Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable disposal method

  1. Environmentally Acceptable Disposal of Munition and Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    and fireworks Fireworks Contaminated waste Fuses Small calibre munition Medium calibre munitioi Large calibre munition Bombs/mines Rockets...of Azidcs by trcatment with NaNO2 . However the method is difficult to apply to organic explosives; it caues an explosion risk and, at the end, we...by pipes and injcctut in the bcd. This type of furnace is used to dispose of domestic waste . The advantages are: flexibility and low cost

  2. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  3. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Disposable sludge dewatering container and method

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Clifford M.

    1993-01-01

    A device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

  5. Method of Disposing of Corrosive Gases

    DOEpatents

    Burford, W.B. III; Anderson, H.C.

    1950-07-11

    Waste gas containing elemental fluorine is disposed of in the disclosed method by introducing the gas near the top of a vertical chamber under a downward spray of caustic soda solution which contains a small amount of sodium sulfide.

  6. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  7. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  8. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  9. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products,...

  10. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  11. The Morsleben repository -- Waste acceptance requirements and radioactive wastes to be disposed of

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, W.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.

    1995-12-31

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is intended to dispose of all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Morsleben repository is used for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste mainly containing radionuclides with short half lives. This facility constructed and operated in the days of the former GDR is operated by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. New safety assessments have been performed with regard to further operation since 1990. The safety assessment concerning normal operation and assumed incidents, radiological long-term safety and nuclear critically safety, was based on a broader data base and more realistic scenarios and models compared to previous safety assessments. Consequently, the existing waste acceptance requirements being a part of the operation license were specified in detail. On the basis of the effective waste acceptance requirements about 15,800 m{sup 3} radioactive wastes have been emplaced in the Morsleben repository corresponding to a total activity of 6.5 {times} 10{sup 14}Bq. During the validity of the existing license for continuous operation up to June 2000 it is planned to dispose of 40,000 m{sup 3} radioactive waste.

  12. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Methods of disposal. 644.503 Section 644.503 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  13. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  14. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  15. Acceptance criteria for method equivalency assessments.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Marion J; Borman, Phil J

    2009-12-15

    Quality by design (ICH-Topic Q8) requires that process control strategy requirements are met and maintained. The challenging task of setting appropriate acceptance criteria for assessment of method equivalence is a critical component of satisfying these requirements. The use of these criteria will support changes made to methods across the product lifecycle. A method equivalence assessment is required when a change is made to a method which may pose a risk to its ability to monitor the quality of the process. Establishing appropriate acceptance criteria are a vital, but not clearly understood, prerequisite to deciding the appropriate design/sample size of the equivalency study. A number of approaches are proposed in the literature for setting acceptance criteria for equivalence which address different purposes. This perspective discusses those purposes and then provides more details on setting acceptance criteria based on patient and producer risk, e.g., tolerance interval approach and the consideration of method or process capability. Applying these to a drug substance assay method for batch release illustrates that, for the equivalence assessment to be meaningful, a clear understanding and appraisal of the control requirements of the method is needed. Rather than a single exact algorithm, the analyst's judgment on a number of aspects is required in deciding the appropriate acceptance criteria.

  16. 41 CFR 109-45.5104-2 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.51-Disposal of Excess and Surplus Personal Property in Foreign Areas § 109-45.5104-2 Methods of disposal. (a) Sales of foreign surplus... foreign areas without a condition which states that its importation into the United States is...

  17. 41 CFR 109-45.5104-2 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.51-Disposal of Excess and Surplus Personal Property in Foreign Areas § 109-45.5104-2 Methods of disposal. (a) Sales of foreign surplus... foreign areas without a condition which states that its importation into the United States is...

  18. 41 CFR 109-45.5104-2 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.51-Disposal of Excess and Surplus Personal Property in Foreign Areas § 109-45.5104-2 Methods of disposal. (a) Sales of foreign surplus... foreign areas without a condition which states that its importation into the United States is...

  19. 41 CFR 109-45.5104-2 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.51-Disposal of Excess and Surplus Personal Property in Foreign Areas § 109-45.5104-2 Methods of disposal. (a) Sales of foreign surplus... foreign areas without a condition which states that its importation into the United States is...

  20. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  1. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, C.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus is described, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials. 3 figs.

  2. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  3. Reversing nuclear opposition: evolving public acceptance of a permanent nuclear waste disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Nowlin, Matthew C; deLozier, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear facilities have long been seen as the top of the list of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), with nuclear waste repositories generating the greatest opposition. Focusing on the case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, we test competing hypotheses concerning the sources of opposition and support for siting the facility, including demographics, proximity, political ideology, and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance of WIPP over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning an 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those whose residences are closest to the WIPP facility. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval, and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to gaining public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself.

  4. FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

    2003-02-27

    Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

  5. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold; Elliott, Robert 'Dan'; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  6. Environmentally Compliant Disposal Method for Heavy Metal Containing Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, M. W.; Erickson, E. D.; Byrd, E. R.; Crispin, K. W. R.; Ferguson, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT An environmentally friendly, cost effective technology has been developed and demonstrated by a team of Naval Air Warfare Center and Lockheed Martin personnel to dispose of Shillelagh solid rocket motor propellants. The Shillelagh is a surface to surface anti-tank weapon approaching the end of its service life. The current demilitarization process employs open detonation, but the presence of lead stearate in the N5 propellant grain motivated the need for the development of an environmentally friendly disposal method. Contained burning of the propellant followed by propellant exhaust processing was chosen as the disposal methodology. The developmental test bed, completed in February 1998, is inexpensive and transportable. Contained burning of Shillelagh propellants posed two technical hurdles: 1) removal of the sub micron lead and cadmium particulate generated during combustion, and 2) secondary combustion of the significant quantifies of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. A firing chamber with a stepped nozzle, air injection, and active ignition was developed to combust the carbon monoxide and hydrogen in real time. The hot gases and particulates from the combustion process are completely contained within a gas holder. The gases are subsequently cooled and routed through a treatment facility to remove the heavy metal particulate. Results indicate that the lead and cadmium particulates are removed below their respective detection limits (2 micro-g/cu m & 0.2 micro-g/cu m) of the analytical procedures employed and that the carbon monoxide and hydrogen levels have been reduced well below the lower flammability limits. Organic concentrations, principally benzene, are I ppm or less. A semi-automated machine has been developed which can rapidly prepare Shillelagh missiles for the contained burn facility. This machine allows the contained burn technology to be more competitive with current open bum open detonation disposal rates.

  7. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  8. 32 CFR 644.473 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644... a denominational house of worship. (4) Owner of the underlying land as a part of restoration... specific purpose. (e) By donation, abandonment or destruction....

  9. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. 20.2002 Section 20.2002 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. 20.2002 Section 20.2002 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A...

  11. 32 CFR 644.474 - Determining method of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 644.474 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related... action may result in a greater burden to transferee agencies or, in the case of disposal by sale...

  12. 32 CFR 644.474 - Determining method of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 644.474 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related... action may result in a greater burden to transferee agencies or, in the case of disposal by sale...

  13. Application of integrated methods in mapping waste disposal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Kouli, Maria; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sarris, Apostolos; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

    2007-11-01

    An integrated suite of environmental methods was used to characterize the hydrogeological, geological and tectonic regime of the largest waste disposal landfill of Crete Island, the Fodele municipal solid waste site (MSW), to determine the geometry of the landfill (depth and spatial extent of electrically conductive anomalies), to define the anisotropy caused by bedrock fabric fractures and to locate potential zones of electrically conductive contamination. A combination of geophysical methods and chemical analysis was implemented for the characterization and management of the landfill. Five different types of geophysical surveys were performed: (1) 2D electrical resistance tomography (ERT), (2) electromagnetic measurements using very low frequencies (VLF), (3) electromagnetic conductivity (EM31), (4) seismic refraction measurements (SR), and (5) ambient noise measurements (HVSR). The above geophysical methods were used with the aim of studying the subsurface properties of the landfill and to define the exact geometrical characteristics of the site under investigation.

  14. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  15. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee... licensee's activities. Each application shall include: (a) A description of the waste containing licensed material to be disposed of, including the physical and chemical properties important to risk...

  16. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee... licensee's activities. Each application shall include: (a) A description of the waste containing licensed material to be disposed of, including the physical and chemical properties important to risk...

  17. [Validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods for toxicity evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    For regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (AMs) to animal toxicity tests, their reproducibility and relevance should be determined by intra- and inter-laboratory validation. Appropriate procedures of the validation and regulatory acceptance of AMs were recommended by OECD in 1996. According to those principles, several in vitro methods like skin corrosivity tests and phototoxicity tests were evaluated and accepted by ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), ICCVAM (The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD. Because of the difficulties in conducting inter-laboratory validation and relatively short period remained until EU's ban of animal experiments for safety evaluation of cosmetics, ECVAM and ICCVAM have recently started cooperation in validation and evaluation of AMs. It is also necessary to establish JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of AM) to contribute the issue and for the evaluation of new toxicity tests originated in Japan.

  18. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  19. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  20. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  1. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  2. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal: A New IAEA Collaborative Research Program - 12443

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, A.J.; Drace, Z.

    2012-07-01

    World-wide, more than 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite have arisen through commercial nuclear-power operations and from military production reactors. Whilst most nations responsible for the generation of this material have in mind repository disposal alongside other radwaste, the lack of progress in this regard has led in some cases to difficulties where, for example, the site of an existing graphite-moderated reactor is required for re-utilisation. In any case, graphite as a radwaste stream has unique chemical and physical properties which may lend itself to more radical and innovative treatment and disposal options, including the recovery of useful isotopes and also recycling within the nuclear industry. Such aspects are important in making the case for future graphite-moderated reactor options (for example, High-Temperature Reactors planned for simultaneous power production and high-grade heat sources for such applications as hydrogen production for road fuel). A number of initiatives have taken place since the mid 1990s aimed at exploring such alternative strategies and, more recently, improving technology offers new options at all stages of the dismantling and disposal process. A new IAEA Collaborative Research Program aims to build upon the work already done and the knowledge achieved, in order to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with alternative options for graphite disposal, along with cost comparisons, thus enabling individual Member States to have the best-available information at their disposal to configure their own programs. (authors)

  3. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  4. Comparative assessment of municipal wastewater disposal methods in southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Bloetscher, Frederick; Englehardt, James D; Chin, David A; Rose, Joan B; Tchobanoglous, George; Amy, Vincent P; Gokgoz, Sinem

    2005-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the risks of three effluent disposal alternatives currently available to wastewater utilities in Southeast Florida is presented in this paper. The alternatives are: deep well injection and ocean outfalls following secondary treatment, and surface water (canal) discharges following secondary wastewater treatment, filtration and nutrient removal. Water quality data, relative to disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent were gathered, along with water quality data on the receiving waters, from utilities. Comparisons and conclusions regarding potential health concerns associated with the three disposal alternatives are presented. The results indicated that health risks associated with deep wells were generally lower than those of the other two alternatives. The proximity of injection wells to aquifer storage and recovery wells was a determining factor relative to injection well risk. Urban ecological risks were also indicated to be lower, though impacts of urban water use/reuse to the Everglades were not studied. Additional data collection and analysis were recommended to understand the effects of wastewater management on the cycling of water, nutrients and other constituents on southeast Florida. In particular, it was recommended that monitoring of effluents for nitrosamines and pharmaceutically active substances be implemented on a broad scale.

  5. Technical Methods of Evaluation of Near-surface Disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, R.; Teng, Y.; Wang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Radioactive waste disposal is one of the most difficult world's environmental problems for control and solving, it is as a hotspot in the field of pollution control and remediation. For the economical and efficient disposal, very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) is separated from low and intermediate level waste, and bulky VLLW could be disposed in the disposal site without the special engineering barrier. The approach is not only significant savings in disposal costs, but meeting the public on the environment. Therefore, it is very important for disposal and management of radioactive waste. In this paper, as the studied object of the VLLW disposal site in the southwestern China, a systemic analysis in the relational technology was developed, and as the key technology, the barrier and technical methods of evaluation was researched with emphasis. The disposal site was on a hilltop of debris flow, and the repository with barrier was selected, 90Sr were selected as the typical nuclides, and the releasing concentration was calculated by the given model. The fine particle (d<1mm) was used as barrier material of the repository with the thickness of 0.5m. The sorption and migration characteristics were measured by batch and column tests, and the results reflected the material has a good sorption capacity on 90Sr. From the results of simulation, the nuclide of 90Sr was almost basically retarded in the unsaturated zone.

  6. Don't Flush! Why Your Drug Disposal Method Matters ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    April 30th is the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s National Drug Take-Back Day. All over the country there will be facilities accepting any unwanted or expired medications from 10:00 AM – 2:00 PM – it is the perfect opportunity to clean out your medicine cabinet while simultaneously helping to protect aquatic animals and their environment from chemical exposure!Have you ever participated in a drug take-back program? If not, what do you typically do with leftover medications after you defeat a bacterial infection or find an old bottle of Tylenol? Many people may flush unwanted or expired pharmaceuticals down the toilet or throw them in the trash, but those methods can actually harm our environment.When flushed or thrown-out, these drugs end up in our coastal ecosystems; and all the chemicals in those little pills that were once working together to make us feel better, are now dissolving in our waterways where they can negatively impact aquatic animals.Scientists throughout EPA continue to evaluate the potential toxicity of different drugs in order to determine what specific effects they have on aquatic wildlife, and to develop new ways to detect if an organism has been exposed to those drugs.I recently spoke with Bushra Khan (NRC post-doc) and Theresa Johnson (ORISE fellow) of the EPA’s Atlantic Ecology Division to learn about some of the specific effects they have observed in their research. Bushra talked to me about the effects beta blockers, m

  7. Don’t Flush! Why Your Drug Disposal Method Matters

    EPA Science Inventory

    April 30th is the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s National Drug Take-Back Day. All over the country there will be facilities accepting any unwanted or expired medications from 10:00 AM – 2:00 PM – it is the perfect opportunity to clean out your medicine cabinet while simu...

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p < 0.001) or mail (p < 0.001). Costs were highest for the phone, followed by mail and web methods (p < 0.001). No significant differences in participant time (i.e. burden) across the three data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  9. Radiological Surveys Performed in Support of the Demolition and Bulk Disposal Decommissioning Method

    SciTech Connect

    Yetter, R.F.; Newson, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company is decommissioning the Haddam Neck Plant using the 'Demolition and Bulk Disposal' method, or commonly referred to as 'Rip and Ship'. In general, completing the project using this method entails the removal of all irradiated fuel and highly contaminated systems and components, and the subsequent demolition of the above ground portions of most site structures. Since most structures are removed from site, cost and time savings are realized by virtually eliminating the need for remediation. However, this method of decommissioning creates more waste, both radiological and non-radiological, which must be segregated, packaged and disposed of properly. Prior to demolition, various types of radiological surveys must be performed and work controls put into place to minimize the spread of contamination to other areas of the site, and to prevent the inadvertent release of radioactive materials from the site. This paper will discuss the various types of radiological surveys performed, and controls implemented, in support of the demolition and bulk material disposal decommissioning method, with the emphasis on pre-demolition surveys. Details will be provided on the release criteria, survey design, survey implementation and data analysis on each of the various surveys, as well as a discussion on the controls implemented to prevent the various wastes from inadvertently being shipped to an inappropriate disposal facility. This paper will also strive to provide lessons learned for future projects that utilize the demolition and bulk disposal decommissioning method. (authors)

  10. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  11. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  12. An Improved Colonoscopy Preparation Method and its Acceptability by Patients

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The author presents an improved method of preparation for colonoscopy that involved no dietary limitation on the patient until the day of the examination and that was shown by a randomized questionnaire evaluation to earn good patient tolerance and acceptance. Patients were given 10 mg of cisapride and 75 mg of sodium picosulfate before sleep on the day preceding the examination, and 50 g of magnesium citrate powder (MP) in 1,200 mL lukewarm water before the examination. It was divided into 600-mL portions and ingested slowly during two 30-minute periods. Ninety-five percent of patients classified the taste of a magnesium citrate powder laxative as palatable in the questionnaire given immediately after the procedure. Concerning the quantity, 79.4% replied that it was tolerable, 17.3% considered it somewhat excessive, and 3.3% replied that it was barely tolerable. No patient classified it as intolerable. Symptoms after taking laxatives and lukewarm water such as abdominal pain, nausea and abdominal fullness were observed in 3.8%, 4.4% and 5.6%, respectively, whereas there were no symptoms in 79% of patients. Body weight and serum K level showed a tendency to decrease, whereas the serum Mg level showed an increase before and after colonoscopy. The quality of colonic cleansing evaluated by colonoscopy was excellent, good, or fair in a total of 93.3%. No adverse effects were observed. It was concluded that this method is a clinically beneficial and well-tolerated preparation for colonic examinations. PMID:18493356

  13. Effects of ascent trajectory mode and tank disposal method on shuttle payload accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Heuser, W. W.; Redus, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of external tank disposal by retrorocket versus passive tank drop, and targeting the main engine burn for high apogee versus the baseline parking orbit ascent method on shuttle payload accommodation capability were investigated. Missions launched from Eastern Test Range were investigated over a range of orbit altitudes to determine tank disposal requirements including footprint dispersions and alternate impact locations, performance, and orbital maneuvering system requirements. Passive tank drop also proved to be advantageous from a payload accommodation standpoint. Direct insertion was shown to be a means of accommodating long payloads at higher altitudes than permitted by the baseline ascent method.

  14. A method for permanent disposal of CO{sub 2} in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-02-04

    We describe a method for binding the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, and with minimal environment impact. The technique is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Initial estimates indicate that binding and disposal would impose a burden of approximately 3{cents}/kWH onto the cost of electricity. This cost could be reduced significantly in the short term by entering niche markets for various technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation. In this paper, we describe some of the kinetic limitations and opportunities. The proposed disposal technique may be viewed as a sort of insurance policy in case global warming, or the perception of global warming causes severe restrictions on CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  16. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  17. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good

  18. Qualitative methods to ensure acceptability of behavioral and social interventions to the target population

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958

  19. Methods to enhance compost practices as an alternative to waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckey, H.T.; Hudak, P.F.

    1998-12-31

    Creating practices that are ecologically friendly, economically profitable, and ethically sound is a concept that is slowly beginning to unfold in modern society. In developing such practices, the authors challenge long-lived human behavior patterns and environmental management practices. In this paper, they trace the history of human waste production, describe problems associated with such waste, and explore regional coping mechanisms. Composting projects in north central Texas demonstrate new methods for waste disposal. The authors studied projects conducted by municipalities, schools, agricultural organizations, and individual households. These efforts were examined within the context of regional and statewide solid waste plans. They conclude that: (1) regional composting in north central Texas will substantially reduce the waste stream entering landfills; (2) public education is paramount to establishing alternative waste disposal practices; and (3) new practices for compost will catalyze widespread and efficient production.

  20. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty’s 1–9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1–0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness. PMID:27618082

  1. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W

    2016-09-09

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty's 1-9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1-0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  2. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out...

  3. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out...

  4. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Affiliate Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The...

  5. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  6. Hydraulic fracturing: A proven N.O.R.M. disposal method

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.C.; Chambers, D.G.; Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1995-10-01

    Since the discovery that many drill cuttings, scales, sludges, and platings contain elevated amounts of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), many companies and regulating authorities have discussed the merits of various disposal methods. This paper covers a process that disposes of NORM and provides isolation of the material from the environment. Disposal of NORM slurry through fracturing an existing depleted sandstone requires careful analysis to optimize a safe and effective design. A radioactivity assay was performed on the NORM before and after slurrification to determine activity concentrations. Tests were conducted on the NORM to proved parameters for the fracture design. The process consists of slurrying the material and keeping the particles suspended in solution until time for well injection. Well injection takes the form of hydraulic fracturing with the material into a deplete zone in the reservoir. Fracturing with the NORM was preceded with a Mini-Frac as a safety precaution to confirm downhole parameters. In conclusion, the philosophy of the process is to take the NORM generated through the exploration and production of oil and gas and place it back into the reservoir from which it came through hydraulic fracturing. This technique is one that helps protect the environment from the possible hazards associated with mismanaged NORM.

