Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable contamination levels

  1. From Acceptance to Rejection: Food Contamination in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajecki, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise to explain design and measurement principles in methodology and statistics courses. This demonstration which involves measurement of a shift from food acceptance to food rejection produces meaningful data sets. The realism of the exercise gives students a view of problems that emerge in research. (KO)

  2. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  3. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  4. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  5. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  6. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  7. Defining Acceptable Levels for Ecological Indicators: An Approach for Considering Social Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Robyn L.; Watzin, Mary C.; Manning, Robert E.

    2007-03-01

    Ecological indicators can facilitate an adaptive management approach, but only if acceptable levels for those indicators have been defined so that the data collected can be interpreted. Because acceptable levels are an expression of the desired state of the ecosystem, the process of establishing acceptable levels should incorporate not just ecological understanding but also societal values. The goal of this research was to explore an approach for defining acceptable levels of ecological indicators that explicitly considers social perspectives and values. We used a set of eight indicators that were related to issues of concern in the Lake Champlain Basin. Our approach was based on normative theory. Using a stakeholder survey, we measured respondent normative evaluations of varying levels of our indicators. Aggregated social norm curves were used to determine the level at which indicator values shifted from acceptable to unacceptable conditions. For seven of the eight indicators, clear preferences were interpretable from these norm curves. For example, closures of public beaches because of bacterial contamination and days of intense algae bloom went from acceptable to unacceptable at 7-10 days in a summer season. Survey respondents also indicated that the number of fish caught from Lake Champlain that could be safely consumed each month was unacceptably low and the number of streams draining into the lake that were impaired by storm water was unacceptably high. If indicators that translate ecological conditions into social consequences are carefully selected, we believe the normative approach has considerable merit for defining acceptable levels of valued ecological system components.

  8. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in specific, adjunctive, or preventive therapy. In order for ozone to be effective as a germicide, it must be present in...

  9. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in specific, adjunctive, or preventive therapy. In order for ozone to be effective as a germicide, it must be present in...

  10. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in specific, adjunctive, or preventive therapy. In order for ozone to be effective as a germicide, it must be present in...

  11. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in specific, adjunctive, or preventive therapy. In order for ozone to be effective as a germicide, it must be present in...

  12. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in specific, adjunctive, or preventive therapy. In order for ozone to be effective as a germicide, it must be present in...

  13. Use of blood levels to infer carcass levels of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensler, G.L.; Stout, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Inferences may be made about the carcass levels of a contaminant based on the contaminant level in blood samples. A method is given for comparing such populations that utilizes bivariate normal distributions and their principal axes, thereby avoiding a dilemma arising from the use of regression techniques. Confidence intervals and power calculations are given. Data from captive barn owls provide partial justification for the use of this method.

  14. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  15. Share 35 Changes Center Level Liver Acceptance Practices.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Levine, Matthew; Karp, Seth; Gilroy, Richard; Abt, Peter L

    2017-02-27

    Share 35 was implemented to provide improved access to organs for patients with MELD scores ≥35. However, little is known about the impact of Share 35 on organ offer acceptance rates. We evaluated all liver offers to adult patients that were ultimately transplanted between 1/1/2011-12/31/2015. The analyses focused on patients ranked in the top five positions of a given match run, and used multi-level mixed-effects models, clustering on individual waitlist candidate and transplant center. There was a significant interaction between Share 35 era and MELD category (p<0.001). Comparing offers to MELD score ≥35 patients, offers post-Share 35 were 36% less likely to be accepted compared to offers to MELD score ≥35 patients pre-Share 35 (adjusted OR: 0.64). There was no clinically meaningful difference in the DRI of livers that were declined for patients with an allocation MELD score ≥35 in the pre- vs post-Share 35 era. Organ offer acceptance rates for patients with an allocation MELD≥35 decreased in every region post-Share 35; the magnitude of these changes was bigger in regions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11, compared to regions 8 and 9 that had regional sharing in place pre-Share 35. There were significant changes in organ offer acceptance rates at the center level pre- vs post-Share 35, and these changes varied across centers (p<0.001).

  16. Model approach to estimate the probability of accepting a lot of heterogeneously contaminated powdered food using different sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Valero, Antonio; Pasquali, Frédérique; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    Current sampling plans assume a random distribution of microorganisms in food. However, food-borne pathogens are estimated to be heterogeneously distributed in powdered foods. This spatial distribution together with very low level of contaminations raises concern of the efficiency of current sampling plans for the detection of food-borne pathogens like Cronobacter and Salmonella in powdered foods such as powdered infant formula or powdered eggs. An alternative approach based on a Poisson distribution of the contaminated part of the lot (Habraken approach) was used in order to evaluate the probability of falsely accepting a contaminated lot of powdered food when different sampling strategies were simulated considering variables such as lot size, sample size, microbial concentration in the contaminated part of the lot and proportion of contaminated lot. The simulated results suggest that a sample size of 100g or more corresponds to the lower number of samples to be tested in comparison with sample sizes of 10 or 1g. Moreover, the number of samples to be tested greatly decrease if the microbial concentration is 1CFU/g instead of 0.1CFU/g or if the proportion of contamination is 0.05 instead of 0.01. Mean contaminations higher than 1CFU/g or proportions higher than 0.05 did not impact on the number of samples. The Habraken approach represents a useful tool for risk management in order to design a fit-for-purpose sampling plan for the detection of low levels of food-borne pathogens in heterogeneously contaminated powdered food. However, it must be outlined that although effective in detecting pathogens, these sampling plans are difficult to be applied since the huge number of samples that needs to be tested. Sampling does not seem an effective measure to control pathogens in powdered food.

  17. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  18. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository.

  19. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  20. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  1. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  2. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  3. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  4. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  5. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  6. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    SciTech Connect

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H.; Lesperance, A.; Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area`s (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE`s technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders.

  7. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  8. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.; Callahan, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  9. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  10. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  11. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  12. Levels and trends of contaminants in humans of the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jennifer; Adlard, Bryan; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is one of the six working groups established under the Arctic Council. AMAP is tasked with monitoring the levels of contaminants present in the Arctic environment and people as well as assessing their effects on a continuous basis, and reporting these results regularly. Most of the presented data have been collected over the last 20 years and are from all eight Arctic countries. Levels of contaminants appear to be declining in some of the monitored Arctic populations, but it is not consistent across the Arctic. Most Arctic populations continue to experience elevated levels of these contaminants compared to other populations monitored globally. There are certain contaminants, such as perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which are still increasing in Arctic populations. These contaminants require more investigation to find out the predominant and important sources of exposure, and whether they are being transported to the Arctic through long-range transport in the environment. PMID:27974136

  13. Eyewear contamination levels in the operating room: infection risk.

    PubMed

    Lange, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    We investigated eyewear contamination levels in the operating room to assess infection risk and inform protocol development. Microbial contamination after use was found in 37.7% of disposable and 94.9% of reusable eyewear pieces. After disinfection, 74.4% of reusable eyewear also cultured positive. Disposable eyewear may reduce intercase contamination risk. Reusable eyewear may carry ongoing bioburden and, thus, contribute to operating room environment risk. Eyewear with antimicrobial material or components could reduce risk. Alternative decontamination methods for reusable eyewear should be evaluated.

  14. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-02-28

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application.

  15. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is determined by the addition of the results of the analysis for radium-226 and the analysis for radium-228....

  16. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is determined by the addition of the results of the analysis for radium-226 and the analysis for radium-228....

  17. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is determined by the addition of the results of the analysis for radium-226 and the analysis for radium-228....

  18. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is determined by the addition of the results of the analysis for radium-226 and the analysis for radium-228....

  19. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is determined by the addition of the results of the analysis for radium-226 and the analysis for radium-228....

  20. Lead and cadmium contamination levels in edible vegetables

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Estrada, B.; Rincon, F.; Pozo, R.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this research is to reveal the level of lead and cadmium pollution in fresh vegetable samples from the Cordovan fertile lowland region of the Guadalquivir River and to establish a base level of contamination to serve as a reference point in further studies. At the same time, the possible health risks for the consumer are discussed.

  1. Contaminant levels in fish tissue from San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, R.; Taberski, K.

    1995-12-31

    Edible fish species were collected from thirteen locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminants levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut Sixty six composite tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening levels established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ppb in all sixty six tissue samples, with the highest concentrations (638 ppb) found near San Francisco`s industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 ppm) in forty of the sixty-six samples with the highest levels (1.26 ppm) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordanes and total DDTs exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as TEQs) were elevated (above 0.15 ppt) in 16 of the 19 samples analyzed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay.

  2. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

  3. Levels of chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated contaminants in birds of prey spanning multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Yordy, Jennifer E; Rossman, Sam; Ostrom, Peggy H; Reiner, Jessica L; Bargnesi, Keely; Hughes, Stacy; Elliot, James D

    2013-04-01

    Birds of prey occupy high trophic levels and can consequently bioaccumulate high levels of environmental contaminants. To evaluate exposure to past- and current-use pollutants, we measured legacy contaminants (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]; organochlorine pesticides, e.g., DDT), contaminants of emerging concern (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs]; perfluorinated compounds [PFCs]), and stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) in 26 birds of prey (10 species) from coastal South Carolina (USA) sampled in 2009 and 2010. Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N) ranged from 5.2% to 13.7%, indicating the birds of prey spanned two to three trophic levels. Legacy contaminant levels were highly variable but generally comparable to levels reported previously for birds of prey in the southeast US, suggesting exposure has not declined substantially over the past 40 yr. Despite their status as newly emerging environmental contaminants, PFC levels were within the same order of magnitude as legacy contaminants. Although PBDEs were less prevalent, levels were among the greatest observed in wildlife to date (∑PBDEs max. 200 μg/g lipid). Relative contaminant profiles also varied between birds of prey utilizing low and high trophic levels; specifically PFCs contributed to a larger proportion of the contaminant burden in birds utilizing high trophic levels, whereas the legacy pesticide mirex was a larger contributor in low-trophic-level birds, indicating that relative exposure is in part dependent on foraging ecology. This study demonstrates that birds of prey continue to face exposure to legacy contaminants as well as newly emerging contaminants at levels of concern.

  4. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  5. Screening-level approach for estimating contaminant export from tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Velleux, M.; Gailani, J.; Endicott, D.

    1996-06-01

    The in-place pollutant export model (IPX) is a screening-level model for estimating contaminant export from tributaries with contaminated sediments to receiving waterbodies. IPX is a modified version of the USEPA`s WASP4 modeling framework. IPX synthesizes sediment transport processes for sediment aging, decreased sediment resuspendability with increasing age, and resuspension of freshly deposited sediments as a function of water velocity, into an expanded WASP4 contaminant transport and fate chassis while retaining the computational flexibility of the original framework. These process descriptions are needed to accurately simulate contaminant transport and substantially improve the framework for application to tributary systems subject to significant deposition and resuspension events. The potential for applying IPX is broad; water quality impairments attributable to contaminated sediments are widespread due to discharges from industry, agriculture, and mining and ore processing. IPX has been successfully applied to the upper and lower Fox River in Wisconsin, and the Buffalo and Oswego Rivers in New York, all impaired by contaminated sediments.

  6. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  7. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  8. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  9. Comparative study of contaminant levels in Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Gottholm, B.W.; Turgeon, D.D.; Wolfe, D.A. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper uses results from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program (NS and T) to place the environmental quality of Long Island Sound in a broader perspective. It compares levels of contaminants in blue mussels from ten Long Island Sound sites and in sediments from seven Long Island Sound sites with concentrations in the same media at 87 and 221 other sites, respectively, where comparable samples were obtained. In sediments, the levels of both trace metals and organic contaminants tend to be relatively high for Long Island sites. This is especially true for five of the twelve metals (silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and for five of six categories of organic contaminants (total chlordane, low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes). In mussels, the organic contaminant categories exhibit relatively high levels, but this is not true for most of the metals. In fact, four of the metals-arsenic, mercury, selenium, and zinc - show evidence of relatively low levels in mussels from Long Island Sound compared to other NS and T locations.

  10. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  11. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  12. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Vinicius R.; Oades, Lindsay G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412

  13. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  14. Comparing Loudness Tolerance and Acceptable Noise Level in Listeners With Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Clifford A; White, Letitia J; Franklin, Thomas C; Livengood, Lindsay G

    2016-08-01

    The present study was a follow-up investigation to a previous study exploring the relationship between listeners' loudness tolerance and listeners' acceptable noise level among normally hearing adults. The present study compared the same two measures, but data were obtained from listeners with hearing loss; 12 adults with sensorineural hearing loss participated in a loudness tolerance measure using a scaling technique initially established for setting hearing aid output limits, in addition to an acceptable noise level measure. The acceptable noise level procedure used in this study quantified the listeners' acceptance of background noise while listening to speech. As with the research involving listeners with normal hearing, the Pearson correlation procedure indicated a lack of any statistically significant correlation between the two measures.

  15. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  16. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... microbiological contaminants. MCLGs for the following contaminants are as indicated: Contaminant MCLG (1) Giardia lamblia zero (2) Viruses zero (3) Legionella zero (4) Total coliforms (including fecal coliforms...

  17. Comparative carcinogenicity of the PAHs as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various PAHs in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific PAHs were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these PAHs varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various PAHs relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific PAHs. BaP is the only carcinogenic PAH for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific PAHs a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic PAHs in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various PAHs be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific PAH, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all PAHs. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.

  18. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  19. A national level assessment of metal contamination in bats.

    PubMed

    Hernout, Béatrice V; Arnold, Kathryn E; McClean, Colin J; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-07-01

    Many populations of bat species across the globe are declining, with chemical contamination one of many potential stressors implicated in these demographic changes. Metals still contaminate a wide range of habitats, but the risks to bats remain poorly understood. This study is the first to present a national scale assessment of toxic metal (Cd, Pb) and essential trace metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in bats. Metal concentrations in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach -stomach content, bones and fur) were measured in 193 Pipistrellus sp. in England and Wales using ICP-MS, and compared to critical toxic concentrations for small mammals. The concentrations of metals determined in bat tissues were generally lower than those reported elsewhere. Strong positive associations were found between concentrations in tissues for a given metal (liver and kidneys for Cd, Cu and Pb; stomach and fur and fur and bones for Pb), suggesting recent as well as long term exposure to these contaminants. In addition, positive correlations between concentrations of different metals in the same tissues (Cd and Zn, Cu and Zn, Cd and Pb, Pb and Zn) suggest a co-exposure of metals to bats. Approximately 21% of the bats sampled contained residues of at least one metal at concentrations high enough to elicit toxic effects (associated with kidney damage), or to be above the upper level measured in other mammal species. Pb was found to pose the greatest risk (with 7-11% of the bats containing concentrations of toxicological concern), followed by Cu (4-9%), Zn (0.5-5.2%) and Cd (0%). Our data suggest that leaching of metals into our storage matrix, formaldehyde, may have occurred, especially for Cu. The overall findings suggest that metal contamination is an environmental stressor affecting bat populations, and that further research is needed into the direct links between metal contamination and bat population declines worldwide.

  20. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids.

  1. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796

  2. Influence of music and music preference on acceptable noise levels in listeners with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E

    2007-05-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is defined as the maximum level of background noise that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background noise does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background noise than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background noise than twelve-talker babble.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. PMID:28282938

  4. Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-03-09

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce-associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  6. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  7. Social Problem-Solving Skills of Children in Terms of Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…

  8. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. Acceptance Noise Level: Effects of the Speech Signal, Babble, and Listener Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Azcona, Gabrielly; Buten, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acceptable noise level (ANL) measure has gained much research/clinical interest in recent years. The present study examined how the characteristics of the speech signal and the babble used in the measure may affect the ANL in listeners with different native languages. Method: Fifteen English monolingual, 16 Russian-English bilingual,…

  10. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  11. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  12. WRAP low level waste restricted waste management (LLW RWM) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1997-11-24

    On April 22, 1997, the Low Level Waste Restricted Waste Management (LLW RWM) glovebox was tested using acceptance test procedure 13027A-87. Mr. Robert L. Warmenhoven served as test director, Mr. Kendrick Leist acted as test operator and test witness, and Michael Lane provided miscellaneous software support. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine glovebox control system interlocks, operator Interface Unit (OIU) menus, alarms, and messages. Basic drum port and lift table control sequences were demonstrated. OIU menus, messages, and alarm sequences were examined, with few exceptions noted. Barcode testing was bypassed, due to the lack of installed equipment as well as the switch from basic reliance on fixed bar code readers to the enhanced use of portable bar code readers. Bar code testing was completed during performance of the LLW RWM OTP. Mechanical and control deficiencies were documented as Test Exceptions during performance of this Acceptance Test. These items are attached as Appendix A to this report.

  13. Analytical methodology for determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements. [pilot workload and acceptance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic analytical approach to the determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements is formulated. The approach is based upon the hypothesis that pilot acceptance level or opinion rating of a given system is inversely related to the degree of pilot involvement in the control task. A nonlinear simulation of the helicopter approach to landing task incorporating appropriate models for UH-1H aircraft, the environmental disturbances and the human pilot was developed as a tool for evaluating the pilot acceptance hypothesis. The simulated pilot model is generic in nature and includes analytical representation of the human information acquisition, processing, and control strategies. Simulation analyses in the flight director mode indicate that the pilot model used is reasonable. Results of the simulation are used to identify candidate pilot workload metrics and to test the well known performance-work-load relationship. A pilot acceptance analytical methodology is formulated as a basis for further investigation, development and validation.

  14. Research to Support the Determination of Spacecraft Maximum Acceptable Concentrations of Potential Atmospheric Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In many ways, the typical approach to the handling of bibliographic material for generating review articles and similar manuscripts has changed little since the use of xerographic reproduction has become widespread. The basic approach is to collect reprints of the relevant material and place it in folders or stacks based on its dominant content. As the amount of information available increases with the passage of time, the viability of this mechanical approach to bibliographic management decreases. The personal computer revolution has changed the way we deal with many familiar tasks. For example, word processing on personal computers has supplanted the typewriter for many applications. Similarly, spreadsheets have not only replaced many routine uses of calculators but have also made possible new applications because the cost of calculation is extremely low. Objective The objective of this research was to use personal computer bibliographic software technology to support the determination of spacecraft maximum acceptable concentration (SMAC) values. Specific Aims The specific aims were to produce draft SMAC documents for hydrogen sulfide and tetrachloroethylene taking maximum advantage of the bibliographic software.

  15. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) I... Part 257—Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Promulgated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) I... Part 257—Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Promulgated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene...

  18. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  19. Factors that influence the level of contamination of human milk with poly-chlorinated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Albers, J M; Kreis, I A; Liem, A K; van Zoonen, P

    1996-02-01

    Polychlorinated organic compounds (POCs) accumulate in tissues with a high fat content. Nursed babies are exposed to POCs through the fat in human milk. Exposure levels are estimated to exceed those considered acceptable as a lifelong daily dose. Nevertheless, mothers are still positively advised as to breast-feeding. In 1988, a survey on contamination of human milk with POCs was carried out in The Netherlands. Levels of ten different organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and seventeen polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and -dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners were determined by use of gaschromatographic techniques with either electron-capture or mass-spectrometric detection. Information on some factors potentially influencing the level of contamination of human milk was obtained by questionnaires. The estimated response amounted to 71 percent. Regression analysis was used to investigate associations between determining factors and specific contaminants. It appeared that maternal age was positively associated with POC concentrations. Traditional omnivorous diet was associated with lower concentrations of POCs when compared to all other types of diet. The post-pregnancy Quetelet Index [by definition calculated as weight/(length)2] and the cumulated period of previous breast-feeding were negatively associated with POC concentrations. In conclusion, chemical behavior and environmental distribution patterns of the POCs measured in this study, if translated to factors of human exposure, are in accordance with the study results. Exposure levels will decrease if emissions can be further reduced. Still, in the near future, maternal age will probably rise (Vermunt 1992; Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics 1992), whereas the duration of lactation in expected to decline. Consequently, there might be an increase in average POC-concentrations in human milk in the forthcoming years.

  20. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  1. Impact of extreme metal contamination at the supra-individual level in a contaminated bay ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic stressors impact the global environment and adversely affect the health of organisms and humans. This study was designed as an attempt to evaluate the ecological consequences of severe metal contamination at the supra-individual level based on a field investigation in Jinzhou Bay (JZB), North China in 2010. The chemical results showed high concentrations of metals in the sediment of JZB that were ~129 times greater than the local geochemical background. Furthermore, the measured metals exhibited considerably high toxicity potential indicated by sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). The mean SQGs quotients suggested the overall toxicity incidence was >70% in locations neighboring the Wulihe River mouth. Biomonitoring revealed 116 individuals distributed among a mere 6 species, 4 of which were polychaetes, at 33% of the sampling sites. Thus, few benthic organisms were present in the damaged community structures across the region, which was consistent with the extreme metal contamination. Moreover, the sediment quality assessment, in a weight of evidence framework, demonstrated that the sediment throughout the entire JZB was moderately to severely impaired, especially in the vicinity of the Wulihe River mouth. By synthesizing the present and previous chemical-biological monitoring campaigns, a possible cause-effect relationship between chemical stressors and benthic receptors was established. We also found that the hydrodynamics, sediment sources, and geochemical characteristics of the metals (in addition to the sources of the metals) were responsible for the geochemical distribution of metals in JZB. The significance of the overall finding is that the deleterious responses observed at the community level may possibly be linked to the extreme chemical stress in the sediment of JZB.

  2. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  3. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  4. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment.

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Henning; Eriksson, Mats; Nielsen, Sven P; Joensen, Hans Pauli

    2004-09-20

    Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of 137Cs, 90Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of 137Cs. Reindeer and lamb contain the largest observed 137Cs concentrations in the terrestrial environment--up to 80 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight have been observed in reindeer. Due to special environmental conditions, 137Cs is transferred to landlocked Arctic char with extremely high efficiency in South Greenland leading to concentrations up to 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight. In these cases very long ecological half-lives are seen. Concentrations of 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and in marine biota decrease in the order North-East Greenland and the coastal East Greenland current > South-West Greenland > Central West Greenland and North-West Greenland > Irmiger Sea-Faroe Islands. The general large-scale oceanic circulation combined with European coastal discharges and previous contamination of the Arctic Ocean causes this. As the same tendency is seen for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) DDT and PCB in marine biota, it is suggested that long-distance oceanic transport by coastal currents is a significant pathway also for POPs in the Greenland marine environment. The peak 99Tc discharge from Sellafield 1994-1995 has only been slightly visible in the present survey year 2000. The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low--and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is

  5. Assessment of natural background levels in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Molinari, A; Chidichimo, F; Straface, S; Guadagnini, A

    2014-04-01

    The estimation of natural background levels (NBLs) of dissolved concentrations of target chemical species in subsurface reservoirs relies on a proper assessment of the effects of forcing terms driving flow and transport processes taking place within the system and whose dynamics drive background concentration values. We propose coupling methodologies based on (a) global statistical analyses and (b) numerical modeling of system dynamics to distinguish between the impacts of different types of external forcing components influencing background concentration values. We focus on the joint application of a statistical methodology based on Component Separation and experimental/numerical modeling studies of groundwater flow and transport for the NBL estimation of selected chemical species in potentially contaminated coastal aquifers. We consider a site which is located in Calabria, Italy, and constitutes a typical example of a Mediterranean coastal aquifer which has been subject to intense industrial development. Our study is keyed to the characterization of NBLs of manganese and sulfate and is geared to the proper identification of the importance of a natural external forcing (i.e., seawater intrusion) on NBL assessment. Results from the Component Separation statistical approach are complemented by numerical simulations of the advective-dispersive processes that could influence the distribution of chemical species (i.e., sulfate) within the system. Estimated NBLs for manganese are consistent with the geochemical composition of soil samples. While Component Separation ascribes the largest detected sulfate concentrations to anthropogenic sources, our numerical modeling analysis suggests that they are mainly related to the natural process of seawater intrusion. Our results indicate that the use of statistical methodologies in complex groundwater systems should be assisted by a detailed characterization of the dynamics of natural (and/or induced) processes to distinguish

  6. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs.

  7. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed Central

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  8. Ensuring an acceptable reliability and safety level for a launch complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadzhaev, Vadim; Barmin, Igor; Denoyers, Jean-Yves; Ragot, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Some key aspects and criteria tasks for ensuring an acceptable reliability and safety level for complex technical systems are discussed in the view of successful operation of a launch complex, at the stage of Launch Vehicle (LV) preparation. The standards and principles of adequate characteristics for launch site core technological systems are defined. The tasks for evaluation the probability of faultless operation for the systems, their reliability a posteriori, and safety barriers formation are described. The model of the pre-launch phase is presented as a random process, in the form of "simple Poisson flow".

  9. Acceptability of Low Level White Lighting in the Control Room at Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-05

    LIGHTING IN THE CONTROL ROOM AT SEA by S. M. Luria and D. A. Kobus Naval Medical Research and Development Command Research Work Unit M0100.001...release; distribution unlimited. ACCEPTABILITY OF LOW LEVEL WHITE LIGHTING " IN THE CONTROL ROOM AT SEA by S. M. Luria , Ph.D. David A. Kobus, LT...ltr 9330 Ser 51/434 to CO, NSMRL of 18 Nov 1984. 3 Luria , S. M. and David A. Kobus. The relative effectiveness of red and white light for

  10. Comparison of the acceptability ratings of appetizers under laboratory, base level and high altitude field conditions.

    PubMed

    Premavalli, K S; Wadikar, D D; Nanjappa, C

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between laboratory and field ratings was investigated for six different appetizers, including four ready-to-reconstitute mixes and two ready-to-eat munches. Liking ratings on a 5-point hedonic scale were obtained from an Indian Army field study at base level as well as at an altitude of 11,500 ft above sea level and for the same appetizers in the laboratory. The field trials of the six products were conducted in two phases and results revealed that the products were more acceptable at altitude, with increased liking scores as compared to base level. Subjective ratings for hunger revealed that at altitude, appetizer consumption had stimulated the appetite of the soldiers. The ability of laboratory ratings to predict acceptability of foods consumed under realistic conditions appears to depend on the convenience of the appetizer as well as the environmental conditions and the psycho-physiological status of the participants. The appetizers received higher ratings at altitude because of the pungent and spicy nature of appetizer mixes as compared with base field and laboratory conditions. However, for all the appetizers the pungent and sweet taste of the appetizer munches was highly preferred.

  11. Contamination level of alginate impressions arriving at a dental laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sofou, A; Larsen, T; Fiehn, N-E; Owall, B

    2002-09-01

    The contamination level of alginate impressions delivered to a large dental laboratory in Sweden was determined. One hundred and seven consecutive alginate impressions were included during 7 days. Samples were taken and transferred into sterile physiological saline and analysed microbiologically for colony-forming units (cfu) as well as nonhemolytic, alpha-hemolytic, and beta-hemolytic colonies. After sampling, the clinics were contacted and asked to fill in simple questionnaires about their routines of disinfecting impressions. The questionnaire study revealed that about half of the clinics had some kind of disinfection routine, while the others rinsed in running water only. Seventy-two percent of the impressions yielded growth of bacteria, with a median number of 1.3x10(2) cfu. Thirteen per cent of the samples yielded >10(3) cfu, with a maximum number of 3.4x10(4) cfu. The majority of isolates were non- and alpha-hemolytic bacteria. Growth was recorded in 61.3% of disinfected impressions, and the numbers of bacteria in disinfected and nondisinfected impressions were similar. These findings raise the question of whether impressions need to be disinfected or if proper handling and hygienic procedures are sufficient to block the possible route of infection.

  12. A new method for the determination of particulate contamination levels for surface cleanliness of fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Levels of contamination in fluid systems can be determined by a definition of a particle by a mathematical model, a method for calculating the tolerance limits of contamination, and an estimation of the probability that the contamination on the surface will migrate with the fluid in the system.

  13. Microbial contamination detection at low levels by [125]I radiolabeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, David; Karouia, Fathi

    Contamination of mission spacecraft is an ongoing issue. A broad diversity of microorganisms have been detected in clean rooms where spacecraft are assembled. Some of which, depicted as oligotroph, are of special regard, as they are capable of colonizing inorganic surfaces like metal, and have been shown to be a concern for forward contamination of pristine celestial bodies. Currently, the NASA standard assay is the only approved assay intended for the enumeration of spores and heterotrophic microbial populations. However, culture-based microbial detection methods underestimate the viable microbial population. More recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays, which employ measure-ments of selected metabolic products as a proxy of biomass, have been used successfully to circumvent the necessity of the growth of microorganisms in order to estimate the biodurdens associated with spacecraft assembly facility. However, these methods have limitation in the amount of cells that can be detected, i.e., 103 cells, and the type of microorganisms respec-tively. This work seeks to develop a new highly sensitive method for the determination of bioburdens (and the detection of microorganisms and life) that is independant of the type of organism while preserving a good turn-around time for analysis for planetary protection purposes. The assay is based on the detection of the organism's protein by labeling them by radioiodination, 125 I, of aromatic rings on tyrosine amino acids residues. Radiolabeling techniques are inherently sensitive and 125 I, in particular, benefits from a 60 day half-life, providing greater activity and signal per unit number of labels. Furthermore, microorganisms can contain over 50% of protein by dry weight. Thus, just one label per protein increases the sensitivity, compared to the ATP and LAL assays, by one and three orders of magnitude by using standard detection methods and the use of multiphoton

  14. Policy on acceptable levels of earthquake risk for California gas and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Earthquake specialists from the major California gas and electric power utilities have prepared a policy statement and associated implementation program as a framework for assessing and achieving acceptable levels of earthquake risk. The policy states: ``Each California gas and electric power utility system shall withstand earthquakes to provide reasonable protection of life, to limit damage to property, and to provide for resumption of utility system functions in a reasonable and timely manner.`` The policy scope is broad, to permit its application to utilities in the differing seismic hazard regions of the State. Because each utility also has its own unique earthquake vulnerabilities, it also has it own long-term seismic safety implementation plan. It is the goal of this policy that each utility meet its responsibilities to provide reasonable public safety and customer service. Compliance will not prevent all loss of life, property damage, or loss of utility function. Experience with recent earthquakes in California suggests that implementing this policy through long-term implementation plans is an effective and practical means of reducing earthquake vulnerability to acceptable levels.

  15. Memorandum of the Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum presents clarifying guidance for establishing protective cleanup levels for radioactive contamination at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites.

  16. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-04-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995.

  17. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Muir, Derek C G; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska, Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted δ(15)N and δ(13)C, lower proportions of C(20) and C(22) monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C(18) and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan and Canadian Arctic signatures were intermediate. Between-subpopulation dietary differences predominated over interannual, seasonal, sex, or age variation. Among various brominated and chlorinated contaminants, diet signatures significantly explained variation in adipose levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (14-15%) and legacy PCBs (18-21%). However, dietary influence was contaminant class-specific, since only low or nonsignificant proportions of variation in organochlorine pesticide (e.g., chlordane) levels were explained by diet. Hudson Bay diet signatures were associated with lower PCB and PBDE levels, whereas East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were associated with higher levels. Understanding diet/food web factors is important to accurately interpret contaminant trends, particularly in a changing Arctic.

  18. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  19. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  20. Just acceptable and desirable luminance levels for fast jet cockpit displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassie, C. Ken; Christopher, W. Colin

    2000-08-01

    This paper reports on the experiments undertaken by BAE SYSTEMS to determine the 'just acceptable' and 'desirable' luminance levels for graphical displays utilized in fast jet cockpits. The assessments of the displays were performed by BAE SYSTEMS test pilots. The results of the experiments are only fully applicable to displays which have the same reflectivity and black contrast as that of the display used during the assessment. The PJND (Perceived Must Noticeable) method was utilized to extend the results of the experiments to apply to displays with any combination of reflectivity and black contrast. The experiment involved both computer generated imagery and sensor imagery; as would be expected the luminance requirements for sensor imagery is far higher than it is for non-sensor imagery.

  1. The ground prototype processor: Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 in-orbit acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Dechoz, C.; Lachérade, S.; L'Helguen, C.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.; Picard, C.; Rolland, A.

    2015-10-01

    Jointly with the European Commission, the Sentinel-2 earth observation optical mission is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). Relying on a constellation of satellites put in orbit starting mid-2015, Sentinel-2 will be devoted to the monitoring of land and coastal areas worldwide thanks to an imagery at high revisit (5 days with two satellites), high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) with large swath (290km), and multi-spectral imagery (13 bands in visible and shortwave infra-red). In this framework, the French Space Agency (CNES: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) supports ESA on the activities related to Image Quality, defining the image products and prototyping the processing techniques. Scope of this paper is to present the Ground Prototype Processor (GPP) that will be in charge of Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Acceptance phase. GPP has been developed by a European industrial consortium composed of Advanced Computer Systems (ACS), Magellium and DLR on the basis of CNES technical specification of Sentinel-2 data processing and under the joint management of ESA-ESTEC and CNES. It will assure the generation of the products used for Calibration and Validation activities and it will provide the reference data for Sentinel-2 Payload Data Ground Segment Validation. At first, Sentinel-2 end-users products definition is recalled with the associated radiometric and geometric performances; secondly the methods implemented will be presented with an overview of the Ground Image Processing Parameters that need to be tuned during the In Orbit Acceptance phase to assure the required performance of the products. Finally, the complexity of the processing having been showed, the challenges of the production in terms of data volume and processing time will be highlighted. The first Sentinel-2 Level-1 products are shown.

