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Sample records for acceptable health risk

  1. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  2. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  3. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  4. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  5. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  6. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  8. Natural hazard losses and acceptable risk criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Nadim, F.; Lacasse, S.

    2009-12-01

    The criteria for the definition of acceptable risk to the lives of members of a society (commonly called societal risk) resulting from exposure to natural hazards are based in most countries on the frequency and characteristics of industrial accidents, e.g., nuclear power plants. However, historical records indicate that the frequency of natural hazard events is much higher than those involved in industrial hazards and their consequences are far greater. We find that the risk from natural hazards is unacceptable in the current risk criteria framework, i.e., they are an unacceptable risk with respect to the acceptable risk criteria based on the frequency and consequences of industrial accidents. According to a definition of risk, there are two main components; first, the probability of occurrence of the hazard and second, the consequence of the hazard. The occurrence of industrial accident events (hazard) can be controlled to a large extent in contrast to that of natural hazards. However, we can control natural hazard risk, in some cases by engineering solutions to control hazard and by reducing the consequences of the events by mitigating, risk management, warning and monitoring techniques. With reference to natural hazards reducing risk is mainly effected by reducing consequences. The FN-curve is a tool commonly used in societal risk assessment. It is built on a series of frequency-loss data associated with a particular process in a given period of time. It is also used to set acceptable risk criteria for countries or sub-national jurisdictions, by defining slopes and intercepts for plots of a particular (or group of) processes. The intercept of the acceptable risk curve is usually arbitrarily defined in the order of 10-7-10-1 deaths per year, and the slope criteria is based on an adopted aversion factor of the society to accident and disaster losses.The imposed slope criteria is usually between -1 and -2 whereas the slope of FN-curves based on real natural

  9. Defining "Acceptable Risk" for Earthquakes Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B.

    2001-05-01

    The greatest and most rapidly growing earthquake risk for mortality is in developing countries. Further, earthquake risk management actions of the last 50 years have reduced the average lethality of earthquakes in earthquake-threatened industrialized countries. (This is separate from the trend of the increasing fiscal cost of earthquakes there.) Despite these clear trends, every new earthquake in developing countries is described in the media as a "wake up" call, announcing the risk these countries face. GeoHazards International (GHI) works at both the community and the policy levels to try to reduce earthquake risk. GHI reduces death and injury by helping vulnerable communities recognize their risk and the methods to manage it, by raising awareness of its risk, building local institutions to manage that risk, and strengthening schools to protect and train the community's future generations. At the policy level, GHI, in collaboration with research partners, is examining whether "acceptance" of these large risks by people in these countries and by international aid and development organizations explains the lack of activity in reducing these risks. The goal of this pilot project - The Global Earthquake Safety Initiative (GESI) - is to develop and evaluate a means of measuring the risk and the effectiveness of risk mitigation actions in the world's largest, most vulnerable cities: in short, to develop an earthquake risk index. One application of this index is to compare the risk and the risk mitigation effort of "comparable" cities. By this means, Lima, for example, can compare the risk of its citizens dying due to earthquakes with the risk of citizens in Santiago and Guayaquil. The authorities of Delhi and Islamabad can compare the relative risk from earthquakes of their school children. This index can be used to measure the effectiveness of alternate mitigation projects, to set goals for mitigation projects, and to plot progress meeting those goals. The preliminary

  10. A Positive View of Peer Acceptance in Aggressive Youth: Risk for Future Peer Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Prasad-Gaur, Archna

    2001-01-01

    Uses longitudinal data to determine whether a positive view of perceived peer acceptance is a risk factor for continued aggression and social rejection for aggressive children. Results indicate that perceived peer acceptance did not predict aggression. However, children who reported higher levels of perceived peer acceptance received lower actual…

  11. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  12. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  13. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  14. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  15. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for a... collective members of the public exposed to debris hazards from any one launch. To obtain safety approval,...

  16. [Cardiovascular Prevention: Acceptance of Enhanced Occupational Health Care].