  7. Future trends which will influence waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, A

    1978-01-01

    The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

  8. Methods of Predicting User Acceptance of Voice Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-15

    speech test signal in terms of a set of ordered categories. Typical category labels are "Unsatisfactory," "Poor," "Fair," "Good," and "Excellent...extreme categories in order to "anchor" his subjective scale; still others present the subject with either all, or a representative sample, of the test...signals in order to orient him to the relevant range of qualities 9 The absolute preference methods are often charac- terized by low reliability

  9. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Wu, Jing; Li, Ping

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way.

  10. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    SciTech Connect

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G.; Chau, T.

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  11. A study on the acceptability of male fertility regulating methods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn K-c; Kim O-k

    1978-11-01

    In order to assess the acceptability of existing and potential male fertility regulating methods in Korea, a total of 353 male respondents were interviewed from 3 sampling areas: 99 cases from urban middle socioeconomic status, 104 cases from urban low socioeconomic status, and 150 cases from the rural area. Respondents from each area differed in terms of educational attainment and socioeconomic status. Respondents from each area have about the same level of knowledge of contraceptive methods, but their behaviors differ considerably. The rate of currently practicing contraception was highest among rural samples and lowest among urban low socioeconomic groups. The relative acceptability of 2 existing (condom and vasectomy) and 2 potential (daily pill and monthly injection) male fertility regulating methods was assessed using several measures of acceptability. Whatever measure used, the most consistent finding among sampling groups was that vasectomy is the least acceptable method. Vasectomy is least preferred among potential users, and this finding suggests that the current target system on vasectomy in the national family planning program should be reconsidered. For all measures of acceptability potential methods were more preferred than either condom or vasectomy for the rural and urban low socioeconomic status samples. With regard to the potential male methods, methods with longer duration of action are preferred to methods with a shorter duration. Urban-rural residence was found to be significantly related to the acceptability of condom and vasectomy; urban residents liked condom and vasectomy more than rural residents. Age of respondents was not significantly related to the attitudes toward using each male method but significantly related to the behavioral intention to use each male method. The education level is not significantly related to the acceptability of condom but related to the acceptability of other male fertility regulating methods. More than 1/2 of

  12. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  13. Public acceptance of management methods under different human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    PubMed

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Georgari, Marina; Baltzi, Kerasia; Baltzi, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease. Univariate GLMs determined occupation, hunting membership and their interaction as the stronger predictors of public acceptance, generating 4 stakeholder groups: the general public, farmers, hunters, and farmers-hunters. Differences in acceptance and consensus among stakeholder groups were assessed using the Potential for Conflict Index2 (PCI2). All 4 stakeholder groups agreed that doing nothing was unacceptable and non-lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios, with generally high consensus within and between groups. The lethal control method was more controversial and became increasingly more acceptable as the severity of scenarios was increased and between non-native and native species. Lethal control was unacceptable for the general public in all scenarios. Farmers accepted lethal methods in the corvids and starlings scenarios, were neutral in the coypus damage crops scenario, whereas they accepted lethal control when coypus transfer disease. Hunters' opinion was neutral in the corvids, starlings and coypus damage crops and starlings foul urban structures scenarios, but they accepted lethal methods in the coypus transfer disease scenario. Farmers-hunters considered lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios. Implications from this study could be used for designing a socio-ecological approach which incorporates wildlife

  14. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  15. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  16. Using Financial Information in Continuing Education. Accepted Methods and New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    This book, which is intended as a resource/reference guide for experienced financial managers and course planners, examines accepted methods and new approaches for using financial information in continuing education. The introduction reviews theory and practice, traditional and new methods, planning and organizational management, and technology.…

  17. A METHOD FOR REGENERATION OF SPENT ELECTROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION AND ITS TREATMENT FOR FINAL DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, D.Yu.; Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropov, I.G.; John, J.; Rosikova, K.; Motl, A.; Hudson, M.J.; Prazska, M.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the method of regeneration of spent electrochemical decontamination solution. The proposed method allows separation of radionuclides and stable metals from spent decontamination solution in a form suitable for final disposal and repeated use of the remaining solution for electrochemical decontamination. Development of this method was based on the results of the speciation studies which showed that Fe(III) can be precipitated in the presence of organic complexing agents, in a form of iron hydroxide, and Ag-110m, Co-60, Mn-54 radionuclides can be coprecipitated on it. In order to verify the conclusions made as a result of the speciation studies, the experiments with electrochemically prepared simulant solution and real solution were carried out. The test results proved that the proposed method can be applied in practice. Treatment of the ultimately spent decontamination solutions can be also made applying iron precipitation, which allows for removal of the bulk amount of contaminants, as the first step. Then, if necessary the remaining radionuclides can be removed by sorption. A series of novel absorbers has been tested for their potential for the sorption removal of the remaining radionuclides from the supernate. The test results showed that most of them were more effective in neutral or alkaline range of pH, however, the high efficiency of the sorption removal can be achieved only after the removal of the oxalic and citric acids from solution.

  18. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  19. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

  20. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  1. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  2. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  3. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  4. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  5. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  6. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  7. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  8. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  9. Technology Acceptance and Course Completion Rates in Online Education: A Non-experimental, Mixed Method Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Colelia

    As the need for quality online courses increase in demand, the acceptance of technology and completion rates become the focus of higher education. The purpose of this non-experimental, mixed method study was to examine the relationship between the university students' perceptions and acceptance of technology and learner completion rates with respect to the development of online courses. This study involved 61 participants from two universities regarding their perceived usefulness (PU) of technology, intent to use technology, and intent to complete a course. Two research questions were examined regarding student perceptions regarding technology employed in an online course and the relationship, if any, between technology acceptance and completion of an online university course. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to collect data on the usefulness of course activities and student intent to complete the course. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to collect information concerning student perceptions of course activities. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS and Qualtrics, which indicated there was not a significant relationship between technology acceptance and course completion (p = .154). Qualitative data were examined by pattern matching to create a concept map of the theoretical patterns between constructs. Pattern matching revealed many students favored the use of the Internet over Canvas. Furthermore, data showed students enrolled in online courses because of the flexibility and found the multimedia used in the courses as helpful in course completion. Insight was investigated to offer reasons and decisions concerning choice that were made by the students. Future recommendations are to expand mixed methods studies of technology acceptance in various disciplines to gain a better understanding of student perceptions of technology uses, intent to use, and course completion.

  10. Resourcefulness Training for Women Dementia Caregivers: Acceptability and Feasibility of Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Lekhak, Nirmala; Napoleon, Betty; Morris, Diana L

    2016-01-01

    Almost 10 million women in the United States are caregivers for elders with dementia and many experience extreme stress that compromises their health. Acceptable and feasible interventions to teach them resourcefulness skills for managing stress may improve their health and facilitate continued caregiving. This study examined two commonly used methods for practicing skills taught during resourcefulness training (RT) to women caregivers of elders with dementia (n=63): journaling and digital voice recording. It also explored whether providing caregivers a choice between the two methods made it more acceptable or feasible. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected before, during, and after RT. Caregivers who recorded used more words (M=5446) but recorded fewer days (M=17) than those who journaled (M=2792 words and M=27 days). Similar concerns in relation to time management and practice method were expressed by women caregivers irrespective of practice method (journal versus recorder) or random versus choice condition. While journaling was more frequent than recording, more words were expressed during recordings. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were unrelated to the number of practice days or word counts, suggesting RT acceptability and feasibility even for highly stressed or depressed caregivers. Because intervention feasibility is important for RT effectiveness testing, alternatives to the journaling and recording methods for practicing RT skills should be considered.

  11. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  12. Method and apparatus for extracting tritium and preparing radioactive waste for disposal

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible's internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle's volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of; the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  13. Method and apparatus for extracting tritium and preparing radioactive waste for disposal

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-03-29

    Apparatus is described for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible's internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle's volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of; the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused. 4 figures.

  14. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  15. Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods in the Development and Approval of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Beken, Sonja; Kasper, Peter; van der Laan, Jan-Willem

    Animal studies may be carried out to support first administration of a new medicinal product to either humans or the target animal species, or before performing clinical trials in even larger populations, or before marketing authorisation, or to control quality during production. Ethical and animal welfare considerations require that animal use is limited as much as possible. Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes unambiguously fosters the application of the principle of the 3Rs when considering the choice of methods to be used.As such, today, the 3Rs are embedded in the relevant regulatory guidance both at the European (European Medicines Agency (EMA)) and (Veterinary) International Conference on Harmonization ((V)ICH) levels. With respect to non-clinical testing requirements for human medicinal products, reduction and replacement of animal testing has been achieved by the regulatory acceptance of new in vitro methods, either as pivotal, supportive or exploratory mechanistic studies. Whilst replacement of animal studies remains the ultimate goal, approaches aimed at reducing or refining animal studies have also been routinely implemented in regulatory guidelines, where applicable. The chapter provides an overview of the implementation of 3Rs in the drafting of non-clinical testing guidelines for human medicinal products at the level of the ICH. In addition, the revision of the ICH S2 guideline on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use is discussed as a case study.In October 2010, the EMA established a Joint ad hoc Expert Group (JEG 3Rs) with the mandate to improve and foster the application of 3Rs principles to the regulatory testing of medicinal products throughout their lifecycle. As such, a Guideline on regulatory acceptance of 3R testing approaches was drafted that defines regulatory acceptance and provides guidance on the scientific and technical criteria for regulatory

  16. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden.

  17. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  18. Proliferation resistance assessment of various methods of spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, Lenka

    Many countries are planning to build or already are building new nuclear power plants to match their growing energy needs. Since all nuclear power plants handle nuclear materials that could potentially be converted and used for nuclear weapons, they each present a nuclear proliferation risk. Spent nuclear fuel presents the largest build-up of nuclear material at a power plant. This is a proliferation risk because spent fuel contains plutonium that can be chemically separated and used for a nuclear weapon. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards spent fuel in all non-nuclear weapons states that are party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Various safeguards methods are in use at nuclear power plants and research is underway to develop safeguards methods for spent fuel in centralized storage or underground storage and disposal. Each method of spent fuel storage presents different proliferation risks due to the nature of the storage method and the safeguards techniques that are utilized. Previous proliferation resistance and proliferation risk assessments have mainly compared nuclear material through the whole fuel cycle and not specifically focused on spent fuel storage. This project evaluates the proliferation resistance of the three main types of spent fuel storage: spent fuel pool, dry cask storage, and geological repository. The proliferation resistance assessment methodology that is used in this project is adopted from previous work and altered to be applicable to spent fuel storage. The assessment methodology utilizes various intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant attributes for each spent fuel storage type. These attributes are used to calculate a total proliferation resistant (PR) value. The maximum PR value is 1.00 and a greater number means that the facility is more proliferation resistant. Current data for spent fuel storage in the United States and around the world was collected. The PR values obtained from this data are 0.49 for

  19. Acceptability of impregnated school uniforms for dengue control in Thailand: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Natasha; Jansarikij, Suphachai; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Souares, Aurélia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Louis, Valérie R.

    2014-01-01

    Background As current dengue control strategies have been shown to be largely ineffective in reducing dengue in school-aged children, novel approaches towards dengue control need to be studied. Insecticide-impregnated school uniforms represent an innovative approach with the theoretical potential to reduce dengue infections in school children. Objectives This study took place in the context of a randomised control trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated school uniforms (ISUs) for dengue prevention in Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. The objective was to assess the acceptability of ISUs among parents, teachers, and principals of school children involved in the trial. Methodology Quantitative and qualitative tools were used in a mixed methods approach. Class-clustered randomised samples of school children enrolled in the RCT were selected and their parents completed 321 self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the quantitative data. Focus group discussions and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents, teachers, and principals. Qualitative data analysis involved content analysis with coding and thematic development. Results The knowledge and experience of dengue was substantial. The acceptability of ISUs was high. Parents (87.3%; 95% CI 82.9–90.8) would allow their child to wear an ISU and 59.9% (95% CI 53.7–65.9) of parents would incur additional costs for an ISU over a normal uniform. This was significantly associated with the total monthly income of a household and the educational level of the respondent. Parents (62.5%; 95% CI 56.6–68.1) indicated they would be willing to recommend ISUs to other parents. Conclusions Acceptability of the novel tool of ISUs was high as defined by the lack of concern along with the willingness to pay and recommend. Considering issues of effectiveness and scalability, assessing acceptability of ISUs over time is

  20. Contamination of the environment by the current disposal methods of mercury-containing lamps in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raposo, C; Roeser, H M

    2001-01-01

    This survey describes the degree of environmental contamination resulting from the current disposal methods of mercury-containing lamps. The territory studied for this purpose is the federal state of Minas Gerais, one of the most populated areas in the Brazilian federation of states. The results of this survey derive in part from answers received to a questionnaire mailed out to industrial firms, commercial business enterprises, hospitals and departments of public work. The sampling technique used was a nonprobabilistic (purposive sampling). Three types of disposal were found to prevail: (1) as an addition to corporate waste disposal (garbage), (2) recycling and (3) disposal by other methods. Overall, our study shows that the majority of mercury lamps are being disposed in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, primarily by the public sector, followed by industrial, commercial and hospital sectors. Although recycling constitutes a relatively high fraction of the disposal methods, we find Federal regulations in Brazil regarding the disposal of hazardous, mercury-containing lamps to be far behind the state of technological achievement. This gap has permitted the adoption of disposal measures that are obsolete, incorrect, and a primary cause for the extensive contamination of the ecosystems with harmful effects to human health.

  1. Using Integrated Mixed Methods to Develop Behavioral Measures of Factors Associated With Microbicide Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Salomon, Liz; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence; Fava, Joseph L.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and consistent use typically has been derived from separate and distinct qualitative or quantitative studies. Specifically, rarely have investigators used mixed methods to both develop and validate behavioral measures. We utilized an integrated mixed methods design, including qualitative metasyntheses, cognitive interviews and expert reviews, psychometric evaluation, and confirmatory qualitative analyses of the correspondence between quantitative items and original qualitative data to develop and validate measures of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and use. We describe this methodology and use the development of the Relationship Context Scale to illustrate it. As a result of independent confirmatory analyses of qualitative passages corresponding to survey items, we demonstrated that items from the same subscales are frequently double coded within a particular textual passage, and thematically related, suggesting associations that resulted in a unique factor structure within the subscale. This integrated mixed method design was critical to the development of this psychometrically validated behavioral measure, and could serve as a model for future measure development. PMID:21447804

  2. Validation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: acceptance limits and decision methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2012-11-02

    Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization.

  3. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology. Modeling potential exposures to derive these waste acceptance concentrations involves modeling exposures to workers during storage, treatment and disposal of the wastes, as well as exposures to individuals after disposal operations have ceased. Post facility closure exposures can result from the slow expected degradation of the disposal cell over long time periods (one thousand years after disposal) and in advertent human intrusion. Provide a means of determining waste acceptance radionuclide concentrations for disposal of debris from radiological dispersal device incidents as well as low-activity wastes generated in commercial, medical and research activities, potentially serve as the technical basis for guidance on disposal of these materials.

  4. Comparing the Costs and Acceptability of Three Fidelity Assessment Methods for Assertive Community Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; McGrew, John H; Flanagan, Mindy E; Leslie, Doug L; Hunt, Marcia G; McGuire, Alan B

    2017-01-04

    Successful implementation of evidence-based practices requires valid, yet practical fidelity monitoring. This study compared the costs and acceptability of three fidelity assessment methods: on-site, phone, and expert-scored self-report. Thirty-two randomly selected VA mental health intensive case management teams completed all fidelity assessments using a standardized scale and provided feedback on each. Personnel and travel costs across the three methods were compared for statistical differences. Both phone and expert-scored self-report methods demonstrated significantly lower costs than on-site assessments, even when excluding travel costs. However, participants preferred on-site assessments. Remote fidelity assessments hold promise in monitoring large scale program fidelity with limited resources.

  5. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, utilizing a self-administered survey on the acceptability of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence in a university hospital’s maternity ward in Munich and in-depth interviews with seven women who experienced violence during pregnancy. Results Of the 401 women who participated in the survey, 92 percent were in favor of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care was significantly associated with women’s experiences of child sexual abuse, being young, less educated, single or divorced and smoking during pregnancy. Open-ended survey questions and in-depth interviews stressed adequate training for screening, sufficient time and provision of referral information as important conditions for routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence. Conclusions Women in this study showed an overwhelming support for routine or case-based screening for intimate partner violence in antenatal care in Germany. Until adequate training is in place to allow providers to inquire for intimate partner violence in a professional manner, this study recommends that health care providers are made aware of the prevalence and health consequences of violence during pregnancy. PMID:23531127

  6. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  7. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  8. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  9. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  10. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  11. \\tLaboratory Environmental Sample Disposal Information Document - Companion to Standardized Analytical Methods for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events (SAM) – Revision 5.0

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document is intended to provide general guidelines for use byEPA and EPA-contracted laboratories when disposing of samples and associated analytical waste following use of the analytical methods listed in SAM.

  12. Method for permanent disposal of CO{sub 2} in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.; Nomura, Koji

    1997-12-31

    If society could develop ways to safely and economically dispose of CO{sub 2} in thermodynamically stable forms, we could eliminate the potential danger of climatic changes due to greenhouse gas emissions from burning of fossil fuels. Toward this end, we have recently outlined and developed a methodology for binding carbon dioxide in solid forms that are thermodynamically stable at the earth`s surface. The carbonation of Mg(OH){sub 2} is of particular interest because of the abundance of magnesium on earth and the relative ease with which it can be extracted from Mg-bearing minerals. The major focus of our research has been on developing ways to extract Mg(OH){sub 2} powder from common ultramafic rock, such as serpentinite and peridotite, and then rapidly and efficiently carbonating the powder to MgCO{sub 3}. The quantities of accessible deposits of these minerals vastly exceed the quantities of available fossil fuel in the world. Because this active approach would result in a waste that is thermodynamically stable, it would be possible to permanently dispose of great quantities of CO{sub 2} with minimal environmental impact and without the danger of a sudden accidental release of gaseous CO{sub 2} which has proven fatal even in comparatively small releases of gas.

  13. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  14. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  15. Development of quantitative methods for the detection of enteroviruses in sewage sludges during activation and following land disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, C J; Farrah, S R; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1978-01-01

    The development and evaluation of methods for the quantitative recovery of enteroviruses from sewage sludge are reported. Activated sewage sludge solids were collected by centrifugation, and elution of the solid-associated virus was accomplished by mechanical agitation in glycine buffer at pH 11.0. Eluted viruses were concentrated either onto an aluminum hydroxide floc or by association with a floc which formed de novo upon adjustment of the glycine eluate to pH 3.5. Viruses which remained in the liquid phase after lowering the pH of glycine eluate were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from membrane filters. The method of choice included high pH glycine elution and subsequent low pH concentration; it yielded an efficiency of recovery from activated sludge of 80% for poliovirus type 1, 68% for echovirus type 7, and 75% for coxsackievirus B3. This method was used to study the survival of naturally occurring virus in sludge at a sewage treatment plant and after subsequent land disposal of the solids after aerobic digestion. Reduction of enterovirus titers per gram (dry weight) of solids were modest during sludge activation but increased to a rate of 2 log 10/week after land disposal. PMID:29559

  16. Lime FGD system and sludge disposal case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.O.; Morgan, W.E.; Noland, J.W.; Quinlan, R.T.; Stresewski, J.E.; Swenson, D.O.

    1980-11-01

    Selecting and installing a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and a sludge disposal system at a utility electric generation plant is no easy task. Approximately 21,000 MW of FGD and sludge disposal systems are presently operating with another 28,000 MW of FGD and sludge disposal systems under construction or planned. With the new EPA regulations requiring an FGD system on essentially every new coal-fired utility electric generation unit, the ability to decide on the most advantageous FGD and sludge disposal systems which are technically, economically, and environmentally acceptable can result in savings of $7.40/kW to the utility. This case study describes the step-by-step design decisions and equipment selections for a hypothetical lime FGD and sludge disposal system for a new 500 MW coal-fired electric generation unit. The hypothetical FGD and sludge disposal systems are based on actual installations. This case study demonstrates the methods by which utility personnel can effectively utilize the information contained in the Lime FGD Systems Data Book (FP-1030) and the FGD Sludge Disposal Manual (FP-977) to select the most advantageous lime FGD and sludge disposal systems.