  2. Awareness and Knowledge Levels of Turkish College Students about Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Vaccine Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Apaydin, Aysen; Korkmaz, Elmas; Bas, Sevda; Ozgu, Emre; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-09-21

    Awareness of HPV by the target population is an important determinant of vaccine acceptance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the awareness of HPV infection and acceptability of the HPV vaccines among Turkish college students. College students aged 18-30 who were attending a large public university in Ankara participated in this study. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire to elicit demographic characteristics, awareness level of HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness to be vaccinated. One thousand one hundred sixty students responded to the invitation email and completed the questionnaire. The mean scores of female students about HPV and HPV vaccine were 7.1/15 and 3.6/9, respectively, while these scores were 7.9/15 and 3.4/9 among male students, respectively. While 51 % percent of female and 33.5 % of male students had heard of HPV and 32.8 % and 18 % of them had heard of HPV vaccine, respectively, only 1.5 % of female and 0.4 % of male students had been vaccinated against HPV. A total of 507 students (43.7 %) had previously heard of HPV. Only 309 (26.6 %) of the participants had previously heard of the HPV vaccine, and 45.1 % of the students were willing to receive HPV vaccination. The main predictors for willingness to be vaccinated were the following: sexual experience, sexual behavior, past history of sexually transmitted infection (STI), and knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine. Higher awareness levels of HPV and HPV vaccine are significantly related to greater willingness to be vaccinated, and the main reasons for rejecting the vaccine were insufficient information about the vaccine and possible unknown side effects.

  3. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Part 257—Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Promulgated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Part 257—Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Promulgated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Part 257—Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) Promulgated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene...

  7. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in this paragraph (a): Disinfection byproduct Best available technology Bromate Control of ozone... disinfection byproducts. 141.64 Section 141.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts. (a) Bromate and chlorite. The maximum contaminant levels...

  8. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in this paragraph (a): Disinfection byproduct Best available technology Bromate Control of ozone... disinfection byproducts. 141.64 Section 141.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts. (a) Bromate and chlorite. The maximum contaminant levels...

  9. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in this paragraph (a): Disinfection byproduct Best available technology Bromate Control of ozone... disinfection byproducts. 141.64 Section 141.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts. (a) Bromate and chlorite. The maximum contaminant levels...

  10. Effect of saliva contamination on induced sputum cell counts, IL-8 and eosinophil cationic protein levels.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L; Timmins, N L; Fakes, K; Talbot, P I; Gibson, P G

    2004-05-01

    Excessive salivary contamination of induced sputum samples prevents the satisfactory examination of lower airway inflammation. The effects of salivary contamination on different sputum fluid phase measures and the levels of salivary contamination preventing analysis are not defined. The present study sought to examine this by investigating the effect of increasing salivary contamination on induced sputum samples. Sputum and saliva samples from subjects with asthma and healthy controls were collected, and treated with dithiothreitol (DTT). Saliva was then added to aliquots of dispersed sputum in increasing proportions (0% to 100%). The effect of increasing saliva contamination was assessed on sputum total cell count, viability, differential cell count and fluid phase levels of interleukin (IL)-8, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and total protein. The addition of saliva to induced sputum reduced total cell counts and absolute cell counts but did not change the differential cell count. Levels of fluid phase ECP and IL-8 were significantly reduced with increased salivary contamination. There was a progressive reduction in ECP and IL-8, which reached significance at 70% and 80% saliva contamination, respectively. IL-8 levels corrected for total protein showed no change with increasing saliva concentrations. Induced sputum differential cell counts expressed as the proportion of nonsquamous cells are robust measures that are not influenced by salivary contamination. Studies reporting total and absolute cell counts and fluid phase mediator levels require control for squamous contamination.

  11. Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-leaf" simplification acceptable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The "big-leaf" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded leaf in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-leaf model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of leaf photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big leaf approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional leaf internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on leaf nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in leaf microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded leaf separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-leaf" strategy, for applications at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's leaf biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-leaf" approach was parameterized using derived leaf level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of Leaf Area Index. The influence of sunlit

  12. Comparative analyses of contaminant levels in bottom feeding and predatory fish using the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program data

    SciTech Connect

    Kidwell, J.M.; Phillips, L.J.; Birchard, G.F.

    1995-06-01

    Both bottom feeding and predatory fish accumulate chemical contaminants found in water. Bottom feeders are readily exposed to the greater quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbons and metals that accumulate in sediments. Predators, on the other hand, may bioaccumulate organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and metals from the surrounding water or from feeding on other fish, including bottom feeders, which may result in the biomagnification of these compounds in their tissues. This study used National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program data produced by the Fish and Wildlife Service to test the hypothesis that differences exist between bottom feeders and predators in tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and metals. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Ocean dumping of high-level waste: an acceptable solution we can ''guarantee''

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.

    1980-01-01

    What is needed for high-level radioactive waste is not necessarily a program for final disposal, but rather an early clear demonstration that an acceptable method is available. This would be especially easy for ocean dumping, since the environment in the water just above the ocean floor is much more uniform, stable, predictable, and more easily reproduced in a laboratory than other environments being considered for waste storage. Other probable advantages of ocean dumping are improved capability for monitoring and retrievability and reduced cost and transport problems. It is assumed that the waste is incorporated into glass and dumped in oceans distributed throughout the world. Calculations of environmental impacts are given for various assuptions about leach rates and failures and for a 30,000-yr delay in onset of leaching achieved by surrounding the waste with a protective coating. With normal leaching, there would be 0.17 eventual human fatalities per GW(electric)-yr, and for the worst case of immediate complete dissolution, this is increased by only 30%. This is 150 times less than the fatalities due to wastes from coal-fired plants.

  15. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael J; Kromrey, George B; May, Thomas W; Orazio, Carl E

    2008-05-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in "put and take" fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels.

  16. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, M.J.; Kromrey, G.B.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in 'put and take' fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. A Polio Immunization Pamphlet with Increased Appeal and Simplified Language Does Not Improve Comprehension to an Acceptable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.125 Section... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility...

  19. 40 CFR 90.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 90.510 Section 90.510....510 Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective... test sample until a pass decision is reached for all pollutants or a fail decision is reached for...

  20. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510... Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits... test sample until a pass decision is reached for all pollutants or a fail decision is reached for...

  1. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608... with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. (a... manufacturer must test engines comprising the test sample until a pass decision is reached for HC+NOX or a...

  2. A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data for mapping low level contaminations.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K; Hovgaard, J

    1999-12-01

    A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes 137Cs at levels often well below 1 kBq/m2 equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum stability and accurate altitude measurements.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  4. Contaminant effect endpoints in terrestrial vertebrates at and above the individual level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Golden, N.H.; Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Use of biochemical, physiological, anatomical, reproductive and behavioral characteristics of wild terrestrial vertebrates to assess contaminant exposure and effects has become commonplace over the past 3 decades. At the level of the individual organism, response patterns have been associated with and sometimes causally linked to contaminant exposure. However, such responses at the organismal level are rarely associated with or causally linked to effects at the population level. Although the ultimate goal of ecotoxicology is the protection of populations, communities, and ecosystems, most of the existing science and regulatory legislation focus on the level of the individual. Consequently, much of this overview concentrates on contaminant effects at the organismal level, with some extrapolation to higher-level effects. In this chapter, we review the state of the science for the evaluation of biotic end-points used to assess contaminant exposure and effects at or above the level of the individual. In addition, we describe extant contaminant concentration thresholds, guidelines, or standards (toxicant criteria) in environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil, sediment, foods) that have been developed to protect wild terrestrial vertebrates. Suggestions are provided to develop and embellish the use and value of such endpoints and criteria for extrapolation of effects to higher levels of biological organization. Increasing focus on populations, communities, and ecosystems is needed to develop biologically meaningful regulatory guidelines that will protect natural resources.

  5. A Review of Research Instruments Assessing Levels of Student Acceptance of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection, called evolution for short, is perceived as a unifying theme in biology, forming a major part of all biology syllabuses. It is reported that student acceptance of evolution associates with conceptual understandings of biological contents, nature of science, as well as motivations to…

  6. Measuring Levels of End-Users' Acceptance and Use of Hybrid Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibenderana, Prisca; Ogao, Patrick; Ikoja-Odongo, J.; Wokadala, James

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the adoption of Information Communication Technology (ICT) services in libraries. The study collected 445 usable data from university library end-users using a cross-sectional survey instrument. It develops, applies and tests a research model of acceptance and use of such services based on an existing UTAUT model by Venkatesh,…

  7. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  8. Temporal variations in parameters reflecting terminal-electron-accepting processes in an aquifer contaminated with waste fuel and chlorinated solvents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Long, David T.; Hyndman, David W.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Klug, Michael J.; Velbel, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental issue in aquifer biogeochemistry is the means by which solute transport, geochemical processes, and microbiological activity combine to produce spatial and temporal variations in redox zonation. In this paper, we describe the temporal variability of TEAP conditions in shallow groundwater contaminated with both waste fuel and chlorinated solvents. TEAP parameters (including methane, dissolved iron, and dissolved hydrogen) were measured to characterize the contaminant plume over a 3-year period. We observed that concentrations of TEAP parameters changed on different time scales and appear to be related, in part, to recharge events. Changes in all TEAP parameters were observed on short time scales (months), and over a longer 3-year period. The results indicate that (1) interpretations of TEAP conditions in aquifers contaminated with a variety of organic chemicals, such as those with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, must consider additional hydrogen-consuming reactions (e.g., dehalogenation); (2) interpretations must consider the roles of both in situ (at the sampling point) biogeochemical and solute transport processes; and (3) determinations of microbial communities are often necessary to confirm the interpretations made from geochemical and hydrogeological measurements on these processes.

  9. Evaluation of aromatic pathway induction for creosote contaminated soils in slurried soil media designed to achieve environmentally acceptable treatment endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; McCauley, P.; Potter, C.; Herrmann, R.; Dosani, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) are commonly associated with the use of creosote for wood preservation and the process residues left by municipal gas production. The biological treatment of this set of organic compounds has been found to be difficult since they have low water solubility and reactivity in soil systems. Liquid culture studies have shown that inducer chemicals may assist the biotreatment of PAH contaminated soils. A set of designed experimental treatments were conducted to evaluate the incorporation of potential inducer compounds. The inducers chosen for evaluation were 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid with treatment controls of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and terephthalic acid at three concentrations in slurried creosote-contaminated soil. An abiotic treatment control of formaldehyde was used for contrast. The designed treatment evaluation used 250mL Erlenmeyer flask slurry reaction vessels. The flask study used an orbital shaker to maintain slurry suspension. At selected time points throughout the study individual flask reactors were sacrificed and the contents were analyzed for PAH concentration, nutrients, and biomass (FAME Analysis). Depletion of individual PAHs, total PAHs, 2 and 3-ring, and 4 and 6-ring PAHs was correlation with the biomass. The effect of selected surfactant addition was also evaluated. Rates of PAH depletion and applications to larger scale investigations will be discussed.

  10. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes.

  11. Assessing the spatial variability, level and source of organic chemical contaminants in bivalve fishing grounds on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Nuria; Fernández-Boán, María; Verísimo, Patricia; Freire, Juan

    2013-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, organotin compounds and triazines were quantified in sediments and bivalves collected in four areas on the Galician coast. One or several species were analysed at each site depending on their availability, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), clams (Venerupis pullastra and Ruditapes decussatus) and razor shells (Ensis siliqua). The general spatial distribution of contaminants was consistent in spite of the different sources of contamination. High inter-species variability was also observed. M. galloprovincialis and V. pullastra showed the highest levels of contaminants and intra-spatial variability, which highlights them as suitable species to be used as sentinel organisms. The area of O Burgo showed some worrisome results: PCB sediment concentrations were within the range that could cause biological effects. Also the level of heptachlor observed in V. pullastra was above limits accepted on edible seafood. Finally TBT concentration in mussels correlated with concentrations causing imposex in snails.

  12. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NAKAMA, Akiko; NISHINO, Yukari; FUKUI, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; KAI, Akemi; SADAMASU, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000–2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006–2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3–1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951

  13. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste.

  14. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Level Aluminum 0.05 to 0.2 mg/l. Chloride 250 mg/l. Color 15 color units. Copper 1.0 mg/l. Corrosivity Non-corrosive. Fluoride 2.0 mg/l. Foaming agents 0.5 mg/l. Iron 0.3 mg/l. Manganese 0.05 mg/l. Odor 3 threshold odor number. pH 6.5-8.5. Silver 0.1 mg/l. Sulfate 250 mg/l. Total dissolved solids (TDS) 500...

  15. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Level Aluminum 0.05 to 0.2 mg/l. Chloride 250 mg/l. Color 15 color units. Copper 1.0 mg/l. Corrosivity Non-corrosive. Fluoride 2.0 mg/l. Foaming agents 0.5 mg/l. Iron 0.3 mg/l. Manganese 0.05 mg/l. Odor 3 threshold odor number. pH 6.5-8.5. Silver 0.1 mg/l. Sulfate 250 mg/l. Total dissolved solids (TDS) 500...

  16. Center-level patterns of indicated willingness to and actual acceptance of marginal kidneys.

    PubMed

    Massie, A B; Stewart, D E; Dagher, N N; Montgomery, R A; Desai, N M; Segev, D L

    2010-11-01

    UNet(SM) , the UNOS data collection and electronic organ allocation system, allows centers to specify organ offer acceptance criteria for patients on their kidney waiting list. We hypothesized that the system might not be fully utilized and that the criteria specified by most transplant centers would be much broader than the characteristics of organs actually transplanted by those centers. We analyzed the distribution of criteria values among waitlist patients (N = 304 385) between January 2000 and February 2009, mean criteria values among listed candidates on February 19, 2009 and differences between a center's specified criteria and the organs it accepted for transplant between July 2005 and April 2009. We found wide variation in use of criteria variables, with some variables mostly or entirely unused. Most centers specified very broad criteria, with little within-center variation by patient. An offer of a kidney with parameters more extreme than the maximum actually transplanted at that center was designated a 'surplus offer' and indicated a potentially avoidable delay in distribution. We found 7373 surplus offers (7.1% of all offers), concentrated among a small number of centers. The organ acceptance criteria system is currently underutilized, leading to possibly avoidable inefficiencies in organ distribution.

  17. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  18. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  19. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  20. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  1. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  4. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    PubMed

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses.

  5. Meat nitrosamine contamination level depending on animal breeding factors.

    PubMed

    Rywotycki, Ryszard

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the work was to answer the question how the species, breeding factors and season of the year affect nitrosamine contents in raw meat. The concentrations were assessed in raw pork from gilts, sows, hogs and boars, in beef from heifers, cows, bullocks and bulls, in veal and in horse, ram and goat meat. The studies were conducted in spring, summer, autumn and in winter. Meat contents of nitrosamines (dimethylonitrosamine-DMNA and diethylonitrosamine-DENA) were assessed by Pancholy's method adapted to nitrosamine determination in meat and meat products by Scanlan and Ryes. The levels of DMNA and DENA were determined using a Varian 3400 gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (Finnigan MAT ITD. 800). The volatiles were identified by comparing their mass spectra with standards and by comparison of retention times with standards. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted by comparison with N-nitrosamine standard solution chromatograms. The highest nitrosamine (DMNA and DENA) concentrations were found in pork and beef, smaller in horseflesh and the lowest in ram and goat meat and in veal.

  6. Biomonitoring of contaminants in birds from two trophic levels in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Rocque, Deborah A; Winker, Kevin

    2004-03-01

    The presence and accumulation of persistent contaminants at high latitudes from long-range transport is an important environmental issue. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the source of pollutants in several arctic ecosystems and has the potential to severely impact high-latitude populations. Elevated levels of contaminants in Aleutian Island avifauna have been documented, but the great distance from potential industrial sources and the region's complex military history have confounded identification of contaminant origins. We sampled bird species across the natural longitudinal transect of the Aleutian Archipelago to test three contaminant source hypotheses. We detected patterns in some polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and mercury that indicate abandoned military installations as likely local point sources. Carbon isotopes were distinct among island groups, enabling us to rule out transfer through migratory prey species as a contaminant source. The long-range transport hypothesis was supported by significant west-to-east declines in contaminant concentrations for most detected organochlorines and some trace metals. Although relatively low at present, concentrations may increase in Aleutian fauna as Asian industrialization increases and emitted contaminants are atmospherically transported into the region, necessitating continued monitoring in this unique ecosystem.

  7. Chemical contaminant reactions and assessment of soil cleanup levels for protection of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargbo, D. M.

    1994-03-01

    About 70 percent of hazardous waste sites listed in the National Priority List (NPL) have some groundwater contamination that may require remediation. Such remediation is inadequate if the unsaturated soils above will continue to act as a source of groundwater contamination. Consequently, for most of these sites, it becomes necessary to determine what the cleanup levels for contaminants in soils should be so that subsequent contribution of contaminants from these soils to groundwater would not exceed groundwater protection levels. Representation of the dynamics of interactions between contaminants and soils is very complex, requiring among others, a thorough understanding of the chemical processes that influence the behavior of the contaminant once it enters the subsurface. Because of such complexities, environmental professionals frequently utilize methods with very simple assumptions that tend to err on the conservative side. While the public may feel protected, the needless spending of dollars could be avoided if attempts are made to incorporate, where possible, such complexities in the modeling efforts so that the system is represented as accurately as possible.

  8. Acceptability of prenatal HIV screening at the primary care level in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Daniel, O J; Oladapo, O T

    2006-04-01

    A survey of 333 pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the primary healthcare centres in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria was conducted between January and March 2005 to assess the acceptability of prenatal HIV screening among them. A total of 325 (97.8%) of the respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS but only 181 (54.3%) of them believed it is a problem in Nigeria. A total of 257 (77.2%) respondents agreed to undergo voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of associated factors indicated that being married, self-perception of no risk of HIV infection, awareness of benefits of prenatal HIV testing and Christianity are independent predictors of acceptance of prenatal HIV testing in this population. Most of the respondents (78.9%) who were unwilling to take the test cited fear of being infected with its consequences of stigma and discrimination as the reason for their attitude. The survey suggests that a successful integration of VCT programme into the existing primary healthcare services for prevention of vertical HIV transmission is feasible in this part of Nigeria.

  9. Using Science Teaching Case Narratives to Evaluate the Level of Acceptance of Scientific Inquiry Teaching in Preservice Elementary Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-03-01

    The National Science Education Standards have outlined flexible processes children perform when engaging in scientific inquiry. Cases narratives are a common component of many university science education courses but rarely are they used as a tool to evaluate the preservice teachers within these courses. This article describes the construction of a positive and negative science teaching case narrative. These case narratives can be used to evaluate the level of acceptance of scientific inquiry teaching in preservice elementary teachers.

  10. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  11. Effects of initial litter contamination level with Eimeria acervulina on population dynamics and production characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Graat, E A; Ploeger, H W; Henken, A M; De Vries Reilingh, G; Noordhuizen, J P; Van Beek, P N

    1996-10-25

    The present experiment was done to obtain experimental evidence supporting the existence of an optimal initial contamination level of Eimeria acervulina with respect to broiler productivity, as suggested by simulation model outcomes. Three levels of initial (on Day 3) contamination of the litter were applied (low, intermediate and high). The peak of oocyst excretion during the flock cycle (grow-out) (Days 0-36) depended on the initial contamination level. Oocysts peaked at Day 15, 22 and 33 for the high, intermediate and low contamination level, respectively. Antibody titres and plasma carotenoid contents were not significantly affected by contamination levels. Average body weight at the end of the flock cycle (Day 36) and average daily body weight gain were significantly higher at the intermediate contamination level compared with the low and high contamination levels. Average body weight at Day 36 was 1681 g, 1712 g and 1674 g for the low, intermediate and high contamination level, respectively. Average daily weight gain was 45.7 g, 46.5 g and 45.5 g for the low, intermediate and high contamination level, respectively. Thus, the data from this experiment support the existence of an optimum initial contamination level for E. acervulina with respect to performance results.

  12. Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-05-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high.

  13. Evaluation of three methods for detecting low-level bacterial contamination in intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Miller, C M; Furtado, D; Smith, F M; Godwin, H N; Hogan, L C; Letendre, D E

    1982-08-01

    The accuracy of three sterility-testing methods in detecting low-level contamination in deliberately contaminated intravenous solutions was studied. One-liter bags of 5% dextrose (D5W) and 0.9% sodium chloride (saline injections were contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; approximately 10(1) viable bacteria were injected into each bag. Two membrane-filtration methods (Ivex-2 and Addi-Chek) and one aliquot method [twice concentrated trypic soy broth (2X-TSB)] were used to test each of 10 diliberately contaminated solutions for both D5W and saline; 500 ml of each liter bag was filtered or added to 2X-TSB. Incubation containers were stored at 37 degrees C and inspected at 24, 48, and 72 hours for turbidity. There was no significant difference among the three methods in the detection of contaminated saline solutions. The Addi-Chek system was significantly less effective in detecting contamination in D5W than either of the other methods. It is concluded that the Ivex-2 system is accurate and the easiest-to-use system of the three tested.

  14. On predicting contamination levels of HALOE optics aboard UARS using direct simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.; Rault, Didier F. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional version of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is adapted to assess the contamination environment surrounding a highly detailed model of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Emphasis is placed on simulating a realistic, worst-case set of flowfield and surface conditions and geometric orientations in order to estimate an upper limit for the cumulative level of volatile organic molecular deposits at the aperture of the Halogen Occultation Experiment. Problems resolving species outgassing and vent flux rates that varied over many orders of magnitude were handled using species weighting factors. Results relating to contaminant cloud structure, cloud composition, and statistics of simulated molecules impinging on the target surface are presented, along with data related to code performance. Using procedures developed in standard contamination analyses, the cumulative level of volatile organic deposits on HALOE's aperture over the instrument's 35-month nominal data collection period is estimated to be about 2700A.

  15. Physical-level synthesis for digital lab-on-a-chip considering variation, contamination, and defect.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen; Hu, Shiyan

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic lab-on-a-chips have been widely utilized in biochemical analysis and human health studies due to high detection accuracy, high timing efficiency, and low cost. The increasing design complexity of lab-on-a-chips necessitates the computer-aided design (CAD) methodology in contrast to the classical manual design methodology. A key part in lab-on-a-chip CAD is physical-level synthesis. It includes the lab-on-a-chip placement and routing, where placement is to determine the physical location and the starting time of each operation and routing is to transport each droplet from the source to the destination. In the lab-on-a-chip design, variation, contamination, and defect need to be considered. This work designs a physical-level synthesis flow which simultaneously considers variation, contamination, and defect of the lab-on-a-chip design. It proposes a maze routing based, variation, contamination, and defect aware droplet routing technique, which is seamlessly integrated into an existing placement technique. The proposed technique improves the placement solution for routing and achieves the placement and routing co-optimization to handle variation, contamination, and defect. The simulation results demonstrate that our technique does not use any defective/contaminated grids, while the technique without considering contamination and defect uses 17.0% of the defective/contaminated grids on average. In addition, our routing variation aware technique significantly improves the average routing yield by 51.2% with only 3.5% increase in completion time compared to a routing variation unaware technique.

  16. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  17. Contaminant levels and toxicity of sediments and water of Baltimore Harbor and Back River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.T.; Jacobs, F.; Mehrotra, N.

    1995-12-31

    The Patapsco and Back River Watershed drains the Baltimore metropolitan area, Maryland`s most heavily industrialized and urbanized region. Due to the intensive development and industrialization of the Baltimore metropolitan area over the past 250 years, high levels of contaminants have been discharged into Baltimore Harbor on the Patapsco River and into the Back River. Pollutants historically discharged include heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, cyanide, sewage, other organic chemicals, and nutrients. Sources have included industrial and municipal discharges, sewerage overflows, urban runoff, and leaks and spills from vessels and on-land facilities. The Maryland Department of the Environment undertook this study of ambient conditions as part of a developing strategy to assess and improve conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Past studies were compiled, evaluated, and synthesized to identify the areas of degraded conditions and contaminants of possible concern. Sediment contaminant levels were assessed using historical sediment chemistry data, Effects Range Low and Median concentrations (ER-L and ER-M) as toxicological benchmarks, and a sum of toxicity units approach for multiple contaminants. Data on toxicity testing and biological monitoring was compared to sediment and water quality data. Fish tissue data were used to examine bioaccumulated chemicals. A computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to manipulate and display complex geographical data. The final identification of areas and chemicals of potential concern relied on a syntheses of these results as well as information on present and past contaminant loadings.

  18. Magnetic Mapping and Classification of Contaminant Impact Levels in Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, J. I.; Morris, W. A.; Pozza, M. R.

    2004-05-01

    Magnetic property measurements of Hamilton Harbour cores show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe) in an upper contaminated sediment layer are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic contrast between contaminated and `clean' pre-colonial sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bottom. Systematic magnetic surveying (> 500 line km) of the harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of localized magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from the total field data provide a further attribute for classifying contaminant impact levels, as susceptibility is directly linked to pollutant levels. Magnetic detection of near-surface anomalies requires a closely-spaced survey grid and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity. These results demonstrate the potential of lake-based magnetic surveying as a rapid reconnaissance method for mapping large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring work.

  19. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  5. Individual, population and community level effects of subtle anthropogenic contamination in estuarine meiobenthos.

    PubMed

    Rubal, Marcos; Guilhermino, Lúcia M; Medina, Matías H

    2009-10-01

    The study presented here searched for the level of taxonomic resolution required to detect the effects of low-level chronic pollution on estuarine meiobenthic communities. Meiofauna from two sites, with special attention to harpacticoid copepods, was analysed at different taxonomic levels of aggregation using uni- and multivariate methods. Adaptation processes that could buffer biodiversity disruptions were also considered through the analysis of fitness-related and tolerance traits in the harpacticoid copepod Paronychocamptus nanus. Results showed that uni- and multivariate analyses could be inadequate when assessing subtle anthropogenic contamination. Instead, the assessment of inter-population differences in tolerance to the main source of stress rises as a required procedure if potential effects of this type of contamination are being investigated. Specifically, a 96 h acute toxicity test performed with populations from the affected site appears as a faster and reliable general tool to assess impacts of low-level chronic pollution in estuaries.

  6. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  7. Contaminant levels in eggs of American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, from Chase Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial nesters, making them susceptible to site-specific mortality factors. One of the largest known breeding colonies is at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota. In 2004, this colony suffered total reproductive failure. In 2005, we collected abandoned eggs from this colony to test for environmental contaminants. Nine eggs were analyzed for 28 organochlorine pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and 26 inorganic elements. Based on concentrations in this sample of eggs and levels linked to reproductive problems in birds, adult pelicans in the Chase Lake breeding colony are not at known risk from any of the environmental contaminants we measured.

  8. Reproductive ecology of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.P.; Secord, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    Tree swallows(Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB-contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. Related work has shown that PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994, reproductive success at PCB-contaminated sites was significantly impaired relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely due to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. In 1995, reproductive output was normal, but higher than expected rates of abandonment and supernormal clutches persisted. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Given the levels of contamination in this population, the success of most Hudson River tree swallows reinforces the importance of understanding interspecific differences in the effects of contaminants.

  9. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  10. Circumpolar contaminant concentrations in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and potential population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, R J M; Hendriks, A J; Jenssen, B M; Schipper, A M

    2016-11-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) currently receive much attention in the context of global climate change. However, there are other stressors that might threaten the viability of polar bear populations as well, such as exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. Lipophilic organic compounds bio-accumulate and bio-magnify in the food chain, leading to high concentrations at the level of top-predators. In Arctic wildlife, including the polar bear, various adverse health effects have been related to internal concentrations of commercially used anthropogenic chemicals like PCB and DDT. The extent to which these individual health effects are associated to population-level effects is, however, unknown. In this study we assembled data on adipose tissue concentrations of ∑PCB, ∑DDT, dieldrin and ∑PBDE in individual polar bears from peer-reviewed scientific literature. Data were available for 14 out of the 19 subpopulations. We found that internal concentrations of these contaminants exceed threshold values for adverse individual health effects in several subpopulations. In an exploratory regression analysis we identified a clear negative correlation between polar bear population density and sub-population specific contaminant concentrations in adipose tissue. The results suggest that adverse health effects of contaminants in individual polar bears may scale up to population-level consequences. Our study highlights the need to consider contaminant exposure along with other threats in polar bear population viability analyses.

  11. Heavy metals in soils along unpaved roads in south west Cameroon: Contamination levels and health risks.

    PubMed

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M

    2016-04-01

    Soils enriched with heavy metals from vehicular emission present a significant exposure route of heavy metals to individuals using unpaved roads. This study assessed the extent of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination of soils along unpaved roads in Cameroon, and the health risks presented by incidental ingestion and dermal contact with the soils using metal contamination factor (CF) pollution load index, hazard quotients (HQ) and chronic hazard index (CHI). CF values obtained (0.9-12.2) indicate moderate to high contamination levels. HQ values for Cr, Cd and Pb exceeded the reference doses. Moderate health hazard exists for road users in the areas with intense anthropogenic activities and high average daily traffic (ADT) volume according to CHI values (1-4) obtained. The economy and quality of life in cities with unpaved roads could be threatened by health challenges resulting from long-term exposure to heavy metal derived from high ADT volumes.

  12. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  13. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.

  14. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño C., Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students’ views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  15. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  16. Assessing the Acceptance and Functional Value of the Asymmetrical Software Kit (ASK) at the Tactical Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Figure 9. Theory of Reasoned Action27 Icek Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) posits that attitudes towards behavior and the...www.istheory.yorku.ca/theoryofreasonedaction.htm on 07 Dec 2007. 28 I. Ajzen , Residual Effects of Past on Later Behavior: Habituation and Reasoned...for Intelligence analysis at the Tactical level. 51 LIST OF REFERENCES Ajzen , I., Residual Effects of Past on Later Behavior: Habituation and

  17. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  18. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    PubMed

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  19. Simulator study of minimum acceptable level of longitudinal stability for a representative STOL configuration during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Deal, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator study was conducted to determine the minimum acceptable level of longitudinal stability for a representative turbofan STOL (short take-off and landing) transport airplane during the landing approach. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom, and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. The primary piloting task was an instrument approach to a breakout at a 60-m (200-ft) ceiling.

  20. Operational level for unconditional release of contaminated property from affected areas around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on the surface contamination control of slightly contaminated property after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The operational level for the unconditional release of contaminated properties is calculated in counts per minute (cpm) to enable the use of a typical Geiger-Muller (GM) survey meter with a 50-mm bore, on the basis of the surficial clearance level of 10 Bq cm(-2) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs derived in the previous studies of the authors. By applying a factor for the conversion of the unit surface contamination to the count rate of a survey meter widely used after the Fukushima accident, the operational level for the unconditional release of contaminated properties was calculated to be 2300 cpm on average and 23 000 cpm at the highest-contamination part. The calculated numerical values of the operational levels are effective as long as the typical GM survey meter is used in the radiation measurement.

  1. Operational level for unconditional release of contaminated property from affected areas around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the surface contamination control of slightly contaminated property after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The operational level for the unconditional release of contaminated properties is calculated in counts per minute (cpm) to enable the use of a typical Geiger-Muller (GM) survey meter with a 50-mm bore, on the basis of the surficial clearance level of 10 Bq cm−2 for 134Cs and 137Cs derived in the previous studies of the authors. By applying a factor for the conversion of the unit surface contamination to the count rate of a survey meter widely used after the Fukushima accident, the operational level for the unconditional release of contaminated properties was calculated to be 2300 cpm on average and 23 000 cpm at the highest-contamination part. The calculated numerical values of the operational levels are effective as long as the typical GM survey meter is used in the radiation measurement. PMID:23778575

  2. Geochemical baseline level and function and contamination of phosphorus in Liao River Watershed sediments of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoqing; Wang, Jing; Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao

    2013-10-15

    The quantitative assessment of P contamination in sediments is a challenge due to sediment heterogeneity and the lacking of geochemical background or baseline levels. In this study, a procedure was proposed to determine the average P background level and P geochemical baseline level (GBL) and develop P geochemical baseline functions (GBF) for riverbed sediments of the Liao River Watershed (LRW). The LRW has two river systems - the Liao River System (LRS) and the Daliao River System (DRS). Eighty-eight samples were collected and analyzed for P, Al, Fe, Ca, organic matter, pH, and texture. The results show that Fe can be used as a better particle-size proxy to construct the GBF of P (P (mg/kg) = 39.98 + 166.19 × Fe (%), R(2) = 0.835, n = 66). The GBL of P was 675 mg/kg, while the average background level of P was 355 mg/kg. Noting that many large cities are located in the DRS watershed, most of the contaminated sites were located within the DRS and the riverbed sediments were more contaminated by P in the DRS watershed than in the LRS watershed. The geochemical background and baseline information of P are of great importance in managing P levels within the LRW.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of broiler carcasses: Population dynamics and genetic profiles at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Kušar, Darja; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2015-09-01

    Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To assess the contamination dynamics of the carcasses, the analyses were always conducted on neck-skin samples from the same pre-selected and carefully marked carcasses in each batch. The skin samples were taken sequentially at three successive slaughter-line locations in the evisceration room, after three-day refrigeration and after three-day freezing procedure. Caecal samples from the same animals were also tested, as well as samples from the slaughterhouse environment before and after slaughtering. The samples were analysed by the ISO10272 isolation method; campylobacters from neck-skin samples were also quantified. Isolates were species-identified and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On average, the highest C. jejuni skin contamination was detected at the first sampling point (post-plucking), suggesting that the majority of Campylobacter contamination actually occurs before the entrance to the eviscerating room, probably during the preceding plucking stage. In two out of five positive batches, an additional increase in contamination was recorded after the evisceration step. An evident trend of increasing contamination level was detected when successive batches were compared at each of two initial sampling sites in the evisceration room, indicating an accumulation of contaminating C. jejuni at some point before the evisceration room. Three-day refrigeration and three-day freezing caused a 4.5- and 142-fold drop in mean C. jejuni CFU counts, respectively. All pre-slaughtering samples from the slaughterhouse environment were negative and all post-slaughtering samples, except water from the scalding tank, were positive. Pulsotypes were limited: altogether five different types were detected

  4. Microbiological analysis of multi-level borehole samples from a contaminated groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickup, R. W.; Rhodes, G.; Alamillo, M. L.; Mallinson, H. E. H.; Thornton, S. F.; Lerner, D. N.

