) (61.21 ± 112.40) showed wide range of variations from low (19.76) to serious (463.20) ecological risk. A positive significant correlation was found between metals and organic carbon in sediments. The ecological risk associated with the trace metals in sediment was considered on the consensus based Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The work suggests that the trace metals present in sediments posed adverse effects on the sediment-dwelling organisms.