  17. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  18. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  19. Acceptability of Strategies to Reduce Student Sitting: A Mixed-Methods Study With College Teachers.

    PubMed

    Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Haukkala, Ari; Hankonen, Nelli

    2016-11-18

    Background As school days among adolescents include long periods of prolonged sitting, teachers are key agents to deliver interventions to reduce youth sedentary behavior. To develop an intervention, acceptability and feasibility of alternative strategies should be tested. We aimed to examine teachers' current use and willingness to use various strategies to decrease student sitting and potential barriers and facilitators of use. Method Mixed-methods design with college teachers using an online cross-sectional survey (n = 192) and focus group interviews (n = 13). Findings Although a vast majority (87%) of the teachers found reducing prolonged sitting an important goal, only 47% were actually including practices to reduce sitting in their classroom. 89% of the teachers reported willingness to use at least one of the five alternative strategies presented. Focus groups revealed a discussion emphasis on environmental opportunity and motivation as key to implementation. Teachers also generated additional ideas for intervention content. Discussion Despite low levels of current sitting reduction, teachers were willing to try at least one strategy to reduce sitting. Results informed intervention development regarding parameters of use for each strategy. When possible, interventions should provide teachers with a variety of alternative strategies that are easy to use to reduce prolonged sitting.

  20. Methods for the Safe Storage, Handling, and Disposal of Pyrophoric Liquids and Solids in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Quigley, David; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Simmons, Fred; Freshwater, David; Bigger, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel.12 Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior to performing the experimental task. The purpose of this article is three fold: 1) to provide guidelines and general safety precautions to avoid accidents, 2) describe proper techniques on how to successfully handle, store, and dispose of pyrophoric liquids and solids, and 3) illustrate best practices for working with this class of reactants in a laboratory environment.

  1. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  2. Disposal practices for unused medications around the world.

    PubMed

    Tong, Alfred Y C; Peake, Barrie M; Braund, Rhiannon

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been detected throughout the environment where at least in some cases, they have been shown to have a detrimental effect. Many result from improper patient disposal of unused pharmaceuticals via environmentally-unfriendly routes, such as the sink, toilet or rubbish bin. This review surveys the current peer-reviewed literature on attitudes and practices to medicine disposal methods as reported by patients and the various medication disposal and destruction systems around the world. A literature search was carried out using the keywords 'medicines disposal', 'unused medicines', 'medicines wastage', and 'medication disposal' in the PubMed TM, ISI Web of Knowledge TM, Google Scholar TM, Medline TM, Scopus TM and International Pharmaceuticals Abstracts TM up to the end of May 2010. Twelve peer-reviewed articles with specified sample sizes were selected. The most popular methods for medication disposal were in the garbage, toilet or sink. Liquid medications were more likely to be rinsed down the sink, as opposed to solid tablets and capsules which were more likely deposited in the rubbish bin. Much confusion exists about the 'proper' way of medication disposal as many countries do not have standard medication disposal protocols. Furthermore, some pharmacies around the world refused to accept unused medications or discouraged the practice. Patients with knowledge about the impact of pharmaceuticals in the environment were more likely to return medications for proper disposal and destruction. It is concluded that it is of paramount importance that a formalized protocol for patient disposal and destruction of pharmaceuticals be implemented around the world.

  3. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  13. A summary of methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in numerical models of multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time.

  14. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    to performing the experimental task. The purpose of this article is three fold: (1) to provide guidelines and general safety precautions to avoid accidents, (2) describe proper techniques on how to successfully handle, store, and dispose of pyrophoric liquids and solids, and (3) illustrate best practices for working with this class of reactants in a laboratory environment.

  15. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  16. Recommended Method To Account For Daughter Ingrowth For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, Mark A.; Smith, Frank G. III

    2013-06-21

    A 3-D STOMP model has been developed for the Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at Site D as outlined in Appendix K of FBP 2013. This model projects the flow and transport of the following radionuclides to various points of assessments: Tc-99, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Am-241, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Th-228, and Th-230. The model includes the radioactive decay of these parents, but does not include the associated daughter ingrowth because the STOMP model does not have the capability to model daughter ingrowth. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides herein a recommended method to account for daughter ingrowth in association with the Portsmouth OSWDF Performance Assessment (PA) modeling.

  17. Scholarship for Nuclear Communications and Methods for Evaluation of Nuclear Project Acceptability

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, Michael

    2016-10-30

    This project aims to go beyond effective communication in understanding how to design nuclear enterprise projects that will gain stakeholder acceptability. Much of what we are studying is generally applicable to controversial projects, and we expect our results to be of broad value beyond the nuclear arena. Acceptability is more than effective communication; it also requires varying degrees of engagement with a disparate number of stakeholder groups. In the nuclear enterprise, previous attempts have been well designed physically (i.e., technologically sound), but have floundered by being insensitive concerning acceptance. Though effective communication is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for such success, there is a lack of scholarship regarding how to gain stakeholder acceptance for new controversial projects, including nuclear ones. Our work is building a model for use in assessing the performance of a project in the area of acceptability. In the nuclear-social nexus, gaining acceptance requires a clear understanding of factors regarded as being important by the many stakeholders that are common to new nuclear project (many of whom hold an effective veto power). Projects tend to become socially controversial when public beliefs, expert opinion and decision-maker understanding are misaligned. As such, stakeholder acceptance is hypothesized as both an ongoing process and an initial project design parameter comprised of complex, social, cognitive and technical components. Controversial projects may be defined as aspects of modern technologies that some people question, or are cautious about. They could range from genetic modifications, biological hazards, effects of chemical agents, nuclear radiation or hydraulic fracturing operations. We intend that our work will result in a model likely to be valuable for refining project design and implementation to increase the knowledge needed for successful management of stakeholder relationships.

  18. Development, validation and acceptance of alternative methods in the quality control of vaccines: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, C F

    1995-12-01

    Information about levels of protection against tetanus is needed both for the assessment of immune status and for the estimation of the potency of batches of tetanus toxoid. Originally, levels of protective antibodies in human serum samples were titrated in an in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test. Potency testing was based either on an indirect protection test or a direct challenge test. In the former test, rabbits or guinea pigs are immunized and bled, followed by titration of serum samples in a TN test. In the latter test, used in the quality control of tetanus toxoid for human use, protective immunity is induced by vaccination in guinea pigs or mice and subsequently challenging them directly with tetanus toxin. In the mid-1980s, an in vitro model was developed at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) for estimating levels of tetanus antitoxin in serum samples. This model, the toxin-binding inhibition (ToBI) test, was validated recently for both diagnostic testing and potency testing. Although accurate estimation of antitoxin levels is more important for diagnostic testing than for potency testing, the ToBI test has been adopted for determining the immune status but not for potency testing. One major reason is that there are no official guidelines for titration of human serum samples. By contrast, potency testing is performed in accordance with the monographs of national and international pharmacopoeias, which complicates acceptance for technical and bureaucratic reasons. This paper focuses on the validation studies performed at the RIVM. In particular, attention is paid to the various problems encountered. Suggestions for the role of the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)( *) in the quality control of vaccines are also presented.

  19. Breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding: a mixed methods study of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Campbell, Marion; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. A survey of health professionals across Scotland and North West England measured agreement with 'a breast pump costing around £40 provided for free on the NHS' as an incentive strategy. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted in two UK regions with a total of 68 participants (pregnant women, new mothers, and their significant others and health professionals) and thematic analysis undertaken. The survey of 497 health professionals found net agreement of 67.8% (337/497) with the breast pump incentive strategy, with no predictors of agreement shown by a multiple ordered logistic regression model. Qualitative research found interrelated themes of the 'appeal and value of breast pumps', 'sharing the load', 'perceived benefits', 'perceived risks' and issues related to 'timing'. Qualitative participants expressed mixed views on the acceptability of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. Understanding the mechanisms of action for pump type, timing and additional support required for effectiveness is required to underpin trials of breast pump provision as an incentive for improving breastfeeding outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  1. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used.

  2. Treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by coagulation/electrochemical methods: Proposals for disposal and/or reuse of treated water.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Larissa F; Barbosa, Andreia D; de Paula, Heber M; Romualdo, Lincoln L; Andrade, Leonardo S

    2016-09-15

    This paper describes and discusses an investigation into the treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater (water-based acrylic texture) by coagulation (aluminum sulfate) coupled to electrochemical methods (BDD electrode). Two proposals are put forward, based on the results. The first proposal considers the feasibility of reusing wastewater treated by the methods separately and in combination, while the second examines the possibility of its disposal into water bodies. To this end, parameters such as toxicity, turbidity, color, organic load, dissolved aluminum, alkalinity, hardness and odor are evaluated. In addition, the proposal for water reuse is strengthened by the quality of the water-based paints produced using the wastewater treated by the two methods (combined and separate), which was evaluated based on the typical parameters for the quality control of these products. Under optimized conditions, the use of the chemical coagulation (12 mL/L of Al2(SO4)3 dosage) treatment, alone, proved the feasibility of reusing the treated wastewater in the paint manufacturing process. However, the use of the electrochemical method (i = 10 mA/cm(2) and t = 90 min) was required to render the treated wastewater suitable for discharge into water bodies.

  3. The Effects of Dosed versus Gravity-Fed Loading Methods on the Performance and Reliability of Contour Trench Disposal Fields Used for Onsite Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bridson-Pateman, Evan; Hayward, Jennifer; Jamieson, Rob; Boutilier, Leah; Lake, Craig

    2013-01-01

    In Nova Scotia, Canada, contour trench disposal fields are the most common type of onsite wastewater system. In this study, two identical contour trench disposal fields were monitored for 3 yr to compare performance under gravity-fed versus periodically dosed loading conditions. Influent and effluent from both systems were analyzed for a suite of water quality parameters, and the hydraulics of the systems were assessed using tracer studies and measurements of ponded water depth in the distribution trenches. Ponded water depths in the distribution trench of the gravity-fed disposal field were observed to increase steadily during the monitoring period, indicating progressive clogging. This was not observed in the periodically dosed field. Regarding treatment, both systems performed well, consistently producing effluent with 5-d biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations <10 mg L and achieving >5 log reductions in . However, the gravity-fed system produced statistically lower average effluent concentrations for total P and TSS. It is speculated that the slightly better treatment performance achieved by the gravity-fed system is due to enhanced biomat formation. This study demonstrated adequate treatment of residential wastewater by contour trench disposal fields regardless of loading method. However, because the hydraulic performance of these systems is heavily dependent on pretreatment and loading methods, it is recommended that a dosing system be used to distribute wastewater to contour trench disposal fields to help prevent hydraulic failure.

  4. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  5. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  6. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  7. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  8. Method of immobilizing weapons plutonium to provide a durable, disposable waste product

    DOEpatents

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Lutze, Werner; Weber, William J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of atomic scale fixation and immobilization of plutonium to provide a durable waste product. Plutonium is provided in the form of either PuO.sub.2 or Pu(NO.sub.3).sub.4 and is mixed with and SiO.sub.2. The resulting mixture is cold pressed and then heated under pressure to form (Zr,Pu)SiO.sub.4 as the waste product.

  9. A method to investigate drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Detection System®.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Giuliofrancesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lately, with the goal of improving road safety, car makers developed and commercialised some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which, through the detection of blind spot areas on the vehicle's sides, could help the drivers during the overtaking and the change lane task. Despite the possible benefits to reduce lateral crashes, the overall impact on road safety of such systems have not been deeply studied yet; notably, despite some researches have been carried out, there is a lack of studies regarding the long-term usage and drivers' acceptance of those systems. In order to fill the research gap, a methodology, based on the combination of focus groups interviews, questionnaires and a small-scale field operational test (FOT), has been designed in this study; such a methodology aims at evaluating drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Information System® and at proposing some ideas to improve the usability and user-friendliness of this (or similar) device in their future development.

  10. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Desmare, Gabriel W.; Cates, Dillard M.

    2002-05-14

    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  11. Assessment of Westinghouse Hanford Company methods for estimating radionuclide release from ground disposal of waste water at the N Reactor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of an independent assessment by Golder Associates, Inc. of the methods used by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and its predecessors to estimate the annual offsite release of radionuclides from ground disposal of cooling and other process waters from the N Reactor at the Hanford Site. This assessment was performed by evaluating the present and past disposal practices and radionuclide migration data within the context of the hydrology, geology, and physical layout of the N Reactor disposal site. The conclusions and recommendations are based upon the available data and simple analytical calculations. Recommendations are provided for conducting more refined analyses and for continued field data collection in support of estimating annual offsite releases. Recommendations are also provided for simple operational and structural measures that should reduce the quantities of radionuclides leaving the site. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  13. Method for disposing of radioactive graphite and silicon carbide in graphite fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.

    1995-09-12

    Method is described for destroying radioactive graphite and silicon carbide in fuel elements containing small spheres of uranium oxide coated with silicon carbide in a graphite matrix, by treating the graphite fuel elements in a molten salt bath in the presence of air, the salt bath comprising molten sodium-based salts such as sodium carbonate and a small amount of sodium sulfate as catalyst, or calcium-based salts such as calcium chloride and a small amount of calcium sulfate as catalyst, while maintaining the salt bath in a temperature range of about 950 to about 1,100 C. As a further feature of the invention, large radioactive graphite fuel elements, e.g. of the above composition, can be processed to oxidize the graphite and silicon carbide, by introducing the fuel element into a reaction vessel having downwardly and inwardly sloping sides, the fuel element being of a size such that it is supported in the vessel at a point above the molten salt bath therein. Air is bubbled through the bath, causing it to expand and wash the bottom of the fuel element to cause reaction and destruction of the fuel element as it gradually disintegrates and falls into the molten bath. 4 figs.

  14. Psychosocial determinants of physicians' acceptance of recommendations by antibiotic computerised decision support systems: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chow, Angela; Lye, David C B; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic computerised decision support systems (CDSSs) were developed to facilitate optimal prescribing, but acceptance of their recommendations has remained low. We aimed to evaluate physicians' perceptions and attitudes toward antibiotic CDSSs and determine psychosocial factors associated with acceptance of CDSS recommendations for empirical therapy. A mixed methods study was conducted in an adult tertiary-care hospital in Singapore, with its in-house antibiotic CDSS that integrates antimicrobial stewardship with electronic prescribing. Focus group discussions were conducted among purposively sampled physicians and data were analysed using the framework approach. Emerging themes were included in the questionnaire with newly developed scales for the subsequent cross-sectional survey involving all physicians. Principal components analysis was performed to derive the latent factor structure that was later applied in multivariate analyses. Physicians expressed confidence in the credibility of CDSS recommendations. Junior physicians accepted CDSS recommendations most of the time, whilst senior physicians acknowledged overriding recommendations in complex patients with multiple infections or allergies. Willingness to consult the CDSS for common and complex infections (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.44) and preference for personal or team decision (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.85) were associated with acceptance of CDSS recommendations. Cronbach's α for scales measuring physicians' attitudes and perceptions towards acceptance of CDSS recommendations ranged from 0.64 to 0.88. Physicians' willingness to consult an antibiotic CDSS determined acceptance of its recommendations. Physicians would choose to exercise their own or clinical team's decision over CDSS recommendations in complex patient situations when the antibiotic prescribing needs were not met.

  15. Minipool Caprylic Acid Fractionation of Plasma Using Disposable Equipment: A Practical Method to Enhance Immunoglobulin Supply in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Vargas, Mariángela; Sayed, Makram; Gorgy, George; Goubran, Hadi; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need. Methodology/Principal Findings IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at <-20°C. The resulting preparation had a mean protein content of 60.5 g/L, 90.2% immunoglobulins, including 83.2% IgG, 12.4% IgA, and 4.4% IgM, and residual albumin. There was fourfold to sixfold enrichment of anti-hepatitis B and anti-rubella antibodies. Analyses of aggregates (<3%), prekallicrein (5-7 IU/mL), plasmin (26.3 mU/mL), thrombin (2.5 mU/mL), thrombin-like activity (0.011 U/g), thrombin generation capacity (< 223 nM), and Factor XI (<0.01 U/mL) activity, Factor XI/XIa antigen (2.4 ng/g) endotoxin (<0.5 EU/mL), and general safety test in rats showed the in vitro safety profile. Viral validation revealed >5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment. Conclusions/Significance 90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients

  16. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures.

  17. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  18. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A.; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G.; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  19. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  20. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  1. Disposal of Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-13

    concentrate (formaldehydestrongly catalyzes the formation of nitrosamines from nitrite and secondary amines ). I ° Minimize concentrations of catalytically ...components, as interest in these compounds is relatively new. Therefore, methods for disposing of similar compounds such as triethanol- amine ...appears to have the greatest potential for accomplishing degradation of HAN- based liquid propellant residues in an economical, environmentally safe manner

  2. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  3. 19 CFR 134.44 - Location and other acceptable methods of marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported... Customs, any method of marking at any location insuring that country of origin will conspicuously...

  4. 19 CFR 134.44 - Location and other acceptable methods of marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported... Customs, any method of marking at any location insuring that country of origin will conspicuously...

  5. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  6. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  7. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  8. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  9. 40 CFR 761.218 - Certificate of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.218 Certificate of disposal. (a) For each shipment of manifested PCB waste that the owner or operator of a disposal facility accepts by signing the manifest,...

  10. 48 CFR 45.602-1 - Inventory disposal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory disposal... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.602-1 Inventory disposal schedules. (a) Plant clearance officers should review and accept, or return for correction,...

  11. 48 CFR 45.602-1 - Inventory disposal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inventory disposal... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.602-1 Inventory disposal schedules. (a) Plant clearance officers should review and accept, or return for correction,...

  12. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  13. Analytical method transfer using equivalence tests with reasonable acceptance criteria and appropriate effort: extension of the ISPE concept.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, L; Schepers, U; Wätzig, H

    2010-12-15

    A method development process is commonly finalized by a method transfer from the developing to the routine laboratory. Statistical tests are performed in order to survey if a transfer succeeded or failed. However, using the classic two-sample t-test can lead to misjudgments and unsatisfying transfer results due to its test characteristics. Therefore the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) employed a fixed method transfer design using equivalence tests in their Guide for Technology Transfer. Although it was well received by analytical laboratories worldwide this fixed design can easily bring about high beta-errors (rejection of successful transfers) or high workload (many analysts employed during transfer) if sigma(AN) (error due to different analysts) exceeds 0.6%. Hence this work introduces an extended concept which will help to circumvent this disadvantage by providing guidance to select a personalized and more appropriate experimental design. First of all it demonstrates that former t-test related acceptance criteria can be scaled by a factor of 1.15, which allows for a broader tolerance without a loss of decision certainty. Furthermore a decision guidance to choose the proper number of analysts or series at given percentage acceptance limits (%AL) is presented.

  14. Social Acceptance and Rejection of Preschool Children with Disabilities: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Zercher, Craig; Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Sandall, Susan; Brown, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Eighty children with disabilities enrolled in a nationally distributed set of inclusive preschool programs participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 3.9 years, and 60% were male. The children exhibited a range of disabilities and developmental levels. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors established quantitative…

  15. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  16. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  19. Comparative study on the acceptance and use of contraceptive methods in a rural population in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Kamalanathan, J P

    1990-12-01

    Contraceptive prevalence was determined in the Kelantan region of Malaysia, an area with relatively poor health indices. 350 women attending health clinics on rubber and palm-oil estates and living in surrounding suburbs were surveyed by clinic workers or during home visits. The sample included 273 Malays, 64 Indians and 13 Chinese. This area of Peninsular Malaysia is noted for the highest infant mortality rate (17.7), second highest crude birth rate (35.2) and highest dependency ratio (88%) in the country. 44.9% practiced contraception, highest in Chinese and lowest in Indians. Methods used were pills by (55%), traditional methods (19%), tubal ligation (18%), safe period (14%), injections (5.5%), IUD (4.7%), and condom (2.3%). The Malaysian traditional methods are herbal preparations from tree bark or roots, herb pills, and exercises after coitus. 34% of the non contraceptors had used contraception before but stopped because of side effects, religious or spousal objections, or desire to conceive. 74% had married in their teens. 46% of the non-contraceptors were spacing their children by prolonged breastfeeding.