    2001-12-01

    A range of bacteriological, geochemical process-related and molecular techniques have been used to assess the microbial biodegradative potential in groundwater contaminated with phenol and other tar acids. The contaminant plume has travelled 500 m from the pollutant source over several decades. Samples were obtained from the plume using a multi-level sampler (MLS) positioned in two boreholes (boreholes 59 and 60) which vertically transected two areas of the plume. Activity of the microbial community, as represented by phenol degradation potential and ability to utilise a range of substrates, was found to be influenced by the plume. Phenol degradation potential appeared to be influenced more by the concentration of the contaminants than the total bacterial cell numbers. However, in the areas of highest phenol concentration, the depression of cell numbers clearly had an effect. The types of bacteria present were assessed by culture and DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial groups or processes associated with major geochemical processes, such as methanogenesis, sulphate reduction and denitrification, that have the potential to drive contaminant degradation, were detected at various borehole levels. A comparative molecular analysis of the microbial community between samples obtained from the MLS revealed the microbial community was diverse. The examination of microbial activity complemented those results obtained through chemical analysis, and when combined with hydrological data, showed that MLS samples provided a realistic profile of plume effects and could be related to the potential for natural attenuation of the site.

  5. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-02

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable.

  6. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  7. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  8. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  9. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  10. Enzymatic GST levels and overall health of mullets from contaminated Brazilian Lagoons.

    PubMed

    Bastos, F F; Hauser-Davis, R A; Tobar, S A L; Campos, R C; Ziolli, R L; Bastos, V L F Cunha; Bastos, J Cunha

    2013-01-15

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) assays in non-mammalian organisms are usually conducted inappropriately, since no previous standardization of the optimal concentrations of proteins and substrates and adequate pH is conducted. Standardization is a key task to adjust enzyme assays at their kinetically correct maximal initial velocities, if one wants these velocities to indicate the amount of enzyme in a sample. In this paper GST assays were standardized in liver cytosol to compare seasonal GST levels in liver of mullet from two contaminated lagoons in the Rio de Janeiro to those from a reference bay. GST potential as a biomarker of sublethal intoxication in this species was also evaluated. Mullet liver GST levels assayed with substrates that corresponded to three different GST isoenzymes varied throughout the year. The differences indicated that mullets are suffering from sublethal intoxication from contaminants in these lagoons. Seasonal variations of activity were relevant, since these could indicate differences in xenobiotic input into the areas. An analysis of overall mullet health condition using a morphological index (the Fulton Condition Factor) and macroscopic abnormalities corroborated the differences in GST levels, with fish from one of the sites in worse overall health condition showing lower and significantly different FCF when compared to the reference site. Therefore, GST standardized activity levels are useful biomarkers of environmental contamination for mullet.

  11. Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the

  12. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  13. Permissible exposure levels and emergency exposure guidance levels for selected airborne contaminants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Navy requested that the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology recommend permissible exposure levels (PELs) for zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) and ethylhexyl nitrate. No exposure levels for these compounds have been recommended either by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The U.S. Army's Surgeon General's office also requested the 2-min emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) for hydrogen chloride because of the Army's concern for the short-term high-level exposure of soldiers to hydrogen chloride vapors released during firing of various rocket motors and missiles. In response to these requests, the Committee on Toxicology set up the Subcommittee on Permissible Exposure Levels. The subcommittee, whose expertise is in toxicology, inhalation toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, medicine, and pathology, evaluated the toxicity data on ziram, ethylhexyl nitrate, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to the recommendations for PELs for ziram and ethylhexyl nitrate and EEGLs for hydrogen chloride, the subcommittee has identified deficiencies in the data and made recommendations for additional research. The subcommittee believes that the recommended exposure levels will provide adequate protection for workers and soldiers from these chemicals.

  14. Decreasing Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) food contamination level with bacteriophages: prospects and problems.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Sophie; Boissin-Delaporte, Catherine; Michot, Lise; Iversen, Carol; Diep, Benjamin; Brüssow, Harald; Breeuwer, Pieter

    2008-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause rare, but life-threatening infections in neonates and infants through feeding of a contaminated milk formula. We isolated 67 phages from environmental samples and tested their lytic host range on a representative collection of 40 E. sakazakii strains. A cocktail of five phages prevented the outgrowth of 35 out of 40 test strains in artificially contaminated infant formula. Two E. sakazakii phages represented prolate head Myoviridae. Molecular tests identified them as close relatives of Escherichia coli phage T4. The remaining three phages represented isometric head Myoviridae with large genome size of 140 and 200 kb, respectively, which belonged to two different DNA hybridization groups. A high dose of 10(8) pfu ml(-1) of phage could effectively sterilize a broth contaminated with both high and low pathogen counts (10(6) and 10(2) cfu ml(-1)). In contrast, broth inoculated with 10(4) phage and 10(2) bacteria per ml first showed normal bacterial growth until reaching a cell titre of 10(5) cfu ml(-1). Only when crossing this threshold, phage replication started, but it could not reduce the contamination level below 100 cfu ml(-1). Phages could be produced with titres of 10(10) pfu ml(-1) in broth culture, but they were not stable upon freeze-drying. Addition of trehalose or milk formula stabilized the phage preparation, which then showed excellent storage stability even at elevated temperature.

  15. Decreasing Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) food contamination level with bacteriophages: prospects and problems

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Sophie; Boissin‐Delaporte, Catherine; Michot, Lise; Iversen, Carol; Diep, Benjamin; Brüssow, Harald; Breeuwer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Summary Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause rare, but life‐threatening infections in neonates and infants through feeding of a contaminated milk formula. We isolated 67 phages from environmental samples and tested their lytic host range on a representative collection of 40 E. sakazakii strains. A cocktail of five phages prevented the outgrowth of 35 out of 40 test strains in artificially contaminated infant formula. Two E. sakazakii phages represented prolate head Myoviridae. Molecular tests identified them as close relatives of Escherichia coli phage T4. The remaining three phages represented isometric head Myoviridae with large genome size of 140 and 200 kb, respectively, which belonged to two different DNA hybridization groups. A high dose of 108 pfu ml−1 of phage could effectively sterilize a broth contaminated with both high and low pathogen counts (106 and 102 cfu ml−1). In contrast, broth inoculated with 104 phage and 102 bacteria per ml first showed normal bacterial growth until reaching a cell titre of 105 cfu ml−1. Only when crossing this threshold, phage replication started, but it could not reduce the contamination level below 100 cfu ml−1. Phages could be produced with titres of 1010 pfu ml−1 in broth culture, but they were not stable upon freeze‐drying. Addition of trehalose or milk formula stabilized the phage preparation, which then showed excellent storage stability even at elevated temperature. PMID:21261874

  16. Overview of the International Space Station System Level Trace Contaminant Injection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, James D.; Perry, Jay L.; Franks, Gerald D.

    1997-01-01

    Trace contaminant control onboard the International Space Station will be accomplished not only by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly but also by other Environmental Control and Life Support System subassemblies. These additional removal routes include absorption by humidity condensate in the Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchanger and adsorption by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. The Trace Contaminant Injection Test, which was performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, investigated the system-level removal of trace contaminants by the International Space Station Atmosphere Revitalization, and Temperature/Humidity Control Subsystems, (November-December 1997). It is a follow-on to the Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Test conducted in 1996. An estimate for the magnitude of the assisting role provided by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and the Temperature and Humidity Control unit was obtained. In addition, data on the purity of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly carbon dioxide product were obtained to support Environmental Control and Life Support System Air Revitalization Subsystem loop closure.

  17. Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2004-01-01

    Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238U kg(-1)) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238U kg(-1)). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha(-1), respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production.

  18. Influence of coexisting spiramycin contaminant on the harm of Microcystis aeruginosa at different nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-03-21

    The influence of nitrogen on the effects of the antibiotic contaminant spiramycin on Microcystis aeruginosa was studied through a 7-day exposure test. At current contamination levels of 0.5-100 mg L(-1) for nitrogen and 0.1-0.4 μg L(-1) for spiramycin, the two factors significantly interacted with each other (p<0.05) on the synthesis of chlorophyll-a and protein, the production and release of microcystins as well as the expression of ntcA gene and mcyB gene in M. aeruginosa. Nitrogen significantly affected the toxicity of spiramycin on algal growth (p<0.05) via regulation of protein synthesis. The photosynthesis system including chlorophyll-a, the psbA gene, and the rbcL gene participated in stress responses to spiramycin. Coexisting spiramycin contaminant increased the harm of M. aeruginosa by stimulating the production and release of MCs at a nitrogen level of 0.5 mg L(-1), but alleviated M. aeruginosa pollution at higher nitrogen levels of 5-100 mg L(-1) by inhibiting algal growth, the production of microcystins and the expression of ntcA and mcyB. The nitrogen-dependent effects of spiramycin should be considered in the control of M. aeruginosa bloom in the presence of spiramycin.

  19. Molecular-Level Processes Governing the Interaction of Contaminants with Iron and Manganese Oxides - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., G. E.; Chambers, S. A.

    1999-10-31

    Many of the inorganic and organic contaminants present in sediments at DOE sites can be altered or destroyed by reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions occurring at mineral surfaces. A fundamental understanding of such redox processes provided by molecular-level studies on structurally and compositionally well-defined mineral surfaces will lead to: (i) improved models of contaminant fate and transport in geochemical systems, and (ii) optimized manipulation of these processes for remediation purposes. To contribute to this understanding, we will study, both experimentally and theoretically, redox processes involving three important contaminants - chromate ion, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene TCE, on the following iron and manganese oxides - hematite, magnetite, maghemite, and pyrolusite. These oxides and their hydroxylated analogs commonly occur as coatings on minerals or as interfaces in the subsurface environment. Single-crystal surfaces of these oxides will be synthesized in carefully controlled fashion by molecular beam epitaxy. These surfaces, as well as high surface are powdered samples of these oxides, will be used in spectroscopic and kinetic experiments in both aqueous and gas phases. Our goal is to identify products and to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of surface-catalyzed redox reaction of Cr(VI) and CR(III), and the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride and TCE. The combination of theory and experiment will provide the base information needed to scale from the molecular level to the microscopic grain level minerals.

  20. Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine as part-per-trillion levels drinking waters and contaminated groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) may be quantitated routinely at ultratrace (ng/L) levels in drinking water or contaminated groundwater. NDMA is selectively detected using a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) operated in its nitrosamine-selective mode. The reporting limit for this procedure, evaluated using two independent statistically unbiased protocols, is 2 ng of NDMA/L. A related procedure, employing an automatic sampler instead of the short-path thermal desorber, provides convenient analysis of heavily contaminated samples and exhibits a reporting limit (same protocols cited previously) of 110 ng of NDMA/L. When the two methods are used together in a `two-tiered` protocol, NDMA concentrations spanning 4 orders of magnitude (ng/L to {mu}g/L levels) may be measured routinely. The low-level procedure employing only the short-path thermal desorber was applied successfully to three sources of drinking water, where NDMA concentrations ranged between 2 and 10 ng of NDMA/L. The two-tiered protocol was applied to a series of contaminated groundwaters whose NDMA concentrations ranged between approximately 10-7000 ng of NDMA/L. The results agreed with those obtained from an independent collaborating laboratory, which used a different analytical procedure. 39 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. A Study to Develop a Scale for Determining the Social Acceptance Levels of Special-Needs Students, Participating in Inclusion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Erdinc; Sahbaz, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale of social acceptance for determining the social acceptance levels of special-needs students, participating in inclusion practices. The target population of the research is 8th grade students of all primary schools in the provincial center of Burdur in the 2008 to 2009 academic year and the target study…

  2. Determination of an acceptable assimilable organic carbon (AOC) level for biological stability in water distribution systems with minimized chlorine residual.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan because of increasing complaints about a chlorinous odor in drinking water. However, minimizing the chlorine residual causes the microbiological water quality to deteriorate, and stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water is thus needed to maintain biological stability during water distribution. In this investigation, an acceptable level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) for biologically stable water with minimized chlorine residual was determined based on the relationship between AOC, the chlorine residual, and bacterial regrowth. In order to prepare water samples containing lower AOC, the fractions of AOC and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in tap water samples were reduced by converting into biomass after thermal hydrolysis of BOM at alkaline conditions. The batch-mode incubations at different conditions of AOC and chlorine residual were carried out at 20 °C, and the presence or absence of bacterial regrowth was determined. The determined curve for biologically stable water indicated that the acceptable AOC was 10.9 μg C/L at a minimized chlorine residual (0.05 mg Cl(2)/L). This result indicated that AOC removal during current water treatment processes in Japan should be significantly enhanced prior to minimization of the chlorine residual in water distribution.

  3. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A.; McIntosh, T.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  4. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  5. Direct simulation Monte Carlo prediction of on-orbit contaminant deposit levels for HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.; Rault, Didier F. G.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional version of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is adapted to assess the contamination environment surrounding a highly detailed model of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Emphasis is placed on simulating a realistic, worst-case set of flow field and surface conditions and geometric orientations for the satellite in order to estimate an upper limit for the cumulative level of volatile organic molecular deposits at the aperture of the Halogen Occultation Experiment. A detailed description of the adaptation of this solution method to the study of the satellite's environment is also presented. Results pertaining to the satellite's environment are presented regarding contaminant cloud structure, cloud composition, and statistics of simulated molecules impinging on the target surface, along with data related to code performance. Using procedures developed in standard contamination analyses, along with many worst-case assumptions, the cumulative upper-limit level of volatile organic deposits on HALOE's aperture over the instrument's 35-month nominal data collection period is estimated at about 13,350 A.

  6. Developing methods to assess and predict the population and community level effects of environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, John M.; Springman, Kathrine R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies—assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants—moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  7. Use of PCR analysis for detecting low levels of bacteria and mold contamination in pharmaceutical samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, L; Smalls, S; Ignar, R

    2000-08-01

    PCR assays were developed and compared to standard methods for quality evaluation of pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products with low levels of microbial contamination. Samples were artificially contaminated with less than 10 CFU of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus niger. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each enrichment broth by mild lysis in Tris-EDTA-Tween 20 buffer containing proteinase K while mold DNA was extracted by boiling samples in Tris-EDTA-SDS buffer for 1 h. A 10-microl aliquot of extracted DNA was added to Ready-To-Go PCR beads and specific primers for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. However, 50-microl aliquots of extracted mold DNA were used for amplification of specific A. niger DNA sequences. Standard methods required 6-8 days while PCR detection of all microorganisms was completed within 27 h. Low levels of microbial contamination were detected in all raw materials and products using PCR assays. Rapid quality evaluation of pharmaceutical samples resulted in optimization of product manufacturing, quality control, and release of finished products.

  8. No enhancement in bioconcentration of organic contaminants by low levels of DOM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haitzer, M.; Akkanen, J.; Steinberg, C.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to systematically study the effect of low concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioconcentration of organic contaminants, in order to show whether the phenomenon of enhanced bioconcentration factors (BCFs), that has been reported in the literature, is generally found at low levels of DOM or if BCF enhancements are more likely due to a random scatter in the experimental data. The first part of the study tested the hypothesis that low levels of DOM affect the uptake kinetics of organic contaminants, leading to transient enhancements of BCFs, relative to DOM-free controls, which could have been reported as BCF enhancements in short-term studies. We found that the presence of low concentrations of two different types of DOM consistently decreased the bioconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the water flea Daphnia magna at all exposure times (1-24 h), and that no transient BCF enhancements occurred. The second part of the study systematically investigated if low concentrations of DOM from a wide range of different aquatic systems can cause enhancements in the bioconcentration of organic contaminants. Water fleas were exposed to combinations of four different organic contaminants (BaP, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorophenol and naphthalene) with low concentrations of 12 different types of DOM that had been collected from various regions throughout Europe. In several of the DOM treatments, we found mean BCFs being higher than mean BCFs in the controls (especially for naphthalene). This shows that the experimental setup used in this study (and similarly in previous studies) can produce seeming BCF enhancements at low concentrations of DOM. However, statistical analyses showed that treatment means were not significantly different from control means. Thus, this systematic study suggests that the BCF enhancements that have been reported in the literature are more likely the result of random, experimental variations than the

  9. Contamination status of persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from Japan: recent levels and temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Muraoka, Masayoshi; Ohtake, Masako; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Ueno, Daisuke; Higaki, Yumi; Ochi, Miyuki; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Kamikawa, Satoko; Tonegi, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Junya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-08-01

    Contamination levels of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) was examined in human breast milk collected during 2001-2004 from Fukuoka prefecture in Japan. The concentrations of OCs such as dioxins and related compounds, DDTs, CHLs and HCB in human breast milk from primiparae were comparable to or slightly higher than the data obtained during 1998, indicating that the levels of these contaminants in Japanese human breast milk have not decreased since 1998 and Japanese are continuously exposed to these chemicals, presumably via fish intake. In addition, OC levels in human breast milk from primiparae were significantly higher than those from multiparae, implying elimination of OCs via lactation. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between levels of OCs in human breast milk and the age of primiparae. These results indicate that the mothers with higher age may transfer higher amounts of OCs to the first infant than to the infants born afterwards through breast-feeding, and hence the first born children might be at higher risk by OCs.

  10. Dose coefficients and derived guidance and clinical decision levels for contaminated wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, Luiz; Toohey, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    The NCRP Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment has been combined with the ICRP element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. Those coefficients have been used to generate derived guidance levels (i.e., the activity in a wound that would result in an effective dose of 20 or 50 mSv, or in some cases, a committed organ equivalent dose of 500 mSv), and clinical decision levels (i.e., activity levels that would indicate the need for consideration of medical intervention to remove activity from the wound site or administration of decorporation therapy or both), typically set at 5 times the derived guidance levels. Data are provided for the radionuclides commonly encountered at nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons, fuel fabrication or recycling, waste disposal, medical and research facilities. These include: {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 210}Po, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 228,232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242,244}Cm, and {sup 252}Cf.

  11. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  12. Changes in contaminant distributions with trophic level in a marine food chain study

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Taplin, B.K.; McGovern, D.G.; Montmarquet, B.T.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory study was designed to investigate the transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants from sediments to marine biota in a simplified marine food chain. Sediments collected from the Passaic River, NJ, which contained high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, were used as the contamination source. Polychaete worms (Nereis virens) were exposed to Passaic River sediment for 70 days to allow steady-state concentrations to be achieved and then these organisms were fed to a crustacean, the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Contaminant distributions were altered significantly as they passed from sediments to polychaetes and then to the lobster. PCDDs and PCDFs containing four or five chlorines were accumulated by the polychaetes and lobster; however, the highly chlorinated congeners were not accumulated. PCB patterns in lobsters indicated that these organisms metabolized many PCB congeners. Coplanar PCBs did not appear to be metabolized and therefore became enriched relative to total PCB levels in the lobsters. Lobsters also greatly altered the ratios of chlordane and DDT series compounds relative to those in the sediments and polychaetes.

  13. Water level management and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Dummer, P.M.; Custer, Christine M.; Li, A.U.; Warburton, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a water drawdown on Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to increase aquatic vegetation production and thereby improve fish and wildlife habitat. Flooding of previously dried wetlands, however, may increase the rate of mercury methylation and make mercury more available to terrestrial vertebrates that feed in aquatic environments. Our objective was to determine if mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants were more available to vertebrates following the 2001 drawdown. Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected at two sites on Pool 8 and a nearby Reference site in 2000 (pre-2001 drawdown), 2001 (pre-2001 drawdown) and 2002 (post-2001 drawdown) and tissues were analyzed for mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants. Bioindicator measurements of genetic damage, oxidative stress, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and the ratio of liver to nestling mass were also measured in nestlings at all sites and all years. Based on a multivariate analysis, the 2001 drawdown of Pool 8 did not influence element concentrations, organochlorine concentrations, or bioindicator response. Concentrations of inorganic and organochlorine contaminants in tree swallow eggs and nestlings were not at toxic levels. Hatching success did not differ among years and was comparable to the nationwide average.

  14. Low level contaminant detection: Implications to loading estimates and management of coastal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.; West, D.; Uhler, A.; Peven, C.

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of effluents using low level analytical method detection limits has been applied during an eighteen-month long characterization of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Deer Island primary treated sewage effluent. Nine metals, 40 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), C{sub 10} to C{sub 14} linear alkyl benzenes (LAB), 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 16 persistent chlorinated pesticides were measured. Contaminant concentrations ranged as follows: total PAH, 13 and 32 {micro}g/L; total PCBs, 17--110 ng/L; total chlordanes, 0--74 ng/L; lindane, 2--16 ng/L; total LABs, 7.5--22 {micro}g/L; dieldrin < 5 {micro}g/L. Metal concentrations (in {micro}g/L) were: Ag, 3--7.5; Cd, 0.4--1.4; Cr, 2.7--11; Cu, 48--111; Hg, 0.1--0.26; Mo, 5--25; Ni, 4.6--9; Pb, 6--26; Zn, 70--136. Seasonal trends were observed for some contaminant. Organic compounds were consistently less that the acute water quality criteria in the undiluted effluent. Values p,p{prime}-DDT, Ag, Cu, Hg, and Pb and occasionally for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor exceeded the chronic marine criteria. Dilution of the effluent will quickly reduce contaminants concentrations below the chronic criteria. Application of these methods has resulted in substantial improvements to estimates of contaminant discharge to the coastal waters of Massachusetts Bay. Further, measurements of the efficiency of the planned secondary treatment processes has demonstrated that secondary treatment will be highly effective in removal of many organic compounds and metals from the primary effluent and that secondary treatment will significantly alter the source signature of PAHs in the discharge. Availability of such information is providing environmental planners with more effective tools for monitoring impact from this treatment facility.

  15. Assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in soil at a contaminated sawmill site in Sweden--a GIS and PCA approach to interpret the contamination pattern and distribution.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, S; Hagberg, J; Bäckström, M; Persson, I; Lindström, G

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in soil from a Swedish sawmill site where chlorophenols (CPs) had been used more than 40 years ago. The most contaminated area at the site was the preservation subarea where the PCDD/F WHO2005-TEQ level was 3450 times higher than the current Swedish guideline value of 200 ng TEQ/kg soil for land for industrial use. It was also shown that a fire which destroyed the sawmill might have affected the congener distribution at the concerned areas. To get a broader picture of the contamination both GIS (spatial interpolation analysis) and multivariate data analysis (PCA) were applied to visualize and compare PCDD/F levels as well as congener distributions at different areas at the site. It is shown that GIS and PCA are powerful tools in decisions on future investigations, risk assessments and remediation of contaminated sites.

  16. Contaminant levels in fish and shellfish from the EMAP-Estuaries Louisiana Province

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, W.H.; O`Neal, J.M.; Allgood, J.C.; Summers, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries (EMAP-E) is a research program designed to assess the ecological condition of the nation`s near-coastal ecosystems. The program is specifically designed to assess changes in ecological condition over broad biogeographic regions and over long time periods. The authors examined approximately 150 sites in the Gulf of Mexico between Anclote Anchorage, FL and the Rio Grande, TX during the summer of 1993. Species collected for chemical analyses included Atlantic croaker, catfish and shrimp. Results will be presented for contaminant levels in edible flesh analyzed for organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, PCB congeners, butlytins, and a suite of trace elements.

  17. Europium-154 contamination levels in Samarium-153-EDTMP for radionuclide therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, L.; Fantinato, D.; Frigerio, F.; Shamhan, G.; Angelovski, G.

    2006-05-01

    153Sm-EDTMP, a useful non toxic bone seeking isotope in the palliative radionuclide therapy for bone metastases, is produced by neutron activation of enriched of 152Sm2O3 targets. During the large-scale formation of 153Sm, however, there is a co-production of some long-lived radio nuclides, among which 154Eu is a major and inevitable radionuclide impurity. The level of 154Eu contamination was evaluated performing a gamma-ray spectrometry of a radiopharmaceutical sample and the urine of an administered patient. As expected, gamma-ray spectra revealed the presence of 153Eu in all the samples. The specific activity of 153Eu in the urine sample collected at 6 hours after injection is 21 Bq/ml and is less than 1 Bq/ml in 24 hr. The contamination levels of 153Eu, normalized to the corresponding activity of 153Sm, were 0.0012% in the residual and in the first urine sample and 0.0017% and 0.0031% at 30 and 54 hours after administration, respectively. The results of this study show that the level of the long-lived 153Eu impurity is not a limitation in the metastatic bone pain palliation due to the additional radiation dose burden, but could pose a cause of concern in case of discharging.

  18. Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Patrick; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Guillard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    A phytoremediation study targeting low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was conducted using cool- and warm-season grasses and willows (Salix species) grown in pots filled with contaminated sandy soil from the New Haven Rail Yard, CT. Efficiencies of the TPH degradation were assessed in a 90-day experiment using 20-8.7-16.6 N-P-K water-soluble fertilizer and fertilizer with molasses amendments to enhance phytoremediation. Plant biomass, TPH concentrations, and indigenous microbes quantified with colony-forming units (CFU), were assessed at the end of the study. Switchgrass grown with soil amendments produced the highest aboveground biomass. Bacterial CFU's were in orders of magnitude significantly higher in willows with soil amendments compared to vegetated treatments with no amendments. The greatest reduction in TPH occurred in all vegetated treatments with fertilizer (66-75%) and fertilizer/molasses (65-74%), followed sequentially by vegetated treatments without amendments, unvegetated treatments with amendments, and unvegetated treatments with no amendment. Phytoremediation of low-level TPH contamination was most efficient where fertilization was in combination with plant species. The same level of remediation was achievable through the addition of grasses and/or willow combinations without amendment, or by fertilization of sandy soil.

  19. Groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, Y. . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1986-01-01

    The subject of these conference proceedings is the groundwater contamination. It is by nature multifarious - dealing with detection and monitoring, prevention, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of contaminated groundwater - it intrinsically encompasses myriad disciplines, and it involves all levels of government. Also, the subject of groundwater contamination is complex because decisions concerning groundwater pollution control that are scientifically sound, technologically within the state of the art, economically feasible, politically tractable, legally sustainable, socially acceptable, morally accountable, and organizationally implementable must be grounded on appropriate information and intelligence bases in their respective areas - science, technology, economics, politics, the law, society, ethics, and management. Indeed, the human health effects (e.g., cancer, damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney damage) and non-health effects (economic hardship to industry, agriculture, households, and municipalities; environmental impacts; social impacts) necessitate that we, as a society, address in a somber way the following variations of the same question: How safe is safe enough How clean is safe enough The enormous cost - in billions of dollars over the next decade - that various studies project for the prevention, detection and monitoring, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of groundwater contamination make an answer to these questions even more urgent. There are sixteen papers in these proceedings.

  20. Survival of enterohemorrhagic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from spinach plants after overhead irrigation with (currently acceptable) contamination levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In response to the growing food safety issues surrounding fresh cut lettuce and other leafy green commodities in the U.S., the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) proposes new commodity-specific guidelines that encompass all steps on the production-to-distribution continuum to ensur...

  1. Tracking blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in Andean adults working in a lead contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4, and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007, and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Lead exposure of the workers needs to be continually monitored.

  2. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  3. Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves (Canis lupus) from the Yukon Territory, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gamberg, M; Braune, B M

    1999-12-15

    Kidney, liver and bone samples were taken from 19 wolves (Canis lupus) collected from two locations in the Yukon Territory. Liver samples pooled by age and sex were analyzed for 22 organochlorine pesticides and 101 PCB congeners. Individual kidney and liver samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium and zinc. Thirteen individual bone samples were analyzed for lead. While most organochlorines were not present at detectable levels in wolf liver, some chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and sigma PCB were present at low levels. PCB congeners 149, 153, 170/190, 180 and 187/182 made up 86% of the total PCBs measured in wolf liver. The hexa- and heptachlorobiphenyls dominated the pattern in wolf liver, while congeners containing less than five chlorine atoms were not detected. The pattern of chlorobenzene and PCB homologues found in wolf liver are more similar to those found in marten (Martes americana) and other carnivores than caribou (Rangifer tarandus), perhaps reflecting similarities in food habits and metabolic capacities. With the exception of cadmium, average element concentrations in all wolf tissues are similar to those found in other arctic carnivores. Cadmium concentrations in wolf liver and kidney were somewhat higher in Yukon wolves than other arctic wolves. This may reflect high cadmium concentrations found in livers and kidneys of moose and some caribou herds in the Yukon. Renal arsenic and bone lead decreased significantly with age in wolves, while renal mercury increased with age. Because the ranges seen are relatively small, and all values are within the range normally seen in wildlife, it is difficult to determine the biological significance of these relationships. Contaminant levels in Yukon wolves are generally low and are similar to those found in other arctic terrestrial carnivores. They do not approach levels that are known to potentially cause adverse effects in animals. Contaminant concentrations found in this study

  4. Levels of asymmetry in Formica pratensis Retz. (Hymenoptera, Insecta) from a chronic metal-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Rabitsch, W.B.

    1997-07-01

    Asymmetries of bilaterally symmetrical morphological traits in workers of the ant Formica pratensis Retzius were compared at sites with different levels of metal contamination and between mature and pre-mature colonies. Statistical analyses of the right-minus-left differences revealed that their distributions fit assumptions of fluctuating asymmetry (FA). No direct asymmetry or antisymmetry were present. Mean measurement error accounts for a third of the variation, but the maximum measurement error was 65%. Although significant differences of FA in ants were observed, the inconsistent results render uncovering a clear pattern difficult. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in the ants decreased with the distance from the contamination source, but no relation was found between FA and the heavy metal levels. Ants from the premature colonies were more asymmetrical than those from mature colonies but accumulated less metals. The use of asymmetry measures in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring is criticized, but should remain widely applicable if statistical assumptions are complemented by genetic and historical data.

  5. Oil contamination of fish in the North Sea. Determination of levels and identification of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, S.; Restucci, R.; Klungsoyr, J.

    1996-12-31

    Two fish species, cod and haddock have been sampled from five different regions in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, the Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea, Three of the five sampling areas were located in regions with no local oil or gas production, while the remaining two areas represented regions with high density of oil and gas production fields. A total of 25 specimen of each of the two fish species were collected, and liver (all samples) and muscle (10 samples from each group) were analyzed for the content of total hydrocarbons (THC), selected aromatic compounds (NPD and PAH) and bicyclic aliphatic decalines. The present paper outlines the results of liver samples analyses from four of the sampled regions, & northern North Sea region and the three reference regions Egersundbanken, Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea. In general, no significant difference was observed between the hydrocarbon levels within the sampled regions. The only observed exception was a moderate, but significant increase in decaline levels in haddock liver from the Northern North Sea region. The qualitative interpretation of the results showed that the sources of hydrocarbon contamination varied within the total sampling area. This observation indicates that the local discharge sources in areas with high petroleum production activity are the sources of hydrocarbons in fish from such areas. However, it was not possible to identify single discharges as a contamination source from the present results.

  6. POPTOX: Population-level responses of an amphipod to contaminated marine sediments and other environmental stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H. |

    1994-12-31

    Experimental measurements of population-level responses are useful to environmental management in two ways: (1) to estimate the fitness of populations in an ecological-risk study, and (2) to evaluate the ecological relevance of shorter-term acute and chronic toxicity tests that use the same test species. An experimental system was developed for modeling the population-level responses of the burrowing, estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, to environmental stresses, including chemical contamination. Replicate cohorts of newborn amphipods were exposed to natural and anthropogenic (PAH-contaminated sediment) stresses under static-renewal conditions over periods varying up to their full life-span. The amphipods were periodically removed from the sediment, censused, measured, and returned alive to the exposure chamber; the resulting life-history data were used to develop age-based, matrix-algebraic, population-projection models. Preliminary experiments revealed that an exposure period of 12 weeks with a sampling frequency of 2 weeks was sufficient to model the population dynamics of this amphipod. This experimental system may also be,used to study the interaction between anthropogenic stresses and ecological stresses under controlled and long-term exposures.

  7. The relationship between hearing aid frequency response and acceptable noise level in patients with sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238

  8. Contaminant levels in colonial waterbirds from Green Bay and Lake Michigan, 1975-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Erdman, T.C.; Haseltine, S.D.; Stafford, C.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated styrenes (PCSs), and mercury were measured in the eggs of 10 species of colonial waterbirds nesting in areas aroung Green Bay or Lake Michigan from 1975 to 1980. Residues also were measured in the carcasses and brains of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). The highest residues were of PCBs, DDE, mercury, and dieldrin; for some species, levels of these chemicals possibly were high enough to have caused reproductive effects. Other organochlorine pesticides were found at low levels. Only trace amounts of PCSs and PBBs were found. Eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) collected in 1977 from an island in Lake Michigan contained an average of 100 ppm PCBs and 33 ppm DDE; this was the most- contaminated species. Cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), the only bird that is not a fish eater, contained only small quantities of DDE and mercury.