  20. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  1. Ultimate disposal of scrubber wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Part of the initial concern with using the wet scrubbers on the hypergolic propellants was the subsequential disposal of the liquid wastes. To do this, consideration was given to all possible methods to reduce the volume of the wastes and stay within the guidelines established by the state and federal environmental protection agencies. One method that was proposed was the use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds to reduce the waste concentration in the effluent to less than EPA tolerable levels. This method was under consideration and even in use by private industry, municipal governments, and NASA for upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities to a tertiary system. The use of water hyacinths in disposal ponds appears to be a very cost-effective method for reduction and disposal of hypergolic propellants.

  2. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  3. Uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo method with time scale to study solid-state diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, Maarten J.; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Neyts, Erik C.; Thijsse, Barend J.; Stesmans, André

    2012-04-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods have a long-standing history as partners of molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the evolution of materials at the atomic scale. Among these techniques, the uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo (UFMC) method [G. Dereli, Mol. Simul.10.1080/08927029208022490 8, 351 (1992)] has recently attracted attention [M. Timonova , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.144107 81, 144107 (2010)] thanks to its apparent capacity of being able to simulate physical processes in a reduced number of iterations compared to classical MD methods. The origin of this efficiency remains, however, unclear. In this work we derive a UFMC method starting from basic thermodynamic principles, which leads to an intuitive and unambiguous formalism. The approach includes a statistically relevant time step per Monte Carlo iteration, showing a significant speed-up compared to MD simulations. This time-stamped force-bias Monte Carlo (tfMC) formalism is tested on both simple one-dimensional and three-dimensional systems. Both test-cases give excellent results in agreement with analytical solutions and literature reports. The inclusion of a time scale, the simplicity of the method, and the enhancement of the time step compared to classical MD methods make this method very appealing for studying the dynamics of many-particle systems.

  4. Bridging the gap between regulatory acceptance and industry use of non-animal methods.

    PubMed

    Clippinger, Amy J; Hill, Erin; Curren, Rodger; Bishop, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration between industry and regulators resulted in the development of a decision tree approach using in vitro or ex vivo assays to replace animal tests when determining the eye irritation potential of antimicrobial cleaning products (AMCPs) under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs' hazard classification and labeling system. A policy document issued by the EPA in 2013 and updated in 2015 describes the alternate testing framework that industry could apply to new registrations of AMCPs and, on a case-by-case basis, to conventional pesticide products. Despite the collaborative effort, the availability of relevant non-animal methods, and the EPA's change in policy, only a limited number of AMCPs have been registered using the framework. Companies continue to conduct animal tests when registering AMCPs due to various challenges surrounding adoption of the new testing framework; however, recent discussions between industry, regulators, and other interested parties have identified ways these challenges may be overcome. In this article we explore how use of the alternate framework could be expanded through efforts such as increasing international harmonization, more proactively publicizing the framework, and enhancing the training of regulatory reviewers. Not only can these strategies help to increase use of the EPA alternate eye irritation framework, they can also be applied to facilitate the uptake of other alternative approaches to animal testing in the future.

  5. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  6. Disposal unit

    DOEpatents

    Landau, Ralph

    2004-03-16

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating toxic compounds from gaseous mixtures, and more particularly to a method and a portable apparatus for the continuous removal of fluorine and compounds thereof from gaseous mixtures.

  7. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  8. A Mixed-methods Evaluation of the Feasibility, Acceptability and Preliminary Efficacy of a Mobile Intervention for Methadone Maintenance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle; Marsch, Lisa A.; Xie, Haiyi; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent explosion of behavioral health interventions delivered on mobile devices, little is known about factors that make such applications practical, engaging and useful to their target audience. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a prototype of a novel, interactive mobile psychosocial intervention to reduce problematic drug use among clients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A mixed-methods pilot study with new MMT clients (n=25) indicated that the mobile intervention approach was feasible, and that participants found the intervention highly acceptable and useful. On 100-point visual analog scale (VAS) items, participants reported high levels of liking the program (M=75.6), and endorsed it as useful (M=77.5), easy to use (M=80.7), and containing a significant amount of new information (M=74.8). When compared with 25 study participants who received standard MMT alone, pilot participants rated their treatment significantly higher in interestingness and usefulness, and were significantly more satisfied with their treatment. In qualitative interviews, participants reported using the mobile intervention in a range of settings, including during times of heightened risk for substance use, and finding it helpful in managing drug cravings. Additionally, pilot participants showed evidence of increased treatment retention and abstinence from illicit opioids (in terms of effect size) over a 3-month period relative to those in standard MMT, suggesting the application’s potential to enhance treatment outcomes. These promising findings suggest that an evidence-based mobile therapeutic tool addressing substance use may appeal to drug treatment clients and have clinical utility as an adjunct to formal treatment. PMID:26618796

  9. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  10. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57 Section 228.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as...

  11. Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Combining SGLD with the Bennett's Acceptance Ratio and Enveloping Distribution Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2012-10-09

    One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.

  12. Solid rocket propellant waste disposal/ingredient recovery study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of facility and operating costs of alternate methods shows open burning to be the lowest cost incineration method of waste propellant disposal. The selection, development, and implementation of an acceptable alternate is recommended. The recovery of ingredients from waste propellant has the probability of being able to pay its way, and even show a profit, when large consistent quantities of composite propellant are available. Ingredients recovered from space shuttle waste propellant would be worth over $1.5 million. Open and controlled burning are both energy wasteful.

  13. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  14. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    2015-04-01

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  15. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  16. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  17. Alternative methods for disposal of spent laying hens: evaluation of the efficacy of grinding, mechanical deboning, and of keratinase in the rendering process.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S R; Poore, M H; Middleton, T F; Ferket, P R

    2009-10-01

    Besides the challenges of mortality and litter disposal, the poultry industry must find economical means of disposing of laying hens that have outlived their productive lives. Because spent hens have low market value and disposing of them by composting and burial is often infeasible, finding alternative disposal methods that are environmentally secure is prudent. The feasibility of grinding or mechanically deboning spent hens with and without prior mechanical picking was evaluated for the production of various proteinaceous by-product meals. The end products were analyzed for nutrient content and found to be high in protein (35.3-91.9% CP) and, with the exception of the feathers, high in fat (24.1-58.3%), making them potentially valuable protein and energy sources. After considering physical and economic feasibility, mechanical deboning was determined to be a logical first step for the conversion of spent hens into value-added by-product meals. Because the hard tissue fraction (primarily feathers, bones, and connective tissue) generated by mechanically deboning the hens presents the greatest challenge to their utilization as feedstuffs, attention was focused on technologies that could potentially improve the nutritional value of the hard tissue for use as a ruminant protein source. Traditional hydrolysis of this hard tissue fraction improved its pepsin digestibility from 74% to 85%; however, subsequent keratinase enzyme treatment for 1h, 2h, 4h, or 20 h after steam hydrolysis failed to improve the pepsin or amino acid digestibility any further (P>0.10). Enzyme hydrolysis did, however, increase the quantities of the more soluble protein fractions (A: 45.5, 46.6, 52.8, 51.6, and 55.8% of CP; B(1): 3.2, 9.8, 6.0, 4.6, and 4.1% of CP; B(2): 11.7, 18.1, 22.8, 29.6, and 22.0% of CP for 0, 1h, 2h, 4h, and 20 h, respectively) and reduced quantities of the less soluble fractions (B(3): 30.2, 18.1, 10.8, 5.5, and 10.2% of CP; C: 9.4, 7.5, 7.6, 8.8, and 7.9% of CP for 0, 1h

  18. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  19. The pedicle screw-rod system is an acceptable method of reconstructive surgery after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Jun; Yunus, Akbar; Tian, Zheng; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Chong; Xu, Lei-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hemipelvic resections for primary bone tumours require reconstruction to restore weight bearing along anatomic axes. However, reconstruction of the pelvic arch remains a major surgical challenge because of the high rate of associated complications. We used the pedicle screw-rod system to reconstruct the pelvis, and the purpose of this investigation was to assess the oncology, functional outcome and complication rate following this procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative indications and technique of the pedicle screw-rod system in reconstruction of the stability of the sacroiliac joint after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours. The average MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumour Society) score was 26.5 at either three months after surgery or at the latest follow-up. Seven patients had surgery-related complications, including wound dehiscence in one, infection in two, local necrosis in four (including infection in two), sciatic nerve palsy in one and pubic symphysis subluxation in one. There was no screw loosening or deep vein thrombosis occurring in this series. Using a pedicle screw-rod after resection of a sacroiliac joint tumour is an acceptable method of pelvic reconstruction because of its reduced risk of complications and satisfactory functional outcome, as well as its feasibility of reconstruction for type IV pelvis tumour resection without elaborate preoperative customisation. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:27095944

  20. The seven Cs of the high acceptability of home-based VCT: results from a mixed methods approach in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Marte; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut; Mwangala, Sheila; Blystad, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    HIV testing and counselling is a critical gateway to prevention and treatment. Yet, coverage remains insufficient, few couples are tested together and gender differences in access exist. We used an embedded mixed methods approach to investigate possible explanations for the high acceptance of home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing (HB-VCT) in a pair-matched cluster-randomized trial in Zambia. A baseline survey included 1694 individuals in 36 clusters. Adults in 18 intervention clusters were offered HB-VCT by lay counsellors. Standard testing services were available in both trial arms. After the completion of the intervention, a follow-up survey was conducted in all trial clusters. In addition, 21 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted with home-based VCT clients in the intervention arm. Informants favoured the convenience, confidentiality and credibility of HB-VCT. Counsellors were perceived as trustworthy owing to their closeness and conduct, and the consent process was experienced as convincing. Couple testing was selected by 70% of cohabiting couples and was experienced as beneficial by both genders. Levels of first-time testing (68% vs. 29%, p < 0.0001) and re-testing (94% vs. 74%, p < 0.0001) were higher in the intervention than in the control arm. Acceptance of HIV testing and counselling is dependent on stigma, trust and gender. The confidentiality of home-based VCT was essential for overcoming stigma-related barriers, and the selection of local counsellors was important to ensure trust in the services. The high level of couple counselling within HB-VCT may contribute to closing the gender gap in HIV testing, and has benefits for both genders and potentially for prevention of HIV transmission. The study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high test coverage with an opt-in consent approach. The embedded qualitative component confirmed the high satisfaction with HB-VCT reported in the quantitative survey and was

  1. CERISE, a French radioprotection code, to assess the radiological impact and acceptance criteria of installations for material handling, and recycling or disposal of very low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Santucci, P.; Guetat, P.

    1993-12-31

    This document describes the code CERISE, Code d`Evaluations Radiologiques Individuelles pour des Situations en Enterprise et dans l`Environnement. This code has been developed in the frame of European studies to establish acceptance criteria of very low-level radioactive waste and materials. This code is written in Fortran and runs on PC. It calculates doses received by the different pathways: external exposure, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. Twenty basic scenarios are already elaborated, which have been determined from previous studies. Calculations establish the relation between surface, specific and/or total activities, and doses. Results can be expressed as doses for an average activity unit, or as average activity limits for a set of reference doses (defined for each scenario analyzed). In this last case, the minimal activity values and the corresponding limiting scenarios, are selected and summarized in a final table.

  2. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  3. Feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the Cultural Formulation Interview: mixed-methods results from the DSM-5 international field trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Lam, Peter C; Galfalvy, Hanga; Weiss, Mitchell G; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita N; Díaz, Esperanza; Nicasio, Andel V; Boiler, Marit; Alarcón, Renato D; Rohlof, Hans; Groen, Simon; van Dijk, Rob C J; Jadhav, Sushrut; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Ndetei, David; Scalco, Monica Z; Bassiri, Kavoos; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ton, Hendry; Westermeyer, Joseph; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThere is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.AimsTo assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.MethodMixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.ResultsMixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.ConclusionsThe CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.

  4. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  5. The examination of the spread of the leachates coming out of a solid waste disposal area on the ground with geophysical and geochemical methods (Sivas, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Sevda; Yılmaz, Ali; Emin Candansayar, M.

    2017-03-01

    This study has been conducted in the irregular solid waste disposal area in the city of Sivas. The pollution spread formed by the leachates coming out of the disposal area has been examined with geophysical and geochemical works in this study. For this reason, the spread of the leachate pollution expanding in different geological units at both sides of a creek on the ground has been examined. For this purpose, the pollution spread has been examined with the methods of Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) and Electromagnetic Conductivity (EMC) and soil analyses. In the DCR method, 2D inversion of each sounding-profile datum measured alongside the lines parallel to each other and 3D inversion of the data measured in all the lines have been used in the interpretations. Apparent conductivity map has been attained from EMC measurements. The results of heavy metal analyses in the soil samples taken alongside the Haçin Creek have been assessed with the Spider diagram method. It has been determined that the flow of the leachate from geophysical models is in a SE direction and towards Kızılırmak and it continues vertically deeper than 4 m. In addition, it has been understood that the flow direction of the leachate is inspected by the geological structures. It has been understood from the geochemical results that the pollution in the soil stems from the leachate. In this way, it has been observed that the underground and surface water resources in the territory are under the threat of the pollution occurring due to the leachate.

  6. Project W-049H disposal facility test report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report (ATR) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the equipment installed in the Disposal Facility has been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria.

  7. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 13.1118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 13.1008 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park...

  13. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 250/sup 0/F during the curing stage and 350/sup 0/F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs.

  16. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-06-26

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research; environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on- and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data, and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The Area G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal Area (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion area. To date, disposal operations have been confined to MDA G and are scheduled to continue in that region until MDA G undergoes final closure at the end of 2013. Given its impending closure, efforts have

  17. Acceptance of an assistive robot in older adults: a mixed-method study of human–robot interaction over a 1-month period in the Living Lab setting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Wrobel, Jérémy; Cornuet, Mélanie; Kerhervé, Hélène; Damnée, Souad; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in investigating acceptance of robots, which are increasingly being proposed as one form of assistive technology to support older adults, maintain their independence, and enhance their well-being. In the present study, we aimed to observe robot-acceptance in older adults, particularly subsequent to a 1-month direct experience with a robot. Subjects and methods Six older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and five cognitively intact healthy (CIH) older adults were recruited. Participants interacted with an assistive robot in the Living Lab once a week for 4 weeks. After being shown how to use the robot, participants performed tasks to simulate robot use in everyday life. Mixed methods, comprising a robot-acceptance questionnaire, semistructured interviews, usability-performance measures, and a focus group, were used. Results Both CIH and MCI subjects were able to learn how to use the robot. However, MCI subjects needed more time to perform tasks after a 1-week period of not using the robot. Both groups rated similarly on the robot-acceptance questionnaire. They showed low intention to use the robot, as well as negative attitudes toward and negative images of this device. They did not perceive it as useful in their daily life. However, they found it easy to use, amusing, and not threatening. In addition, social influence was perceived as powerful on robot adoption. Direct experience with the robot did not change the way the participants rated robots in their acceptance questionnaire. We identified several barriers to robot-acceptance, including older adults’ uneasiness with technology, feeling of stigmatization, and ethical/societal issues associated with robot use. Conclusion It is important to destigmatize images of assistive robots to facilitate their acceptance. Universal design aiming to increase the market for and production of products that are usable by everyone (to the greatest extent possible) might help to

  18. DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND FIELD USE OF NOVEL METHOD FOR EXTRACTING AND ANALYZING ORGANOPHOSPHATE (OP) AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DISPOSABLE DIAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to efficiently extract urine from disposable diapers ensures an easy to use urine collection protocol and ready compliance for caregivers of very young children. The use of disposable diapers is also desirable because of their high capacity- urine is retained effecti...

  19. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    SciTech Connect

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H.; Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B.

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  20. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    PubMed

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mgCOD, determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  1. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  2. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  3. Acceptability and Feasibility of HIV Self-Testing Among Transgender Women in San Francisco: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lissa; Sevelius, Jae; Castillo, Leslie S.; Ventura, Angel; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated one in four transgender women (trans women) in the U.S. are infected with HIV. Rates of HIV testing are not commensurate with their risk, necessitating alternative strategies for early detection and care. We explored the feasibility and acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) with 50 HIV-negative adult trans women in San Francisco. Participants received three self-test kits to perform once a month. Acceptability and behavioral surveys were collected as were 11 in-depth interviews (IDIs). Among 50 participants, 44 reported utilizing HIVST at least once; 94 % reported the test easy to use; 93 % said results were easy to read; and 91 % would recommend it to others. Most participants (68 %) preferred HIVST to clinic-based testing, although price was a key barrier to uptake. IDIs revealed a tension between desires for privacy versus support found at testing sites. HIVST for trans women was acceptable and feasible and requires careful consideration of linkage to support services. PMID:26511864

  4. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  5. Disposables in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Disposable equipment has been used for many years in the downstream processing industry, but mainly for filtration and buffer/media storage. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of disposable concepts for chromatography, replacing steel and glass fixed systems with disposable plastic modules that can be discarded once exhausted, fouled or contaminated. These modules save on cleaning and validation costs, and their reduce footprints reduce buffer consumption, water for injection, labor and facility space, contributing to an overall reduction in expenditure that lowers the cost of goods. This chapter examines the practical and economic benefits of disposable modules in downstream processing.

  6. Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, November 1, 1985--March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.; Revis, N.

    1986-12-31

    This progress report contains an account of recent research efforts carried out at the Oak Ridge Research Institute, to raise antibodies in New Zealand White Rabbits which are specific for various strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. It is then intended to use the antibodies, in a subsequent phase of the project, to develop one or more ELISAs, which would be used to analyze, both in the laboratory and in the field, the numbers and extent of dispersion of these microorganisms at acid mine drainage sites. This is important because it is the metabolic consequences of unrestricted dissemination of these bacteria which are responsible in large measure for the environmentally damaging acid run-off. Efforts to control the proliferation of these microorganisms have been relatively unfocused up to the present, because of the lack of suitably discriminating methods of assaying the effects of treatment. In this report, the authors describe the work carried out in the first section of the project, which has been concerned with the raising of the antibodies to the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cultures. They given an account of how the various cultures were grown, how they were treated before being injected into rabbits, the injection protocol, how the animals were bled, and how the formation of IgG and its degree of specificity was assessed. Finally, they describe how large quantities of the various IgG fractions were prepared, and how and where they were stored.

  7. Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, April 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.T.; Benson, S.B.; Osborne, T.R.; Revis, N.W.

    1988-12-31

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a persistent environmental contaminant whose chemical stability and hydrophobicity have made it difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater. PCE is also toxic and has been implicated as a carcinogen. This study was aimed at assessing methods for biological degradation of PCE. As a part of the study, the authors have characterized possible products of the degradation of PCE, and have determined the effects of detergents and solvents on the water solubility of PCE and on the toxic effects of PCE on bacteria. The authors have also isolated PCE-resistant microorganisms from monitoring wells at Y-12. To date all of the PCE-resistant bacteria isolated from the monitoring wells have been of the genus Bacillus. One of these isolates appears to be able to degrade PCE, as indicated by the disappearance of PCE from cultures of growing cells. The organism does not grow on PCE as the sole carbon source, so degradation of the solvent must occur by cometabolism.

  8. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  9. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  10. Web-based virtual microscopy at the RWTH Aachen University: didactic concept, methods and analysis of acceptance by the students.

    PubMed

    Merk, Magdalene; Knuechel, Ruth; Perez-Bouza, Alberto

    2010-12-20

    Fundamental knowledge of microscopic anatomy and pathology has always been an essential part in medical education. The traditional didactic concept comprises theoretical and practical lessons using a light microscope and glass slides. High-speed Internet connections and technical improvement in whole-slide digital microscopy (commonly termed "virtual microscopy") provide a new and attractive approach for both teachers and students. High picture quality and unlimited temporal and spatial availability of histology samples from different fields are key advantages of web-based digital microscopy. In this report we discuss the technical requirements, system efficiency, optical resolution and didactic concept. Furthermore, we present a review of the experience gained in the course of one year based on an analysis of student acceptance. Three groups with a total of 192 students between the 3rd and 5th year of medical studies attending the practical courses of general and advanced histopathology had access to both glass-mounted and digitalized slides. Prior to exams, students were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the study reflect the high acceptance and intensive use of the web-based digital histology by students, thus encouraging the development of further Web-based learning strategies for the teaching of histology and pathology.

  11. The Brief Intervention for School Clinicians (BRISC): A mixed-methods evaluation of feasibility, acceptability, and contextual appropriateness

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Bruns, Eric J.; Ludwig, Kristy; Stoep, Ann Vander; Pullmann, Michael D.; Dorsey, Shannon; Eaton, John; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To maximize impact across the broad spectrum of mental health needs exhibited by youth in school settings, interventions must be designed to be effective, efficient, and demonstrate good fit with the educational context. The current paper reports on the second phase of an iterative development process for a short-term, “Tier 2” intervention for use by school-based mental health providers – the Brief Intervention for School Clinicians (BRISC) – using mixed qualitative and quantitative analyses to evaluate feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness while emphasizing student experiences. This phase was intended to yield information to drive further protocol refinement and testing across subsequent phases. We describe the rationale for, development of, and formative testing of the BRISC intervention. Results suggest that BRISC may be feasible to deliver, acceptable to students, and appropriate to the school context. In particular, the BRISC process appears to be effective in enhancing student engagement in the intervention and identifying and addressing individualized student needs. These findings and directions for further enhancing BRISC’s potential for positive impact highlight how treatment development may benefit from initial, small-scale evaluations focused both on client and implementation outcomes. PMID:26688700

  12. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  13. A completely noninvasive method of dissolved oxygen monitoring in disposable small-scale cell culture vessels based on diffusion through permeable vessel walls.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Priyanka A; Ge, Xudong; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Disposable cell culture vessels are extensively used at small scales for process optimization and validation, but they lack monitoring capabilities. Optical sensors that can be easily adapted for use in small-scale vessels are commercially available for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved carbon dioxide (DCO2 ). However, their use has been limited due to the contamination and compatibility issues. We have developed a novel solution to these problems for DO monitoring. Oxygen diffusion through permeable vessel wall can be exploited for noninvasive monitoring. An optical oxygen sensor can be placed outside the oxygen permeable vessel wall thereby allowing oxygen diffusing through the vessel wall to be detected by the sensor. This way the sensor stays separate from the cell culture and there are no concerns about contaminants or leachants. Here we implement this method for two cell culture devices: polystyrene-made T-75 tissue culture flask and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)-made Vuelife(®) cell culture bag. Additionally, mammalian and microbial cell cultures were performed in Vuelife(®) cell culture bags, proving that a sensor placed outside can be used to track changes in cell cultures. This approach toward noninvasive monitoring will help in integrating cell culture vessels with sensors in a seamless manner.

  14. Developing biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Progress report, November 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The purposed projects are under study to: (1) develop cost effective methods to monitor pollutant discharge from waste storage and disposal sites; (2) assess the effects of pollutant discharge on the terrestrial microbiological environment; and (3) develop microbial strains that can concentrate and/or metabolize pollutants. To achieve these goals we are isolating bacteria from various sites polluted with heavy metals, radionuclides, and/or organic compounds. We are characterizing the microbial activities of these polluted sites to provide clues to both indicators of pollution and alterations caused by the pollutants. In addition we are developing systems for the biological precipitation or transformation of pollutants or for bioconcentration, with the ultimate goal of being able to detoxify the pollutants or to reduce the volume of contaminated material significantly. To date we have isolated a variety of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Many of them have been identified, and experiments are under way to characterize their responses to pollutants including heavy metals and halogenated hydrocarbons. The results of these studies are summarized below. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references.

  16. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  17. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  18. Disposal of Vessels at Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel disposal general permits are issued by the EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Information is provided for vessel disposal permit applicants and where to dispose a vessel.

  19. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  20. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  1. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Sarah; Beck, Susan; Pearce, Patricia F; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Cardinale, Daniel; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n = 19) or text messaging intervention (n = 18) for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted.

  2. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  3. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Cardinale, Daniel; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n = 19) or text messaging intervention (n = 18) for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted. PMID:24455238

  4. [Composting of poultry carcasses as an alternative method for disposal in case of an outbreak of an epizootic disease: first results].

    PubMed

    Schwarzlose, I; Gerdes, U; Gerlach, G F; Runge, M; Thalmann, G; Nöckler, A; Klarmann, D; Behr, K P; Neumann, U; Seedorf, J; Hartung, J; Jeske, C

    2008-04-01

    Composting of poultry carcasses represents an alternative method for disposal in case of an outbreak of an epizootic disease. Two composting experiments, each with a different construction of the compost pile, were carried out in a stable. In the first experiment two layers of turkey carcasses were formed. This compost pile covered with straw was directly built on the ground. In the second experiment no layers of carcasses were formed, and it was assembled on straw bales covered with plastic foil. One part of this compost pile was covered with straw, the other one was additionally covered with plastic foil. In the first experiment in the upper layers of the compost pile temperatures of up to 54.9 degrees C were reached and the decomposition of carcasses was very advanced with no soft tissues remaining after 30 days. In contrast temperatures of only 45.2 degrees C were reached in the lower layers and decomposition was far less advanced. This difference in decomposition was most likely caused by the temperature difference observed. In the second experiment the near complete decomposition seen in the upper layers of the compost pile at the first trial, was not achieved. Decomposition was more advanced in the straw covered part of this compost pile than in the part covered with straw and plastic foil. On the other hand, higher temperatures of up to 48.4 degrees C were measured in the lower layers of this compost pile most likely as a result of the increased heat insulation in particular to the ground.

  5. From traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a mixed-methods study of staff experiences of change.

    PubMed

    Barker, Estelle; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-08-01

    Health care organizations, both large and small, frequently undergo processes of change. In fact, if health care organizations are to improve over time, they must change; this includes pain services. The purpose of the present study was to examine a process of change in treatment model within a specialty interdisciplinary pain service in the UK. This change entailed a switch from traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy. An anonymous online survey, including qualitative and quantitative components, was carried out approximately 15 months after the initial introduction of the new treatment model and methods. Fourteen out of 16 current clinical staff responded to the survey. Three themes emerged in qualitative analyses: positive engagement in change; uncertainty and discomfort; and group cohesion versus discord. Quantitative results from closed questions showed a pattern of uncertainty about the superiority of one model over the other, combined with more positive views on progress reflected, and the experience of personal benefits, from adopting the new model. The psychological flexibility model, the model behind acceptance and commitment therapy, may clarify both processes in patient behaviour and processes of staff experience and skilful treatment delivery. This integration of processes on both sides of treatment delivery may be a strength of acceptance and commitment therapy.

  6. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children’s Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.; Carrasco, Miguel Á.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children’s behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children’s (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother–father or child–father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children’s behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582

  7. Analysis of Source Selection Methods and Performance Outcomes: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable vs. Tradeoff in Air Force Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND PERFORMANCE...2. REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) As part of procurement planning, government acquisition teams must select

  8. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  9. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  10. Geophysical investigation using resistivity and GPR methods: a case study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Alexandre Lisboa; Elis, Vagner Roberto; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues; Penner, Giovanni Chaves

    2009-07-01

    Geophysics has been shown to be effective in identifying areas contaminated by waste disposal, contributing to the greater efficiency of soundings programs and the installation of monitoring wells. In the study area, four trenches were constructed with a total volume of about 25,000 m3. They were almost totally filled with re-refined lubricating oil waste for approximately 25 years. No protection liners were used in the bottoms and laterals of the disposal trenches. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of the resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods in characterizing the contamination of this lubricant oil waste disposal area in Ribeirão Preto, SP, situated on the geological domain of the basalt spills of the Serra Geral Formation and the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. Geophysical results were shown in 2D profiles. The geophysical methods used enabled the identification of geophysical anomalies, which characterized the contamination produced by the trenches filled with lubricant oil waste. Conductive anomalies (smaller than 185 Ωm) immediately below the trenches suggest the action of bacteria in the hydrocarbons, as has been observed in several sites contaminated by hydrocarbons in previously reported cases in the literature. It was also possible to define the geometry of the trenches, as evidenced by the GPR method. Direct sampling (chemical analysis of the soil and the water in the monitoring well) confirmed the contamination. In the soil analysis, low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found, mainly naphthalene and phenanthrene. In the water samples, an analysis verified contamination of the groundwater by lead (Pb). The geophysical methods used in the investigation provided an excellent tool for environmental characterization in this study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area, and could be applied in the study of similar areas.

  11. German disposal concept for LLW/ILW: The Project Konrad

    SciTech Connect

    Lempert, J.P.; Czajkowski, U.

    1993-12-31

    The Project Konrad, the future German repository for low and intermediate level waste, currently at the final stages of the licensing procedure, is presented. The repository concept anticipates the final disposal of suitably conditioned LLW and ILW in underground chambers excavated to this purpose in a former iron ore mine. The Konrad mine located near Salzgitter in Lower Saxony, is judged particularly suitable for radioactive waste final disposal due to its very favorable characteristics regarding long-term isolation. The total space available for waste disposal amounts to some 1.1 million m{sup 3}, sufficient to accept some 600,000 m{sup 3} of conditioned wastes.

  12. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Collaborative Care Intervention To Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure: Mixed Methods Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Stephanie; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.; Meek, Paula; McBryde, Connor; Hattler, Brack; Lorenz, Karl A.; Heidenreich, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: People with chronic heart failure (HF) suffer from numerous symptoms that worsen quality of life. The CASA (Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness) intervention was designed to improve symptoms and quality of life by integrating palliative and psychosocial care into chronic care. Objective: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of CASA and identify necessary improvements. Methods: We conducted a prospective mixed-methods pilot trial. The CASA intervention included (1) nurse phone visits involving structured symptom assessments and guidelines to alleviate breathlessness, fatigue, pain, or depression; (2) structured phone counseling targeting adjustment to illness and depression if present; and (3) weekly team meetings with a palliative care specialist, cardiologist, and primary care physician focused on medical recommendations to primary care providers (PCPs, physician or nurse practioners) to improve symptoms. Study subjects were outpatients with chronic HF from a Veteran's Affairs hospital (n=15) and a university hospital (n=2). Measurements included feasibility (cohort retention rate, medical recommendation implementation rate, missing data, quality of care) and acceptability (an end-of-study semi-structured participant interview). Results: Participants were male with a median age of 63 years. One withdrew early and there were <5% missing data. Overall, 85% of 87 collaborative care team medical recommendations were implemented. All participants who screened positive for depression were either treated for depression or thought to not have a depressive disorder. In the qualitative interviews, patients reported a positive experience and provided several constructive critiques. Conclusions: The CASA intervention was feasible based on participant enrollment, cohort retention, implementation of medical recommendations, minimal missing data, and acceptability. Several intervention changes were made based

  13. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  14. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  15. An innovative method for the preparation of mum (Thai fermented sausages) with acceptable technological quality and extended shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2012-11-15

    Freshly-manufactured mum sausages were assigned to two processing methods (process I: stored at ∼30 °C for 14 days; process II: stored at ∼30 °C for three days, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 °C until day 28). Physicochemical, microbial, textural, and sensory properties of samples were analysed. The results showed that dehydration was more intense in process I samples, and resulted in lower moisture content and water activity. Significant decreases in pH values, and increases in lactic acid were observed in both samples by day 3. The total microflora and lactic acid bacteria counts increased rapidly during the fermentation and then decreased while the Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased steadily. Too much dehydration resulted in tough textures and unacceptable sensory qualities for process I samples. In conclusion, after three days of fermentation, with vacuum-packaging, ripening and storage at 4 °C up to 28 days, it is possible to produce mum sausages with better qualities and an extended shelf life.

  16. High Level Waste Disposal System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; M. Connolly; J. Roach; W. Holtzscheiter

    2005-02-01

    The high level waste (HLW) disposal system consists of the Yucca Mountain Facility (YMF) and waste product (e.g. glass) generation facilities. Responsibility for management is shared between the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) and Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The DOE-RW license application and the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), as well as the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) govern the overall performance of the system. This basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider waste form and process technology research and development (R&D), which have been conducted by DOE-EM, international agencies (i.e. ANSTO, CEA), and the private sector; as well as the technical bases for including additional waste forms in the final license application. This will yield a more optimized HLW disposal system to accelerate HLW disposition, more efficient utilization of the YMF, and overall system cost reduction.

  17. Processing and disposal of scales containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.G.; Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Since the discovery that many drill cuttings, scales, sludges, and platings contain elevated amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), many companies and regulating authorities have wondered what is the best method for disposing of this material. This paper covers a process which grinds and slurries this material to a form acceptable for injection to a well. The process consists of (1) classification of material, (2) bulk breakdown, and (3) grinding and slurrying to a consistency which keeps the particles suspended in solution until time for well injection. Well injection takes the form of encapsulation by cementing the well casing below and above the injected NORM during a plug and abandonment operation. In conclusion, the philosophy of the process is to take the NORM generated through the exploration and production of oil and gas and place it back into the reservoir from which it came. This technique is one which protects the environment from the possible hazards associated with mismanaged NORM.

  18. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  1. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  2. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  3. Alternative Trench Disposal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.

    2001-09-05

    During Fiscal Year 2000, a number of activities were conducted to expand the use of trenches for disposal of low-level waste in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). This document presents a summary and interpretation of these activities in the context of future work.

  4. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Robert

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call

  5. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  6. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  7. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 399: Area 18 Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 399 is just a one page summary listing the coordinates of the disposal site which were given at the time (1995) in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. The drawing of the use restricted site also listed the coordinates in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the disposal site with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  11. Discovery of Disposal of Low-Level Waste in Slit Trench Segments Shallower than Analyzed in Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-10-15

    The effect of disposing of low-level waste in slit trenches that are shallower than those analyzed in the revised performance assessment for the E-Area low-level waste facility is evaluated. The conclusion of the evaluation is that such disposal is bounded by the performance assessment if all of the disposed waste packages meet the slit trench Waste Acceptance Criteria and if at least four feet of soil is placed over the disposed waste packages.

  12. Evaluation of treatment, disposal, and managerial options for dredged sediments from Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, and Newton Creek of New York/New Jersey Harbor and proposed design

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Clesceri, N.; Preiss, I.; Stern, E.; Jones, K.; Donato, K.

    1996-11-01

    The bay areas surrounding New York/New Jersey Harbor are naturally shallow, acting as catchments for river-transported sediments and solids from surface point and nonpoint sources. Dredging is required to maintain navigability for large cargo ships. Annually more than 5 million yd{sup 3} of sediments has been dredged to maintain harbors and waterways for New York and New Jersey Harbor. Currently about 80% of dredge sediments are considered clean and ocean disposed of at the designated Mud Dump site, located approximately 6 nautical miles south of Rockaways. In order to be disposed of at the Mud Dump site, the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA) requires the evaluation of the environmental impact using criteria developed by the USEPA and published through 40 CFR Parts 220 to 228. Based on the results of the evaluation, the sediments are assigned one of three categories which defines their potential disposal method--Category 1 sediments (acceptable for ocean disposal), Category 2 sediments (acceptable for ocean disposal with specific mitigation), and Category 3 sediments (not permitted for ocean dumping). A growing public concern over the impacts of contaminated sediments, in addition to a more stringent set of criteria having been established, is expected to significantly increase the volume of sediments requiring special handling or disposal, due to the inability to dispose of Category 3 sediments at the Mud Dump Site. Hence, the objective of this project is to study the contaminant characteristics of sediments in the Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, and Newtown Creek area and identify and evaluate alternative methods for managing or decontaminating sediments that are practical, cost-effective, and protective of human health and the environment.

  13. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  14. Radioactive waste acceptance team and generator interface yields successful implementation of waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.G.; Griffin, W.A.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project has developed a successful Low Level Waste Shipping Program in compliance with the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325, Revision 1. This shipping program is responsible for the successful disposal of more than 4 million cubic feet of Low Level Waste over the past decade. The success of the Fernald Low Level Waste Shipping Program is due to the generator program staff working closely with the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program Team to achieve win/win situations. The teamwork is the direct result of dedicated, proactive professionals working together toward a common objective: the safe disposition of low level radioactive waste. The growth and development of this program has many lessons learned to share with the low level waste generating community. The recognition of reciprocal interests enables consistently high annual volumes of Fernald waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site without incident. The large volumes successfully disposed serve testimony to the success of the program which is equally important to all Nevada Test Site and Fernald stakeholders. The Fernald approach to success is currently being shared with other low-level waste generators through DOE-NV sponsored outreach programs. This paper introduces examples of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation contributions to the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program outreach initiatives. These practices are applicable to other low level waste disposal programs whether federal, commercial, domestic or international.

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin C.; Soong, Te-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass (caused by inconsistent compaction, void space distribution, debris-soil mix ratio, waste material stiffness, time-dependent primary compression of the fine-grained soil matrix, long-term creep settlement of the soil matrix and the debris, etc.) at most land disposal facilities. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties which control differential settlement. An alternative, probabilistic solution is to use random fields to model the waste and sub-grade properties. The modeling effort informs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of land disposal facilities. A probabilistic method to establish design criteria for waste placement and compaction is introduced using the model. Random fields are ideally suited to problems of differential settlement modeling of highly heterogeneous foundations, such as waste. Random fields model the seemingly random spatial distribution of a design parameter, such as compressibility. When used for design, the use of these models prompts the need for probabilistic design criteria. It also allows for a statistical approach to waste placement acceptance criteria. An example design evaluation was performed, illustrating the use of the probabilistic differential settlement simulation methodology to assemble a design guidance chart. The purpose of this design evaluation is to enable the designer to select optimal initial combinations of design slopes and quality control acceptance criteria that yield an acceptable proportion of post-settlement slopes meeting some design minimum. For this specific

  16. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  17. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  18. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  19. Acceptance of Commercially Available Wearable Activity Trackers Among Adults Aged Over 50 and With Chronic Illness: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Giangregorio, Lora; Schneider, Eric; Chilana, Parmit; Li, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increase the risk of chronic illness and death. The newest generation of “wearable” activity trackers offers potential as a multifaceted intervention to help people become more active. Objective To examine the usability and usefulness of wearable activity trackers for older adults living with chronic illness. Methods We recruited a purposive sample of 32 participants over the age of 50, who had been previously diagnosed with a chronic illness, including vascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Participants were between 52 and 84 years of age (mean 64); among the study participants, 23 (72%) were women and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. Participants tested 5 trackers, including a simple pedometer (Sportline or Mio) followed by 4 wearable activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up 24, and Withings Pulse) in random order. Selected devices represented the range of wearable products and features available on the Canadian market in 2014. Participants wore each device for at least 3 days and evaluated it using a questionnaire developed from the Technology Acceptance Model. We used focus groups to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis approach to data collection and analysis. Results Our study resulted in 4 themes: (1) adoption within a comfort zone; (2) self-awareness and goal setting; (3) purposes of data tracking; and (4) future of wearable activity trackers as health care devices. Prior to enrolling, few participants were aware of wearable activity trackers. Most also had been asked by a physician to exercise more and cited this as a motivation for testing the devices. None of the participants planned to purchase the simple pedometer after the study, citing poor accuracy and data loss, whereas 73% (N=32) planned to purchase a wearable activity tracker. Preferences varied but 50% felt they would buy a Fitbit and 42% felt they would buy a Misfit, Jawbone, or

  20. A novel 2D and 3D method for automated insulin granule measurement and its application in assessing accepted preparation methods for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantell, J.; Nam, D.; Bull, D.; Achim, A.; Verkade, P.

    2014-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy images of insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans contain many complex structures, making it difficult to accurately segment insulin granules. Furthermore the appearance of the granules and surrounding halo and limiting membrane can vary enormously depending on the methods used for sample preparation. An automated method has been developed using active contours to segment the insulin core initially and then expand to segment the halos [1]. The method has been validated against manual measurements and also yields higher accuracy than other automated methods [2]. It has then been extended to three dimensions to analyse a tomographic reconstruction from a thick section of the same material. The final step has been to produce a GUI and use the automated process to compare a number of different electron microscopy preparation protocols including chemical fixation (where many of halos are often distended) and to explore the many subtleties of high pressure freezing (where the halos are often minimal, [3]).