  9. Effects of decontamination at varying contamination levels of Campylobacter jejuni on broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Boysen, L; Wechter, N S; Rosenquist, H

    2013-05-01

    When assessing effects of decontamination techniques on counts of Campylobacter spp. on broiler meat, it is essential that the results reflect the variations that may exist. Decontamination studies often use high inoculation levels (10(7) to 10(8) cfu) and one or few strains of Campylobacter jejuni, thereby restricting the results to reflect only a limited part of the true situation. This study presents results from physical and chemical decontamination of broiler meat medallions using different strains and different initial concentrations of C. jejuni. For 3 strains of C. jejuni, mean log reductions obtained by freezing at -20°C for 7 d was significantly higher for an initial concentration of 10(7) cfu/sample on the meat compared with an initial concentration of 10(3) cfu/sample. For freezing at -20°C for 24 h or application of 6% tartaric acid and subsequent storage for 24 h, no statistically significant difference in reductions was found for initial concentrations ranging from 10(3) to 10(7) cfu per sample. The mean log reductions obtained by all techniques were strongly dependent on the strain tested. The results reveal that reductions obtained with high inoculation levels of C. jejuni (10(7) cfu/sample) or single or few strains of the species (or both) should not be interpreted as a generic result for the species. If inoculation studies cannot be replaced by investigations of naturally contaminated meat, we advise using a mixture of strains found in the production environment at levels as close as possible to the natural contamination level.

  10. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen.

  11. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  13. Estimation of potential population level effects of contaminants on wildlife. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Rose, K.A.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. For several reasons, uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAELs or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. The authors are working on several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation and development of new scaling models; (2) development of dose-response models for toxicity data presented in the literature; and (3) development of matrix-based population models that, coupled

  14. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  15. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Adler, Sven; Garthe, Stefan

    2015-01-15

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe′s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. - Highlights: • Contaminants in Oystercatchers from the Elbe river and a non-riverine site were measured. • Mean levels of contaminants were higher at the river than at the non-riverine site. • Levels of most contaminants in serum and feathers were significantly related. • No relationship between trophic level (δ15N) and contaminant level was found. • One of Europe′s largest river systems is associated

  16. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different Levels of Noise Contamination

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD) and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a noise free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by noise were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA) features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher noise level but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against noise contamination. PMID:28085953

  18. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  19. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.C.; Hertel, Nolan; Ansari, A.; Manger, Ryan P; Freibert, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritizing individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  20. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology.

  1. Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different Levels of Noise Contamination.

    PubMed

    Jee Keen Raymond, Wong; Illias, Hazlee Azil; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim

    2017-01-01

    Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD) and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a noise free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by noise were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA) features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher noise level but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against noise contamination.

  2. [Influence of the consumption of radioactive contaminated food on the formation of the irradiation levels and health of the inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, I M; Omel'yanets, N I

    2014-01-01

    Within all these years after the Chernobyl disaster the population of contaminated areas of the Rivne region was shown to consume radioactive contaminated foodstuffs. The main components of the formation of the internal irradiation of the population in them were and remain locally sourced milk and meat, forest mushrooms and berries. After 1991, the largest annual internal doses in persons observed in 1997 varied from 2,2 to 1,45 mSv/year and in 2011--in the inhabitants of the village of El'no they were yet reaching 1.43 mSv/year. After 2003, exposure levels in most inhabitatants of affected areas exceeded the criterion specified by national legislation for residents of the tightened radioecological control zone (0,5 mSv/year). The long-term residence in the contaminated area, elevated levels of chronic internal exposure, lack of radioactively sound foodstuffs and involuntary consumption in 1987-2011 radioactively contaminated food of local production were noted to led to an increase in general morbidity, and incidence of endocrine diseases rate and their separate nosological forms.

  3. Level of contamination by metallic trace elements and organic molecules in the seagrass beds of Guadeloupe Island.

    PubMed

    Bouchon, Claude; Lemoine, Soazig; Dromard, Charlotte; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass bed ecosystems occupy the most important part of coastal shelf in the French West Indies. They also constitute nurseries for many invertebrates and fishes harvested by local fisheries. In Guadeloupe, coastal fish stocks are declining meanwhile several agroecosystems revealed to be heavily contaminated by pollutants (agricultural lands, rivers, mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs). Considering these facts, a study of the contamination of seagrass beds (8000 ha) of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (GCSM) bay was conducted on their sediments and marine phanerogams. The analyses concerned six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, V, Zn), tributyltin, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 38 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dithiocarbamates (CS2 residues), and 225 pesticide molecules.Overall, the level of contamination of the seagrass beds was low for both sediments and phanerogams. Metallic trace elements were the main pollutants but with higher concentrations recorded in coastal sites, and their distribution can be explained by the proximity of river mouths and current patterns. The level of contamination was lower in plants than in sediments. However, the level of contamination between these two compartments was significantly correlated. The conclusion of this study is that, unlike other coastal ecosystems of Guadeloupe such as mangroves, the seagrass beds in the GCSM present a low degree of pollution. The observed level of contaminants does not seem to threaten the role of nursery played by the seagrass beds and does not likely present a risk for the reintroduction of manatees.

  4. The quantitation of cocaine on U.S. currency: survey and significance of the levels of contamination.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Thomas H; Veitenheimer, Allison M; Murray, Cynthia K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2013-05-01

    It has long been suspected that the illicit distribution of cocaine in the United States has led to a large-scale contamination of the currency supply. To investigate the extent of contamination, 418 currency samples (4174 bills) were collected from 90 locations around the United States from 1993 to 2009. The extent of their cocaine contamination was quantitated via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The level of cocaine contamination was determined to average 2.34 ng/bill across all denominations ($1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100). Levels of cocaine contamination on currency submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory in criminal cases over the 1993-2001 timeframe had significantly higher contamination than currency in general circulation. A mathematical model was developed based on the background survey that indicates the likelihood of drawing a bill in specific concentration ranges. For example, there is a 0.8349 likelihood that random bill will have contamination less than 20 ng.

  5. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 1. A description of the method

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    This paper contains a description of the methods used in a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The ARCL method is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. Thes modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. The analysis results in site-specific ARCL values that can be used for determining compliance with any annual dose limit selected. This flexibility permits proper consideration of field situations involving the radionuclide mixtures and physical conditions encountered. In addition, this method permits a full determination of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) conditions.

  6. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  7. Lead levels of edibles grown in contaminated residential soils: a field survey.

    PubMed

    Finster, Mary E; Gray, Kimberly A; Binns, Helen J

    2004-03-29

    Plants grown in lead contaminated soils can accumulate lead from the adherence of dust and translocation into the plant tissue. In order to evaluate the potential health hazard due to the consumption of plants grown in residential gardens contaminated by lead, a survey of the lead concentrations in a typical array of edible vegetables, fruits and herbs was conducted. Samples of garden plants harvested from the field were washed with detergent or water alone to remove adhered soil. They were dried, separated into sections including root, shoot and edible fruit, and then analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Soil samples, taken in conjunction with the plant harvesting, were analyzed using flame atomic absorbance (FAA). A pattern of lead transference from soil through the root to the stem and leaves of garden crops was found. The majority of the lead was concentrated in the roots (root:soil ranging from 0.02 to 0.51), with some translocation into the shoots (shoot:soil as high as 0.10). This pattern is a concern particularly for crops in which the root, stems, stalks or leaves are edible. The lead concentration in fruiting vegetables was less than the detection limit of 10 ppm (microgram lead/gram dry plant matter). Some edible portions of the leafy vegetables and herbs, however, were found to have lead levels that, if consumed, could contribute to the total body burden of lead. Therefore, urban gardeners should test the lead levels in their soils and develop strategies to ensure safety.

  8. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  9. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds.

    PubMed

    Amélineau, F; Bonnet, D; Heitz, O; Mortreux, V; Harding, A M A; Karnovsky, N; Walkusz, W; Fort, J; Grémillet, D

    2016-12-01

    Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 ± 0.62 m(-3) in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 ± 1.11 m(-3) in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea-ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast

  10. Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Youn; Ko, Han-Jong; Kim, Hyeon-Tae; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Roh, Young-Man

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study is to demonstrate an effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, total airborne fungi and ammonia were significantly higher in the treated nursery pig house with feeding than the control nursery pig house without feeding. Although there is no significant difference in respirable dust and total airborne fungi between the treatment and the control, their concentrations in the treated nursery pig house were also higher than the control nursery pig house. The result that the level of ammonia in the treated nursery pig house is lower than the control nursery pig house would be reasoned by the mechanism of ammonia generation in the pig house and adsorption property of ammonia to dust particles. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increased the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to no feeding activity.

  11. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  12. Methylmercury levels and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web of a highly mercury-contaminated reservoir.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436 μg/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from the surveyed area, methylmercury (MeHg) values in fish individuals have never been reported. Accordingly, in order to investigate bioaccumulation patterns at different levels of the aquatic food web of such polluted area, crayfish and various fish species, were analysed for THg and MeHg content. At the hot spot, THg mean values of crayfish muscle tissue and hepatopancreas were 10 and 15 times, respectively, greater than the local background level. Higher mean THg concentrations were detected in piscivorous (THg=0.848 ± 0.476 μg/g wet weight (ww); MeHg=0.672 ± 0.364 μg/g ww) than in non-piscivorous fish (THg=0.305 ± 0.163 μg/g ww; MeHg=0.278 ± 0.239 μg/g ww). Although these results indicated that THg in fish increased significantly with increasing trophic position, the percentage of the methylated form of Hg was not strongly influenced by differences in relative trophic position. This is an important finding, since the fraction of THg as MeHg in the top fish predator was unexpectedly lower than for other species of the aquatic food chain. Moreover, mean THg concentrations in piscivorous fish exceed the maximum level recommended for human consumption. From our findings, it is clear that for this specific polluted system, speciation becomes almost mandatory when risk assessment is based on MeHg, since single measurements of THg are inadequate and could lead to an over- or under-estimation of contamination levels.

  13. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths.

  14. Quality and consumer acceptability of salt and phosphate enhanced goat loin from goats fed varying levels of pine bark.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Broadway, P R; Solaiman, S; Behrends, J M

    2012-03-01

    Goat loins (n=22) were evaluated to test effects of 0, 15, and 30% dietary pine bark (PB) and salt, water, and phosphate enhancement on shelf-life, shear force (WBSF) and consumer acceptability. No interactions existed between PB and enhancement. Dietary PB did not affect objective color, but enhancement increased a* and b* values (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased from d 1 to d 5 of storage (P<0.0001), but were not affected by PB or enhancement. The WBSF for 30% PB was less than that of 0% PB (P=0.0199), and enhancement decreased WBSF (P=0.0010). Texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were greater (P<0.05) for 15 and 30% PB compared to 0% PB. Enhanced loin samples had greater appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability scores (P<0.05). Results indicated that enhancement improved tenderness and consumer acceptability of goat loin, and PB had minimal impact on goat loin quality.

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of Classroom-Based Interventions for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Challenges at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State, Talida M.; Harrison, Judith R.; Kern, Lee; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of interventions designed to address the needs of high school students with emotional and behavioral challenges and adopted by their teachers. In this study, 336 general and special education teachers rated classwide interventions (e.g., expectations, routines, positive student-teacher…

  16. CERISE, a French radioprotection code, to assess the radiological impact and acceptance criteria of installations for material handling, and recycling or disposal of very low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Santucci, P.; Guetat, P.

    1993-12-31

    This document describes the code CERISE, Code d`Evaluations Radiologiques Individuelles pour des Situations en Enterprise et dans l`Environnement. This code has been developed in the frame of European studies to establish acceptance criteria of very low-level radioactive waste and materials. This code is written in Fortran and runs on PC. It calculates doses received by the different pathways: external exposure, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. Twenty basic scenarios are already elaborated, which have been determined from previous studies. Calculations establish the relation between surface, specific and/or total activities, and doses. Results can be expressed as doses for an average activity unit, or as average activity limits for a set of reference doses (defined for each scenario analyzed). In this last case, the minimal activity values and the corresponding limiting scenarios, are selected and summarized in a final table.

  17. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  18. Reproductive characteristics and steroid levels in the scleractinian coral Oculina patagonica inhabiting contaminated sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Shore, Laurence S; Segal, Roee; Sharon, Daniel; Loya, Yossi

    2012-08-01

    In this study we compared reproductive characteristics and steroid hormone levels in the non-indigenous scleractinian coral, Oculina patagonica, inhabiting contaminated vs. uncontaminated reference sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Our results indicate significantly higher steroid levels in both seawater and coral tissue samples from contaminated sites as compared to reference sites, suggesting that corals tend to accumulate steroids from the surrounding waters. Despite their higher steroid levels, corals from the contaminated sites showed reproductive potential comparable to those of the reference sites. Interestingly, a clear distinction could be seen between corals exposed to pollution for long vs. short durations, with the latter showing a failure to complete gametogenesis. This suggests that reproduction in O. patagonica is susceptible to acute rather than chronic stress. The involvement of adjustment/adaptation processes may explain this species tolerance, and may reflect the ability of O. patagonica to successfully invade new areas in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  20. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Mariën, K

    1996-11-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams.

  1. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-02-09

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p < 0.05), however interaction between seasons and processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (<0.003 mg/kg wet weight) in both raw and smoked fillets rich in organic arsenic (up to 9.0 mg/kg for farmed salmon and 0.7 mg/kg for wild caught Greenland halibut per wet weight). Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content.

  2. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís M F; Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Mendes, Susana; Correia, João P S; Lemos, Marco F L; Novais, Sara C

    2016-09-01

    Marine ecosystems are constantly being threatened by contaminants produced by human activities. There is an urge to better understand their impacts on marine organisms and develop reliable tools for biomonitoring studies, while also assessing their potential impacts on human health. Given their position on top of food webs, sharks are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation, making them potential sentinel species of marine contamination. The main objective of this study was to find suitable biomarkers for future marine pollution biomonitoring studies by correlating biochemical responses with tissue contaminant body burden in blue sharks (Prionace glauca), a species heavily caught and consumed by humans, while also addressing their general health. The chemical contaminants analysed comprised different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) families from polychlorinated compounds to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and different trace and heavy metals. Concentrations of some contaminants in sharks' tissues were found to be above the legally allowed limits for human consumption. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed and some strong associations were found between biochemical responses and contaminants' accumulation levels. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the inhibition of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, were the main effects and consequences of contamination. The impact of contamination on these vital macromolecules underlines the suboptimal conditions of the sampled P. glauca, which can ultimately lead to the degradation of core ecological aspects, such as swimming, feeding, and reproduction. It can be concluded that P. glauca demonstrates great potential to be used as environmental sentinel and suitable biomarker candidates were identified in this work. Moreover, this study also highlights the risks that the consumption of blue shark derived products can pose to human

  3. Effects of cottonseed hull levels in the diet and ageing time on visual and sensory meat acceptability from young bulls finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Eiras, C E; Guerrero, A; Valero, M V; Pardo, J A; Ornaghi, M G; Rivaroli, D C; Sañudo, C; Prado, I N

    2017-03-01

    Cottonseed hulls are co-product of agribusiness that can be used in beef cattle rations, decreasing the cost of feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cottonseed hull levels, display and ageing times on visual and sensorial meat acceptability. Longissimus thoracis muscle from 30 crossbred young bulls finished on three high-grain diets (210, 270 or 330 g/kg of cottonseed hulls on dry matter, respectively) were visually evaluated during 10 days of display by 37 appraisers. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability from the three diets and three ageing times (1, 7 and 14 days) were evaluated by 120 consumers. On the visual study, time of display (P⩽0.001) was a more significant factor than diet. Cottonseed hull level had no effect on sensorial analyses, with tenderness acceptability improving with ageing time (P⩽0.001). Results indicate the possibility of using the three studied levels of cottonseed without damaging consumer meat acceptability.

  4. Can volatile organic metabolites be used to simultaneously assess microbial and mite contamination level in cereal grains and coffee beans?

    PubMed

    Salvador, Angelo C; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC-ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans.

  5. Can Volatile Organic Metabolites Be Used to Simultaneously Assess Microbial and Mite Contamination Level in Cereal Grains and Coffee Beans?

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ângelo C.; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC–ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC–ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC–ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans. PMID:23613710

  6. Measuring eco-efficiency of contaminated soil management at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Kielenniva, Nea; Antikainen, Riina; Sorvari, Jaana

    2012-10-30

    Eco-efficiency and sustainable development are the key environmental topics and goals for today's society that we should strive for in all activities, including contaminated soil management (CSM). However, particularly at the regional level, CSM is studied to a lesser extent from this perspective and practical means to monitor and assess sustainability or eco-efficiency are not widely available. This study aims to fill this gap by developing indicators to measure and monitor the development of regional eco-efficiency of CSM. The indicators can be used to support decision-making at the regional level since many CSM decisions, such as prioritisation of sites and the number of soil treatment and storing facilities, are made regionally. To start with, we surveyed the methods available for determining eco-efficiency and suitable indicators to monitor and measure the development of CSM regionally. We used life cycle analysis (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) to identify factors that the environmental indicators should cover, and also involved economic indicators. We ended up with a selection of 28 indicators, which can be classed into three different categories: background indicators, environmental indicators and economic indicators. We further demonstrated the use of the indicators by applying data from three different regions in Finland, and evaluated their suitability. On the basis of the results we recommended 15 indicators for continuous follow-up and decision-making purposes. Even though these indicators are suitable for monitoring and measuring the eco-efficiency of CSM at the regional level, unfortunately we found several data gaps related to the actual remediation projects which impede their use in practice. The data collection practices therefore need to be regionally developed.

  7. Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Jason W; Neaman, Alexander; Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-12-15

    Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils ( 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.

  8. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Steill, Jeffrey D.; Huang, Haifeng; Hoops, Alexandra A.; Patterson, Brian D.; Birtola, Salvatore R.; Jaska, Mark; Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.; Bisson, Soott

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  9. Effect of cycle time and duty cycle on psychophysically determined acceptable levels in a highly repetitive task.

    PubMed

    Moore, Anne; Wells, Richard

    2005-06-10

    Psychophysical methodology has been used to develop guidelines for lifting and more recently similar methods have been applied to repetitive upper limb movements. While a range of cycle times are usually used, there is often no control for duty cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present psychophysically determined acceptable torques for a common upper limb task, with both cycle time and duty cycle conditions set by the researcher. Eight female participants, sitting at adjustable workstations, performed a simulated in-line screw running task. A computer-controlled torque motor applied a torque every 3, 6, 12 or 20 s with a duty cycle of 25, 50 or 83%. The participants worked with one set of conditions each day and self-selected the highest torque that they felt was acceptable without developing undue pain and discomfort. Duty cycle was found to significantly affect the amount of torque selected. With duty cycle controlled, cycle time was no longer found to have any significant effect on selected torque. Acceptable torques for 25, 50 and 83% duty cycles were 1.09, 0.9 and 0.73 Nm. Discomfort and stiffness were concentrated on the back of the hand and on the thumb web. These findings suggest that increased perception of discomfort with increased frequency (decreased cycle time) may be related to decreased rest/recovery time for muscles.

  10. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  11. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  12. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin from feed at cross-contamination levels to various poultry matrices.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-09-01

    Residues of veterinary drugs and feed additives used extensively in animal husbandry are sometimes found in edible matrices. In this study, broilers received experimental feed, containing either flubendazole or tylosin, at cross-contamination levels of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% of the therapeutic dose to determine the transfer ratio of these molecules from feed to poultry matrices. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion periods and then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The parent molecule flubendazole and its 2 major metabolites were quantified. After 3 to 5 d, a plateau phase was reached, and a few days after withdrawal of the experimental feed, a depletion of residues was noted. Significant difference between both muscle types was noted for flubendazole. Strong metabolization of flubendazole in the liver was seen. For tylosin, no residue concentrations above the limit of quantification could be detected in muscle. None of the residue concentrations for either molecule exceeded the corresponding maximum residue limits.

  13. Mercury poisoning dentistry: high-level indoor air mercury contamination at selected dental sites.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Abbasi, Maryam Shabbir

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), also known as quick silver, is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported. The present report briefly describes and discusses our recent investigations carried out at 34 dental sites (teaching institutions, hospitals and private clinics) in Pakistan. It is evident from the data that at many sites the indoor mercury vapor levels exceed far above the permissible limit recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public in general and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. To minimize such risk, some of the recommendations are, best in-house environmental practices for occupational health and safety, mercury contaminated waste reduction at source, mercury specific legislation and ratification of Minamata convention on mercury by Pakistan and other world governments at the earliest time possible.

  14. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p < 0.05). The enrichment factor using the mass ratio of lead to the major crustal elements (Al, Sr, Ti and Fe) indicates significant lead enrichment in atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil.

  15. Community structure and nutrient level control the tolerance of autotrophic biofilm to silver contamination.

    PubMed

    Leflaive, J; Felten, V; Ferriol, J; Lamy, A; Ten-Hage, L; Bec, A; Danger, M

    2015-09-01

    Autotrophic biofilms are complex and fundamental biological compartments of many aquatic ecosystems. Since microbial species differ in their sensitivity to stressors, biofilms have long been proposed for assessing the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Among the many stressors impacting aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication and metal pollution are certainly the most common. Despite that these stressors often occur together, their effects on biofilms have been far much studied separately than interactively. In this study, we evaluated the interactive effects of silver (Ag), a reemerging contaminant, and phosphorus (P), a nutrient often associated with freshwater eutrophication, on the structure and functioning of two types of autotrophic biofilms, one dominated by diatoms and another one dominated by cyanobacteria. We hypothesized that P would alleviate the toxic effects of Ag, either directly, through the contribution of P in metal detoxification processes, or indirectly, through P-mediated shifts in biofilm community compositions and associated divergences in metal tolerance. Results showed that Ag impacted biofilm community structure and functioning but only at unrealistic concentrations (50 μg/L). P availability led to significant shifts in biofilm community composition, these changes being more pronounced in diatom- than those in cyanobacteria-dominated biofilm. In addition, P tended to reduce the impact of Ag but only for the cyanobacteria-dominated biofilm. More generally, our results highlight the preponderant role of the initial community structure and nutrient level on biofilm response to metallic pollutants.

  16. Check on level of environmental contamination by mercury and cleanup of Abetina Mining area (Grosseto-Italia)

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Marabini, A.M.; Passariello, B.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the study was to check on the level of environmental contamination and to design a project for cleaning up the Abetina Mine area at Piancastagnaio (Grosseto, Italy). Contamination of this area had occurred during the mining and treatment of cinnabar (HgS) over a prolonged period. The aim of the project is to remove the sources of contamination or render them harmless. Mining of the Piancastagnaio deposit started in 1840, mercury metal being extracted from the ore by thermal treatment. Together with Spain, Italy was the first country to produce this metal and was the world leader in this field between 1936 and 1943. Though mercury production in the Monte Amiata region of Tuscany ceased in 1974 the ensuing environmental impact is very evident, taking the form of rusty old mining and processing works, plus waste tips which still contain considerable amount of mercury even after the ore had been subject to thermal extraction treatment. The research which has been conducted included mapping the area to identify the main sources of mercury and arsenic pollution, as well as the level of environmental contamination. Mercury and arsenic values in excess of 16,000 and 150 ppm respectively are encountered in the most highly-contaminated places. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The influence of trophic level and feeding location of the levels of organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, K.; Jarman, W.M.; Bott, J.A.; Bacon, C.E.; Sydeman, W.

    1994-12-31

    Seabird eggs have been used extensively to assay contaminants in marine food webs, but links to trophic level or feeding location have remained poorly understood due to limitations inherent in conventional dietary studies. Stable-isotope analysis of bird eggs may be used to infer trophic position and feeding location of adult seabirds and can be readily correlated with measurements of egg contaminant levels. The authors measured stable-carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope abundance, and organochlorine contaminants (DDTs, PCBs, chlordanes, etc.) in eggs from Cassin`s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleutica), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba). Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Brandt`s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), and Western Gull (Larus) from Southeast Farallon Island together with rockfish (Sebastes spp.), anchovy (Engraulis spp.), and euphausiid prey from the Gulf of the Farallones. Consistent with its planktivorous diet and pelagic feeding habits, Cassin`s Auklet showed the lowest mean {delta}{sup 15}N value and the least enriched {delta}{sup 13}C values. Measures of trophic level and foraging location were constructed for all other seabirds relative to these isotopic endpoints. Contaminant levels in the eggs and fish will be interpreted in light of the stable-isotope results.

  18. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  19. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  20. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  1. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  2. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  3. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  4. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Identification of Best Technology, Treatment Techniques or Other Means Generally... pathogenic contamination, a treatment lapse or deficiency, or a problem in the operation or maintenance...

  5. Sources of plant sterol contaminants encountered in low level steroid analysis.

    PubMed

    Banner, C D

    1991-12-06

    During development of an analytical method to characterize ligands to new members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, a persistant contaminant profile was observed during gas chromatographic analysis of reagent blanks. Mass spectrometric analysis identified three of the contaminant peaks as cholesterol and the plant sterols stigmasterol and sitosterol. Laboratory articles made of natural rubber, i.e. pipette fillers and latex gloves, were found to be the source of these and other compounds in the reagent blank profile.

  6. Levels and profiles of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in Southern Hemisphere humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Secchi, Eduardo R; Dirtu, Alin C; Weijs, Liesbeth; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Bassoi, Manuela; Cunha, Haydée A; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The study documents the levels and profiles of selected contaminants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)] in blubber biopsy samples collected from humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic Peninsula waters. In addition, we investigated year-to-year and sex-related differences in the bioaccumulation patterns. Except for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), whose concentrations were in the same range as those found in whales from the Northern Hemisphere, levels of all other compounds were lower in Southern Hemisphere whales compared to literature data on animals from the Arctic and subarctic region. The mean contribution to the sum of all anthropogenic organohalogen compounds (ΣOHC) decreased in the following order ΣPCBs (44%)>HCB (31%)>ΣDDXs (13%)>ΣCHLs (4.6%)>ΣHCHs (4.4%)>ΣPBDEs (0.9%). The predominant compounds within each chemical class were: PCBs 153, 149, 101 and 138; p,p'-DDE; γ-HCH; trans-nonachlor; PBDEs 99 and 47. The most dominant MeO-PBDE congener was 6-MeO-BDE 47. As samples were collected during three consecutive summer seasons, year-to-year trends could be assessed indicating a significant decrease from 2000 to 2003 for ΣCHL levels. Higher ΣPBDE concentrations and higher values of the ΣPBDE / ΣMeO-PBDE ratio, as well as higher ratios between the two MeO-BDEs (2'-MeO-BDE 68/6-MeO-BDE 47) were found in females compared to males. Higher ΣMeO-PBDE concentrations and higher values of the ratios between the lower chlorinated and the higher chlorinated PCBs were found in males than in females. In addition, five out of six significant differences found through discriminant function analysis were gender-related. The literature reports both feeding in mid- to low-latitudes and sex-related differences in migration patterns for humpback whales from the Southern Hemisphere, indicating that the hypothesis of dietary differences between males and

  7. Validation of the dual pumping technique for level-determined groundwater sampling in a contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thullner, M.; Höhener, P.; Kinzelbach, W.; Zeyer, J.

    2000-08-01

    The dual pumping technique (DPT) was introduced recently as a new and inexpensive technique to measure the level-determined solute concentrations in groundwater. Using two pumps, one placed near the groundwater table and one placed near the bottom of a fully screened well, this technique allows to determine vertical concentration profiles for solutes in groundwater given that additional information about the influx distribution into the well is known. Until now, however, the DPT was applied only in an aquifer with a thickness of about 40 m and the validation was weakened by the lack of a reliable reference system. The present study aims to investigate the applicability of the DPT for shallow (thickness <10 m) and unconfined aquifers and to validate the results of the DPT with a better reference system. For this purpose the DPT was applied in Menziken, Switzerland to a gravel aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Solute concentrations measured at that site with an established drive point sampling technique (Ram technique) were taken as a reference to demonstrate the applicability of the DPT. Results for eight different solutes showed a reasonable agreement between both techniques. An algorithm was developed that allowed the computation of a single solute concentration profile incorporating measured data from both pumps. It was possible to demonstrate that this alternative algorithm can improve the quality of the solute concentration profiles obtained by the DPT. This indicates that the DPT is a useful tool for determining the vertical concentration profiles in groundwater for conditions similar to those in Menziken (unconfined gravel aquifer, screen length less than 10 m).

  8. The index of microbial air contamination.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, C; Pitzurra, O; Savino, A

    2000-12-01

    The standard index of microbial air contamination (IMA) for the measurement of microbial air contamination in environments at risk is described. The method quantifies the microbial flow directly related to the contamination of surfaces coming from microbes that reach critical points by falling on to them. The index of microbial air contamination is based on the count of the microbial fallout on to Petri dishes left open to the air according to the 1/1/1 scheme (for 1h, 1m from the floor, at least 1m away from walls or any obstacle). Classes of contamination and maximum acceptable levels have been established. The index of microbial air contamination has been tested in many different places: in hospitals, in food industries, in art galleries, aboard the MIR space station and also in the open air. It has proved to be a reliable and useful tool for monitoring the microbial surface contamination settling from the air in any environment.

  9. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    PubMed

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  10. High levels of microbial contamination of vegetables irrigated with wastewater by the drip method.

    PubMed Central

    Sadovski, A Y; Fattal, B; Goldberg, D; Katzenelson, E; Shuval, H I

    1978-01-01

    The public health aspects of the use of wastewater in agriculture and the effects of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of vegetables were studied. The method used was to simulate enteric microorganisms' dissemination by contaminated irrigation water in the field. The vegetables were irrigated with an effluent inoculated with a high titer of traceable microorganisms: poliovirus vaccine and a drug-resistant Escherichia coli. The dissemination of the marker organisms in the field was followed, and the effects of certain manipulations of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of the crops by the effluent were examined. It was shown that drip irrigation under plastic sheet cover with the drip lines placed either on the soil surface or buried at a depth of 10 cm significantly reduced crop contamination from inoculated irrigation water even when massive doses of bacteria and viruses were used. The microbial contamination was found to persist in the irrigation pipes and in the soil for at least 8 and 18 days, respectively. The data indicate that the recovery of the marker organisms was affected by soil texture and environmental conditions. PMID:216306

  11. Assessing sublethal levels of sediment contamination using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.L.; Schlekat, C.E.; Reinharz, E. )

    1993-03-01

    Recent emphasis on the incorporation of sublethal end points into sediment toxicity test methods follows the realization that acute lethality tests may not provide sufficient sensitivity for predicting subtle ecological effects of sediment contamination. To this end, a partial life-cycle test with the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus Shoemaker was evaluated for solid-phase testing of contaminated estuarine sediments. Initially, juvenile and adult Leptocheirus plumulosus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed to gradients of chemical contamination prepared by diluting field-collected contaminated sediment with texturally similar reference sediment. Ten-day exposure results indicate juvenile Leptocheirus plumulosus is more sensitive than adult Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca, with significant mortality of juvenile Leptocheirus plumulosus occurring in sediment diluted to 12.5% of the adult lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC). Long-term exposure of juveniles to dilutions of the acute juvenile LOEC shows significant effects on growth in sediment concentrations below the lethal threshold. Effect of reproductive end points parallel growth effects. Evaluation of nontoxicant experimental variables indicates significant effects of temperature and feeding regime on sensitivity of juvenile Leptocheirus plumulosus to contaminated sediment. Trace element concentrations were determined for the following: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

  12. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management.

  13. Levels and trends of the emerging contaminants HBCDs (hexabromocyclododecanes) and PFCs (perfluorinated compounds) in marine shellfish along French coasts.

    PubMed

    Munschy, C; Marchand, P; Venisseau, A; Veyrand, B; Zendong, Z

    2013-04-01

    The levels and congener patterns of HBCDs (hexabromocyclododecanes) and PFCs (perfluorinated compounds) were determined in filter-feeding molluscs collected in 2008 and 2010 along the coasts of mainland France. α-HBCD and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) were detected in all samples, revealing widespread contamination of the coastal environment by these emerging contaminants. The spatial distribution of Σ-HBCD concentrations showed higher median levels in samples from the Mediterranean Sea and English Channel respectively, i.e. 0.19 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.08 ng g(-1) ww, related to high anthropogenic pressure from urban and industrial activities, while the median concentration was 0.05 ng g(-1) ww in samples from the Atlantic coast. Among PFCs, PFOS was the only compound detected in all samples and PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid) was the second most frequently-detected compound. PFOS median concentrations were 0.18 ng g(-1) ww, 0.09 ng g(-1) ww and 0.04 ng g(-1) ww in samples from the English Channel, the Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean coast respectively. The highest PFOS concentration was found in the Loire estuary, possibly related to local industrial activities. The Mediterranean samples showed a different pattern, with predominant long-chain PFCAs (perfluorocarboxylic acids), suggesting the presence of alternative sources on the Mediterranean coast. The temporal trends studied in archived samples from the Seine estuary site showed a significant exponential increase in HBCD concentrations between 1981 and 2011, with a doubling time of 7 years, while PFOS levels underwent a significant linear decrease over time. These trends are coherent with current regulations on the use of these compounds. The results presented in this paper provide the first data on the contamination of the French coastal marine environment by the selected emerging compounds, and constitute a reference for the future monitoring of French coastal contamination by emerging

  14. Health effects associated with measured levels of contaminants in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Weihe, Pál; Debes, Fróði; Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Muckle, Gina; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Dudarev, Alexey; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Grandjean, Philippe; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The Human Health Assessment Group has over the past decade recommended that effect studies be conducted in the circumpolar area. Such studies examine the association between contaminant exposure in the Arctic populations and health effects. Because foetuses and young children are the most vulnerable, effect studies are often prospective child cohort studies. The emphasis in this article is on a description of the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The main topics addressed are neurobehavioural, immunological, reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine and carcinogenic effect. For each topic, the association between exposure and effects is described, and some results are reported for similar studies outside the Arctic. PMID:27974137

  15. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for Selective Enforcement Audits. 86.610-98 Section 86.610-98... quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective Enforcement Audits. (a) The prescribed... test procedures pursuant to § 86.608-98(a). (c)(1) Pass/fail criteria. The manufacturer shall...