  1. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the “Borda” Method: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran’s public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called “Borda” in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software “Math-lab”7, “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. “Borda” estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance

  2. Disposable hydrogel contact lenses for extended wear.

    PubMed

    Donshik, P; Weinstock, F J; Wechsler, S; Asbell, P; Atwood, J; Davis, H; Farkas, B; Farris, R L; Gruber, E; Hartstein, J

    1988-01-01

    Nine ophthalmologists and nine optometrists conducted a premarket study of the Acuvue disposable contact lens manufactured by Vistakon, Inc. Of the 812 patients offered the lens, 733 accepted it and were enrolled in the study. These patients were fitted with the lens and followed for a period of 8 months. Over 98% of these patients had 20/25 or better vision on initial fitting; and subjective ratings of lens comfort were very good. Only 3.7% (27 of 733) discontinued wearing their lenses during the study period. Thirty-four patients (5.6%) experienced a problem while wearing their contact lenses.

  3. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  4. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  5. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  6. A mixed-method evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth-based parent-mediated intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Katherine E; Wainer, Allison L; Bailey, Kathryn M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-10-01

    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has called for the use of service delivery models that are able to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based practices into community settings. This study employed telehealth methods in order to deliver an Internet-based, parent training intervention for autism spectrum disorder, ImPACT Online. This study used mixed-methods analysis to create a more thorough understanding of parent experiences likely to influence the adoption and implementation of the program in community settings. Specific research questions included (1) What are parents' perceptions of the online program? (2) How does ImPACT Online compare to other services that parents are accessing for their children? And (3) Do parents' experience in, and perceptions of, the program differ based on whether they received a therapist-assisted version of the program? Results from 28 parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder indicate that parents saw improvements in their child's social communication skills and their own competence during the course of the program, regardless of whether they received therapist assistance. However, qualitative interviews indicate that parents who received therapist assistance were more likely endorse the acceptability and observability of the program. These findings support the potential for Internet-based service delivery to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based parent training interventions for autism spectrum disorder.

  7. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  9. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  10. Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, R

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed. PMID:738240

  11. Reusable acoustic tweezers for disposable devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Xie, Yuliang; Li, Sixing; Lata, James; Ren, Liqiang; Mao, Zhangming; Ren, Baiyang; Wu, Mengxi; Ozcelik, Adem

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate acoustic tweezers used for disposable devices. Rather than forming an acoustic resonance, we locally transmitted standing surface acoustic waves into a removable, independent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-glass hybridized microfluidic superstrate device for micromanipulation. By configuring and regulating the displacement nodes on a piezoelectric substrate, cells and particles were effectively patterned and transported into said superstrate, accordingly. With the label-free and contactless nature of acoustic waves, the presented technology could offer a simple, accurate, low-cost, biocompatible, and disposable method for applications in the fields of point-of-care diagnostics and fundamental biomedical studies. PMID:26507411

  12. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  13. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  14. Perceptions and acceptability of mHealth interventions for improving patient care at a community-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Kalenge, Sheila; Kelly, Jack F; Bollinger, Robert C; Alamo-Talisuna, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represents a growing array of tools being applied in diverse health care settings. mHealth interventions for improving HIV/AIDS care is a promising strategy, but its evidence base is limited. We conducted a formative research evaluation to inform the development of novel mHealth HIV/AIDS care interventions to be used by community health workers (CHWs) in Kampala, Uganda. A mixed methods formative research approach was utilized. Qualitative methods included 20 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus groups with CHWs, clinic staff, and patients. Thematic analysis was performed and selected quotations used to illustrate themes. Quantitative methods consisted of a survey administered to CHWs and clinic staff, using categorical and Likert scale questions regarding current mobile phone and internet access and perceptions on the potential use of smartphones by CHWs. Qualitative results included themes on significant current care challenges, multiple perceived mHealth benefits, and general intervention acceptability. Key mHealth features desired included tools to verify CHWs' task completions, clinical decision support tools, and simple access to voice calling. Inhibiting factors identified included concerns about CHWs' job security and unrealistic expectations of mHealth capabilities. Quantitative results from 27 staff participants found that 26 (96%) did not have internet access at home, yet only 2 (7.4%) did not own a mobile phone. Likert scale survey responses (1-5, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) indicated general agreement that smartphones would improve efficiency (Mean = 4.35) and patient care (4.31) but might be harmful to patient confidentiality (3.88) and training was needed (4.63). Qualitative and quantitative results were generally consistent, and, overall, there was enthusiasm for mHealth technology. However, a number of potential inhibiting factors were also discovered. Findings from this study may help

  15. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination.

  16. Reliability of tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms: clinical implications from the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System Quality Assurance Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, V; Daly, M K; Cakiner-Egilmez, T; Baker, E

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Given the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System's recent introduction of single-use Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an alternative to Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs), this study had two aims: to conduct a large-scale quality assurance trial to assess the reliability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements of the Tonosafe disposable tonometer compared with GAT, particularly at extremes of pressure; to evaluate the suitability of Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an acceptable substitute for GATs and for clinic-wide implementation in an academic tertiary referral setting. Methods Ophthalmology resident physicians measured the IOPs of patients in general and specialty eye clinics with the Tonosafe disposable tonometer and GAT. Tonosafe test–retest reliability data were also collected. A retrospective review of patient charts and data analysis were performed to determine the reliability of measurements. Results The IOPs of 652 eyes (326 patients) were measured with both GAT and Tonosafe, with a range of 3–34 mm Hg. Linear regression analysis showed R=0.93, slope=0.91, both of which supported the proposed hypothesis, and the y-intercept=−1.05 was significantly different from the hypothesized value. The Tonosafe test–retest repeatability (40 eyes of 40 patients), r=0.977, was very high, which was further supported by linear regression slope=0.993, y-intercept=0.118, and a Tonosafe repeatability coefficient of 2.06, similar to GAT repeatability. Conclusions The IOP measurements by Tonosafe disposable prisms correlated closely with Goldmann measurements, with similar repeated measurement variability to GAT. This suggests that the Tonosafe is an acceptable substitute for GAT to measure IOP in ophthalmology clinic settings. PMID:21455241

  17. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  18. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  19. Household hazardous waste disposal in Benton County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, J.W. ); Rossignol, A.M.

    1993-10-01

    Residents of Benton County, Oregon were studied to assess current and recent disposal practices for hazardous household wastes (HHW), plan for future HHW disposal programs, and guide educational and informational resource strategies that foster the safe disposal of HHW. The study results indicate that many Benton County residents dispose of their HHW by methods that may not protect human health and the environment. These methods include landfilling HHW, pouring HHW on the ground or into sewer/septic systems, and burning HHW. The study suggests that the most viable disposal system for HHW in Benton County is a permanent collection site within easy access (fewer than 10 miles) to potential users and funded by user fees.

  20. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-07-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  1. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  2. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  3. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  4. A new dawn for buried garbage? An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste.

    PubMed

    Johansson, N; Krook, J; Frändegård, P

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  6. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  7. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  8. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  9. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  10. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  11. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  12. Acceptance test procedure for Project W-049H

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, D.I.

    1994-09-29

    The Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) program for Project W-049H (200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility [TEDF]) covers three activities as follows: (1) Disposal System; (2) Collection System; and (3) Instrumentation and Control System. Each activity has its own ATP. The purpose of the ATPs is to reverify that the systems have been constructed in accordance with the construction documents and to demonstrate that the systems function as required by the Project criteria. The Disposal System ATP covers the testing of the following: disposal line flowmeters, room air temperatures in the Disposal Station Sampling Building, effluent valves and position indicators, disposal pond level monitors, automated sampler, pressure relief valves, and overflow diversion sluice gates. The Collection System ATP covers the testing of the two pump stations and all equipment installed therein. The Instrumentation and Control (I and C) ATP covers the testing of the entire TEDF I and C system. This includes 3 OCS units, modem, and GPLI cabinets in the ETC control room; 2 pump stations; disposal station sampling building; and all LCUs installed in the field.

  13. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  14. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  15. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  16. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  17. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  18. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  19. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  20. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  1. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  2. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  3. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  4. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  5. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  6. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-03-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors` offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ``performance evaluations`` for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE`s MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues.

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  9. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  10. On the possibility of radiation equivalent waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, E.O.; Orlov, V.V.; Tocheny, L.V.

    1993-12-31

    The method of radiation equivalent waste disposal due to their long-term controlled cooling, actinides recycle, and burning up and a variety of other measures can be considered for large scale future nuclear power.

  11. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  12. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  13. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  14. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas.

  15. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    The Disposal Container Handling System receives and prepares new disposal containers (DCs) and transfers them to the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) or Canister Transfer System (CTS) for loading. The system receives the loaded DCs from ATS or CTS and welds the lids. When the welds are accepted the DCs are termed waste packages (WPs). The system may stage the WP for later transfer or transfer the WP directly to the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. The system can also transfer DCs/WPs to/from the Waste Package Remediation System. The Disposal Container Handling System begins with new DC preparation, which includes installing collars, tilting the DC upright, and outfitting the container for the specific fuel it is to receive. DCs and their lids are staged in the receipt area for transfer to the needed location. When called for, a DC is put on a cart and sent through an airlock into a hot cell. From this point on, all processes are done remotely. The DC transfer operation moves the DC to the ATS or CTS for loading and then receives the DC for welding. The DC welding operation receives loaded DCs directly from the waste handling lines or from interim lag storage for welding of the lids. The welding operation includes mounting the DC on a turntable, removing lid seals, and installing and welding the inner and outer lids. After the weld process and non-destructive examination are successfully completed, the WP is either staged or transferred to a tilting station. At the tilting station, the WP is tilted horizontally onto a cart and the collars removed. The cart is taken through an air lock where the WP is lifted, surveyed, decontaminated if required, and then moved into the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. DCs that do not meet the welding non-destructive examination criteria are transferred to the Waste Package Remediation System for weld preparation or removal of the lids. The Disposal Container Handling System is contained within the Waste Handling Building System

  16. Avian influenza outbreak management: action at time of confirmation, depopulation and disposal methods; the 'Belgian experience' during the H7N7 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic in 2003.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T; Houdart, P

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of H5 and H7 influenza in a positive flock will include mass depopulation of birds, containment and inactivation of the virus in the carcasses and litter, and decontamination of the facility. A quick response is desired in the event of a disease outbreak. Ideally, birds should be depopulated within 24 h after detecting the virus. Mass depopulation of birds must be performed in a humane manner while minimizing human health and biosecurity risks. In the framework of the European legislation, a number of methods are authorized for the killing of poultry for processing prior to marketing. However, during emergencies such as a disease outbreak, there are fewer options. The current most commonly used procedures for large-scale emergency depopulation of birds consist of exposing poultry to CO or CO(2) gas. Both gasses have been used in Belgium during the H7N7 crisis in 2003. The gassing procedures include whole house gassing, portable panel enclosures, cage cabinets, containers and polyethylene tent method. Whole house gassing requires sealing the house to prevent gas leakage and, using specialized equipment, introducing large volumes of gas evenly over the birds. All procedures are very labour intensive, create a biosecurity risk and require a large number of personnel. There are considerable region-to-region differences in emergency depopulation techniques and disposal of carcasses and infected material. Because of the differences in bird type and species, management, housing and stocking density, it is difficult to propose a depopulation technique that will be suitable for all circumstances. Safety of the human operators is an increasing concern with all H5 and H7 strains and in particular with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain. Researchers and commercial poultry companies in the United States recently established that non-toxic water-based foam with a certain bubble size presents a practicable, effective and humane method for mass depopulation. Foam of the

  17. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  18. Solid waste treatment and disposal: effects on public health and environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Geoffrey

    2003-12-01

    The safety and acceptability of many widely used solid waste management practices are of serious concern from the public health point of view. Such concern stems from both distrust of policies and solutions proposed by all tiers of government for the management of solid waste and a perception that many solid waste management facilities use poor operating procedures. Waste management practice that currently encompasses disposal, treatment, reduction, recycling, segregation and modification has developed over the past 150 years. Before that and in numerous more recent situations, all wastes produced were handled by their producers using simple disposal methods, including terrestrial dumping, dumping into both fresh and marine waters and uncontrolled burning. In spite of ever-increasing industrialisation and urbanisation, the dumping of solid waste, particularly in landfills, remains a prominent means of disposal and implied treatment. Major developments have occurred with respect to landfill technology and in the legislative control of the categories of wastes that can be subject to disposal by landfilling. Even so, many landfills remain primitive in their operation. Alternative treatment technologies for solid waste management include incineration with heat recovery and waste gas cleaning and accelerated composting, but both of these technologies are subject to criticism either by environmentalists on the grounds of possible hazardous emissions, failure to eliminate pathogenic agents or failure to immobilise heavy metals, or by landfill operators and contractors on the basis of waste management economics, while key questions concerning the effects of the various practices on public health and environmental safety remain unanswered. The probable and relative effects on both public health and environmental safety of tradition and modern landfill technologies will be evaluated with respect to proposed alternative treatment technologies.

  19. EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-14

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.

  20. High-level waste disposal, ethics and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2008-06-01

    Moral philosophy applied to nuclear waste disposal can be linked to paradigmatic science. Simple thermodynamic principles tell us something about rightness or wrongness of our action. Ethical judgement can be orientated towards the chemical compatibility between waste container and geological repository. A container-repository system as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium is ethically acceptable. It aims at unlimited stability, similar to the stability of natural metal deposits within the Earth’s crust. The practicability of the guideline can be demonstrated.

  1. Willingness to Know the Cause of Death and Hypothetical Acceptability of the Minimally Invasive Autopsy in Six Diverse African and Asian Settings: A Mixed Methods Socio-Behavioural Study

    PubMed Central

    Maixenchs, Maria; Anselmo, Rui; Zielinski-Gutiérrez, Emily; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Akello, Clarah; Zaidi, S. Shujaat H.; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Diarra, Kounandji; Djitèye, Mahamane; Dembélé, Roukiatou; Sow, Samba; Minsoko, Pamela Cathérine Angoissa; Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Ismail, Mamudo R.; Carrilho, Carla; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) is being investigated as an alternative to complete diagnostic autopsies for cause of death (CoD) investigation. Before potential implementation of the MIA in settings where post-mortem procedures are unusual, a thorough assessment of its feasibility and acceptability is essential. Methods and Findings We conducted a socio-behavioural study at the community level to understand local attitudes and perceptions related to death and the hypothetical feasibility and acceptability of conducting MIAs in six distinct settings in Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. A total of 504 interviews (135 key informants, 175 health providers [including formal health professionals and traditional or informal health providers], and 194 relatives of deceased people) were conducted. The constructs “willingness to know the CoD” and “hypothetical acceptability of MIAs” were quantified and analysed using the framework analysis approach to compare the occurrence of themes related to acceptability across participants. Overall, 75% (379/504) of the participants would be willing to know the CoD of a relative. The overall hypothetical acceptability of MIA on a relative was 73% (366/504). The idea of the MIA was acceptable because of its perceived simplicity and rapidity and particularly for not “mutilating” the body. Further, MIAs were believed to help prevent infectious diseases, address hereditary diseases, clarify the CoD, and avoid witchcraft accusations and conflicts within families. The main concerns regarding the procedure included the potential breach of confidentiality on the CoD, the misperception of organ removal, and the incompatibility with some religious beliefs. Formal health professionals were concerned about possible contradictions between the MIA findings and the clinical pre-mortem diagnoses. Acceptability of the MIA was equally high among Christian and Islamic communities. However, in the two predominantly

  2. Determining criteria for the disposal of iodine-129

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.

    1980-10-01

    The basic consideration in the disposal of the /sup 129/I produced by the nuclear power industry is that humans must be protected from unacceptable radiation risks. Existing standards prescribe maximum concentrations in air and water and, more recently, a maximum release per unit of electrical power production. The global quantity, distribution, and rate of movement of /sup 127/I (natural iodine), naturally produced /sup 129/I, and anthropogenic /sup 129/I are examined. The /sup 129/I released earlier as a result of nuclear activities over the past few decades is not uniformly dispersed. But the possibility of much greater dispersion exists and, therefore, of much greater dilution than was previously attempted. The potential for dilution with respect to either the /sup 129/I concentration or the /sup 129/I//sup 127/I ratio far exceeds the minimum required for acceptable exposure to mankind. For utilizing the dilution principle, it is preferable to package and dispose of /sup 129/I separately from other fission products. The deep ocean is seen to be the logical location for ultimate disposal. A set of 14 basic items is described that can be used to set criteria for storage and disposal of /sup 129/I. It is suggested that preliminary standards be developed on these and perhaps other items to apply to (1) temporary storage and transportation, (2) disposal to a dry environment with a time limitation on calculated behavior, and (3) disposal to the deep ocean with complete release permitted in 10/sup 3/ yr. Early quantification of some of these items will permit better decisions on further research and development needed for iodine removal or control, fixation, and disposal.

  3. Recycling and Disposal of CFLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Consumers can help prevent the release of mercury into the environment by taking advantage of available local options for recycling CFLs and other household hazardous wastes, rather than disposing of them in regular household trash.

  4. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  5. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  6. Developing biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Progress report, April 1, 1985--October 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    During the first year of this contract great efforts were made to develop methods for (1) characterizing bacteria from soil and sediment, (2) evaluating the ability of single and mixed soil bacterial isolates to, (a) bioconcentrate, (b) biodegrade and/or (c) precipitate inorganic and organic pollutants and (3) expanding current concepts for treating waste in aqueous (i.e. biological waste treatment system) and solid media (i.e. in situ soil (soil) treatment system). The development of the above methods are in the final stages of completion and we have as a result of these efforts isolated from soil (1) a mixed culture which precipitate toxic metals (i.e. mercury cadmium, lead etc.) and (2) single isolates which bioconcentrate a variety of toxic metals. Methods for screening soil bacterial isolates for their ability to concentrate, degrade and/or precipitate environmental pollutants have been developed. The development of those methods will allow the staff at ORRI to quickly screen hundreds of samples in our attempt to isolate bacteria capable of degrading, concentrating and/or precipitating inorganics and organics in aqueous and solid waste. The results of these studies are summarized below.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer.

  8. Unsustainable Wind Turbine Blade Disposal Practices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Tejeda, Katerin; Turcotte, David A; Pike, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Finding ways to manage the waste from the expected high number of wind turbine blades in need of disposal is crucial to harvest wind energy in a truly sustainable manner. Landfilling is the most cost-effective disposal method in the United States, but it imposes significant environmental impacts. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes allow for some energy and/or material recovery, but they also carry potential negative externalities. This article explores the main economic and environmental issues with various wind turbine blade disposal methods. We argue for the necessity of policy intervention that encourages industry to develop better technologies to make wind turbine blade disposal sustainable, both environmentally and economically. We present some of the technological initiatives being researched, such as the use of bio-derived resins and thermoplastic composites in the manufacturing process of the blades.

  9. Wastewater Disposal Wells, Fracking, and Environmental Injustice in Southern Texas

    PubMed Central

    Werder, Emily; Sebastian, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate race and poverty in areas where oil and gas wastewater disposal wells, which are used to permanently inject wastewater from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations, are permitted. Methods. With location data of oil and gas disposal wells permitted between 2007 and 2014 in the Eagle Ford area, a region of intensive fracking in southern Texas, we analyzed the racial composition of residents living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well and those farther away, adjusting for rurality and poverty, using a Poisson regression. Results. The proportion of people of color living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well was 1.3 times higher than was the proportion of non-Hispanic Whites. Adjusting for rurality, disposal wells were 2.04 times (95% confidence interval = 2.02, 2.06) as common in areas with 80% people of color or more than in majority White areas. Disposal wells are also disproportionately sited in high-poverty areas. Conclusions. Wastewater disposal wells in southern Texas are disproportionately permitted in areas with higher proportions of people of color and residents living in poverty, a pattern known as “environmental injustice.” PMID:26794166

  10. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  11. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  12. Handbook on Hypergolic Propellant Discharges and Disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, T. E.; Sivik, H. E.; Thomas, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of all treatment methods formerly or currently used in treating chemical wastes is assessed with emphasis on the disposal of hypergolic propellants. Maximum focus is on the space shuttle propellants MMH and N2O4. Except for hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, all the propellants are nitrogen based and can be potentially reduced to valuable plant nutrients. In theory, all the propellants can be reduced to carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, except of fuming nitric acid which contains a small amount of fluorine. Appendices cover: (1) a general design criteria for disposal ponds; (2) thermal aspects of reaction in dilute solution; (3) gas bubble growth, detachment, and rise (4) absorption scrubber fundamentals and descriptions; (5) separation of a propellant vapor from a helium stream by permeation; and (6) atmospheric emission limits.

  13. Electrochemical Disposal of Hydrazines in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jinseong; Gonzalez-Mar, Anuncia; Salinas, Carlos; Rutherford, Larris; Jeng, King-Tsai; Andrews, Craig; Yalamanchili, Ratlaya

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical method of disposal of hydrazines dissolved in water has been devised. The method is applicable to hydrazine (N2H4), to monomethyl hydrazine [also denoted by MMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)HNNH2], and to unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine [also denoted UDMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)2NNH2]. The method involves a room-temperature process that converts the hydrazine to the harmless products N2, H2O, and, in some cases, CO2

  14. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  15. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  16. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  17. 40 CFR 191.24 - Disposal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.24 Disposal standards. (a) Disposal systems. (1) General. Disposal systems for waste and...

  18. Whole Glove Permeation of Cyclohexanol Through Disposable Nitrile Gloves on a Dextrous Robot Hand and Comparison with the Modified Closed-Loop ASTM F739 Method 1. No Fist Clenching.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Airek R; Que Hee, Shane S

    2016-10-18

    The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time tb, standardized breakthrough time ts, steady state permeation rate Ps, and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue, and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water. Aliquots of 1.0 mL were sampled at regular time intervals for the first 60 min followed by removal of 0.5 mL aliquots every hour to 8 h. Quantification was by the internal standard method after gas chromatography-selective ion electron impact mass spectrometry using a non-polar capillary column. The individual glove values of tb and ts differed for the ASTM closed loop method except for Safeskin Blue, but did not for the whole glove method. Most of the kinetic parameters agreed within an order of magnitude for the two techniques. The order of most protective to least protective glove was Blue and Safeskin, then Purple followed by Sterling for the whole gloves. The analogous order for the modified F739 ASTM closed loop method was: Safeskin, Blue, Purple, and Sterling, almost the same as for the whole glove. The Sterling glove was "not recommended" from the closed-loop data, and was "poor" from the whole glove data.

  19. Multi-discipline Waste Acceptance Process at the Nevada National Security Site - 13573

    SciTech Connect

    Carilli, Jhon T.; Krenzien, Susan K.

    2013-07-01

    The Nevada National Security Site low-level radioactive waste disposal facility acceptance process requires multiple disciplines to ensure the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. These disciplines, which include waste acceptance, nuclear criticality, safety, permitting, operations, and performance assessment, combine into the overall waste acceptance process to assess low-level radioactive waste streams for disposal at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Four waste streams recently highlighted the integration of these disciplines: the Oak Ridge Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project material, West Valley Melter, and classified waste. (authors)

  20. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site`s long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  2. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  3. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... disposal location during disposal. This method of release is expected to spread material at the Sites to... suspended by wave action near the seafloor. The Sites are not expected to change these characteristics....

  4. Summary of the study of disposal of nuclear waste into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    NASA, at the request of the AEC, is conducting a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of disposing of nuclear waste material into space. The study has indicated that the Space Shuttle together with expendable and nonexpendable orbital stages such as the Space Tug or Centaur can safety dispose of waste material by ejecting it from the solar system. The safety problems associated with all phases of launching and operation (normal, emergency and accident) of such a system are being examined. From the preliminary study it appears that solutions can be found that should make the risks acceptable when compared to the benefits to be obtained from the disposal of the nuclear waste.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  8. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  9. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  10. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  11. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for...

  12. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  13. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  14. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pyles; Jhon Carilli

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program. However, the NNSA/NSO has identified DOE complex-wide issues: (1) the temporary closure of the Hanford facility to off-site generators leaves the NTS as the only Federal facility able to dispose of MLLW. If the Hanford facility is not permitted to accept waste from off-site generators after December 2010, the DOE complex will have no Federal facility

  15. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  16. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Daquin, Jérôme; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the global navigation satellite systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow for an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term-stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunningly rich dynamical structure of the MEO region towards the analysis of these disposal strategies for Galileo, and discuss the practical implications of resonances and chaos in this regime. We outline how the identification of the hyperbolic and elliptic fixed points of the resonances near Galileo can lead to explicit criteria for defining optimal disposal strategies.

  17. Hazard assessment research strategy for ocean disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, J.H.; Bierman, V.J.; Paul, J.F.; Walker, H.A.; Miller, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A decision rationale for ocean disposal based on a predictive hazard assessment research strategy is presented. The conceptual framework for hazard assessment is outlined, and its major components are identified and discussed. The strategy involves the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimating the probability (risk) of harm to the aquatic environment. The exposure assessment component consists of methodologies for determining biological effects as a function of contaminant exposure concentrations. Two case studies illustrate how a hazard assessment strategy synthesizes exposure and effects information to provide a casual linkage between mass inputs of contaminants and biological effects. The first study examines sewage-sludge disposal at Deep-water Dumpsite-106. The second study, which examines the disposal of dredged material in a shallow coastal site in central Long Island Sound, is a field verification program designed to test methodologies required for the acquisition of exposure and effects information. Both the laboratory and field data are synthesized to evaluate the accuracy and confidence of predictions of the individual methods, the tiered hierarchal concept, and the final prediction.

  18. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of Compacted Job Control Waste, Non-compactible, Non-incinerable Waste, And Other Wasteforms In Slit Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    WILHITE, ELMERL.

    2000-05-04

    The effect of trench disposal of low-level wasteforms that were not analyzed in the original performance assessment for the E-Area low-level waste facility, but were analyzed in the revised performance assessment is evaluated. This evaluation was conducted to provide a bridge from the current waste acceptance criteria, which are based on the original performance assessment, to those that will be developed from the revised performance assessment. The conclusion of the evaluation is that any waste except for materials that would retain radionuclides more strongly than soil that meets the radionuclide concentration of package limits for trench burial based on the revised performance assessment, and presented in Table 1 of this document, is suitable for trench disposal; provided that, for cellulosic material the current 40 percent restriction is retained. Table 2 of this document lists materials acceptable for trench disposal.

  19. Feasibility and Acceptability of Global Positioning System (GPS) Methods to Study the Spatial Contexts of Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A P18 Cohort Sub-Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Kapadia, Farzana; Regan, Seann D.; Goedel, William C.; Levy, Michael D.; Barton, Staci C.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Background No global positioning system (GPS) technology study has been conducted among a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM). As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using GPS methods to understand the spatial context of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of YMSM in New York City, a high-risk population. Methods Data came from a subsample of the ongoing P18 Cohort Study (n = 75). GPS feasibility and acceptability among participants was measured with: 1) a pre- and post-survey and 2) adherence to the GPS protocol which included returning the GPS device, self-report of charging and carrying the GPS device as well as objective data analyzed from the GPS devices. Analyses of the feasibility surveys were treated as repeated measures as each participant had a pre- and post-feasibility survey. When comparing the similar GPS survey items asked at baseline and at follow-up, we present percentages and associated p-values based on chi-square statistics. Results Participants reported high ratings of pre-GPS acceptability, ease of use, and low levels of wear-related concerns in addition to few concerns related to safety, loss, or appearance, which were maintained after baseline GPS feasibility data collection. The GPS return rate was 100%. Most participants charged and carried the GPS device on most days. Of the total of 75 participants with GPS data, 75 (100%) have at least one hour of GPS data for one day and 63 (84%) had at least one hour on all 7 days. Conclusions Results from this pilot study demonstrate that utilizing GPS methods among YMSM is feasible and acceptable. GPS devices may be used in spatial epidemiology research in YMSM populations to understand place-based determinants of health such as substance use and sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26918766

  20. Summary of the study of disposal of nuclear waste into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    The space shuttle together with expendable and nonexpendable orbital stages such as the space tug or Centaur can safely dispose of waste material by ejecting it from the solar system. The safety problems associated with all phases of launching and operation (normal, emergency, and accident) of such a system are being examined. It appears that solutions can be found that should make the risks acceptable when compared to the benefits to be obtained from the disposal of the nuclear waste. The techniques proposed to make such a system acceptable need to be carefully verified by further study and experiment.

  1. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  2. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  3. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  4. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  5. Remediation of a Former USAF Radioactive Material Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. E.; Cushman, M; Tupyi, B.; Lambert, J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the remediation of a low-level radiological waste burial site located at the former James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas. Burial activities at the site occurred during the 1950's when the property was under the ownership of the United States Air Force. Included is a discussion of methods and strategies that were used to successfully exhume and characterize the wastes for proper disposal at offsite disposal facilities. Worker and environmental protection measures are also described. Information gained from this project may be used at other similar project sites. A total of nine burial tubes had been identified for excavation, characterization, and removal from the site. The disposal tubes were constructed of 4-ft lengths of concrete pipe buried upright with the upper ends flush with ground surface. Initial ground level observations of the burial tubes indicated that some weathering had occurred; however, the condition of the subsurface portions of the tubes was unknown. Soil excavation occurred in 1-foot lifts in order that the tubes could be inspected and to allow for characterization of the soils at each stage of the excavation. Due to the weight of the concrete pipe and the condition of the piping joints it was determined that special measures would be required to maintain the tubes intact during their removal. Special tube anchoring and handling methods were required to relocate the tubes from their initial positions to a staging area where they could be further characterized. Characterization of the disposal tubes was accomplished using a combination of gamma spectroscopy and activity mapping methods. Important aspects of the project included the use of specialized excavation and disposal tube reinforcement measures to maintain the disposal tubes intact during excavation, removal and subsequent characterization. The non-intrusive gamma spectroscopy and data logging methods allowed for effective characterization of the wastes while

  6. Disposable adult breathing circuits for use with critical care ventilators.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    In this issue, we evaluate seven models of disposable breathing circuits from seven manufacturers; the evaluated circuits are intended to be used for adult patients on critical care ventilators. This study is a follow-up to our earlier Evaluation of disposable breathing circuits for use with portable ventilators, published in Health Devices 22(7), July 1993. We based our ratings on the breathing circuits' ability to function properly with minimal intervention from the healthcare provider. We rated only one of the evaluated units Acceptable; this circuit was not likely to interrupt ventilation during normal use (provided that its operation was verified before use). Three of the evaluated breathing circuits were rated Unacceptable because they had disadvantages that were likely to interrupt ventilation during normal use (e.g., a component could accidentally disconnect, the tubing could become kinked or crushed). When such a disadvantage could be compensated for by the healthcare provider, we rated the circuit Conditionally Acceptable: one circuit was rated Conditionally Acceptable; two circuits that had other significant disadvantages were rated Conditionally Acceptable--Not Recommended. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our ratings alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding our conclusions, which can be gained by reading this study in its entirety. We offer additional guidance and discuss important selection factors and usage issues in the Selection and Use Guide for Disposable Breathing Circuits included at the end of the Evaluation. Also see "Pre-use Verification of Breathing Circuits" in this issue for step-by-step guidelines to help healthcare providers and caregivers verify proper performance and identify the defective circuits that inevitably reach the clinical setting.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  11. Environmental management of quarries as waste disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Sadek, S; Chahine, W

    2001-04-01

    Problems associated with the disposal of municipal solid waste have become a source of public concern worldwide as awareness of potential adverse environmental impacts and health threats from solid waste has increased. Communities are concerned about the generation and management of solid waste to the extent of refusing to allow new disposal facilities near their homes, often after witnessing the legacy of existing facilities. Under these conditions, the development of national policies for the management of solid waste becomes highly political, all while requiring appropriate technical solutions that ensure environmental protection and proper management plans that support an acceptable solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. In some locations, the conversion of old quarries into well-engineered and controlled landfills appears as a promising solution to a continuously increasing problem, at least for many decades to come. This paper describes the environmental impacts associated with solid waste disposal in a converted quarry site and the mitigation measures that can be adopted to alleviate potential adverse impacts. Environmental management and monitoring plans are also discussed in the context of ensuring adequate environmental protection during and after the conversion process.

  12. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-02-26

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators.

  13. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  14. Alternate Methods for Disposal of Nitrocellulose Fines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-22

    edition$ are obsolete. UNLSSFE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIPICATION OP THIS PAGE recycled; and, being ubituitous in nature , are not considered...Matrix xomparison of technologies ................. 22 3.4 Ranking and seleccion of technologies ............. 26 4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1...ubiquitous in nature , are not considered pollutants anyway. There are several "ready technologies" that appear to be capable of removing NC fines more

  15. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  16. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  17. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  18. HANDBOOK: SEPTAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal purpose of the handbook is to present an up-to-date review of available design, performance, operation and maintenance, cost, and energy information pertaining to the receiving, treatment, and disposal of septage. Septage is the liquid and solid material pumped from...

  19. The Evolution of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Practices at the Savannah River Site Coupled with Vigorous Stakeholder Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, W. T.; Wilhite, E. L.; Cook, J. R.; Sauls, V. W.

    2002-02-25

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal practices at SRS evolved from trench disposal with little long-term performance basis to disposal in robust concrete vaults, again without modeling long-term performance. Now, based on an assessment of long-term performance of various waste forms and methods of disposal, the LLW disposal program allows for a ''smorgasbord'' of various disposal techniques and waste forms, all modeled to ensure long-term performance is understood. New disposal techniques include components-in-grout, compaction/volume reduction prior to disposal, and trench disposal of extremely low activity waste. Additionally, factoring partition coefficient (Kd) measurements based on waste forms has been factored into performance models. This paper will trace the development of the different disposal methods, and the extensive public communications effort that resulted in endorsement of the changes by the SRS Citizens Advisory Board.

  20. A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL (DST) FOR DISPOSAL OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper AFTER A BUILDING OR WATER TREATMENT/DISTRIBUTION FACILITY HAS GONE THROUGH DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES FOLLOWING A CONTAMINATION EVENT WITH CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS OR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL, THERE WILL BE A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF RESIDUAL MATERIAL AND WASTE TO BE DISPOSED. A CONTAMINATION EVENT COULD OCCUR FROM TERRORIST ACTIVITY OR FROM A NATURAL DISASTER SUCH AS THE RECENT HURRICANE EVENTS IN THE GULF COAST WHERE MOLD AND POLLUTANTS FROM DAMAGED CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES HAVE RESULTED IN SIGNIFICANT QUANTITIES OF CONTAMINATED MATERIALS. IT iS LIKELY THAT MUCH OF THIS MATERIAL WILL BE DISPOSED OF IN PERMITTED LANDFILLS OR HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMAL INCINERATION FACILITIES. DATA HAS BEEN COLLECTED FROM THE OPEN LITERATURE, FROM STATE AND FEDERAL REGULATORY AGENCIES, AND FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT AND WATER UTILITY INDUSTRY STAKEHOLDER GROUPS, TO DEVELOP TECHNICAL GUIDANCE FOR DISPOSAL OF THESe RESIDUES. THE INFORMATION BECOMES AVAILABLE, AND OLD INFORMATION (SUCH AS CONTACT INFORMATION FOR KEY PERSONNEL) CHANGES. THE PRiMARY AUDIENCE FOR THIS TOOL WILL BE: 1) EMERGENCY RESPONSE AUTHORITIES WHO HAVE TO DECIDE THE MOST APPROPRIATE DECONTAMINATION METHODS AND DISPOSAL OF THE RESULTING RESIDUES; 2)STATE AND LOCAL PERMITTING AGENCIES, WHO HAVE TO MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT WHICH FACILITIES WILL BE ALLOWED TO DISPOSE OF THE MATERIALS: AND 3) THE WASTE MANAGEMENT AND WATER UTILITY INDUSTRY, THAT NEEDS TO SAFELY DISPOSE OF DECONTAMINATION RESIDUE

  1. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mark S.

    2008-01-15

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation

  2. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pre-treating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste.

  3. Research on bodies of the executed in German anatomy: an accepted method that changed during the Third Reich. Study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    While it is known that bodies of the executed were used for anatomical research in Germany during the Third Reich, it is unclear whether this type of work was unique to the time period or more common in Germany than elsewhere. The dissected persons and the anatomists involved have not been fully investigated. This study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951 shows that 166 out of 7,438 [2.2%] German language articles mentioned the use of "material" from the bodies of executed persons. In comparison, only 2 out of 4,702 English language articles explicitly mentioned bodies of the executed. From 1924 to1932, 33 of a total of 3,734 [1%] German articles listed the use of the executed. From 1933 to 1938 the number rose to 46 out of 2,265 [2%], and increased again from 1939 to 1945 to 73 out of 984 [7%]. After the war 15 out of 455 [3%] still dealt with "material" from the executed. German anatomists' familiarity with the use of the executed as a standard for healthy tissues even before 1933 may have contributed to the ease with which they accepted the "opportunities" (large-scale studies and research on women) presented to them by unlimited access to bodies of the executed provided by the abusive National Socialist (NS) legislation and continued using them for some years after the war. German postwar anatomy was built in part on the bodies of NS victims. Information given in some publications will help with further identification of these victims.

  4. Scarless deletion of up to seven methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes with an optimized method highlights key function of CheM in Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christiane; Walter, Steffi; Bender, Jennifer K; Gerlach, Roman G

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus. Our new dual-functional plasmid pWRG730 allows for heat-inducible expression of the λ Red recombinase and tet-inducible production of I-SceI. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) are transmembrane chemoreceptors for a vast set of environmental signals including amino acids, sugars, ions and oxygen. Based on the sensory input of MCPs, chemotaxis is a key component for Salmonella virulence. To determine the contribution of individual MCPs we sequentially deleted seven MCP genes. The individual mutations were validated by PCR and genetic integrity of the final seven MCP mutant WRG279 was confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The successive MCP mutants were functionally tested in a HeLa cell infection model which revealed increased invasion rates for non-chemotactic mutants and strains lacking the MCP CheM (Tar). The phenotype of WRG279 was reversed with plasmid-based expression of CheM. The complemented WRG279 mutant showed also partially restored chemotaxis in swarming assays on semi-solid agar. Our optimized scarless deletion protocol enables efficient and precise manipulation of the Salmonella genome. As demonstrated with whole genome sequencing, multiple subsequent mutagenesis steps can be realized without the introduction of unwanted mutations. The sequential deletion of seven MCP genes revealed a significant role of CheM for the interaction of S. Typhimurium with host cells which might give

  5. Scarless deletion of up to seven methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes with an optimized method highlights key function of CheM in Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christiane; Walter, Steffi; Bender, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus. Our new dual-functional plasmid pWRG730 allows for heat-inducible expression of the λ Red recombinase and tet-inducible production of I-SceI. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) are transmembrane chemoreceptors for a vast set of environmental signals including amino acids, sugars, ions and oxygen. Based on the sensory input of MCPs, chemotaxis is a key component for Salmonella virulence. To determine the contribution of individual MCPs we sequentially deleted seven MCP genes. The individual mutations were validated by PCR and genetic integrity of the final seven MCP mutant WRG279 was confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The successive MCP mutants were functionally tested in a HeLa cell infection model which revealed increased invasion rates for non-chemotactic mutants and strains lacking the MCP CheM (Tar). The phenotype of WRG279 was reversed with plasmid-based expression of CheM. The complemented WRG279 mutant showed also partially restored chemotaxis in swarming assays on semi-solid agar. Our optimized scarless deletion protocol enables efficient and precise manipulation of the Salmonella genome. As demonstrated with whole genome sequencing, multiple subsequent mutagenesis steps can be realized without the introduction of unwanted mutations. The sequential deletion of seven MCP genes revealed a significant role of CheM for the interaction of S. Typhimurium with host cells which might give

  6. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  7. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  8. Disposal of Unused Drugs: Knowledge and Behavior Among People Around the World.

    PubMed

    Paut Kusturica, Milica; Tomas, Ana; Sabo, Ana

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the practice of medication disposal around the world and get insight into possible association between environmental awareness and people's behavior regarding this issue. A literature search (2005-2015) was performed to identify reports with quantitative data on disposal practices published in peer-reviewed literature. The most common method for disposal of unused medications in households is disposal in the garbage (Kuwait, United Kingdom, Lithuania, Qatar, Serbia, Ghana, Bangladesh, Malta and Saudi Arabia). The practice of flushing drugs into the sewage system still takes place in New Zealand, USA and Bangladesh. Only in Sweden and Germany, practice of returning drugs to pharmacy was practiced to a larger extent. The environmental impact of improper medication disposal is expected in countries with poorly functioning waste management schemes (Middle Eastern, Asian and African countries). Lack of the adequate information and clear instructions on proper manners of drug disposal was reported in many surveyed countries (USA, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Malta and Ireland). Clear and definite connection between knowledge about environmental detrimental effects of improper drug disposal and the preference towards disposal methods could not be established. Many respondents were generally concerned with issues of inadequate medicines discarding but the behavior regarding disposal of unused drugs often did not equate the awareness (Serbia, USA, Kuwait, Malta and UK). The current data emphasizes the global issue of improper medicine disposal, prevalent in environmentally-aware people.