  16. The cultural and community-level acceptance of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among traditional healers in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Justin M; Sterk, Claire E; Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has profoundly impacted South Africa's healthcare system, greatly hampering its ability to scale-up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART). While one way to provide comprehensive care and prevention in sub-Saharan African countries has been through collaboration with traditional healers, long-term support specifically for ART has been low within this population. An exploratory, qualitative research project was conducted among 25 self-identified traditional healers between June and August of 2006 in the Lukhanji District of South Africa. By obtaining the opinions of traditional healers currently interested in biomedical approaches to HIV/AIDS care and prevention, this formative investigation identified a range of motivational factors that were believed to promote a deeper acceptance of and support for ART. These factors included cultural consistencies between traditional and biomedical medicine, education, as well as legal and financial incentives to collaborate. Through an incorporation of these factors into future HIV/AIDS treatment programs, South Africa and other sub-Saharan countries may dramatically strengthen their ability to provide ART in resource-poor settings.

  17. Geochemistry, biota and natural background levels in an arsenic naturally contaminated volcanic aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Parrone, Daniele; Rossi, David; Ghergo, Stefano; Lungarini, Silvia; Zoppini, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The tight links between chemical and ecological status are largely acknowledged as for surface water bodies, while aquifers are still considered as hidden groundwater reservoirs, rather than ecosystems to be preserved. Geochemical and biological interactions play a key role in all subterranean processes, including the dynamics of the fate of anthropogenic contaminants. Studies on groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDE) were mainly focused on karst aquifers so far, but an increased awareness on the importance of water-rock interactions and methodological improvements in microbial ecology are rapidly increasing the level of characterization of groundwater ecosystems in various hydrogeological contexts. Similarly, knowledge about groundwater biodiversity is still limited, especially if porous habitats are concerned. Yet, groundwater and GDEs are populated by a diverse and highly adapted biota, dominated by crustaceans, which provide important ecosystem services and act as biological indicators of chemical and quantitative impact on groundwater resources. In a previous research (Amalfitano et al. 2014), we reported that the microbial community heterogeneity may reflect the lithological and hydrogeological complexity within volcanic and alluvial facies transition in a groundwater body. The quantitative tracking of the microbial community structure allowed disentangling the natural biogeochemical processes evolving within the aquifer flow path. The analyses of groundwater crustaceans assemblages may contribute to shed more light upon the state and dynamics of such ecosystems. In the present research, a comprehensive study of a water table aquifer flowing through a quaternary volcanic district is being performed, including the geochemical (inorganic) composition, the microbial composition, and the analysis of crustacean assemblages . Groundwater samples are periodically collected from private wells and springs under a low anthropic impact. The key issues within the

  18. [Intelligence quotient levels, aspiration and self-acceptance in patients with restricting and binge-eating type of anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Rajewski, A; Talarczyk-Wieckowska, M

    1996-01-01

    A group of 50 patients aged from 12 to 20 with anorexia nervosa was examined: 40 persons with a diagnosis of restricting type and 10 with binge-eating type according to DSM IV. The level of intelligence quotient (IQ) was estimated by using Wechsler Test, selfacceptation by SQ and aspiration by TAT and test of unfinished sentences. In the majority of patients IQ was stated on the average level. Independently of intellectual level all patients presented a high aspiration degree. In their own estimation the emotional motivation sphere was significantly more important in the patients with binge-eating type and intellectual in the patients with restricting type of anorexia nervosa.

  19. PCB contamination in soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China: levels, sources, and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Wan, Hongfu

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tropical and sub-tropical areas and the associated risks have attracted great concern. A total of 69 samples representing five distinct land types were collected to assess PCB concentrations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, including spatial distributions in soils of the area, the probable anthropogenic sources, and related potential risks. PCBs concentrations in soils of the PRD ranged from 0.3 to 202 ng g(-1). More severe PCBs contamination was presented in the western part than in the eastern part of the PRD region. The PCBs were dominated by low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, the proportion of higher-chlorinated biphenyls was elevated with the influence of industrial activities. Principal component analysis indicated that PCBs contamination in soils of the PRD region was mainly associated with 1#PCBs, while 2#PCB and e-waste emission in South China also accounted for it partly, especially to the industrial activity severely impacted areas. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the dioxin-like PCBs in the soils indicated that higher risk of PCB contamination was presented in the Dongjiang River Valley (55 ng TEQ kg(-1), on average) than in the Xijiang River Valley, and were mostly contributed by the congener of PCB126.

  20. The Implications of Contamination for Educational Experiments with Two Levels of Nesting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evaluations that involve the educational system usually involve a hierarchical structure (students are nested within classrooms that are nested within schools, etc.). Concerns about contamination, where research subjects receive certain features of an intervention intended for subjects in a different experimental group, have often led…

  1. Predicting dioxin-like PCBs soil contamination levels using milk of grazing animal as indicator.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Nuñez, Esteban Gabriel Herrera; Baldi, Loredana; Esposito, Mauro; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Amorena, Michele

    2012-11-01

    Dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) are ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants of recognized negative effects on human health. Assessing highly polluted areas should be an important public health issue. This study proposes to use the milk of grazing animals as a bioindicator of dl-PCB contamination in the environment. The hypothesis is that milk concentration of dl-PCBs are related to soil concentrations of these compounds, and that soils are generally reflective of a larger environmental issue of dl-PCB contamination. In this study, we evaluate the possibility of predicting soil concentrations using milk of sheep, cows and buffalos in a spatial model. For this purpose, samples of soil and milk collected in Campania (Italy) were introduced in a GIS platform to perform geostatistical analysis for building a simple predictive model. The ordinary least squares regressions (OLS) showed a statistically significant correlation (p<0.05) between soil and milk contamination. However, this relationship was spatially variable. Thus, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) was performed, obtaining R(2) values of 0.91, 0.77 and 0.66 for sheep's, buffalo's and cow's milk respectively. Assessed the mathematical relationships between the variables, new data was introduced to evaluate the performance of the model. Predictions of soil contamination with dl-PCBs using sheep's, cow's and buffalo's milk showed a mean error of 23%, 25% and 36% respectively. According to these results the sheep's milk can be considered the best bioindicator of dl-PCBs contamination among the three species. The results of this project evidence the potentialities of the proposed approach to assess bioindicator performance in a spatial predictive model.

  2. High Levels of Sediment Contamination Have Little Influence on Estuarine Beach Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Andrew C.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    While contaminants are predicted to have measurable impacts on fish assemblages, studies have rarely assessed this potential in the context of natural variability in physico-chemical conditions within and between estuaries. We investigated links between the distribution of sediment contamination (metals and PAHs), physico-chemical variables (pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity) and beach fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Fish communities were sampled using a beach seine within the inner and outer zones of six estuaries that were either heavily modified or relatively unmodified by urbanization and industrial activity. All sampling was replicated over two years with two periods sampled each year. Shannon diversity, biomass and abundance were all significantly higher in the inner zone of estuaries while fish were larger on average in the outer zone. Strong differences in community composition were also detected between the inner and outer zones. Few differences were detected between fish assemblages in heavily modified versus relatively unmodified estuaries despite high concentrations of sediment contaminants in the inner zones of modified estuaries that exceeded recognized sediment quality guidelines. Trends in species distributions, community composition, abundance, Shannon diversity, and average fish weight were strongly correlated to physico-chemical variables and showed a weaker relationship to sediment metal contamination. Sediment PAH concentrations were not significantly related to the fish assemblage. These findings suggest that variation in some physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH) or variables that co-vary with these factors (e.g., wave activity or grain size) have a much greater influence on this fish assemblage than anthropogenic stressors such as contamination. PMID:22039470

  3. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  4. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H₂/O₂ mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N₂O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N₂O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N₂O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in

  5. Low-level occupational 14C contamination--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Kristina; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Sören

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot study in which specific activities of 14C in hair and urine from 11 radiation workers handling 14C-containing substances have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Varying degrees of contamination were revealed: up to 63% excess in hair and 400% excess in urine. Although the 14C excess reported in this study would result in low effective doses, it would be of interest to monitor the situation at other workplaces with potentially higher risks of contamination. Simultaneous measurements of 14C in hair and urine with additional random measurements of 14C in faeces and exhaled air could provide a means of improving dose estimates for workers handling different types of 14C-containing substances.

  6. Impact of drying surface and raking frequencies on mold incidence, ochratoxin A contamination, and cup quality during preparation of arabica and robusta cherries at the farm level.

    PubMed

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Bhat, Rajeev; Gopinandhan, Thirukonda Nannier

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact and contribution of various drying surfaces (soil, cement, and tarpaulin) and raking frequencies (1 and 4/day) on the incidence of toxigenic molds, ochratoxin A (OTA) production, and on the overall cup quality during preparation of arabica and robusta coffee cherry in India. Two individual experimental batches (run 1 at the begin of harvest and run 2 at the end of harvest) were set up for the study. Results showed high incidence of molds in coffee dried on soil surface compared with that on cement and tarpaulin surfaces. In both arabica and robusta, OTA could be detected in Aspergillus ochraceus contaminated samples at the end of harvest. Raking of the cherries 4 times/day showed lower fungal incidence with no OTA levels detected. Overall, coffee cherry prepared by drying on tarpaulin surface with 4 rakings/day showed lower OTA and fungal incidence with good and acceptable cup quality, and this is recommended to be practiced at the farm level.

  7. ETS levels in hospitality environments satisfying ASHRAE standard 62-1989: "ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Vuilleumier, K. L.

    Prior to this study, indoor air constituent levels and ventilation rates of hospitality environments had not been measured simultaneously. This investigation measured indoor Environmental Tobacco Smoke-related (ETS-related) constituent levels in two restaurants, a billiard hall and a casino. The objective of this study was to characterize ETS-related constituent levels inside hospitality environments when the ventilation rates satisfy the requirements of the ASHRAE 62-1989 Ventilation Standard. The ventilation rate of each selected hospitality environment was measured and adjusted. The study advanced only if the requirements of the ASHRAE 62-1989 Ventilation Standard - the pertinent standard of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers - were satisfied. The supply rates of outdoor air and occupant density were measured intermittently to assure that the ventilation rate of each facility satisfied the standard under occupied conditions. Six ETS-related constituents were measured: respirable suspended particulate (RSP) matter, fluorescent particulate matter (FPM, an estimate of the ETS particle concentrations), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM, a second estimate of the ETS particle concentrations), solanesol, nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP). ETS-related constituent levels in smoking sections, non-smoking sections and outdoors were sampled daily for eight consecutive days at each hospitality environment. This study found that the difference between the concentrations of ETS-related constituents in indoor smoking and non-smoking sections was statistically significant. Differences between indoor non-smoking sections and outdoor ETS-related constituent levels were identified but were not statistically significant. Similarly, differences between weekday and weekend evenings were identified but were not statistically significant. The difference between indoor smoking sections and outdoors was statistically significant. Most

  8. Limited transfer of uranium to higher trophic levels by Gammarus pulex L. in contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten; Dudel, E Gert

    2009-09-01

    In contrast to the classification of most invertebrate shredders being sensitive to uranium, a G. pulex L. population with reproduction was found in a stream at a former uranium mining site with uranium concentrations of 150 microg l(-1) in water and up to 2000 mg kg(-1) DW(-1) (dry weight) in litter born organic sediments. The survival of G. pulex, collected from a site without uranium contamination, was tested in a laboratory microcosm experiment using synthetic uranium-contaminated water and uranium-contaminated but nutrient rich food, simulating physicochemical conditions of water from former uranium mining sites. The results reveal that there are no significant differences in survival rate between individuals exposed and those not exposed to uranium. The uptake of uranium by G. pulex in environments with concentrations in food of 1152 mg kg(-1) in DM (dry mass, organically bound) and in water of 63.9 microg L(-1) is very low (4.48(1.93-8.46) mg kg(-1) in DM). The accumulation of uranium in these invertebrates was verified to be via two pathways: body surface and food. A relevant amount of uranium adsorbs to the body surface where it can readily be desorbed.

  9. A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water

  10. A preliminary survey on the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contaminating red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Nik Iskandar Putra; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2013-05-01

    Red rice is a fermented product of Monascus spp. It is widely consumed by Malaysian Chinese who believe in its pharmacological properties. The traditional method of red rice preparation disregards safety regulation and renders red rice susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. A preliminary study was undertaken aiming to determine the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contamination on red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia. Fifty red rice samples were obtained and subjected to fungal isolation, enumeration, and identification. Citrinin, aflatoxin, and ochratoxin-A were quantitated by ELISA based on the presence of predominant causal fungi. Fungal loads of 1.4 × 10(4) to 2.1 × 10(6) CFU/g exceeded Malaysian limits. Monascus spp. as starter fungi were present in 50 samples (100%), followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (62%), Aspergillus niger (54%), and Aspergillus flavus (44%). Citrinin was present in 100% samples (0.23-20.65 mg/kg), aflatoxin in 92% samples (0.61-77.33 μg/kg) and Ochratoxin-A in 100% samples (0.23-2.48 μg/kg); 100% citrinin and 76.09% aflatoxin exceeded Malaysian limits. The presence of mycotoxigenic fungi served as an indicator of mycotoxins contamination and might imply improper production, handling, transportation, and storage of red rice. Further confirmatory analysis (e.g., HPLC) is required to verify the mycotoxins level in red rice samples and to validate the safety status of red rice.

  11. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use.

  12. Molecular-level processes governing the interaction of contaminants with iron and manganese oxides. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, S.A.; Brown, G.

    1997-06-01

    'The central tenet of this proposal is that a fundamental understanding of specific mineral surface-site reactivities will substantially improve reactive transport models of contaminants in geologic systems, and will allow more effective remediation schemes to be devised. Most large-scale, macroscopic models employ global chemical reaction kinetics and thermochemistry. However, such models do not incorporate molecular-level input critical to the detailed prediction of how contaminants interact with minerals in the subsurface. A first step leading to the incorporation of molecular-level processes in large-scale macroscopic models is the ability to understand which molecular-level processes will dominate the chemistry at the microscopic grain level of minerals. To this end, the research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of redox chemistry at mineral surfaces. As much of this chemistry in sediments involves the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II) couples, the authors focus on mineral phases containing these species. Of particular interest is the effect of the local coordination environment of Fe and Mn atoms on their reactivity toward contaminant species. Studies of the impact of local atomic structure on reactivity in combination with knowledge about the types and amounts of various surfaces on natural grain- size minerals provide the data for statistical models. These models in turn form the basis of the larger-scale macroscopic descriptions of reactivity that are needed for reactive transport models. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms will enhance the ability to design much greater performance efficiency, cost effectiveness, and remediation strategies that have minimal negative impact on the local environment. For instance, a comprehensive understanding of how minerals that contain Fe(II) reduce oxyanions and chlorinated organics should enable the design of other Fe(II)-containing remediation materials in a way that is synergistic with existing

  13. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. PMID:9657709

  14. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

    2013-12-01

    Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs =4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method.

  15. Overall multi-media persistence as an indicator of potential for population-level intake of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.

    2003-06-01

    Although it is intuitively apparent that population-level exposure to contaminants dispersed in the environment must related to the persistence of the contaminant, there has been little effort to formally quantify this link. In this paper we investigate the relationship between overall persistence in a multimedia environment and the population-level exposure as expressed by intake fraction (iF), which is the cumulative fraction of chemical emitted to the environment that is taken up by members of the population. We first confirm that for any given chemical contaminant and emission scenario the definition of iF implies that it is directly proportional to the overall multi-media persistence, P{sub OV}. We show that the proportionality constant has dimensions of time and represents the characteristic time for population intake (CTI) of the chemical from the environment. We then apply the CalTOX fate and exposure model to explore how P{sub OV} and CTI combine to determine the magnitude of iF. We find that CTI has a narrow range of possible values relative to P{sub OV} across multiple chemicals and emissions scenarios. We use data from the Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List (PSL1) Assessments to show that exposure assessments based on empirical observation are consistent with interpretations from the model. The characteristic time for intake along different dominant exposure pathways is discussed. Results indicate that P{sub OV} derived from screening-level assessments of persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT) is a useful indicator of the potential for population-level exposure.

  16. Reduction of High Levels of Internal Radio-Contamination by Dietary Intervention in Residents of Areas Affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Disaster: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130–15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7–216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  17. Sulfate radical oxidation of aromatic contaminants: a detailed assessment of density functional theory and high-level quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Pari, Sangavi; Wang, Inger A; Liu, Haizhou; Wong, Bryan M

    2017-03-22

    Advanced oxidation processes that utilize highly oxidative radicals are widely used in water reuse treatment. In recent years, the application of sulfate radical (SO4˙(-)) as a promising oxidant for water treatment has gained increasing attention. To understand the efficiency of SO4˙(-) in the degradation of organic contaminants in wastewater effluent, it is important to be able to predict the reaction kinetics of various SO4˙(-)-driven oxidation reactions. In this study, we utilize density functional theory (DFT) and high-level wavefunction-based methods (including computationally-intensive coupled cluster methods), to explore the activation energies of SO4˙(-)-driven oxidation reactions on a series of benzene-derived contaminants. These high-level calculations encompass a wide set of reactions including 110 forward/reverse reactions and 5 different computational methods in total. Based on the high-level coupled-cluster quantum calculations, we find that the popular M06-2X DFT functional is significantly more accurate for OH(-) additions than for SO4˙(-) reactions. Most importantly, we highlight some of the limitations and deficiencies of other computational methods, and we recommend the use of high-level quantum calculations to spot-check environmental chemistry reactions that may lie outside the training set of the M06-2X functional, particularly for water oxidation reactions that involve SO4˙(-) and other inorganic species.

  18. Role of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in heavy metal-contaminated wetlands with various soil moisture levels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S; Wang, C; Shen, Z; Quan, Y; Liu, X

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an efficient heavy metal (HM) control method in HM-contaminated wetlands with varied soil moisture levels through the introduction of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) into natural wetland soil containing indigenous AMF species. A pot culture experiment was designed to determine the effect of two soil water contents (5-8% and 25-30%), five extrinsic AMF inoculants (Glomus mosseae, G. clarum, G. claroideum, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices), and HM contamination on root colonization, plant growth, and element uptake of common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel) plantlets in wetland soils. This study showed the prevalence of mycorrhizae in the roots of all P. australis plantlets, regardless of extrinsic AMF inoculations, varied soil moisture or HM levels. It seems that different extrinsic AMF inoculations effectively lowered HM concentrations in the aboveground tissues of P. australis at two soil moisture levels. However, metal species, metal concentrations, and soil moisture should also be very important factors influencing the elemental uptake performance of plants in wetland ecosystems. Besides, the soil moisture level significantly influenced plant growth (including height, and shoot and root dry weight (DW)), and extrinsic AMF inoculations differently affected shoot DW.

  19. Quantification of contamination levels and particular risk of Salmonella spp. in pigs in slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the important foodborne pathogens, and the slaughtering process is recognized as a potential point of contamination and the spread of the pathogens. The three objectives of this study are first, to quantify the contamination levels of Salmonella spp. in pig skins and carcasses, second, to evaluate the outcomes from different pig supply sources and different practices at three critical steps (scalding, splitting, and washing) for Salmonella spp. contamination, and third, to assess risk of Salmonella spp. contamination in pork products after slaughtering level. The study was performed in three representative slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. Investigation conducted from May 2013 through October 2013 found the overall prevalence and contamination levels mean to be 11.85% and 0.34 MPN/cm2, respectively. There was no statistically significant in Salmonella spp. prevalence and contamination levels detected with different patterns at the slaughterhouses which were supplied pigs from either co-operative or integrated farms. Factors found to reduce Salmonella spp. loads on carcasses included good practices, e.g., regular changing of water in the scalding tank after each batch and the use of chlorine in the washing step. Risk of Salmonella spp. contamination of pork products at the final stage of slaughtering was nearly 10%. Good practices and proper hygiene measures should be applied to minimize the risk of Salmonella spp. exposure in the slaughtering line, which can reduce the contamination pressure downstream at retail shops as well as for end consumers.

  20. 1H NMR Metabolomics: A New Molecular Level Tool for Assessment of Organic Contaminant Bioavailability to Earthworms in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvie, J. R.; Wolfe, D. M.; Celejewski, M. A.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    At contaminated field sites, the complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is rarely achieved since a portion of these compounds remain tightly bound to the soil matrix. The concentration of PAHs in soil typically decreases until a plateau is reached, at which point the remaining contaminant is considered non- bioavailable. Numerous soil extraction techniques, including cyclodextrin extraction, have been developed to estimate contaminant bioavailability. However, these are indirect methods that do not directly measure the response of organisms to chemical exposure in soil. Earthworm metabolomics offers a promising new way to directly evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in soil. Metabolomics involves the measurement of changes in small-molecule metabolites, including sugars and amino acids, in living organisms due to an external stress, such as contaminant exposure. The objective of this study was to compare cyclodextrin extraction of soil (a bioavailability proxy) and 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of aqueous earthworm tissue extracts as indicators of contaminant bioavailability. A 30 day laboratory experiment was conducted using phenanthrene-spiked sphagnum peat soil and the OECD recommended earthworm species for toxicity testing, Eisenia fetida. The initial phenanthrene concentration in the soil was 320 mg/kg. Rapid biodegradation of phenanthrene occurred and concentrations decreased to 16 mg/kg within 15 days. After 15 days, phenanthrene biodegradation slowed and cyclodextrin extraction of the soil suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 1H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that the metabolic profile of phenanthrene exposed earthworms differed from control earthworms throughout the 30 day experiment. This suggests that the residual phenanthrene remaining in the soil after 15 days continued to elicit a metabolic response, even though it was not

  1. Hydrogeology and trichloroethene contamination in the sea-level aquifer beneath the Logistics Center, Fort Lewis, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of waste trichloroethene (TCE) and other materials in the East Gate Disposal Yard near the Logistics Center on Fort Lewis, Washington, from the 1940s to the early 1970s. As a result, ground water contaminated with primarily TCE extends more than 3 miles downgradient from the East Gate Disposal Yard. The site is underlain by a complex and heterogeneous sequence of glacial and non-glacial deposits that have been broadly categorized into an upper and a lower aquifer (the latter referred to as the sea-level aquifer). TCE contamination was detected in both aquifers. This report describes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the source, migration, and attenuation of TCE in the sea-level aquifer. A refined conceptual model for ground-water flow and contaminant migration into and through the sea-level aquifer was developed in large part from interpretation of environmental tracer data. The tracers used included stable isotopes of oxygen (18O), hydrogen (2H), and carbon (13C); the radioactive hydrogen isotope tritium (3H); common ions and redox-related analytes; chlorofluorocarbons; and sulfur hexafluoride. Tracer and TCE concentrations were determined for samples collected by the USGS from 37 wells and two surface-water sites in American Lake during 1999-2000. Ground-water levels were measured by the USGS in more than 40 wells during 2000-01, and were combined with measurements by the U.S. Army and others to create potentiometric-surface maps. Localized ground-water flow features were identified that are of particular relevance to the migration of TCE in the study area. A ridge of ground water beneath American Lake diverts the flow of TCE-contaminated ground water in the sea-level aquifer to the west around the southern end of the lake. Tracer data provided clear evidence that American Lake is a significant source of recharge to the sea-level aquifer that has created that ridge of ground water. High ground-water altitudes at

  2. High Occurrence Rate and Contamination Level of Bacillus cereus in Organic Vegetables on Sale in Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Yeop; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Organic foods have risen in popularity recently. However, the increased risk of bacterial contamination of organic foods has not been fully evaluated. In this study, 100 samples each of organic and conventional fresh vegetables (55 lettuce samples and 45 sprout samples) sold in South Korea were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus. Although the aerobic bacteria and coliform counts were not significantly different between the two farming types (p > 0.05), the occurrence rate of B. cereus was higher in organically cultivated vegetables compared with those grown conventionally (70% vs. 30%, respectively). The mean contamination level of B. cereus-positive organic samples was also significantly higher (1.86 log colony-forming unit [CFU]/g vs. 0.69 log CFU/g, respectively) (p < 0.05). In addition, six samples of organic vegetables were found to be contaminated with B. cereus at over 4 log CFU/g categorized as unsatisfactory according to Health Protection Agency guideline. The relatively higher occurrence rate of B. cereus in organic vegetables emphasizes the importance of implementing control measures in organic vegetable production and postharvest processing to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  3. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  4. Contamination levels and congener distribution of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in buffalo's milk from Caserta province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Neugebauer, Frank; Cavallo, Stefania; Gallo, Pasquale; Colarusso, Germana; Baldi, Loredana; Iovane, Giuseppe; Serpe, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    An extraordinary plan of official control was carried out in 2008 in Campania (Italy) with the aim to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) levels in buffalo milk and to detect the contaminated farms, most of which are located in Caserta province. For these companies has been ordered seizure and execution of additional analyses has been requested in farms falling in the nearness, within a distance of 3km, for a total of 304 farms examined. Moreover, all non-compliant farms were subjected to a periodic sampling in order to monitor trends in the levels of contamination. In this paper the distribution and the concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs in 460 samples of buffalo milk collected in the province of Caserta (Italy) are presented. The range of WHO-TEQ values for the PCDD/Fs in milk was 0.17pgTEQg(-1)fat and 87.0pgTEQg(-1)fat with a mean value 3.63pgTEQg(-1)fat and medium value 2.25pgTEQg(-1)fat. The concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the analysed samples ranged from 0.21pgTEQg(-1)fat to 15.9pgTEQg(-1)fat and the WHO-TEQ values of sum of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs ranged from 0.45pgTEQg(-1)fat to 103.0pgTEQg(-1)fat. The geo-referencing analysis allowed to individuate a restricted area of the region object of the present study where is located the majority of the non-compliant farms. The study of the congeners distribution has finally suggested that the likely cause of contamination is to be attributed to the illegal burning of waste.

  5. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... until January 23, 2006. (c) (d) At the discretion of the State, nitrate levels not to exceed 20 mg/l may..., including continuous posting of the fact that nitrate levels exceed 10 mg/l and the potential health effects of exposure; and (3) Local and State public health authorities will be notified annually of...

  6. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... until January 23, 2006. (c) (d) At the discretion of the State, nitrate levels not to exceed 20 mg/l may..., including continuous posting of the fact that nitrate levels exceed 10 mg/l and the potential health effects of exposure; and (3) Local and State public health authorities will be notified annually of...

  7. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... until January 23, 2006. (c) (d) At the discretion of the State, nitrate levels not to exceed 20 mg/l may..., including continuous posting of the fact that nitrate levels exceed 10 mg/l and the potential health effects of exposure; and (3) Local and State public health authorities will be notified annually of...

  8. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... until January 23, 2006. (c) (d) At the discretion of the State, nitrate levels not to exceed 20 mg/l may..., including continuous posting of the fact that nitrate levels exceed 10 mg/l and the potential health effects of exposure; and (3) Local and State public health authorities will be notified annually of...

  9. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... until January 23, 2006. (c) (d) At the discretion of the State, nitrate levels not to exceed 20 mg/l may..., including continuous posting of the fact that nitrate levels exceed 10 mg/l and the potential health effects of exposure; and (3) Local and State public health authorities will be notified annually of...

  10. Bacterial contamination of clothes and environmental items in a third-level hospital in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cataño, J C; Echeverri, L M; Szela, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluates the bacterial contamination rate of items in the hospital setting that are in frequent contact with patients and/or physicians. By determining the bacterial species and the associated antibiotic resistance that patients are exposed to. Methods. Hospital-based cross-sectional surveillance study of potential bacterial reservoirs. Cultures from 30 computer keyboards, 32 curtains, 40 cell phones, 35 white coats, and 22 ties were obtained. Setting. The study was conducted an urban academic 650-bed teaching hospital providing tertiary care to the city of Medellin, Colombia. Results. In total, 235 bacterial isolates were obtained from 159 surfaces sampled. 98.7% of the surfaces grew positive bacterial cultures with some interesting resistance profiles. Conclusion. There are significant opportunities to reduce patient exposure to frequently pathogenic bacteria in the hospital setting; patients are likely exposed to many bacteria through direct contact with white coats, curtains, and ties. They may be exposed to additional bacterial reservoirs indirectly through the hands of clinicians, using computer keyboards and cell phones.

  11. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-07

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters.

  12. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  13. Bacterial Contamination of Clothes and Environmental Items in a Third-Level Hospital in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cataño, J. C.; Echeverri, L. M.; Szela, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluates the bacterial contamination rate of items in the hospital setting that are in frequent contact with patients and/or physicians. By determining the bacterial species and the associated antibiotic resistance that patients are exposed to. Methods. Hospital-based cross-sectional surveillance study of potential bacterial reservoirs. Cultures from 30 computer keyboards, 32 curtains, 40 cell phones, 35 white coats, and 22 ties were obtained. Setting. The study was conducted an urban academic 650-bed teaching hospital providing tertiary care to the city of Medellin, Colombia. Results. In total, 235 bacterial isolates were obtained from 159 surfaces sampled. 98.7% of the surfaces grew positive bacterial cultures with some interesting resistance profiles. Conclusion. There are significant opportunities to reduce patient exposure to frequently pathogenic bacteria in the hospital setting; patients are likely exposed to many bacteria through direct contact with white coats, curtains, and ties. They may be exposed to additional bacterial reservoirs indirectly through the hands of clinicians, using computer keyboards and cell phones. PMID:22536231

  14. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  15. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    PubMed

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  16. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective.

  17. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.

  18. Relation of nitrate contamination of groundwater with methaemoglobin level among infants in Gaza.

    PubMed

    Abu Naser, A A; Ghbn, N; Khoudary, R

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in 3 areas of the Gaza Strip, Palestine, in 2002, to determine the factors associated with high methaemoglobin (Met-Hb) levels in infants and the relationship with nitrate concentration in drinking water wells. Drinking water sources were likely to be the main factor for high levels of Met-Hb. Out of 338 infants attending for vaccination, having supplemental feeding, use of boiled water and age 3-6 months were associated with high Met-Hb levels. The highest mean Met-Hb level was in Khan-Younis, where the highest mean nitrate concentration was recorded in drinking water. The results emphasize the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for infants < 6 months old, and the choice of a suitable source of water for these infants.

  19. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  20. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68].

    PubMed

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2017-03-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined.

  1. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  2. Statistical criteria to set alarm levels for continuous measurements of ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Brandl, A; Jimenez, A D Herrera

    2008-08-01

    In the course of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the site of the Austrian Research Centers at Seibersdorf, the operator and licensee, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, conducted an extensive site survey and characterization to demonstrate compliance with regulatory site release criteria. This survey included radiological characterization of approximately 400,000 m(2) of open land on the Austrian Research Centers premises. Part of this survey was conducted using a mobile large-area gas proportional counter, continuously recording measurements while it was moved at a speed of 0.5 ms(-1). In order to set reasonable investigation levels, two alarm levels based on statistical considerations were developed. This paper describes the derivation of these alarm levels and the operational experience gained by detector deployment in the field.

  3. GC-ITMS analysis of PAH contamination levels in the marine sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Cau, Alessandro; Secci, Marco; Addis, Piero

    2014-05-15

    This paper describes the results of a two-year monitoring study examining the pollution of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sardinia. GC-ITMS analysis of sea urchin gonads showed the presence of 11 and 12 PAHs in the samples of Capo Pecora, and Capitana, respectively. Fluorene, naphthalene and its two degradation products, 1-methyl-naphthalene, and 2-methyl-naphthalene, were detected in all samples analyzed. The ΣPAH residues showed a similar trend over the two-year sampling period. Furthermore, the residues in the first year were slightly higher than in the second year. The information obtained by the multivariate statistical analysis PLS-DA allowed for the determination of samples based on field site and varying habitat types (rocky reef, and Posidonia seabed). The results of this study showed that Posidonia sea urchins are contaminated by high molecular weight PAHs and that Capitana samples are more contaminated due to a higher level of human activity in the area.

  4. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  5. Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on γ-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Pietro P; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different (232)Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating γ-radiation shielding (γRS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the γ-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that γRS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, γRS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated γRS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations.

  6. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  7. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-11-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  8. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a

  9. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-11-16

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a

  10. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/4(2), 1/4(3), and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4-5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2-5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals.

  12. Geomicrobiology of High-Level Nuclear Waste-Contaminated Vadose Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Balkwill, David L.; Kennedy, David; Li, Shu-mei W.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Daly, Michael J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume were collected as part of investigations to evaluate the potential fate and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The plume originated from a leak that occurred in 1962 from a waste tank consisting of high concentrations of alkali, nitrate, aluminate, Cr(VI), 137Cs, and 99Tc. Investigations were initiated to determine the distribution of viable microorganisms in the vadose sediment samples, probe the phylogeny of cultivated and uncultivated members, and evaluate the ability of the cultivated organisms to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation. The populations of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were generally low, from below detection to ∼104 CFU g−1, but viable microorganisms were recovered from 11 of 16 samples, including several of the most radioactive ones (e.g., >10 μCi of 137Cs/g). The isolates from the contaminated sediments and clone libraries from sediment DNA extracts were dominated by members related to known gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Arthrobacter species were the most common isolates among all samples, but other phyla high in G+C content were also represented, including Rhodococcus and Nocardia. Two isolates from the second-most radioactive sample (>20 μCi of 137Cs g−1) were closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and were able to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation approaching 20 kGy. Many of the gram-positive isolates were resistant to lower levels of gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that gram-positive bacteria, predominantly from phyla high in G+C content, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and that some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste. PMID:15240306

  13. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  14. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/42, 1/43, and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4–5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2–5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals. PMID:27493608

  15. Interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa and coexisting amoxicillin contaminant at different phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-10-30

    Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-5 mg L(-1) of phosphorus and exposed to 200-500 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for seven days. Amoxicillin presented no significant effect (p>0.05) on the growth of M. aeruginosa at phosphorus levels of 0.05 and 0.2 mg L(-1), but stimulated algal growth as a hormesis effect at phosphorus levels of 1 and 5 mg L(-1). Phosphorus and amoxicillin affected the contents of chlorophyll-a, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and malondialdehyde, the expression of psbA and rbcL, as well as the activities of adenosinetriphosphatase and glutathione S-transferase in similar manners, but regulated the production and release of microcystins and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in different ways. Increased photosynthesis activity was related with the ATP consumption for the stress response to amoxicillin, and the stress response was enhanced as the phosphorus concentration increased. The biodegradation of amoxicillin by M. aeruginosa increased from 11.5% to 28.2% as the phosphorus concentration increased. Coexisting amoxicillin aggravated M. aeruginosa pollution by increasing cell density and concentration of microcystins, while M. aeruginosa alleviated amoxicillin pollution via biodegradation. The interactions between M. aeruginosa and amoxicillin were significantly regulated by phosphorus (p<0.05) and led to a complicated situation of combined pollution.

  16. Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons étudié la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilités différentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grêle, moelle osseuse) après irradiation de rats par contamination interne à l'eau tritiée dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles débits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au débit de dose inférieure à 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses supérieures à 10 cGy. Par contre, le débit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramètre étudié à partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentuée pour la rate, l'intestin grêle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et débits de doses très faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dépendance inverse par rapport au débit de dose.

  18. Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadou, Lida; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Iossifidou, Eleni; Tzafettas, John; Zournatzi-Koiou, Vassiliki; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (RfD). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece.

  19. Forensic facial approximation assessment: can application of different average facial tissue depth data facilitate recognition and establish acceptable level of resemblance?

    PubMed

    Herrera, Lara Maria; Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) are important guidelines for modeling faces from skull. Amid so many FSTT data, Forensic artists have to make a subjective choice of a dataset that best meets their needs. This study investigated the performance of four FSTT datasets in the recognition and resemblance of Brazilian living individuals and the performance of assessors in recognizing people, according to sex and knowledge on Human Anatomy and Forensic Dentistry. Sixteen manual facial approximations (FAs) were constructed using three-dimensional (3D) prototypes of skulls (targets). The American method was chosen for the construction of the faces. One hundred and twenty participants evaluated all FAs by means of recognition and resemblance tests. This study showed higher proportions of recognition by FAs conducted with FSTT data from cadavers compared with those conducted with medical imaging data. Targets were also considered more similar to FAs conducted with FSTT data from cadavers. Nose and face shape, respectively, were considered the most similar regions to targets. The sex of assessors (male and female) and the knowledge on Human Anatomy and Forensic Dentistry did not play a determinant role to reach greater recognition rates. It was possible to conclude that FSTT data obtained from imaging may not facilitate recognition and establish acceptable level of resemblance. Grouping FSTT data by regions of the face, as proposed in this paper, may contribute to more accurate FAs.

  20. Handling and Treatment of Uranium Contaminated Combustible Radioactive Low Level Waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzen, J,; Lindberg, M.; Luvstrand, J.

    2002-02-26

    Studsvik RadWaste in Sweden has many years of experience in handling of low-level radioactive waste, such as burnable waste for incineration and scrap metal for melting. In Erwin, TN, in the USA, Studsvik Inc also operates a THOR (pyrolysis) facility for treatment of various kinds of ion-exchange resins. The advantage of incineration of combustible waste as well as of ion-exchange resins by pyrolysis, is the vast volume reduction which minimizes the cost for final storage and results in an inert end-product which is feasible for safe final disposal. The amount of uranium in the incinerable waste has impact on the quality of the resulting ash. The quality improves with lower U-content. One way of reducing the Ucontent is leaching using a chemical process before and if necessary also after the incineration. Ranstad Mineral AB has been established in the 1960s to support the Swedish national program for uranium mining in southern Sweden. Ranstad Mineral works among others wit h chemical processes to reduce uranium content by leaching. During 1998-2000 about 150 tons/year have been processed. The goal was to reach uranium residues of less than 0.02% for disposal on the municipal waste disposal.

  1. Levels of Contamination by Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Honey from Selected European Countries.

    PubMed

    Surma, Magdalena; Zieliński, Henryk; Piskuła, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 10 PFASs in selected types of honey samples from selected eastern, northern and southern European countries. A total of 26 samples of honey were analyzed. PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids) were detected in almost all (92 %) analyzed samples in the range of 0.124-0.798 ng g(-1) ww (wet weight). The average concentrations of particular PFCAs (ng g(-1) ww) in honey samples increased in the following order: perfluorononanoic acid (0.164) < perfluorooctanoic acid (0.189) < perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.271) < perfluorodecanoic acid (0.278). Amongst perfluoroalkane sulfonates, only perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was identified in four of 26 analyzed samples, and its concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 0.191 ng g(-1) ww. Italian eucalyptus honey contained the highest total content of PFASs (0.878 ng g(-1) ww). Samples originating from an industrial region of Poland showed 20 % higher concentrations of PFCAs compared to those from non-industrial regions.

  2. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  3. Contaminant levels in sediments and asteroids (Asterias rubens L., Echinodermata) from the Belgian coast and Scheldt estuary: polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Danis, B; Wantier, P; Dutrieux, S; Flammang, R; Dubois, Ph; Warnau, M

    2004-10-15

    The Southern Bight of the North Sea is particularly exposed to anthropogenic contamination, due to heavy urbanisation and industrialisation of its catchment area. The present work focuses on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and metal contamination of the marine environment along and off the Belgian coast. Its objectives were to compare the concentrations of seven PCB congeners and four heavy metals in the sediments (a repository for anthropogenic contaminants) and in the asteroid Asterias rubens (a recognized bioindicator species). Nineteen sampling stations were considered between the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary and the southern limit of the Belgian coast (asteroids were found in 10 out of the 19 stations). PCB and metal concentrations measured in sediments and asteroids were in the range of values reported in previous studies. Stations under direct influence of the Scheldt were the most impacted by the considered contaminants. Metal concentrations varied according to the grain-size fraction considered. In asteroids, PCBs and metals were found to be selectively distributed among body compartments, and pyloric caeca were found to most efficiently discriminate between sampling stations contamination levels. PCB and metal analysis of sediments provided a physicochemical evaluation of the contamination, whereas analysis of asteroids introduced a biological dimension to the approach by taking into account bioavailability of the contaminants.

  4. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program Interim Report on Cross Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; sullivan, Douglas; Cohn, Sebastian; Fisk, William J.

    2012-11-05

    The HZEB research program aims to generate information needed to develop new science-based commercial building ventilation rate (VR) standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. This interim report describes the preliminary results from one HZEB field study on retail stores. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the whole-building source strengths of contaminant of concerns (COCs). This information is needed to determine the VRs necessary to maintain indoor concentrations of COCs below applicable health guidelines.The goal of this study is to identify contaminants in retail stores that should be controlled via ventilation, and to determine the minimum VRs that would satisfy the occupant health and odor criteria.

  5. High breast milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among four women living adjacent to a PCB-contaminated waste site.

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, S A; Altshul, L

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since 1993, measures of intrauterine PCB exposure have been obtained for a sample of New Bedford area infants. Among 122 mother-infant pairs, we identified four milk samples with total PCB levels that were significantly higher than the rest, with estimated total PCBs ranging from 1,100 to 2,400 ng/g milk fat compared with an overall mean of 320 ng/g milk fat for the 122 women. The congener profile and history of one case was consistent with past occupational PCB exposures. Otherwise, the source of PCB exposures in these cases was difficult to specify. Environmental exposures including those from fish consumption were likely, whereas residence adjacent to a PCB-contaminated site was considered an unlikely exposure source. In all four cases, the infants were full-term, healthy newborns. Because the developing nervous system is believed to be particularly susceptible to PCBs (for example, prenatal PCB exposures have been associated with prematurity, decrements in birth weight and gestation time, and behavioral and developmental deficits in later infancy and childhood, including decrements in IQ), it is critical to ascertain if breast-feeding is a health risk for the women's infants. Despite the potential for large postnatal PCB exposures via breast milk, there is limited evidence of significant developmental toxicity associated with the transmission of moderate PCB concentrations through breast milk. Breast-feeding is associated with substantial health benefits including better cognitive skills among breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. We conclude, based on evidence from other studies, that the benefits of breast-feeding probably outweigh any risk from PCB exposures via breast

  6. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    PubMed

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination.

  7. Biochemical effects in crabs (Carcinus maenas) and contamination levels in the Bizerta Lagoon: an integrated approach in biomonitoring of marine complex pollution.

    PubMed

    Ben-Khedher, Sana; Jebali, Jamel; Kamel, Naouel; Banni, Mohamed; Rameh, Mohamed; Jrad, Amel; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2013-04-01

    The biochemical effects in Carcinus maenas and contamination levels in seawater and sediments of Bizerta Lagoon (northeast of Tunisia) were investigated. The levels of metals and hydrocarbons were higher in seawater and sediments in Menzel Bourguiba and Cimentery in February and July than in the other sampling sites. Differences among sites for glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase activities, and the content of lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins in two important organs which accumulated contaminants (the gills and the digestive gland) of the C. maenas were found and possibly related to differences in metal and hydrocarbon levels. The seasonal variation of biomarkers was possibly associated with chemical contamination and also with the high fluctuation of physico-chemical characteristics of the sites. The integrated biomarker response values found in the five sites is in good agreement with hydrocarbon and trace metal concentrations detected in the water and sediments of the stressful places where crabs are living.

  8. A manual for applying the allowable residual contamination level method for decommissioning facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Piepel, G.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the modifications that have been made to enhance the original Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method to make it more applicable to site-specific analyses. This version considers the mixture of radionuclides present at the time of site characterization, the elapsed time after decommissioning when exposure to people could occur, and includes a calculation of the upper confidence limit of the potential dose based on sampling statistics that are developed during the site characterization efforts. The upper confidence limit of potential exposure can now be used for comparison against applicable radiation dose limits (i.e., 25 mrem/yr at Hanford). The level of confidence can be selected by the user. A wide range of exposure scenarios were evaluated; the rationale used to select the most limiting scenarios is explained. The radiation dose factors used for the inhalation and ingestion pathways were also updated to correspond with the radiation dosimetry methods utilized in the International Commission of Radiological Protection Publications 26 and 30 (ICRP 1977; 1979a,b, 1980, 1981, 1982a,b). This simplifies the calculations, since ''effective whole body'' doses are now calculated, and also brings the dosimetry methods used in the ARCL method in conformance with the rationale used by DOE in developing the 25 mrem/yr limit at Hanford. 46 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Lead Levels in the Breast Milk of Nursing Andean Mothers Living in a Lead-Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando; Chiriboga, Roberto; Correa, Rommy; Collaguaso, María Angela

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb) in breast milk (PbM) and blood (PbB) were measured in a current cohort of lactating mothers living in Andean communities where women of child-bearing age engage in the occupational use of Pb, and compared to results obtained in earlier studies. Mean PbM concentration in the current group of breastfeeding mothers tested in 2012/2013 was 3.73 μg/l (SD: 7.3; range: 0.049 - 28.04), and significantly lower than the 9.83 μg/l (SD: 12.75; range: 0.2 - 49) previously observed in breastfeeding mothers in the study area from 1999 to 2007. Breastfeeding women in the current cohort showed an average PbM/PbB ratio of 3.6%, which is in agreement with other studies. The mean PbB level obtained for the current cohort was 7.8 μg/dl (SD: 5.2; range: 1.4 - 21), and significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 20.8 μg/dl (SD: 16.4; range: 4-73) obtained for the comparison group of breastfeeding mothers tested between 1999-2007. A correlation of .687 between paired PbM and maternal PbB was found, indicating that maternal PbB level is a significant predictor of PbM. Current PbM levels remain higher than international averages, but indicate that maternal Pb exposure has declined over time in the environmentally Pb-contaminated study area. The current reduction in Pb in milk and blood of breastfeeding mothers may be due to adherence to a Pb-exposure education and prevention program initiated by the authors in the study area years earlier, as well as recent improvements in local healthcare delivery. PMID:25072821

  10. Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. a review. b_antizar@hotmail.com.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2008-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT is the most significant pesticide in marine and freshwaters in Europe and consequently its environmental level, fate, toxicity and human exposure are of current concern. Thus, the European Union has decided to specifically include TBT compounds in its list of priority compounds in water in order to control its fate in natural systems, due to their toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and endocrine disruptive characteristics. Additionally, the International Maritime Organization has called for a global treaty that bans the application of TBT-based paints starting 1 of January 2003, and total prohibition by 1 of January 2008. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding TBT, with special attention paid to the environmental levels, toxicity, and human exposure. TBT compounds have been detected in a number of environmental samples. In humans, organotin compounds have been detected in blood and in the liver. As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake is most probably the main route of exposure to TBT compounds for the general population. However, data concerning TBT levels in foodstuffs are scarce. It is concluded that investigations on experimental toxicity, dietary intake, potential human health effects and development of new sustainable technologies to remove TBT compounds are clearly necessary.

  11. Is the reproduction of Donax trunculus affected by their sites of origin contrasted by their level of contamination?

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiène; Métais, Isabelle; Ayache, Nadia; Boussetta, Hamadi; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The reproductive cycle of bivalves is regulated by several natural environmental factors but exposure to chemical pollutants can also interfere and may result in advanced or delayed spawning season. To our knowledge, the gametogenic cycle of the suspension-feeder bivalve Donax trunculus has not yet been used as biomonitoring tool in ecotoxicological surveys. The aim of this study was to examine over a year physiological reproductive endpoints (sex-ratio, gametogenic and energy reserve cycles) and biological indices (condition index, allometry) in D. trunculus originating from two sites differing by their level of contamination. Specimens were collected bimonthly from November 2008 to October 2009 from a polluted site (Radès Méliane) and a comparatively reference site (Sidi Jehmi) in the Gulf of Tunis (Tunisia). Five stages were depicted by histological examination of gonads: undifferentiated, developing, mature, spawn and spent. Differences in the gametogenic cycle according to the site of origin of bivalves were observed. The spawning period began in March and was maximum in May in bivalves from both sites, but the percentage of spawning animals was higher in the polluted site vs the reference site. The spawning period was shorter in animals from the polluted site comparatively to the reference site. Energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) were higher in March and May comparatively to the other studied periods in bivalves from both sites. Lower energy reserves levels were usually observed in animals from the polluted site compared to the reference site. Seasonal variations of the condition index were associated to the reproductive and nutritive status of bivalves. Differences in allometry were depicted between bivalves from both studied sites. If we try to link allometry, energy reserves and reproduction, it can be hypothesized that for bivalves from the reference site, energy reserves are allocated to gametogenesis and length growth. For bivalves from the polluted

  12. Cationic boranes for the complexation of fluoride ions in water below the 4 ppm maximum contaminant level.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Gabbaï, François P

    2009-03-11

    In search of a molecular receptor that could bind fluoride ions in water below the maximum contaminant level of 4 ppm set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), we have investigated the water stability and fluoride binding properties of a series of phosphonium boranes of general formula [p-(Mes(2)B)C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)R)](+) with R = Me ([1](+)), Et ([2](+)), n-Pr ([3](+)), and Ph ([4](+)). These phosphonium boranes are water stable and react reversibly with water to form the corresponding zwitterionic hydroxide complexes of general formula p-(Mes(2)(HO)B)C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)R). They also react with fluoride ions to form the corresponding zwitterionic fluoride complexes of general formula p-(Mes(2)(F)B)C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)R). Spectrophotometric acid-base titrations carried out in H(2)O/MeOH (9:1 vol.) afford pK(R+) values of 7.3(+/-0.07) for [1](+), 6.92(+/-0.1) for [2](+), 6.59(+/-0.08) for [3](+), and 6.08(+/-0.09) for [4](+), thereby indicating that the Lewis acidity of the cationic boranes increases in following order: [1](+) < [2](+) < [3](+) < [4](+). In agreement with this observation, fluoride titration experiments in H(2)O/MeOH (9:1 vol.) show that the fluoride binding constants (K = 840(+/-50) M(-1) for [1](+), 2500(+/-200) M(-1) for [2](+), 4000(+/-300) M(-1) for [3](+), and 10 500(+/-1000) M(-1) for [4](+)) increase in the same order. These results show that the Lewis acidity of the cationic boranes increases with their hydrophobicity. The resulting Lewis acidity increase is substantial and exceeds 1 order of magnitude on going from [1](+) to [4](+). In turn, [4](+) is sufficiently fluorophilic to bind fluoride ions below the EPA contaminant level in pure water. These results indicate that phosphonium boranes related to [4](+) could be used as molecular recognition units in chemosensors for drinking water analysis.

  13. Elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Fermented Dry Sausages at an Organoleptically Acceptable Level of Microencapsulated Allyl Isothiocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Pedro A.; Muthukumarasamy, Parthiban; Holley, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Four sausage batters (17.59% beef, 60.67% pork, and 17.59% pork fat) were inoculated with two commercial starter culture organisms (>7 log10 CFU/g Pediococcus pentosaceus and 6 log10 CFU/g Staphylococcus carnosus) and a five-strain cocktail of nonpathogenic variants of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to yield 6 to 7 log10 CFU/g. Microencapsulated allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added to three batters at 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm to determine its antimicrobial effects. For sensory analysis, separate batches with starter cultures and 0, 500, or 750 ppm microencapsulated AIT were produced. Sausages were fermented at ≤26°C and 88% relative humidity (RH) for 72 h. Subsequently sausages were dried at 75% RH and 13°C for at least 25 days. The water activity (aw), pH, and levels of starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7, and total bacteria were monitored during fermentation and drying. All sausages showed changes in the initial pH from 5.57 to 4.89 and in aw from 0.96 to 0.89 by the end of fermentation and drying, respectively. Starter culture numbers were reduced during sausage maturation, but there was no effect of AIT on meat pH reduction. E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 6.5 log10 CFU/g in sausages containing 750 and 1,000 ppm AIT after 21 and 16 days of processing, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 4.75 log10 CFU/g after 28 days of processing in treatments with 500 ppm AIT, and the organism was not recovered from this treatment beyond 40 days. During sensory evaluation, sausages containing 500 ppm AIT were considered acceptable although slightly spicy by panelists. PMID:16672446

  14. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  15. Altered sex hormone concentrations and gonadal mRNA expression levels of activin signaling factors in hatchling alligators from a contaminated Florida lake.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Kohno, Satomi; Cook, Robert W; Alvers, Ashley L; Hamlin, Heather J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-04-01

    Activins and estrogens participate in regulating the breakdown of ovarian germ cell nests and follicle assembly in mammals. In 1994, our group reported elevated frequencies of abnormal, multioocytic ovarian follicles in 6 month old, environmental contaminant-exposed female alligators after gonadotropin challenge. Here, we investigated if maternal contribution of endocrine disrupting contaminants to the egg subsequently alters estrogen/inhibin/activin signaling in hatchling female offspring, putatively predisposing an increased frequency of multioocytic follicle formation. We quantified basal and exogenous gonadotropin-stimulated concentrations of circulating plasma steroid hormones and ovarian activin signaling factor mRNA abundance in hatchling alligators from the same contaminated (Lake Apopka) and reference (Lake Woodruff) Florida lakes, as examined in 1994. Basal circulating plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations were greater in alligators from the contaminated environment, whereas activin/inhibin betaA subunit and follistatin mRNA abundances were lower than values measured in ovaries from reference lake animals. Challenged, contaminant-exposed animals showed a more robust increase in plasma estradiol concentration following an acute follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) challenge compared with reference site alligators. Aromatase and follistatin mRNA levels increased in response to an extended FSH challenge in the reference site animals, but not in the contaminant-exposed animals. In hatchling alligators, ovarian follicles have not yet formed; therefore, these endocrine differences are likely to affect subsequent ovarian development, including ovarian follicle assembly.

  16. Contaminants still high in top-level carnivores in the Southern California Bight: levels of DDT and PCBs in resident and transient pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Blasius, Mary Ellen; Goodmanlowe, Gwen D

    2008-12-01

    Highly industrialized areas, such as the Southern California Bight, often have high levels of contaminants in marine sediments, which can cause chronic exposure to organisms long after their use has ceased. tDDT and tPCB were analyzed in the blubber of 145 stranded pinnipeds that died at local marine mammal centers between 1994 and 2006. Resident species (California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal) had significantly higher concentrations of tDDT and tPCB than the transient species (northern elephant seal). Adult female California sea lions had significantly lower concentrations of tDDT and tPCB than pups, yearlings, and adult males. Concentrations of both tDDT and tPCB in California sea lions significantly declined over time, but did not change in northern elephant seals. Current concentrations of tDDT and tPCB in California sea lions and harbor seals are among the highest values reported worldwide for marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause adverse health effects.

  17. Evaluation of serum pesticide residue levels and liver function in persons exposed to dairy products contaminated with heptachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Wohlleb, J.C.; Royce, W.; Head, S.L.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied a group of 45 dairy farm family members who had consumed undiluted raw milk products known to be contaminated with residues of the pesticide heptachlor at concentrations as high as 89.2 ppm (fat basis). They compared results of serum pesticide assays for these exposed persons with results for an unexposed group of 94 persons from the same geographic area and the results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The exposed group had significantly higher mean levels of primary heptachlor metabolites-i.e., heptachlor epoxide and oxychlordane than the unexposed group. In the exposed group, 21.2% had evaluated serum concentrations of these same metabolites; this rate was significantly greater than the rates in both the unexposed farm family members (heptachlor epoxide, 3.8%; oxychlordane, 6.3%) and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample (2.5% for both metabolites). However they found no evidence of related acute and/or subacute hepatic effects in these exposed persons regardless of their serum concentrations of pesticide residues.

  18. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety. PMID:27929386

  19. Level and Contamination Assessment of Soil along an Expressway in an Ecologically Valuable Area in Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Radziemska, Maja; Fronczyk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Express roads are a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding environment. The Warsaw Expressway (E30) is one of the busiest roads in the capital of Poland and cuts through the ecologically valuable area (Mazowiecki Natural Landscape Park). Soil samples were collected at distances of 0.5, 4.5 and 25 m from the expressway. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soils by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS). Soils located in the direct proximity of the analyzed stretch of road were found to have the highest values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which decreased along with an increase in the distance from the expressway. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn were found to be higher than Polish national averages, whereas the average values of Ni and Pb were not exceeded. The pollution level was estimated based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and the pollution index (PI). The results of Igeo and PI indexes revealed the following orders: Cu < Zn < Ni < Cd < Pb and Cu < Ni < Cd < Zn < Pb, and comparison with geochemical background values showed higher concentration of zinc, lead and cadmium. PMID:26512684

  20. Detection of low-level copper contamination in p-type silicon by means of microwave photoconductive decay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yli-Koski, M.; Palokangas, M.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Väinölä, H.; Storgårds, J.; Holmberg, H.; Sinkkonen, J.

    2002-12-01

    In order to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of copper in p-type silicon, studies of the recombination of copper were carried out by the microwave photoconductive decay measurement method (μ PCD) using high-intensity bias light. It was observed that in the presence of small oxygen precipitates, high-intensity light could be used to activate precipitation of interstitial copper. It is suggested that high-intensity light changes the charge state of interstitial copper from positive to neutral, which enhances the precipitation. The precipitation follows Ham's kinetics and results in an increase in the recombination rate, which is detectable even with very low copper concentrations. This phenomenon can be used to detect low levels of copper contamination by the μ PCD method. In addition, it was observed that out-diffusion as well as in-diffusion of interstitial copper could be affected by an external corona charge. Thus, it is suggested that copper atoms do not form stable bonds at the Si-SiO2 interface after out-diffusion from bulk silicon.

  1. Level and Contamination Assessment of Soil along an Expressway in an Ecologically Valuable Area in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Radziemska, Maja; Fronczyk, Joanna

    2015-10-23

    Express roads are a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding environment. The Warsaw Expressway (E30) is one of the busiest roads in the capital of Poland and cuts through the ecologically valuable area (Mazowiecki Natural Landscape Park). Soil samples were collected at distances of 0.5, 4.5 and 25 m from the expressway. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soils by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (FAAS). Soils located in the direct proximity of the analyzed stretch of road were found to have the highest values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which decreased along with an increase in the distance from the expressway. The contents of Cd, Cu and Zn were found to be higher than Polish national averages, whereas the average values of Ni and Pb were not exceeded. The pollution level was estimated based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and the pollution index (PI). The results of Igeo and PI indexes revealed the following orders: Cu < Zn < Ni < Cd < Pb and Cu < Ni < Cd < Zn < Pb, and comparison with geochemical background values showed higher concentration of zinc, lead and cadmium.

  2. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety.

  3. The level of mercury contamination in mariculture sites at the estuary of Pearl River and the potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Tao, H C; Zhao, K Y; Ding, W Y; Li, J B; Liang, P; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the Hg contamination in mariculture sites located at the estuary of Pearl River was to investigate with an attempt to analyse associated health risks of dietary exposure to both total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in cultured fish and shellfish. The highest total mercury concentration (7.037 ± 0.556 ng L(-1)) of seawater was observed at Zhuhai Estuary. The Hg concentrations of sediment in Guishan Island were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in Daya Bay (away from the Pearl River). Besides, the both THg and MeHg levels in sediment at mariculture sites were higher (p < 0.05) than corresponding reference sites. It was attributed to the fact that mariculture activities increased Hg loading and promoted MeHg production. The vertical distribution of Hg in sediment cores demonstrated that mercury methylation mostly occurred at the sediment-water interface. Results of health risk assessments showed that fish consumption would impose a higher risk to children but less to adults, while shellfish produced in the studied area was safe for consumption.

  4. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs.

    PubMed

    Amahmid, O; Asmama, S; Bouhoum, K

    1999-08-01

    In Marrakech, raw sewage has been used for farming purposes for several decades for many types of crops. This study aimed to determine the contamination level of Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs for crops designated for human consumption. Collected crops in irrigated fields were turnip, marrow, squash, potatoes, pepper and eggplant. Field trials were also carried out on four crops, coriander, carrots, mint and radish, using three water types for irrigation, i.e. raw waste water, treated waste water (sedimentation and 16 days retention) and fresh water. Giardia cysts were detected at a level of 5.1 cysts/kg in potatoes, while Ascaris eggs were observed in numbers varying between 0.18 eggs/kg in potatoes and 0.27 eggs/kg in turnip. Field trials confirmed that irrigation of crops by raw waste water leads to contamination. Giardia and Ascaris were isolated in coriander at concentrations of 254 cysts/kg and 2.7 eggs/kg, respectively; mint was also highly contaminated with numbers reaching 96 cysts/kg and 4.63 eggs/kg. Carrots and radish were contaminated and respective numbers observed for Giardia were 155 and 59.1 cysts/kg; Ascaris was discovered in numbers of 0.7 and 1.64 eggs/kg, respectively. However, cultures irrigated with treated waste water and fresh water were free from contamination. Cysts and eggs on coriander persisted for a maximum of 8 days.

  5. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to <30% in its presence. Some of the contaminants, notably copper, chromium, zinc and nickel retained on the surface of iron coupons in the presence of DOC largely retained their mobility and were released readily when ambient water chemistry changed. Vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium retained by the scales were largely unsusceptible to changes of NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water.

  6. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  7. Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Eric Paul

    2000-09-01

    DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

  8. The Level of Administrator, Counselor and Student Acceptability of Alternative Agri-Business Education Programs in Indiana Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goecker, Allan D.

    The study described in the report was designed to determine the degree of acceptance that secondary school administrators, guidance counselors, vocational agriculture teachers, and students may give to alternative agribusiness education programs which could be offered in Indiana schools. A list of 20 vocational agribusiness subjects was…

  9. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  10. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  11. Calving season is a stronger determinant of worm burdens in pasture-based beef production than the level of residual larval contamination at turnout.

    PubMed

    Höglund, J; Hessle, A; Dahlström, F

    2013-05-04

    The combined influence of (1) calving period (early or late) and (2) overwintering contamination by residual infective larvae (high or low) on subsequent exposure of suckler calves to gastrointestinal nematodes was investigated. We found that the effect of calving date was greater than the level of residual contamination. This was because the adult cows produced large quantities of manure containing small amounts of nematode eggs from turnout, which significantly contaminated the pasture, and thereby, reduced the effect of prior high-low contamination. Early born calves were found to be more heavily exposed to parasites, most likely due to ingesting more herbage than those born later. Late-born calves also had relatively high antibody levels at turnout, which first decreased and then increased again. We suggest that the high antibody levels at turnout reflect passive transfer of maternal antibodies through the milk. There was also a significant difference in animal performance, with the more heavily exposed early born calves having significantly lower daily weight gain than the late-born calves. However, this might not be entirely due to increased parasitism.

  12. Calving season is a stronger determinant of worm burdens in pasture-based beef production than the level of residual larval contamination at turnout

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, J.; Hessle, A.; Dahlström, F.

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of (1) calving period (early or late) and (2) overwintering contamination by residual infective larvae (high or low) on subsequent exposure of suckler calves to gastrointestinal nematodes was investigated. We found that the effect of calving date was greater than the level of residual contamination. This was because the adult cows produced large quantities of manure containing small amounts of nematode eggs from turnout, which significantly contaminated the pasture, and thereby, reduced the effect of prior high-low contamination. Early born calves were found to be more heavily exposed to parasites, most likely due to ingesting more herbage than those born later. Late-born calves also had relatively high antibody levels at turnout, which first decreased and then increased again. We suggest that the high antibody levels at turnout reflect passive transfer of maternal antibodies through the milk. There was also a significant difference in animal performance, with the more heavily exposed early born calves having significantly lower daily weight gain than the late-born calves. However, this might not be entirely due to increased parasitism. PMID:23482238

  13. Metal(loid) levels in biological matrices from human populations exposed to mining contamination--Panasqueira Mine (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Solange; Silva, Susana; Walter, Alan; Ranville, James; Sousa, Ana C A; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Marta; García-Lestón, Julia; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Harrington, Chris; Taylor, Andrew; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mining activities may affect the health of miners and communities living near mining sites, and these health effects may persist even when the mine is abandoned. During mining processes various toxic wastes are produced and released into the surrounding environment, resulting in contamination of air, drinking water, rivers, plants, and soils. In a geochemical sampling campaign undertaken in the Panasqueira Mine area of central Portugal, an anomalous distribution of several metals and arsenic (As) was identified in various environmental media. Several potentially harmful elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se), were quantified in blood, urine, hair, and nails (toe and finger) from a group of individuals living near the Panasqueira Mine who were environmentally and occupationally exposed. A group with similar demographic characteristics without known exposure to mining activities was also compared. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and percentages of different lymphocyte subsets were selected as immunotoxicity biomarkers. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis showed elevated levels of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb in all biological samples taken from populations living close to the mine compared to controls. Genotoxic and immunotoxic differences were also observed. The results provide evidence of an elevated potential risk to the health of populations, with environmental and occupational exposures resulting from mining activities. Further, the results emphasize the need to implement preventive measures, remediation, and rehabilitation plans for the region.

  14. Strategy to evaluate persistent contaminant hazards resulting from sea-level rise and storm-derived disturbances—Study design and methodology for station prioritization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Focazio, Michael J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Zinecker, Elizabeth K.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.; Schill, William B.

    2015-10-26

    Coastal communities are uniquely vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR) and severe storms such as hurricanes. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms that could adversely affect the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a strategy to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health (EH) stressors (hereafter referred to as the Sediment-Bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response [SCoRR] strategy). A tiered, multimetric approach will be used to (1) identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors, (2) define the baseline mixtures of EH stressors present in sediments and correlations of relevance, (3) document post-event changes in EH stressors present in sediments, and (4) establish and apply metrics to quantify changes in coastal resilience associated with sediment-bound contaminants. Integration of this information provides a means to improve assessment of the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and SLR (incremental) disturbances. This report describes the purpose and design of the SCoRR strategy and the methods used to construct a decision support tool to identify candidate sampling stations vulnerable to contaminants that may be mobilized by coastal storms.