  9. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  10. A primer for health care managers: data sanitization, equipment disposal, and electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Cathy M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, security regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act concerning data sanitization and the disposal of media containing stored electronic protected health information are discussed, and methods for effective sanitization and media disposal are presented. When disposing of electronic media, electronic waste-or e-waste-is produced. Electronic waste can harm human health and the environment. Responsible equipment disposal methods can minimize the impact of e-waste. Examples of how health care organizations can meet the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations while also behaving responsibly toward the environment are provided. Examples include the environmental stewardship activities of reduce, reuse, reeducate, recover, and recycle.

  11. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  12. Alternatives for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Waste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    originating activity by DTIC. Address your request for additional copies to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 0...LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 1 Specific Activity of Depleted Uranium Sand Mixture ......... .................. 8 2 Disposal at Department of Energy...exceed the allowable limits for on-site disposal. This material must be disposed of at a commercial low-level radio- active waste disposal site. Because

  13. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of LLW in an Engineered Trench rather than in Slit Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    WILHITE, ELMERL.

    2000-12-18

    Following issuance of the original document (i.e., rev. 0), it was discovered that an error was made in stating the dimensions and volume of the Engineered Trench and the incorrect volume was used in calculating the concentration limits (i.e. the inventory limit divided by the volumetric waste capacity of the unit) in the tables. The terminology of calling the average concentrations ''limits'' proved problematic in managing the inventory limits through the deviation process. Since the average concentration values presented serve no essential purpose (Waste Acceptance Criteria are derived from the inventory limits), they were removed from the tables. Also, the name of the disposal unit was changed from the MegaTrench to the Engineered Trench. For clarification, a statement was added that differences in dimensions of disposal units of less than about 10 percent are inconsequential from a PA perspective.

  14. Cost estimates and economic evaluations for conceptual LLRW disposal facility designs

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.D.; Chau, N.; Breeds, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Total life-cycle costs were estimated in support of the New York LLRW Siting Commission`s project to select a disposal method from four near-surface LLRW disposal methods (namely, uncovered above-grade vaults, covered above-grade vaults, below-grade vaults, and augered holes) and two mined methods (namely, vertical shaft mines and drift mines). Conceptual designs for the disposal methods were prepared and used as the basis for the cost estimates. Typical economic performance of each disposal method was assessed. Life-cycle costs expressed in 1994 dollars ranged from $ 1,100 million (for below-grade vaults and both mined disposal methods) to $2,000 million (for augered holes). Present values ranged from $620 million (for below-grade vaults) to $ 1,100 million (for augered holes).

  15. Options for the disposal of unwanted donations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E R

    1990-10-01

    Donations of biomedical books and journals frequently duplicate the holdings of a receiving library. A decision must then be made concerning the distribution of the material to other libraries that may need it. What options are available to the librarian? Are many volumes of valuable material destroyed each year because libraries lack the necessary staff, space, or money to distribute donated materials? Are libraries restricted in choice of methods for distribution or unaware of available options? A survey questionnaire was mailed to 150 health sciences libraries in the spring of 1988 to determine the various methods used to dispose of unwanted gift materials. A total of 113 responses was received (75% return rate). This paper reports the results and discusses some of the creative methods used by receiving libraries to place unneeded materials. Statistical comparisons are included for the methods used by academic, hospital, and other types of health sciences libraries.

  16. Options for the disposal of unwanted donations.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, E R

    1990-01-01

    Donations of biomedical books and journals frequently duplicate the holdings of a receiving library. A decision must then be made concerning the distribution of the material to other libraries that may need it. What options are available to the librarian? Are many volumes of valuable material destroyed each year because libraries lack the necessary staff, space, or money to distribute donated materials? Are libraries restricted in choice of methods for distribution or unaware of available options? A survey questionnaire was mailed to 150 health sciences libraries in the spring of 1988 to determine the various methods used to dispose of unwanted gift materials. A total of 113 responses was received (75% return rate). This paper reports the results and discusses some of the creative methods used by receiving libraries to place unneeded materials. Statistical comparisons are included for the methods used by academic, hospital, and other types of health sciences libraries. Images PMID:2224303

  17. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  18. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  19. Chemical Disposal for a High School Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mento, Mary Ann

    1973-01-01

    A method of disposal is suggested that is superior to the dilution method. The proceudres are based on the conversion of the wastes to less toxic or harmless forms or neutralization, so that they won't be a shock to the sewage system, and then excess dilution. (Author/DF)

  20. Engineering/Cost Evaluation of Options for Removal/Disposal of NC (nitrocellulose) Fines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    centrifugation for final concentration; e Incineration for disposal of NC sludge; and Alkaline digestion for pretreatment prior to biological treatment for...method for pretreatment I prior to biological treatment/disposal was involved with the majority of the most promising options. . Two of the three...centrifugation for final concentration; * Incineration for disposal of NC sludge; and * Alkaline digestion for pretreatment prior to biological treatment for

  1. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  2. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  3. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  4. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  5. A Mixed-Method Evaluation of the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Telehealth-Based Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Katherine E.; Wainer, Allison L.; Bailey, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2016-01-01

    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has called for the use of service delivery models that are able to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based practices into community settings. This study employed telehealth methods in order to deliver an Internet-based, parent training intervention for autism spectrum disorder, ImPACT Online.…

  6. Attributes Affecting the Acceptance and Integration of Best Practices in Secondary Professional-Technical Education (PTE): A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Harold Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined which attributes Professional-Technical Education (PTE) teachers desire to see in the best practices presented to them. The study used data from two separate pilot studies to create a survey administered during the June, 2009 PTE summer conference; which was returned by 229 responders; and in addition used to…

  7. Self-acceptance, acceptance of others, and SYMLOG: equivalent measures of the two central interpersonal dimensions?

    PubMed

    Hurley, J R

    1991-07-01

    After 50 hours of small group participation during 9 weeks, 91 young adults rated each same-group member's conduct on SYMLOG's dimensions of dominance, friendliness, and task-orientedness. Earlier, they made similar ratings twice, several weeks apart, on separate measures of self-acceptance and acceptance of others. Individuals' mean SYMLOG dominance ratings by group peers correlated much more highly with aggregated ratings for self-acceptance (.83) than for other-acceptance (.02), while SYMLOG friendliness correlated more positively with acceptance of others (.85) than with self-acceptance (.05). Self-ratings yielded parallel, but weaker associations. After attenuation corrections, these divergent approaches to assessing the interpersonal domain's central dimensions yielded empirically equivalent results. Both methods provide measures relevant to small group processes.

  8. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOEpatents

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  9. Comparison of N95 disposable filtering facepiece fits using bitrex qualitative and TSI Portacount quantitative fit testing.

    PubMed

    Clapham, S J

    2000-01-01

    As a means of evaluating the use of denatonium benzoate (bitrex) as a qualitative fit test agent with filtering facepiece respirators, the bitrex qualitative and TSI Protacount(R) quantitative fit-test methods were compared using N95 filtering facepieces. Seventy-nine paired tests (trial) were performed. Detection of bitrex during a qualitative fit test or measurement of a fit factor of <100 during a quantitative fit test constituted a failure. Qualitative and quantitative methods were performed using identical test protocols. Data were analyzed using pass/fail criteria, and matched-pair analysis methods were applied. The results of this study indicate that the use of bitrex during qualitative fit testing of N95 disposable filtering facepieces results in an increase in failure and/or rejection in cases where a TSI Portacount (plus N95 companion accessory) quantitatively establishes an acceptable fit.

  10. 40 CFR 227.8 - Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... toxic wastes. 227.8 Section 227.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Environmental Impact § 227.8 Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes. No wastes will be deemed acceptable for ocean dumping unless such wastes can be dumped so as not to exceed the limiting...

  11. 40 CFR 227.8 - Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... toxic wastes. 227.8 Section 227.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Environmental Impact § 227.8 Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes. No wastes will be deemed acceptable for ocean dumping unless such wastes can be dumped so as not to exceed the limiting...

  12. 40 CFR 227.8 - Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... toxic wastes. 227.8 Section 227.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Environmental Impact § 227.8 Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes. No wastes will be deemed acceptable for ocean dumping unless such wastes can be dumped so as not to exceed the limiting...

  13. 40 CFR 227.8 - Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... toxic wastes. 227.8 Section 227.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Environmental Impact § 227.8 Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes. No wastes will be deemed acceptable for ocean dumping unless such wastes can be dumped so as not to exceed the limiting...

  14. 40 CFR 227.8 - Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... toxic wastes. 227.8 Section 227.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Environmental Impact § 227.8 Limitations on the disposal rates of toxic wastes. No wastes will be deemed acceptable for ocean dumping unless such wastes can be dumped so as not to exceed the limiting...

  15. Minimum activation martensitic alloys for surface disposal after exposure to neutron flux

    DOEpatents

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Steel alloys for long-term exposure to neutron flux have a martensitic microstructure and contain chromium, carbon, tungsten, vanadium and preferably titanium. Activation of the steel is held to within acceptable limits for eventual surface disposal by stringently controlling the impurity levels of Ni, Mo, Cu, N, Co, Nb, Al and Mn.

  16. SPS salvage and disposal alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A wide range of salvage options exist for the satellite power system (SPS) satellite, ranging from use in and beyond geosynchronous orbit to use in low Earth orbit to return and use on Earth. The satellite might be used intact to provide for various purposes, it might be cannibalized, or it might be melted down to supply materials for space- or ground-based products. The use of SPS beyond its nominal lifetime provides value that can be deducted from the SPS capital investment cost. It is shown that the present value of the salvage value of the SPS satellites, referenced to the system initial operation data, is likely to be on the order of five to ten percent of its on-orbit capital cost. (Given a 30 year satellite lifetime and a four percent discount rate, the theoretical maximum salvage value is 30.8 percent of the initial capital cost). The SPS demonstration satellite is available some 30 years earlier than the first full-scale SPS satellite and has a likely salvage value on the order of 80 percent of its on site capital cost. In the event that it becomes desirable to dispose of either the demonstration or full-scale SPS satellite, a number of disposal options appear to exist for which intact disposal costs are less than one percent of capital costs.

  17. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  20. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  4. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  6. Postmission disposal options for upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Peter; Reynolds, Robert C.; Zhang, Jingchang; Bade, Anette; Jackson, A. A.; Johnson, Nicholas L.; McNamara, Roger

    1997-10-01

    NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8 directs each project office to limit orbital debris generation if this action is cost-effective and consistent with achieving mission objectives. To implement this policy, the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the sponsor of NMI 1700.8, tasked NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to develop the NASA Safety Standard 1740.14: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris, August 1995. To mitigate the accumulation of mass in Earth orbit, NSS 1740.14 addresses the issues of postmission disposal of spacecraft and upper stages. According to the guidelines, these systems in general should be left in an orbit in which, using conservative projections for solar activity, atmospheric drag and gravitational perturbations will limit the lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) to no longer than 25 years after completion of mission. Consequently, JSC undertook a series of studies to investigate the most efficient and cost effective options for reducing orbit lifetime. In this paper we present an overview of the various options and give hints for the choice of the option best suited for specific mission types, e.g., depending on initial orbit, existing propulsion systems, existing electrical power level, electrical power and attitude control lifetime, and acceptable maneuver time and mass penalties.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  8. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive Disposal Site, Clive, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CRF Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the South Clive disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the South Clive site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the South Clive disposal site performs as designed. The program`s primary activity is site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity.

  11. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  12. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Roseboom, E. H., Jr.; Robertson, J. B.; Stevens, P. R.

    Geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes is reported. The categories are described as they relate most directly to: (1) high level and transuranic wastes; (2) low level wastes; or (3) uranium mill tailings. The identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste disposal sites, investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and regions or environments where waste disposal sites might be located are studied. Techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides are presented.

  13. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Hazardous Materials Disposal Sites, Griffiss AFB, New York.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Disposal Methods 4-31 Evaluation of Past and Present Waste 4-35 Disposal Facilities Landfills 4-35 Dry Wells 4-37 Rating of Waste Disposal Sites 4-37 V 2...Problems Identified at GAPE Landfills 4-36 4.12 Priority Ranking of Potential 4-38 Contamination Sources 4.13 -4.31 Rating Forms for Waste Disposal Sites 4...39 -4-76 5.1 Priority Ranking of Potential Con- 5-2 tamination Sources B.1 Rating Factor System B-2 -B-5 4W EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Resource

  14. The Acceptability Among Health Researchers and Clinicians of Social Media to Translate Research Evidence to Clinical Practice: Mixed-Methods Survey and Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. Objective The aim of this study was to explore health researchers’ and clinicians’ current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. Methods This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. Results A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the

  15. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  16. Final disposal of VOCs from industrial wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, W.; Bonk, R.R.; Hannam, S.C. ); Qi-dong Li )

    1994-08-01

    Vapor phase carbon adsorption followed by spent carbon regeneration and catalytic oxidation were evaluated as methods for disposal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from industrial wastewaters during treatment operations such as aeration, air-stripping and aerobic biodegradation. Adsorptive capacities and breakthrough characteristics for eight VOCs found in many hazardous landfill leachates and contaminated groundwater were compared for selection of the best adsorbent and optimum treatment conditions. Coconut shell-based activated carbons exhibited higher VOC loading capacities than coal-based carbons, fiber carbon, molecular sieve and zeolite. Steam and hot nitrogen were both effective for regeneration of the spent carbon. A small quantity of adsorbates left in the regenerated carbon did not result in immediate VOC breakthrough in the next cycle adsorption treatment. Catalytic oxidation was found to be an attractive alternative for VOC disposal. Using a new commercial catalyst developed for destruction of halogenated organic compounds, even stable VOCs such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were completely destroyed at <350[degrees]C when oxidation was conducted at a space velocity of 17000/hr. 25 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

  18. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  19. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  20. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  1. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  2. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  3. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project`s long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03.

  5. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.

  6. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  7. LAND DISPOSAL RESEARCH NEEDS - A FORWARD ORIENTED REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been a leader in evaluating and developing land disposal methods that will protect human Health and the environment and in providing technical guidance to regulatory agency personnel, practicing engineers, and the public on th...

  8. The University of Georgia Chemical Waste Disposal Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreesen, David W.; Pohlman, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university-wide program directed at reducing the improper storage and disposal of toxic chemical wastes from laboratories. Specific information is included on the implementation of a waste pick-up service, safety equipment, materials and methods for packaging, and costs of the program. (CS)

  9. Disposable Bronchoscope Model for Simulating Endoscopic Reprocessing and Surveillance Cultures.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohamed H; Hariri, Rahman; Hamad, Yasir; Ferrelli, Juliet; McKibben, Leeanna; Doi, Yohei

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Endoscope-associated infections are reported despite following proper reprocessing methods. Microbiological testing can confirm the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. Multiple controversies related to the method and interpretation of microbiological testing cultures have arisen that make their routine performance a complex target. OBJECTIVE We conducted a pilot study using disposable bronchoscopes (DBs) to simulate different reprocessing times and soaking times and to compare high-level disinfection versus ethylene oxide sterilization. We also reviewed the time to reprocessing and duration of the procedures. METHODS Bronchoscopes were chosen because an alternative disposable scope is commercially available and because bronchoscopes are more prone to delays in processing. Disposable bronchoscopes were contaminated using a liquid bacterial suspension and were then incubated for 1-4 hours. Standard processing and high-level disinfection were performed on 36 endoscopes. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed on 21 endoscopes. Endoscope cultures were performed using the standard "brush, flush, brush" technique. RESULTS After brushing was performed, a final water-flush culture procedure was the most effective method of detecting bacterial persistence on the disposable scopes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most commonly recovered organism after reprocessing. Ethylene oxide sterilization did not result in total elimination of viable bacteria. CONCLUSION Routine endoscopy cultures may be required to assess the adequacy of endoscopic processing. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:136-142.

  10. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-05

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  11. The Current Status of Radioactive Waste Management and Planning for Near Surface Disposal in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Purnomo, A. S.

    2003-02-24

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. Near surface disposal also rely on active institutional controls, such as monitoring and maintenance. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. The se facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides.

  12. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.

  13. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Michael D.; Klapperick, Robert L.; Bell, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  14. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  15. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications. PMID:26586153

  16. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  17. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  18. Test Methods for Acceptance Testing of Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    instrument. Although various interferometer configurations are used, they all basically operate on the same principle. The beam from a stable continuous...a Goerz with a nominal focal length of 92 inches. This lens has been recoated and carefully aligned to produce excellent image quality. The focus...test. Such requirements are necessary when the procuring agency has no facilities for performing adequate tests. It is also an excellent policy even

  19. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2012 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2011 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.

    In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean disposal programs for several radioactive wastes. Investigations in three areas address model development, comparisons of laboratory tests with field results and predictions, and research needs in marine disposal of radioactive waste. Tabulated data are included on composition of liquid high level waste and concentration of some natural radionuclides in the sea.

  1. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2014 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2014 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  2. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2010 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2010 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  3. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  4. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2008 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2008 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  5. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2007 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2007 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  6. Responsible Appliance Disposal Program: 2013 Annual Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents 2013 summary and findings for Responsible Appliance Disposal partners participation in following best practices related to reduction of emissions, prevention of releases of hazardous materials, etc.

  7. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Remotely controlled large container disposal methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Remotely Handled Large Containers (RHLC), also called drag-off boxes, have been used at the Hanford Site since the 1940s to dispose of large pieces of radioactively contaminated equipment. These containers are typically large steel-reinforced concrete boxes, which weigh as much as 40 tons. Because large quantities of high-dose waste can produce radiation levels as high as 200 mrem/hour at 200 ft, the containers are remotely handled (either lifted off the railcar by crane or dragged off with a cable). Many of the existing containers do not meet existing structural and safety design criteria and some of the transportation requirements. The drag-off method of pulling the box off the railcar using a cable and a tractor is also not considered a safe operation, especially in view of past mishaps.

  9. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H.; Wendt, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  10. Safe disposal of metal values in slag

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, P.T.; Zarur, G.L.

    1982-10-26

    The method of safely disposing of sludge containing metal values capable of displaying toxic ecological properties includes the steps of deriving from an organic or inorganic sludge an intermediate product such as a dewatered sludge or an incinerated ash, and adding this intermediate product to a metal smelting step of a type producing a slag such that most of the metal values become encapsulated in the slag. Some precious metal values may be recovered with the metal being smelted, and may be subsequently separated therefrom by appropriate metal winning steps. The sludge product brings to the smelting process certain additives needed therein such as silica and phosphates for the slag, alumina and magnesium to lower the viscosity of the molten slag, and organic matter serving as reducing agents.

  11. Heat strain during explosive ordnance disposal.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian B; Rojek, Amanda M; Hunt, Andrew P

    2011-08-01

    Bomb technicians perform their work while encapsulated in explosive ordnance disposal suits. Designed primarily for safety, these suits have an unintended consequence of impairing the body's natural mechanisms for heat dissipation. Consequently, bomb technicians are known to experience symptoms of heat illness while performing their work. This research provides the first field based analysis of heat strain in bomb technicians. Six participants undertook simulated operational tasks across 2 days of variable climate. All subjects demonstrated high levels of heat strain as evidenced by elevated heart rate, core body temperature, and physiological strain index. Participants also reported signs and symptoms associated with heat illness. These results were exacerbated by more intense physical activity despite being undertaken in a cooler environment. The universal experience of heat strain in this sample has significant implications for the health of bomb technicians and additional research examining methods to improve temperature regulation and performance is warranted.

  12. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  13. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  14. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  15. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  16. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The boundaries and locations of each disposal unit (e.g., trenches) must be accurately located and... forth in the approved site closure plan must be carried out as each disposal unit (e.g., each trench)...

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  18. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  19. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  20. 32 CFR 644.543 - Determination of acceptable offers after advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... experienced real estate employee who need not be a real estate appraiser. This determination may be in the... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.543 Determination of acceptable... not required where real property components: (1) Are to be offered on a competitive sale basis...