  15. Role of initial contamination levels, biofilm maturity and presence of salt and fat on desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hingston, Patricia A; Stea, Emma C; Knøchel, Susanne; Hansen, Truelstrup

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of initial contamination levels, biofilm maturity and presence of salt and fatty food soils on desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel (SS) coupons. L. monocytogenes cultures grown (at 15 °C for 48 h) in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB-glu) containing either 0.5 or 5% (w/v) NaCl were re-suspended in TSB-glu containing either 0.5 or 5% NaCl and used to contaminate SS coupons at levels of 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 log CFU/cm². Desiccation (at 15 °C for 20 days, 43% RH) commenced immediately (non-biofilm) or following biofilm formation (at 15 °C for 48 h, 100% RH). To study the impact of food lipids, non-biofilm L. monocytogenes cells were suspended in TSB-glu containing either canola oil (5-10%) or lard (20-60%) and desiccated as above on SS coupons. Following desiccation for 20 days, survivors decreased by 1.4-3.7 log CFU/cm² for non-biofilm L. monocytogenes cells. The contamination level had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on survival kinetics. SEM micrographs showed mature biofilms on coupons initially contaminated with 5.5 and 7.5 log CFU/cm². Mature biofilm cells were significantly (p < 0.05) more desiccation resistant than cells in immature biofilms formed by the lowest contamination level. Besides biofilm maturity/formation, previous osmoadaptation, exposure to lard (20-60%) or salt (5%) during desiccation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the bacterium's survival. In conclusion, L. monocytogenes desiccation survival can be greatly reduced by preventing presence of mature biofilms and salty or fatty soils on food contact surfaces.

  16. The influence of depression, level of functioning in everyday life, and illness acceptance on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Kołtuniuk, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease, and its incidence will increase as the global population ages. Due to the multitude of symptoms, this disease clearly has a significant impact on decreasing quality of life for those with PD. We aimed to evaluate the effect of selected variables on quality of life in people with idiopathic PD treated pharmacologically. Materials and methods This study was conducted among 50 patients with PD aged 47–85 years. The diagnostic survey method was applied to collect data with the use of the authors’ questionnaire and standardized questionnaires, including, Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ), Beck Depression Inventory, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Acceptance of Illness Scale. The results were statistically analyzed. Results Analysis of the study material showed that people who were more self-reliant were characterized by lower intensity of depressive symptoms (ρ=−0.567, P=0), were more likely to accept their illness (ρ=0.611, P=0), and assessed quality of life better in each of the studied domains of the PDQ. Illness acceptance correlated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms (ρ=−0.567, P=0) and significantly affected quality of life. Conclusion Factors such as depression, disease acceptance, and functional capacity have a significant impact on the subjective assessment of quality of life in patients with PD. Evaluation of these factors should be taken into account in the therapeutic process, to minimize their negative impact on quality of life in patients with PD. PMID:28356744

  17. Approaches in measuring exposure to food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiev, G K

    1982-03-01

    Measurement of levels of contaminants in food commodities and prepared meals, and market basket surveys are feasible in countries with existing systems of food control laboratories. Monitoring body tissues for contaminants or their metabolites reflects total exposure but care should be taken to select the most appropriate pharmacokinetic model.Strict quality control acquires particular value in obtaining (with existing instrumentation and facilities) results that meet specified acceptable parameters of analytical performance.Exposure measurement of dietary contaminants as a part of epidemiological studies becomes indispensable in the risk assessment process. Dietary intakes of DDT in USA and Bulgaria are within the range of 'virtually safe doses' for liver tumors extrapolated from animal experiments by four low dose extrapolation models for risk levels of 10(-4) and 10(-6).

  18. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    -assisted extraction techniques used either concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) or aqua regia (a mixture of HNO3 and HCl, in 1:4 ratio) for elemental extraction. Statistical tools such as F-test, paired-data test, t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the analytical results between ICP-OES and XRF and the indoor/outdoor sampling study. This study concluded that no statistical differences existed between the indoor and outdoor levels in the studied households for Pb and As concentrations. The results also showed that the most important sources of PM10 and Pb in the indoor environment were the transport and resuspension of external dust. The result further indicated that the inorganic As is associated with the fine particulate matter and is for the most part naturally occurring. In general the hypothesis that the exposure to environmental particulate matter, Pb and As is the same for indoor and outdoor environments can be accepted for the majority of the sampling houses. The isotopic ratios for the indoor samples were somewhat larger than the corresponding outdoor isotopic Pb sample ratios, reaching background levels from several regions around the world. The outdoor Pb isotopic ratios are similar to those found in the polluted-zones from smelting activities. The digestion of soil using HNO3 and aqua regia did not affect the extraction of Pb and As. The analytical techniques XRF and ICP-OES produced similar results for the determination of As in soil samples. However, these techniques produced different results for Pb determinations. These differences were, more than likely, associated to the digestion/extraction methodology. XRF techniques can successfully substitute other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES in the quantification of some trace elements in soil samples.

  19. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  20. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R.; Meltzer, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  1. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  2. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  3. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin

    2009-08-28

    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  4. Mapping Zn, Cu and Cd contents at the small catchment level after dispersion of contaminants by agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion of trace metals into the rural environment through the use of sewage sludge, fertilizers and manure has been worldwide reported. In El Abelar (Coruña province, Spain), pig slurry was discharged during years intensively into an agricultural field by means of a device which constituted a point source of contamination. The application point was located near the head of an elementary basin, so that slurry was dispersed by runoff into neighboring grassland and maize fields. In addition, diffuse pollution was also present in the study area as a consequence of cattle grazing. Water quality was monitored during and after slurry application at the outlet of a small catchment (about 10.7 ha in surface) draining the study fields. High levels of nutrients, including heavy metals, were found in drainage water. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the spatial variability of Cu, Zn and Cd as extracted by NO3H, EDTA and Ca2Cl and to evaluate the risk of accumulation of these heavy metals at the small catchment level. A set of 55 soil samples were taken from the top soil layer (0-20 cm) of the studied catchment, following a random sampling scheme. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd contents were determined i) after digestion by nitric acid in a microwave (USEPA-SW-846 3051) ii) after extraction with EDTA and iii) after extraction with Cl2Ca. Element contents in the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. Summary statistics indicate that variability in Cu, Zn and Cd contents over the study area was very high. For example, after NO3H digestion Zn contents ranged from 29.66 to 141.77 3 mg kg-1 and Cu contents varied from 10.45 to 72.7 3 mg kg-1. High Cu and Zn contents result from accumulation as a consequence of slurry discharge. Also, some hot spots with high levels of Cd (> 3 mg kg-1 after NO3H) with respect to background values were recorded. Geostatistics provides all necessary tools to analyze the spatial variability of soil properties over a landscape. The spatial

  5. Assessing Nation-wide Distributions of Contaminant Levels in Selected Finfish and Shellfish from the Estuaries of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of mercury is well documented and has led to laws and regulations governing its use and disposal; however mercury contamination of coastal and estuarine biota continues to be of public concern. The U.S. EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program provided da...

  6. Metabolic and genomic analysis elucidates strain-level variation in Microbacterium spp. isolated from chromate contaminated sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a soluble carcinogen, has caused widespread contamination of soil and water in many industrial nations. Bacteria have been shown to play an active role in the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), which is insoluble and less toxic, however, the biological ...

  7. Assessment of the level of microbial contamination in cotton and synthetic fibers destined for the use in nonwoven applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial burden measurements are crucial for certain converter uses of nonwoven materials. Currently, the microbial burden of natural fibers such as cotton have not been quantified and little consideration has been given to the potential contamination introduced by synthetic fibers during the proc...

  8. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  9. Water-related infrastructure in a region of post-earthquake Haiti: high levels of fecal contamination and need for ongoing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Jocelyn M; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Morrissey, B David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K; Johnson, Judith A; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-10-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km(2)) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water.

  10. Water-Related Infrastructure in a Region of Post-Earthquake Haiti: High Levels of Fecal Contamination and Need for Ongoing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Alam, Meer T.; Morrissey, B. David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K.; Johnson, Judith A.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km2) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water. PMID:25071005

  11. Trace metal and metalloid contamination levels in soils and in two native plant species of a former industrial site: evaluation of the phytostabilization potential.

    PubMed

    Testiati, Eti; Parinet, Julien; Massiani, Catherine; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Lenoble, Véronique; Masotti, Véronique; Prudent, Pascale

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at identifying the extent and type of contamination of a former lead smelting site in the area of Marseille, France, dating from the industrial revolution, and to evaluate environmental hazards and opportunities for phytoremediation, a promising sustainable technology. Amongst the native plants growing in this semiarid shrub ecosystem, two perennials Globularia alypum L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were selected. Twenty-one soil/plant couples were collected and seventeen additional soil samples were added to better characterize the soil pollution of the area. A multi-contamination by Pb, As, Sb, Zn, Cu was demonstrated, with huge variations within the contamination levels. The soils highest concentrations were encountered along the horizontal chimney and on the slag heaps area. However, both sites differed from each other. The former was characterized by the highest Pb, As and Sb concentrations that could reach 130, 7.0 and 9.0gkg(-1) respectively, the latter, by high Cu, Fe, Mn, S concentrations, even if it was also heavily contaminated by Pb and Zn. G. alypum and R. officinalis were shown to be metal-tolerant and to accumulate trace metals and As. Due to the low bioconcentration and translocation factors determined, both species may not be used for phytoextraction, but seem to be good candidates for phytostabilization.

  12. The relation between remembered parental acceptance in childhood and self-acceptance among young Turkish adults.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Behire; Rohner, Ronald P

    2016-05-11

    This study examined the relation between young adults' age and remembrances of parental acceptance in childhood, and their current self-acceptance. The study was based on a sample of 236 young adults in Turkey (139 women and 97 men). The adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire for mothers and fathers along with the Self-Acceptance subscale of the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and the Personal Information Form were used as measures. Results showed that both men and women tended to remember having been accepted in childhood by both their mothers and fathers. Women, however, reported more maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood than did men. Similarly, the level of self-acceptance was high among both men and women. However, women's self-acceptance was higher than men's. Correlational analyses showed that self-acceptance was positively related to remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance among both women and men. Results indicated that age and remembered paternal acceptance significantly predicted women's self-acceptance. Age and remembered maternal acceptance made significant and independent contributions to men's self-acceptance. Men's remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood did not make significant contribution to their self-acceptance. Finally, the relation between women's age and self-acceptance was significantly moderated by remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood.

  13. Metabolic and genomic analysis elucidates strain-level variation in Microbacterium spp. isolated from chromate contaminated sediment

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Michael W.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Kourtev, Peter S.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Dunn, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a soluble carcinogen that has caused widespread contamination of soil and water in many industrial nations. Bacteria have the potential to aid remediation as certain strains can catalyze the reduction of Cr(VI) to insoluble and less toxic Cr(III). Here, we examine Cr(VI) reducing Microbacterium spp. (Cr-K1W, Cr-K20, Cr-K29, and Cr-K32) isolated from contaminated sediment (Seymore, Indiana) and show varying chromate responses despite the isolates’ phylogenetic similarity (i.e., identical 16S rRNA gene sequences). Detailed analysis identified differences based on genomic metabolic potential, growth and general metabolic capabilities, and capacity to resist and reduce Cr(VI). Taken together, the discrepancies between the isolates demonstrate the complexity inter-strain variation can have on microbial physiology and related biogeochemical processes. PMID:26587353

  14. Response Mechanisms of Bacterial Degraders to Environmental Contaminants on the Level of Cell Walls and Cytoplasmic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial strains living in the environment must cope with the toxic compounds originating from humans production. Surface bacterial structures, cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, surround each bacterial cell and create selective barriers between the cell interior and the outside world. They are a first site of contact between the cell and toxic compounds. Organic pollutants are able to penetrate into cytoplasmic membrane and affect membrane physiological functions. Bacteria had to evolve adaptation mechanisms to counteract the damage originated from toxic contaminants and to prevent their accumulation in cell. This review deals with various adaptation mechanisms of bacterial cell concerning primarily the changes in cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall. Cell adaptation maintains the membrane fluidity status and ratio between bilayer/nonbilayer phospholipids as well as the efflux of toxic compounds, protein repair mechanisms, and degradation of contaminants. Low energy consumption of cell adaptation is required to provide other physiological functions. Bacteria able to survive in toxic environment could help us to clean contaminated areas when they are used in bioremediation technologies. PMID:25057269

  15. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-10-15

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review.

  16. Fecal contamination of food, water, hands, and kitchen utensils at the household level in rural areas of Peru.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Hartinger, Stella M; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Padilla, Beatriz; Ochoa, Theresa J; Lozada, Michelle; Pineda, Ines; Verastegui, Hector

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article evaluated sources of contamination of children's food and drinking water in rural households in the highlands of Peru. Samples from children's meals, drinking water, kitchen utensils, and caregivers' and children's hands were analyzed for total coliforms and E. coli counts using Petrifilm EC. Thermotolerant coliforms in water were measured using DelAgua test kits while diarrheagenic E. coli was identified using polymerase chain reaction methods (PCR). Thermotolerant coliforms were found in 48% of all water samples. E. coli was found on 23% of hands, 16% of utensils, and 4% of meals. Kitchen cloths were the item most frequently contaminated with total coliforms (89%) and E. coli (42%). Diarrheagenic E. coli was found in 33% of drinking water, 27% of meals, and on 23% of kitchen utensils. These findings indicate a need to develop hygiene interventions that focus on specific kitchen utensils and hand washing practices, to reduce the contamination of food, water, and the kitchen environment in these rural settings.

  17. Multifactorial effects of ambient temperature, precipitation, farm management, and environmental factors determine the level of generic Escherichia coli contamination on preharvested spinach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-04-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only.

  18. Multifactorial Effects of Ambient Temperature, Precipitation, Farm Management, and Environmental Factors Determine the Level of Generic Escherichia coli Contamination on Preharvested Spinach

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only. PMID:25636850

  19. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  20. Monochloramine and chlorine dioxide for controlling Legionella pneumophila contamination: biocide levels and disinfection by-product formation in hospital water networks.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Isabella; Ferranti, Greta; Bargellini, Annalisa; Marchegiano, Patrizia; Predieri, Guerrino; Stout, Janet E; Borella, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Legionella colonization in hospital hot water distribution networks was evaluated following 36 months of continuous treatment with monochloramine and compared with chlorine dioxide. Nitrite, nitrate, chlorite, chlorate, bromide, trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids as well as the biocide concentration at sampled points were measured. Only 8/84 samples treated with monochloramine were found contaminated and after the first 8 months of treatment no Legionella was isolated. Chlorine dioxide was associated with a strong reduction in Legionella contamination compared to pre-treatment, but differences according to the device were observed. Monochloramine between 2 and 3 mg l(-1) and chlorine dioxide between 0.50 and 0.70 mg l(-1) were needed to control Legionella colonization. Comparing no- and post-flush samples, a higher frequency of no-flush positive samples was noted using chlorine dioxide, suggesting an increased risk for patients when they open the tap. No increase in chlorite levels and no water nitrification occurred by using monochloramine. Chlorite at levels exceeding the limit requested for drinking water was measured when chlorine dioxide was applied. In conclusion, we highlight that continuous injection of monochloramine should be considered as an effective alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling legionellae contamination inside hospital water distribution systems.

  1. Sampling design and required sample size for evaluating contamination levels of (137)Cs in Japanese fir needles in a mixed deciduous forest stand in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yurika; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2017-05-01

    We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the (137)Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of (137)Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to (137)Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The concentration of (137)Cs in needles showed a strong positive spatial autocorrelation in the distance class from 0 to 2.5 m, suggesting that the statistical analysis of data should consider spatial autocorrelation in the case of an assessment of the radioactive contamination of forest trees. According to our sample size analysis, a sample size of seven trees was required to determine the mean contamination level within an error in the means of no more than 10%. This required sample size may be feasible for most sites.

  2. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  3. Use of Multi-Level Wells in Developing a 3-Dimensional Understanding of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Migration at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K M; Nichols, R L; Flach, G P; Sappington, F; Simmons, J L; Betivas, C R; Shoffner, L R; Falise, F R

    2003-02-25

    Understanding the flow of groundwater and contaminants in 3-dimensions, along with hydraulic properties, is instrumental in selection and implementation of successful remediation efforts. Advances in multi-level groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are enabling engineers and geologists to collect the needed characterization data in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The SRS has developed a new multi-level groundwater monitoring well, "StrataSampler", which is being deployed for characterization and monitoring at several large groundwater plumes on the SRS. The installation method used allowed collection of data during the drilling process allowing optimization of screen placement within the aquifers and minimization of drilling costs and waste generation. Data generated during the installation of the StrataSamplers along with data collected from the installed wells is being used to understand the 3-dimensional nature of contaminant fate and transport. The L-Area Southern Groundwater Operable Unit is the first full-scale deployment of StrataSampler wells at SRS. Twenty-two StrataSampler wells with a total of 52 sampling zones were installed. The installation, development, hydraulic testing, sampling of the StrataSamplers at this unit and the resulting understanding of the contaminant plumes will be discussed in the paper and presentation.

  4. Exposure of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to silver nanoparticles and 17α-ethinylestradiol mixtures: Implications for contaminant uptake and plasma steroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Julia; Salaberria, Iurgi; Styrishave, Bjarne; Staňková, Radka; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Olsen, Anders J; Posch, Wilfried; Flaten, Trond P; Krøkje, Åse; Salvenmoser, Willi; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2017-01-01

    Combined exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and anthropogenic contaminants can lead to changes in bioavailability, uptake and thus effects of both groups of contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of single and combined exposures of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the synthetic hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on tissue uptake of both contaminants in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Silver uptake and tissue distribution (gills, liver, kidney, stomach, muscle and bile) were analyzed following a 14-day, 2-h daily pulsed exposure to AgNPs (2 μg L(-1) and 200 μg L(-1)), Ag(+) (50 μg L(-1)), EE2 (50 ng L(-1)) and AgNP + EE2 (2 or 200 μg L(-1)+50 ng L(-1)). Effects of the exposures on plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) levels, EE2 and steroid hormone concentrations were investigated. The AgNP and AgNP + EE2 exposures resulted in similar Ag concentrations in the tissues, indicating that combined exposure did not influence Ag uptake in tissues. The highest Ag concentrations were found in gills. For the Ag(+) exposed fish, the highest Ag concentrations were measured in the liver. Our results show dissolution processes of AgNPs in seawater, indicating that the tissue concentrations of Ag may partly originate from ionic release. Plasma EE2 concentrations and Vtg induction were similar in fish exposed to the single contaminants and the mixed contaminants, indicating that the presence of AgNPs did not significantly alter EE2 uptake. Similarly, concentrations of most steroid hormones were not significantly altered due to exposures to the combined contaminants versus the single compound exposures. However, high concentrations of AgNPs in combination with EE2 caused a drop of estrone (E1) (female fish) and androstenedione (AN) (male and female fish) levels in plasma below quantification limits. Our results indicate that the interactive effects between AgNPs and EE2 are limited, with only high concentrations of AgNPs triggering

  5. Effects of contaminants in roundnose grenadier ( coryphaenoides rupestris) and Norway lobster ( nephrops norvegicus) and contaminant levels in mussels ( mytilus edulis) in the skagerrak and kattegat compared to the faroe islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förlin, Lars; Baden, Susanne Pihl; Eriksson, Susanne; Granmo, Åke; Lindesjöö, Eric; Magnusson, Kerstin; Ekelund, Rolf; Esselin, Anders; Sturve, Joachim

    1996-02-01

    In situ biomonitoring of roundnose grenadier ( Coryphaenoides rupestris) and Norway lobster ( Nephrops norvegicus) and measurements of pollutants levels in caged common mussel ( Mytilus edulis) were used to assess the environmental impact of contaminants in the Skagerrak and Kattegat and near the Faroe Islands. By comparing the responses of a suite of established and potential biomarkers, i.e. different liver detoxification enzymes and histopathology in roundnose grenadier in the Skagerrak, and at a reference site off the Faroe Islands, evidence was found that the deeper parts of the Skagerrak are affected by anthropogenic contaminants. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorines in caged mussels were compared with those sediment. The Skagerrak/Kattegat area was found to be more polluted than the Faroe area and the caged mussels bioaccumulated the PAHs to a higher degree than the organochlorines. This seems to indicate that the PAHs in the sediments are more bioavailable than the organochlorines and that the induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities observed in Skagerrak roundnouse grenadier may be due to PAH exposure. The Norway lobster accumulated manganese to various degrees in the different parts of the organism. The excretion rate of manganese could not cope with the uptake rate at higher exposure concentrations. Enhanced manganese concentrations, especially in the gills and haemolymph, seem to be a useful indication of increased manganese levels in the water. Hypoxia makes a sediment-bound manganese much more bioavailable. The elevated levels of manganese in Norway lobster from the Skagerrak/Kattegat area therefore seem to reflect the increasing occurrence of hypoxic conditions in the Kattegat and coastal areas of the Skagerrak. Accumulated manganese in Norway lobster may thus serve as a biomarker of hypoxia. In conclusion, the use of a suite of different biomarkers in ecotoxicological and ecophysiological studies and analyses

  6. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  7. Effects of iron concentration level in extracting solutions from contaminated soils on the determination of zinc by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with two background correctors.

    PubMed

    Waterlot, Christophe; Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Douay, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Zinc and iron concentrations were determined after digestion, water, and three-step sequential extractions of contaminated soils. Analyses were carried out using flame absorption spectrometry with two background correctors: a deuterium lamp used as the continuum light source (D(2) method) and the high-speed self-reversal method (HSSR method). Regarding the preliminary results obtained with synthetic solutions, the D(2) method often emerged as an unsuitable configuration for compensating iron spectral interferences. In contrast, the HSSR method appeared as a convenient and powerful configuration and was tested for the determination of zinc in contaminated soils containing high amounts of iron. Simple, fast, and interference-free method, the HSSR method allows zinc determination at the ppb level in the presence of large amounts of iron with high stability, sensitivity, and reproducibility of results. Therefore, the HSSR method is described here as a promising approach for monitoring zinc concentrations in various iron-containing samples without any pretreatment.

  8. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  9. Internet Use Patterns, Acceptance Levels. and Policy Recommendations: An Information Technology Infusion Approach to the Internet and the United States Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    well as policy recommendations regarding Internet use in the Air Force. The research provides substantial evidence that Internet technology is not being...highly infused at the headquaners-level than it is at base-level. This research also demonstrates that supervisory support for Internet use positively

  10. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  11. Improving Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Contaminated Soil Through Low-Level Surfactant Addition After Conventional Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Adrion, Alden C; Singleton, David R; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs. This work extends that concept by treating the effluent from the slurry-phase bioreactor in a second-stage batch reactor, to which POESH was added, for an additional 7 or 12 days. Surfactant amendment removed substantial amounts of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs remaining after conventional slurry-phase bioremediation, including more than 80% of residual 4-ring PAHs. Surfactant-amended treatment decreased soil cytotoxicity, but often increased the genotoxicity of the soil as measured using the DT-40 chicken lymphocyte DNA damage response assay. Potential ecotoxicity, measured using a seed germination assay, was reduced by bioreactor treatment and was reduced further after second-stage treatment with POESH. Of bacteria previously implicated as potential PAH degraders under POESH-amended conditions in a prior study, members of the Terrimonas genus were associated with differences in high-molecular weight PAH removal in the current study. Research using submicellar doses of surfactant as a second-stage treatment step is limited and these findings can inform the design of bioremediation systems at field sites treating soil contaminated with PAHs and other hydrophobic contaminants that have low bioaccessibility.

  12. Treatment of Navy landfill leachate contaminated with low levels of priority pollutants. Final report, Jun 89-Mar 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, C.; Regan, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses remediation of landfill leachate and contaminated ground water at selected Naval facilities. A conventional treatment train (air stripping, ion exchange, and carbon adsorption) was used to illustrate the treatment potential for a diluted leachate at Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. The treatment removed specified organics to below 29 ppb and specified metals to below California's drinking water standards. Available costs for conventional and innovative treatment trains were considered. Treatment technologies include oil water separators, activated sludge, trickling filter, powdered activated carbon, neutralization, oxidation reduction, precipitation/floculation/sedimentation, and air stripping.

  13. In vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay III. Validation and regulatory acceptance of automated scoring and the use of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes, with discussion of non-hematopoietic target cells and a single dose-level limit test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; MacGregor, James T; Gatehouse, David G; Blakey, David H; Dertinger, Stephen D; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Krishna, Gopala; Morita, Takeshi; Russo, Antonella; Asano, Norihide; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Wakako; Gibson, Dave

    2007-02-03

    The in vivo micronucleus assay working group of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) discussed new aspects in the in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, including the regulatory acceptance of data derived from automated scoring, especially with regard to the use of flow cytometry, the suitability of rat peripheral blood reticulocytes to serve as the principal cell population for analysis, the establishment of in vivo MN assays in tissues other than bone marrow and blood (for example liver, skin, colon, germ cells), and the biological relevance of the single-dose-level test. Our group members agreed that flow cytometric systems to detect induction of micronucleated immature erythrocytes have advantages based on the presented data, e.g., they give good reproducibility compared to manual scoring, are rapid, and require only small quantities of peripheral blood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood reticulocytes has the potential to allow monitoring of chromosome damage in rodents and also other species as part of routine toxicology studies. It appears that it will be applicable to humans as well, although in this case the possible confounding effects of splenic activity will need to be considered closely. Also, the consensus of the group was that any system that meets the validation criteria recommended by the IWGT (2000) should be acceptable. A number of different flow cytometric-based micronucleus assays have been developed, but at the present time the validation data are most extensive for the flow cytometric method using anti-CD71 fluorescent staining especially in terms of inter-laboratory collaborative data. Whichever method is chosen, it is desirable that each laboratory should determine the minimum sample size required to ensure that scoring error is maintained below the level of animal-to-animal variation. In the second IWGT, the potential to use rat peripheral blood reticulocytes as target cells for the micronucleus assay was discussed

  14. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  15. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  16. A mouse model of cytogenetic analysis to evaluate caesium137 radiation dose exposure and contamination level in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Roch-Lefèvre, Sandrine; Martin-Bodiot, Cécile; Grégoire, Eric; Desbrée, Aurélie; Roy, Laurence; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-03-01

    In case of external overexposure to ionizing radiation, an estimation of its genotoxic effects on exposed individuals can be made retrospectively by the measurement of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations on circulating lymphocytes. Compared with external irradiation, intakes of radionuclides may, however, lead to specific features influencing dose distribution at the scale of body, of tissue or even of cell. Therefore, in case of internal contamination by radionuclides, experimental studies, particularly using animal models, are required to better understand mechanisms of their genotoxic effects and to better estimate the absorbed dose. The present study was designed to evaluate a cytogenetic method in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes that would allow determination of yields and complexities of chromosome aberrations after low-dose rate exposure to (137)Cs delivered in vitro either by irradiation or by contamination. By using M-FISH analysis, we compared the low-dose rate responses observed in mouse to the high-dose rate responses observed both in mouse and in human. Promising similarities between the two species in the relative biological effect evaluation show that our cytogenetic model established in mouse might be useful to evaluate various radiation exposures, particularly relevant in case of intakes of radionuclides.

  17. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  18. Detection of effects caused by very low levels of contaminants in riverine sediments through a combination of chemical analysis, in vitro bioassays, and farmed fish as sentinel.

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Valdehita, Ana; del Olmo, Iván; Gómez, M José; Navas, José M

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic organisms are often exposed to mixtures of low levels of pollutants whose presence and effects can pass easily unnoticed if only traditional monitoring strategies are employed. The main aim of this work was to assess the presence and effects of trace levels of pollutants in a scarcely affected area through the combination of chemical and biological approaches. Sediments were collected along a river with little anthropogenic pressure and assayed for cytochrome P450 (Cyp1a)-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity with the rainbow trout gonadal cell line RTG-2. Chemical analyses were performed in these sediments using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sediment samples induced EROD activity, and chemical analyses evidenced the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the range of nanograms per gram of dry weight. Correlation analysis between EROD induction and chemical analyses data showed an r value of 0.840 (p < 0.05). In addition, fish from a fish farm located downstream of the sampling points exhibited high hepatic EROD levels as well as an induced expression of cyp1a and cyp3a. In conclusion, only an appropriate combination of biological and chemical techniques allowed the detection of the presence of trace levels of contaminants in a theoretically nonaffected river.

  19. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  20. Beta Emitter Radionuclides (90Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting

    PubMed Central

    Iammarino, Marco; dell’Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg–1). All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1). In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human. PMID:27800378

  1. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  2. Beta Emitter Radionuclides ((90)Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2015-02-03

    (90)Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. (90)Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer ((137)Cs and (90)Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of (90)Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of (90)Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg(-1)). All samples analysed showed a (90)Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg(-1)). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg(-1)), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg(-1)) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg(-1)). In fact, all samples were characterized by (90)Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that (90)Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  3. Assessment of trace metals contamination level, bioavailability and toxicity in sediments from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-11-01

    Trace metals have the potential to associate with sediments that have been recognised as significant source of contamination for the benthic environment. The current study aims assessing the trace metals contamination level in sediments from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary, and to examine their bioavailability to predict potential toxicity of sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected between June 2012 and January 2013 in three sampling periods from eight stations. Trace metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. Geoaccumulation indexes (Igeo) showed strong pollution by Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb confirmed by enrichment factor (EF) suggesting that these metals derived from anthropogenic sources. Toxicity indexes exceeded one in several sites suggesting the potential effects on sediment-dwelling organisms, which may constitute a risk to populations' health. However, seasonal variability of metal bioavailability was noted, revealing the best period to monitor metal contamination. From an ecotoxicological point of view, concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were above the effects range low threshold limit of the sediment quality guidelines for adverse biological effects. In addition, with Pb concentrations above the effect range medium values in some sites, biological effects may occur.

  4. Exposure of HepG2 cells to low levels of PAH-containing extracts from contaminated soils results in unpredictable genotoxic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Ase; Lundstedt, Staffan; Stenius, Ulla

    2009-05-01

    Contaminated soil is a serious environmental problem, constituting a risk to humans and the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are often present at contaminated sites. However, risk levels are difficult to estimate because of the complexity of contaminants present. Here, we compare cellular effects of extracts from contaminated soils collected at six industrial settings in Sweden. Chemical analysis showed that all soils contained complex mixtures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were used to investigate DNA damage signaling in HepG2 cells exposed to extracts from these soils. The effects on phosphorylated Mdm2, p53, Erk, H2AX, 53BP1, and Chk2, cell cycle regulating proteins (cyclin D1 and p21), and cell proliferation were compared. We found that most soil extracts induced phosphorylation of Mdm2 at the 2A10 epitope at low concentrations. This is in line with previous studies suggesting that this endpoint reflects readily repaired DNA-damage. However, we found concentration- and time-dependent gammaH2AX and 53BP1 responses that were sustained for 48 hr. These endpoints may reflect the presence of different types of persistent DNA-damage. High concentrations of soil extracts decreased cyclin D1 and increased p21 response, indicating cell cycle arrest. Phosphorylation of Mdm2 at Ser166, which attenuates the p53 response and is induced by many tumor promoters, was induced in a time-dependent manner and was associated with Erk phosphorylation. Taken together, the PAH extracts elicited unpredictable signaling responses that differed between samples. More polar compounds, i.e., oxy-PAHs, also contributed to the complexity.

  5. Assessment of persistent brominated and chlorinated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders, Belgium: Levels, profiles and health risk.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Eulaers, Igor; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Pooled yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, collected between 2000 and 2009 from 60 locations in Flanders (Belgium) were investigated for persistent contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). The current study expands the knowledge regarding these contaminant concentrations, their patterns and distribution profiles in aquatic ecosystems. PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs, and DDTs were detected in all eel samples and some samples had high concentrations (up to 1400, 9500, 41,600 and 7000ng/g lw, respectively). PCB levels accounted for the majority of the contamination in most samples. The high variability in PBDE, HBCD, PCB and DDT concentrations reported here is likely due to the variety in sampling locations demonstrating variable local pollution pressures, from highly industrialised areas to small rural creeks. Among PBDEs, BDE-47 (57% contribution to the sum PBDEs), -100 (19%) and -99 (15%) were the predominant congeners, similar to the composition reported in the literature in eel samples. For HBCDs, α-HBCD (74%) was predominant followed by γ-(22%) and β-HBCD (4%) isomers in almost all eel samples. CB-153 (19%) was the most dominant PCB congener, closely followed by CB-138 (11%), CB-180 (9%), CB-187 (8%) and CB-149 (7%). The contribution to the total human exposure through local wild eel consumption was also highly variable. Intake of PBDEs and HBCDs, through consumption of wild eel, was below the RfD values for the average population (consuming on average 2.9g eel/day). At 16 out 60 sites, eels exceeded largely the new EU consumption threshold for PCBs (300ng/g ww for the sum of 6 indicator PCBs). The current data shows an on-going exposure of Flemish eels to PBDEs, HBCDs, PCBs and DDTs through indirect release from contaminated sediments or direct releases from various industries.

  6. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food

  7. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that Type IV

  8. ReCLAIM v2.0: a spreadsheet tool for calculating doses and soil/water radionuclide screening levels for assessment of radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Willans, S M; Galais, N C M; Lennon, C P; Trivedi, D P

    2007-03-01

    This note describes an electronic spreadsheet tool called ReCLAIM v2.0, developed by Nexia Solutions Ltd. The tool calculates doses to exposure groups for assessment of radioactively contaminated land including UK Nuclear Licensed sites on an individual exposure pathway basis and on a multiple exposure pathway basis constituting various specifiable scenarios. It also calculates soil/water screening levels of individual radionuclides with reference to selected exposure pathways and a dose target, and considers radionuclide additivity. Subject to agreement with a ReCLAIM disclaimer, the tool, with accompanying documentation (User Guide and Verification Report), can be downloaded without cost from the website (www.nexiasolutions.com/reclaim).

  9. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Dupuy, A. E. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  10. EPA proposes St. Regis Paper Co. Cleanup Plan, accepting comments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For Immediate Release No.16-OPA006 EPA proposes St. Regis Paper Co. Cleanup Plan; accepting comments CHICAGO (March 30, 2016) -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is issuing a proposed plan to clean up soil contamin

  11. Spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration, and risk assessment of nitrate contamination in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kelin; Huang, Yuangfang; Li, Hong; Li, Baoguo; Chen, Deli; White, Robert Edlin

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, nitrate (NO3) contamination of groundwater has become a growing concern for people in rural areas in North China Plain (NCP) where groundwater is used as drinking water. The objective of this study was to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3 pollution in groundwater in Quzhou County in the NCP. Ordinary Kriging (OK) method was used to analyze the spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) and NO3-N concentrations, and Indictor Kriging (IK) method was used to analyze the data with NO3-N concentrations equal or greater than the groundwater NO3 pollution threshold (20 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that groundwater level averaged 9.81 m, a level 6 m lower than in 1990. The spatial correlation distances for groundwater level, EC and NO3-N concentration were 21.93, 2.19 and 3.55 km, respectively. The contour map showed that shallow groundwater level areas extended from north to south across the County. Groundwater EC was above 3 dS m(-1) in the most part of the northern county. Groundwater NO3 pollution (NO3-N> or =20 mg L(-1)) mainly occurred in the County Seat areas due to wastewater irrigation and excessive fertilizer leaching from agricultural fields. At Henantuang town, besides suburban of the County Seat, groundwater was also contaminated by NO3 shown by the map generated using the IK method, which was not reflected in the map generated using the OK method. The map generated using the OK method could not reflect correctly the groundwater NO3 pollution status. The IK method is useful to assess the risk of NO3 pollution by giving the conditional probability of NO3 concentration exceeding the threshold value. It is suggested that risk assessment of NO3 pollution is useful for better managing groundwater resource, preventing soil salinization and minimizing NO3 pollution in groundwater.

  12. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  13. A role for transforming growth factor-{beta} apoptotic signaling pathway in liver injury induced by ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael, A.I.; Almeida, A.; Santos, P.; Parreira, I.; Madeira, V.M.S.; Alves, R.; Cabrita, A.M.S.; Alpoim, M.C.

    2007-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure is commonly associated with lung cancer. Although other adverse health effects have been reported, some authors, on assuming that orally ingested Cr(VI) is efficiently detoxified upon reduction by body fluids, believe that Cr(VI) do not target cells other than respiratory tract cells. In rodents, ingested Cr(VI)-contaminated water was reported to induce, in the liver, increases in TGF-{beta} transcripts. As TGF-{beta} dependent signaling pathways are closely associated with hepatic injury, the present study was undertaken addressing two specific issues: the effects of ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI) in rat liver structure and function; and the role of the TGF-{beta} pathway in Cr(VI)-induced liver injury. Examination of Wistar rats exposed to 20 ppm Cr(VI)-contaminated water for 10 weeks showed increased serum glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Liver histological examination revealed hepatocellular apoptosis, further confirmed by immunohystochemical study of Caspase 3 expression. Liver gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of Smad2/Smad4 and Dapk, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-{beta} pathway in the apoptotic process. Since no changes in Smad3 expression were observed it appears apoptosis is using a Smad3-independent pathway. Increased expression of both Caspase 8 and Daxx genes suggests also the involvement of the Fas pathway. Gene expression analysis also revealed that a p160{sup ROCK}-Rho-independent pathway operates, leading to cell contraction and membrane blebbing, characteristic apoptotic features. These findings suggest that either the amount of Cr(VI) ingested overwhelmed the body fluids reductive capacity or some Cr(VI) escapes the reductive protection barrier, thus targeting the liver and inducing apoptosis.

  14. Diagnostics method for the rapid quantitative detection and identification of low-level contamination of high-purity water with pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Elizabeth; Reddington, Kate; Dorai-Raj, Siobhan; Tuite, Nina; Clancy, Eoin; Barry, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    High-purity water (HPW) can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, which may result in human infection. Current culture-based techniques for the detection of microorganisms from HPW can be slow and laborious. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the quantitative detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing low-level contamination of HPW. A novel internally controlled multiplex real-time PCR diagnostics assay was designed and optimized to specifically detect and identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Burkholderia genus. Sterile HPW, spiked with a bacterial load ranging from 10 to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, was filtered and the bacterial cells were removed from the filters by sonication. Total genomic DNA was then purified from these bacteria and subjected to testing with the developed novel multiplex real-time PCR diagnostics assay. The specific P. aeruginosa and Burkholderia genus assays have an analytical sensitivity of 3.5 genome equivalents (GE) and 3.7 GE, respectively. This analysis demonstrated that it was possible to detect a spiked bacterial load of 1.06 × 10(2) cfu/100 ml for P. aeruginosa and 2.66 × 10(2) cfu/100 ml for B. cepacia from a 200-ml filtered HPW sample. The rapid diagnostics method described can reliably detect, identify, and quantify low-level contamination of HPW with P. aeruginosa and the Burkholderia genus in <4 h. We propose that this rapid diagnostics method could be applied to the pharmaceutical and clinical sectors to assure the safety and quality of HPW, medical devices, and patient-care equipment.

  15. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-02

    production chain, and the concerning situation of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species. The findings also indicated that Campylobacter isolates from retail broiler meats were associated with fecal contamination in the slaughterhouse, underlying the need for improved measures for reducing carcass contamination in slaughter plants.

  16. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  17. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  18. Physics process level discrimination of detections for GATE: Assessment of contamination in SPECT and spurious activity in PET

    SciTech Connect

    De Beenhouwer, Jan; Staelens, Steven; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Van Holen, Roel; Rault, Erwann; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2009-04-15

    The GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) is one of the most detailed Monte Carlo simulation tools for SPECT and PET. It allows for realistic phantoms, complex decay schemes, and a large variety of detector geometries. However, only a fraction of the information in each particle history is available for postprocessing. In order to extend the analysis capabilities of GATE, a flexible framework was developed. This framework allows all detected events to be subdivided according to their type: In PET, true coincidences from others, and in SPECT, geometrically collimated photons from others. The framework of the authors can be applied to any isotope, phantom, and detector geometry available in GATE. It is designed to enhance the usability of GATE for the study of contamination and for the investigation of the properties of current and future prototype detectors. The authors apply the framework to a case study of Bexxar, first assuming labeling with {sup 124}I, then with {sup 131}I. It is shown that with {sup 124}I PET, results with an optimized window improve upon those with the standard window but achieve less than half of the ideal improvement. Nevertheless, {sup 124}I PET shows improved resolution compared to {sup 131}I SPECT with triple-energy-window scatter correction.

  19. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-02

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  20. Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine at part-per-trillion levels in drinking waters and contaminated groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine is a high, carcinogenic manufacturing by-product of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine a component of rocket fuel. Prior disposal practices resulted in the contamination of groundwater near certain military installations with both species. The current regulatory threshold promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for NDMA in surface waters designated for drinking is 0.7 ng NDMA/L (0.7 pptr)L. Existing procedures for determining NDMA in aqueous samples typically employ dichloromethane extraction followed by concentration to a final volume of 1 mL, and gas chromatographic analysis of a 2 {mu}L aliquot of concentrate using either a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), mass spectrometric detector, or chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND). Such a protocol does not permit detection of NDMA at the desired health-based criterion unless high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detectors are employed. The analytical procedure described in this work employed an initial solid-phase extraction of groundwater samples with a preconditioned Empore C{sub 18} disk, used to remove interfering neutral species including di-isopropylmethane phosphonate (DIMP), prior to continuous overnight extraction.

  1. A Positive View of Peer Acceptance in Aggressive Youth: Risk for Future Peer Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Prasad-Gaur, Archna

    2001-01-01

    Uses longitudinal data to determine whether a positive view of perceived peer acceptance is a risk factor for continued aggression and social rejection for aggressive children. Results indicate that perceived peer acceptance did not predict aggression. However, children who reported higher levels of perceived peer acceptance received lower actual…

  2. Multiple stressors and complex life cycles: insights from a population-level assessment of breeding site contamination and terrestrial habitat loss in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Salice, Christopher J; Rowe, Christopher L; Pechmann, Joseph H K; Hopkins, William A

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the effects of chemical contaminants on natural populations is challenging, as multiple anthropogenic and natural stressors may individually and interactively influence responses. Population models can be used to evaluate the impacts of multiple stressors and to provide insight into population-level effects and/or data gaps. For amphibians with complex life cycles, population models may be useful in understanding impacts of stressors that are unique to the habitat type (aquatic, terrestrial) and that operate at different times in the life cycle. We investigated the population-level effects of aquatic contaminants (coal combustion residues, CCR) and terrestrial habitat loss on the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis, using existing empirical data that demonstrated negative reproductive and developmental effects of CCR and a series of population models that incorporated density dependence and environmental stochasticity. Results of deterministic models indicated that when terrestrial habitat was abundant, CCR-exposed toads had a larger population size compared to the reference population as a result of reduced density-dependent effects on larval survival. However, when stochasticity in the form of catastrophic reproductive failure was included, CCR-exposed toads were more susceptible to decline and extinction compared to toads from the reference populations. The results highlight the complexities involved in assessing the effects of anthropogenic factors on natural populations, especially for species that are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stressors during different periods in the life cycle.

  3. Contaminant levels in Gulf of Mexico reef fish after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as measured by a fishermen-led testing program.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    The BP oil disaster posed a significant threat to the U.S. seafood industry. Invertebrates (shrimp, oyster, crab) and other nearshore species comprised the majority of postspill testing by federal and state agencies. Deeper water finfish were sampled less frequently, despite population ranges that overlapped with affected waters. We report on a voluntary testing program with Gulf of Mexico commercial fishermen to ensure the safety of their catch. Seven species of reef fish were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, several metals, and a constituent of Corexit 9500A and 9527A dispersants. Only two of 92 samples had detectable levels of benzo(a)pyrene-equivalents (a combined measure of carcinogenic potency across 7 different PAHs), which were still below federal safety thresholds. PAH ratios for these samples suggest pyrogenic (not petrogenic) contamination - indicating potential sources other than Deepwater Horizon. Metals were largely absent (cadmium, lead) or consistent with levels previously reported (mercury, arsenic). One notable exception was tilefish, which showed mercury concentrations lower than expected. We did not detect dispersant in any of our samples, indicating that it was not present in these species during the study period. Our findings suggest minimal risk to public health from these seafoods as a result of the disaster; however, the most contaminated areas were not sampled through this program.

  4. Inhibition of hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase by peroxides contaminating parenteral nutrition leads to a lower level of glutathione in newborn Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Elremaly, Wesam; Rouleau, Thérèse; Lavoie, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-15

    Premature newborn infants on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) are at risk of oxidative stress because of peroxides contaminating TPN and low glutathione level. Low cysteine availability limits glutathione synthesis. In this population, the main source of cysteine derives from the hepatic conversion of methionine. The first enzyme of this conversion, methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), contains redox-sensitive cysteinyl residues. We hypothesize that inhibition of MAT by peroxides contaminating TPN leads to a lower availability of cysteine for glutathione synthesis. At 3 days of life, animals were fitted with a jugular catheter for intravenous infusion. Four groups were compared by ANOVA (P<0.05): (1) Control, without surgery, fed regular chow; (2) Sham, fitted with an obstructed catheter, fed orally regular chow; (3) TPN, fed exclusively TPN (dextrose, amino acids, fat, vitamins) containing 350 μM peroxides; (4) H2O2, fed regular chow orally and infused with 350 μM H2O2. Four days later, MAT activity and glutathione in liver and blood were lower in TPN and H2O2 groups. The redox potential was more oxidized in blood and liver of the TPN group. In conclusion, peroxides generated in TPN inhibit methionine adenosyltransferase activity with, among consequences, a low level of glutathione and a more oxidized redox potential.

  5. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  6. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  7. Acceptance and use of eight arsenic-safe drinking water options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  8. Lithium toxicity in a neonate owing to false elevation of blood lithium levels caused by contamination in a lithium heparin container: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Zainab; Athiraman, Naveen K; Clark, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Lithium toxicity in a neonate can occur owing to antenatal exposure as a result of maternal treatment for psychiatric illnesses. False elevation of lithium levels has been reported in the paediatric population when the sample was mistakenly collected in a lithium heparin container. A term, male infant was born to a mother who was on lithium treatment for a psychiatric illness. On day 1, the infant was jittery, had a poor suck with difficulties in establishing feeds. Blood taken from the infant approximately 8 hours after birth demonstrated a lithium level of 4.9 mmol/L (adult toxic level w1.5 mmol/L). However, the sample for lithium levels was sent in a lithium heparin container and the probability of false elevation was considered. He was closely monitored in the neonatal intensive care unit and his hydration was optimised with intravenous fluids. Clinically, he remained well and commenced feeding, and his jitteriness had decreased the following day. A repeat blood lithium level, collected in a gel container, was only 0.4 mmol/L. The initially raised lithium level was owing to contamination from the lithium heparin container.

  9. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  10. Relevance of Bacteroidales and F-specific RNA bacteriophages for efficient fecal contamination tracking at the level of a catchment in France.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, Aourell; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    The relevance of three host-associated Bacteroidales markers (HF183, Rum2Bac, and Pig2Bac) and four F-specific RNA bacteriophage genogroups (FRNAPH I to IV) as microbial source tracking markers was assessed at the level of a catchment (Daoulas, France). They were monitored together with fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and chemophysical parameters (rainfall, temperature, salinity, pH, and turbidity) by monthly sampling over 2 years (n = 240 water samples) and one specific sampling following an accidental pig manure spillage (n = 5 samples). During the 2-year regular monitoring, levels of E. coli, enterococci, total F-specific RNA bacteriophages, and the general Bacteroidales marker AllBac were strongly correlated with one another and with Rum2Bac (r = 0.37 to 0.50, P < 0.0001). Their correlations with HF183 and FRNAPH I and II were lower (r = 0.21 to 0.29, P < 0.001 to P < 0.0001), and HF183 and enterococci were associated rather than correlated (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.01). Rum2Bac and HF183 enabled 73% of water samples that had ≥ 2.7 log(10) most probably number (MPN) of E. coli/100 ml to be classified. FRNAPH I and II enabled 33% of samples at this contamination level to be classified. FRNAPH I and II complemented the water sample classification obtained with the two Bacteroidales markers by an additional 8%. Pig2Bac and FRNAPH III and IV were observed in a small number of samples (n = 0 to 4 of 245). The present study validates Rum2Bac and HF183 as relevant tools to trace fecal contamination originating from ruminant or human waste, respectively, at the level of a whole catchment.

  11. Study to investigate the trace levels of contamination on surfaces when narcotic contraband is concealed in a vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rod; Brittain, Alan H.

    1997-01-01

    When a vehicle is used to transport narcotic contraband material trace levels of that material can be found on surfaces of the vehicle, people associated with the vehicle and surface they contact. The detection of these trace levels can help to target vehicles associated with the smuggling of the contraband. A study to determine the typical levels of narcotic material that can be detected from these surfaces has been performed by personnel from Graseby, using a variety of drug materials. The size and packaging of the drug materials has been prepared to try to reflect that typically found in smuggling operations. These tests show that for all hard drugs easily detectable traces of drug material can be found on the vehicle, the proxy and secondary surfaces handled by the proxy. For detection of cannabis, the condition of the original material had a great bearing ont he reliability of detection.

  12. Is the diagnosis of mass hysteria an excuse for incomplete investigation of low-level environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, H.S.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Mass hysteria is an epidemic diagnostic term used to characterize unexplained outbreaks of syncope among women. A syncope outbreak among women in a meeting in a rural area of Michigan prompted an intense investigation for etiology. Low levels of ozone, carbon monoxide, and pentane were found associated with the outbreak. These levels were too low by themselves to explain the symptoms. A sociometric scale of intensity of illness was devised and found to be highly correlated (r = -0.94) with the weight of those who fainted. It is argued that mass hysteria may be the result of interactions of low levels of toxicants and may not be a result of the hysterical behavior in women at all.

  13. Is the diagnosis of mass hysteria an excuse for incomplete investigation of low-level environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, H.S.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Mass hysteria is an epidemic diagnostic term used to characterize unexplained outbreaks of syncope among women. A syncope outbreak among women in a meeting in a rural area of Michigan prompted an intense investigation to etiology. Low levels of ozone, carbon monoxide, and pentane were found associated with the outbreak. These levels were too low by themselves to explain the symptoms. A sociometric scale of intensity of illness was devised and found to be highly correlated (r = -.094) with the weight of those who fainted. It is argued that mass hysteria may be the result of interactions of low levels of toxicants and may not be a result of the hysterical behavior in women at all.

  14. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act.

  15. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  16. Effects of long-term low-level radiation exposure after the Chernobyl catastrophe on immunoglobulins in children residing in contaminated areas: prospective and cross-sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After the Chernobyl nuclear incident in 1986, children in the Narodichesky region, located 80 km west of the Chernobyl Power Plant, were exposed to 137Cesium (137Cs). Little is known about the effects of chronic low-level radiation on humoral immune responses in children residing in contaminated areas. Methods In four different approaches we investigated the effect of residential 137Cs exposure on immunoglobulins A, G, M, and specific immunoglobulin E in children. In a dynamic cohort (1993–1998) we included 617 children providing 2,407 repeated measurements; 421 and 523 children in two cross-sectional samples (1997–1998 and 2008–2010, respectively); and 25 participants in a small longitudinal cohort (1997–2010). All medical exams, blood collections, and analyses were conducted by the same team. We used mixed linear models to analyze repeated measurements in cohorts and general linear regression models for cross-sectional studies. Results Residential soil contamination in 2008 was highly correlated with the individual body burden of 137Cs. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations increased between 1993 and 1998. Children with higher 137Cs soil exposure had lower serum IgG levels, which, however, increased in the small cohort assessed between 1997 and 2010. Children within the fourth quintile of 137Cs soil exposure (266–310 kBq/m2) had higher IgM serum concentrations between 1993 and 1998 but these declined between 1997 and 2010. IgA remained stable with median 137Cs exposures related to higher IgA levels, which was corroborated in the cross-sectional study of 2008–2010. Specific IgE against indoor allergens was detected less often in children with higher 137Cs exposure. Conclusions Our findings show radiation-related alterations of immunoglobulins which by themselves do not constitute adverse health effects. Further investigations are necessary to understand how these changes affect health status. PMID:24886042

  17. PROJECTING POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE OF PURPLE SEA URCHINS TO LEAD CONTAMINATION FOR AN ESTUARINE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an ecological risk assessment case study at the Portsmouth naval Shipyard (PNS), Kittery, Maine, USA, the population level effects of lead exposure to purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, were investigated using a stage-classified matrix population model. The model d...

  18. Contamination levels of selected organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the Selangor River, Malaysia between 2002 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Leong, Kok Hoong; Tan, L L Benjamin; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2007-01-01

    In Malaysia, rivers are the main source of public water supplies. This study was conducted from 2002 to 2003 to determine the levels of selected organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the Selangor River in Malaysia. Surface water samples have been collected seasonally from nine sites along the river. A liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was used to determine the trace levels of these pesticide residues. The organochlorine pesticides detected were lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endosulfan sulfate, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE whereas for organophosphate pesticides, they were chlorpyrifos and diazinon. At the river upstream where a dam is located for public water supply, incidents of pesticide levels exceeding the European Economic Community Directive of water quality standards have occurred. Furthermore, the wetland ecosystems located at the downstream of the river which houses the fireflies community is being threatened by occasional pesticide levels above EPA limits for freshwater aquatic organisms. The occurrence of these residual pesticides in the Selangor River can be attributed to the intense agriculture and urban activity.

  19. Capillary thermal desorption unit for near real-time analysis of VOCs at sub-trace levels. Application to the analysis of environmental air contamination and breath samples.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mónica; Castellanos, Mar; Martín, José; Sanchez, Juan M

    2009-05-15

    A capillary microtrap thermal desorption module is developed for near real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sub-ppbv levels in air samples. The device allows the direct injection of the thermally desorbed VOCs into a chromatographic column. It does not use a second cryotrap to focalize the adsorbed compounds before entering the separation column so reducing the formation of artifacts. The connection of the microtrap to a GC-MS allows the quantitative determination of VOCs in less than 40 min with detection limits of between 5 and 10 pptv (25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg), which correspond to 19-43 ng m(-3), using sampling volumes of 775 cm(3). The microtrap is applied to the analysis of environmental air contamination in different laboratories of our faculty. The results obtained indicate that most volatile compounds are easily diffused through the air and that they also may contaminate the surrounding areas when the habitual safety precautions (e.g., working under fume hoods) are used during the manipulation of solvents. The application of the microtrap to the analysis of VOCs in breath samples suggest that 2,5-dimethylfuran may be a strong indicator of a person's smoking status.

  20. Impact of dredged urban river sediment on a Saronikos Gulf dumping site (Eastern Mediterranean): sediment toxicity, contaminant levels, and biomarkers in caged mussels.

    PubMed

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kapsimalis, Vasilios

    2014-05-01

    Impacts of chemical contaminants associated with dumping of dredged urban river sediments at a coastal disposal area in Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean) were investigated through a combined approach of sediment toxicity testing and active biomonitoring with caged mussels. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Cu, and Zn in combination with the solid phase Microtox® test were performed on sediments. Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, Cu, and Zn as well as multiple biomarkers of contaminant exposure and/or effects were measured in caged mussels. Sediments in the disposal and neighboring area showed elevated PAHs and AHs concentrations and were characterized as toxic by the solid-phase Microtox® test during and after dumping operations. Biomarker results in the caged mussels indicated sublethal effects mainly during dumping operations, concomitantly with high concentrations of PAHs and AHs in the caged mussel tissues. Cu and Zn concentrations in sediments and caged mussels were generally not elevated except for sediments at the site in the disposal area that received the major amount of dredges. High PAHs and AHs levels as well as sublethal effects in the caged mussels were not persistent after termination of operations. The combined bioassay-biomarker approach proved useful for detecting toxicological impacts of dredged river sediment disposal in sediments and the water column. Nevertheless, further research is needed to evaluate whether sediment toxicity will have long-term effects on benthic communities of the disposal area.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  2. Molecular Contamination Investigation Facility (MCIF) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soules, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This facility was used to guide the development of ASTM E 1559 center dot Multiple Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCMs), large sample and spectral effects capability center dot Several instrumented, high vacuum chamber systems are used to evaluate the molecular outgassing characteristics of materials, flight components and other sensitive surfaces. Test materials for spacecraft/instrument selection center.Test flight components for acceptable molecular outgas levels center dot Determine time/temperature vacuum bake-out requirements center. Data used to set limits for use of materials and specific components center. Provide Input Data to Contamination Transport Models -Applied to numerous flight projects over the past 20 years.

  3. Associations between vitamins A and E and legacy POP levels in highly contaminated Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus).

    PubMed

    Molde, Kristine; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Fisk, Aaron T; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Sørmo, Eugen G; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2013-01-01

    The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is a top predator in Arctic marine ecosystems, and the species bioaccumulates high levels of biomagnifying persistent organic pollutants (POP). In teleost fish, as well as in marine mammals and seabirds, legacy POP have been shown to interfere with the vitamin A and vitamin E homeostasis. Thus, there is the potential for negative health effects from these legacy compounds in Greenland sharks. In the present study we examined associations among plasma levels of legacy POP and plasma vitamin A (retinol [RET], retinyl palmitate [RPA]) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol [α-TOC]) in Greenland sharks from Svalbard, Norway. Plasma levels of POP were on average higher than the hepatic levels previously reported in Greenland sharks from Iceland and Davis Strait, Canada. Levels were also higher than the plasma levels reported in Arctic marine mammals. DDTs (mean 8,069 ng/g l.w., range: 900-59,707 ng/g l.w.), PCBs (mean 5,766 ng/g l.w., range 1344-16,106 ng/g l.w.) and chlordanes (mean 1,551 ng/g l.w., range: 323-5,756 ng/g l.w.) had the highest concentrations among the POP groups studied. There were significant inverse relationships between RET concentrations and the concentrations of the dioxin-like compounds PCB-118 and PCB-156/171, and the non-dioxin-like compounds PCB-99 and PCB-128. There were also significant inverse relationships between RPA and 18 of the 38 POP compounds measured. Furthermore, there were significant positive associations between α-TOC and 13 of the 27 PCB congeners. The study suggests that these vitamin systems can be affected by the relatively high POP concentrations exhibited by Greenland sharks at Svalbard. However, the present study is correlative and thus the potential interplay between POP and vitamin dynamics of Greenland sharks must be interpreted cautiously, pending further research on this issue among elasmobranchs.

  4. Contamination control and cleanliness level integrity for the Space Shuttle Orbiter PLB, payloads and facilities at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, D.

    1984-01-01

    The PLB, its cargo, and payload canister must satisfy the cleanliness requirements of visual clean (VC) level 1, 2, 3, or special as stated in NASA document SN-C-0005A. The specific level of cleanliness is chosen by the payload bay customer for their mission. During orbiter turnaround processing at KSC, the payload bay is exposed to the environments of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and the Payload Changeout Room (PCR). In supportive response to the orbiter payload bay/facility interface, it is necessary that the facility environment be controlled and monitored to protect the cleanliness/environmental integrity of the payload bay and its cargo. Techniques used to meet environmental requirements during orbiter processing are introduced.

  5. SERDP CU-1129 Biological Assessment for Characterizing Contamination Risk at the Genetic-, Individual-, and Population-Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-14

    Leptocheirus survival and reproduction curves during exposure to BRH. 111 Figure 5.b.1.B. Contributions to the change in lambda by age-specific survival...growth, and reproduction and cellular-level effects on apoptosis (programmed cell death) were evaluated. Because cyclonitramines have low affinity... Reproduction , measured only with L. plumulosus, was significantly decreased only in the highest RDX treatment and also in the lower TNB treatment. However

  6. Bioconcentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides in algae is an important contaminant route to higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y; Qiu, Hanlin; Yu, Kefu; Cai, Shuqun

    2017-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) present in water may be bioconcentrated in phytoplankton and further transferred into higher trophic levels. In the present study, seawater, sediment, phytoplankton and macroalgae (Ulva lactuca L.) samples were collected from two estuarine bays in South China and analyzed for 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations of PBDE congeners except BDE-209 were low in both phytoplankton and Ulva. BDE-209 was the predominant congener in phytoplankton and Ulva, accounting for 89.5% and 86.6% of the total average concentrations of PBDEs (48.5 and 4.1ngg(-1)dw), respectively. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and 1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDMU) in phytoplankton were 398, 241 and 11.3ngg(-1)dw, respectively, while those of DDTs and HCHs in Ulva were 8.4 and 33.1ngg(-1)dw. The levels of both PBDEs and OCPs were an order of magnitude higher in phytoplankton than in Ulva, indicating that phytoplankton with larger surface areas have higher uptake efficiency for POPs than Ulva. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of DDT and PBDE in phytoplankton from the two bays were in the range of 10(5)-10(6), suggesting that bioconcentration may be one of the key sources of POPs and algae can be an important route for POPs to move toward higher trophic levels.

  7. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  8. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed.

  9. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Elbin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed. PMID:25471353

  10. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  11. Contaminant hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeology is a rapidly evolving field in which new approaches and tools are being applied to solve problems. This new book fills an important niche. Fetter focuses primarily on chemical processes in the subsurface, avoiding duplication of materials that are covered in other, more classical texts. This book is an excellent follow-up to his earlier text, Applied Hydrogeology, and reviews only briefly the foundational concepts covered in the earlier textbook. Contaminant Hydrogeology is written at the graduate student level and assumes prerequisite courses in physics, chemistry, and hydrogeology. For the most part, each of the nine chapters covers a major area of concern common to applied contaminant studies. A thorough, theoretical treatment of solute transport through the vadose zone is presented, and a sample problem and a case study add unusually high value to this discussion of a topic that generally is not well understood in the practice. Topics covered include the Buckingham Flux Law, the Richards Equation, vapor-phase transport, equilibrium and nonequilibrium models of mass transport, and preferential flow paths. Nonaqueous-phase liquid migrations under both saturated and unsaturated conditions is covered for horizontal as well as vertical migration. Both light and dense nonaqueous phase liquids are presented, and Darcy's Law for two-phase flow is introduced. The strength of Contaminant Hydrogeology lies in the author's ability to translate concepts through practical experience. This book links the theoretical to the practical through example problems and case histories. It should be considered for use in graduate classes and would be a valuable reference in the library of any practicing hydrogeologist.

  12. School Bus Safety: An Acceptable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Any district board of education considering seat belt installation on large school buses should examine all the research available prior to making a final decision. New Jersey's Guide for Analyzing a Pupil Transportation Program is provided. (MLF)

  13. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  14. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  15. [The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of microscopic mycelial fungi isolated from habitats with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Aslanidi, K B; Karpenko, Iu V; Belozerskaia, T A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide ( 10(-9)-10(-1) M) on the mycelial growth of the fungi Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Mucor hiemalis, and Paecilomyces lilacinus has been studied. The growth of fungi isolated from habitats with a background level of radioactive contamination was stopped by H2O2 concentrations equal to 10(-3) and 10(-2) M, whereas the growth of fungi that were isolated from habitats with high levels of radioactive contamination was only arrested by 10(-1) M H2O2. The response of the different fungi to hydrogen peroxide was of three types: (1) a constant growth rate of fungal hyphae at H2O2 concentrations between 10(-9) and 10(-4) M and a decrease in this rate at 10(-3) M H2O2, (2) a gradual decrease in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased, and (3) an increase in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased from 10(-7) to 10(2)-5 M. The melanin-containing species A. alternata and C. cladosporioides exhibited all three types of growth response to hydrogen peroxide, whereas the light-pigmented species M. hiemalis and P. lilacinus showed only the first type of growth response. A concentration of hydrogen peroxide equal to 10(-1) M was found to be lethal to all of the fungi studied. The most resistant to hydrogen peroxide was found to be the strain A. alternata 56, isolated from the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  16. Contamination levels of mercury in the muscle of female and male spiny dogfishes (Squalus acanthias) caught off the coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Kotaki, Yuichi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed the total mercury (T-Hg) and stable isotopes of (13)C and (15)N in the muscle of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) caught off the coast of Japan. The average body length of the female spiny dogfish sampled (94.9+/-20.2 cm, 50.5-131.0 cm, n=40) was significantly larger than that of the males sampled (77.8+/-10.8 cm, 55.5-94.0 cm, n=35), although the ages of the samples were unknown. The T-Hg concentration in the muscle samples rapidly increased after maturity in the females (larger than about 120 cm) and males (larger than about 90 cm), followed by a continued gradual increase. Contamination level of T-Hg in female muscle samples (0.387+/-0.378 microg(wet g)(-1), n=40) was slightly higher than that in male muscle samples (0.316+/-0.202 microg(wet g)(-1), n=35), probably due to the greater longevity of females. In contrast, the contamination level of T-Hg in females smaller than 94.0 cm in length (0.204+/-0.098 microg(wet g)(-1), n=20) was slightly lower than that in the males, probably due to the faster growth rate of females. Although the partial differential(13)C and partial differential(15)N values in the muscle samples increased with an increase in body length, there were no significant differences between the females (-17.2+/-0.4 per thousand and 12.4+/-0.9 per thousand, respectively) and males (-17.3+/-0.4 per thousand and 12.4+/-0.8 per thousand, respectively). A positive correlation was found between partial differential(13)C and partial differential(15)N values, suggesting trophic enrichment due to the growth.

  17. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  18. Organic contaminants in mountains.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

    2005-01-15

    the upper trophic levels of alpine food chains, on measuring more water-soluble, persistent organic contaminants, and on studying how climate change may affect contaminant dynamics in mountain settings.

  19. The drinking water contamination crisis in Flint: Modeling temporal trends of lead level since returning to Detroit water system.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water close to 25,000 water samples have been collected and tested for lead and copper in >10,000 residences. This paper presents the first analysis and time trend modeling of lead data, providing new insights about the impact of this intervention. The analysis started with geocoding all water lead levels (WLL) measured during an 11-month period following the return to the Detroit water supply. Each data was allocated to the corresponding tax parcel unit and linked to secondary datasets, such as the composition of service lines, year built, or census tract poverty level. Only data collected on residential parcels within the City limits were used in the analysis. One key feature of Flint data is their collection through two different sampling initiatives: (i) voluntary or homeowner-driven sampling whereby concerned citizens decided to acquire a testing kit and conduct sampling on their own (non-sentinel sites), and (ii) State-controlled sampling where data were collected bi-weekly at selected sites after training of residents by technical teams (sentinel sites). Temporal trends modeled from these two datasets were found to be statistically different with fewer sentinel data exceeding WLL thresholds ranging from 10 to 50μg/L. Even after adjusting for housing characteristics the odds ratio (OR) of measuring WLL above 15μg/L at non-sentinel sites is significantly >1 (OR=1.480) and it increases with the threshold (OR=2.055 for 50μg/L). Joinpoint regression showed that the city-wide percentage of WLL data above 15μg/L displayed four successive trends since the return to Detroit Water System. Despite the recent improvement in water quality, the culprit for differences between sampling programs needs to be identified as it impacts exposure assessment and might influence whether there is compliance or not with the Lead and Copper Rule.

  20. Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.