    PubMed

    Bleckwenn, M; Theisel, N; Mücke, M; Steudel, H

    2016-06-17

    Background: To date, prevention efforts of company medical officers and general practitioners are largely independent of each other. In a comprehensive model of healthcare management including both sets of doctors, the company doctor should determine the risk of cardiovascular disease in the employees of the company. In case increased risk is detected, there should be exchange of information between the 2 professional groups so that common preventive interventions can be decided upon. Aim: The aim of this pilot study was to determine how well cardiovascular risk assessment is accepted by employees of a midsize company and where prevention is needed. Materials and Methods: In a company with 660 employees, risk analysis was conducted among staff in the context of regular preventive measures. In addition to risk factors, primary care, agreement with an interdisciplinary exchange of information and motivation for health promotion activities were investigated. Results: 204 employees (4 females only) were examined. The average age of the participants was 42.9±10.3 years. In 27% (n=55), an increased overall risk was present. Employees with risk requiring medical intervention were under the care of primary care physician and most of them (70%) agreed to the transfer of information to these physicians. In the survey itself, employees showed sufficient motivation (VAS 6.4±2.8) for workplace health promotion. Conclusion: The examined company agreed to implementing further health promoting activities. Due to demographic changes, new concepts for effective prevention are needed. The high acceptance of the proposed prevention framework should motivate implementation of this concept. As a next step, studies must be conducted to examine the effectiveness of screening for risk carried out by company medical officers.

  17. Health risks of obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000348.htm Health risks of obesity To use the sharing features on ... also have an increased risk of these conditions. Risk Factors Having a risk factor does not mean ...

  18. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  19. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  20. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective.

  1. Launch Risk Acceptability: The Public Speaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of those assuming risk has become increasingly important to launch agencies. The IAASS white paper "An ICAO for Space?" proposed four ultimate goals of any international regulatory framework. The first of these was to "Ensure that citizens of all nations are equally protected from "unreasonable levels" of risk from overflight by missiles, launch vehicles and returning spacecraft". A key component of this concept is the issue of what is an "unreasonable level" of risk from the perspective of those assuming the risk.

  2. Acceptance of health information technology in health professionals: an application of the revised technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Ketikidis, Panayiotis; Dimitrovski, Tomislav; Lazuras, Lambros; Bath, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The response of health professionals to the use of health information technology (HIT) is an important research topic that can partly explain the success or failure of any HIT application. The present study applied a modified version of the revised technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the relevant beliefs and acceptance of HIT systems in a sample of health professionals (n = 133). Structured anonymous questionnaires were used and a cross-sectional design was employed. The main outcome measure was the intention to use HIT systems. ANOVA was employed to examine differences in TAM-related variables between nurses and medical doctors, and no significant differences were found. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of HIT usage intentions. The findings showed that perceived ease of use, but not usefulness, relevance and subjective norms directly predicted HIT usage intentions. The present findings suggest that a modification of the original TAM approach is needed to better understand health professionals' support and endorsement of HIT. Perceived ease of use, relevance of HIT to the medical and nursing professions, as well as social influences, should be tapped by information campaigns aiming to enhance support for HIT in healthcare settings.

  3. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  4. Comparative research on NIMBY risk acceptability between Chinese and Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunqing; Zhai, Guofang; Li, Shasha; Ren, Chongqiang; Tsuchida, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Along with the progressive acceleration of urbanization, the need to identify potentially troublesome "Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) facilities in the city is inevitable. To resolve NIMBY conflict, it is important to know people's NIMBY risk acceptability for these facilities. A questionnaire survey was used among Chinese and Japanese college students to identify NIMBY risk acceptability. LISREL was used to construct a structural equation model to analyze the difference in NIMBY risk acceptability between the Chinese and Japanese college students. Factors that may affect NIMBY risk acceptability were analyzed: "perceiving utility," "perceiving risk," "trust in government," "reasonable compensation," and "procedural justice." The findings show that Japanese students' concerns were greater than Chinese students' concerns. Perceiving utility and perceiving risk were the most important factors that affect people's NIMBY risk acceptability, followed by procedural justice, trust in government, and reasonable compensation. There is a difference between the different cultural backgrounds in confronting the risk: Chinese students focus more on the reputation and value of real estate, while Japanese students pay more attention to environmental pollution and damage to health. Furthermore, cultural influences play a role in students' risk perception. To improve the risk acceptability for NIMBY facilities and provide a basis for resolving NIMBY conflicts, it is necessary to ensure the benefits of the NIMBY facility while reducing environmental pollution. The findings of this study may be of interest for policy makers and practitioners to devise future NIMBY strategies.

  5. Flood risk acceptability and economic value of evacuation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guofang; Ikeda, Saburo

    2006-06-01

    The economic value of evacuation and its relationship with flood risk acceptability in Japan were studied by applying the contingent valuation method (CVM). Flood risk acceptability here refers to the extent to which people accept the occurrence of floods, in terms of scale and frequency. The economic value of evacuation refers to people's willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding evacuation inconvenience because of its inconvenience and the potential for certain losses as a result of evacuation. Our main finding was that over half of the people (56%) who actually evacuated in a real flood situation reported inconvenience. The greatest inconveniences were the shortages of information and food. Evacuation inconvenience can be regarded as an important factor causing the low rate of evacuation in Japan. The WTP for avoiding current inconvenience was approximately half of the estimated economic value of evacuation, implying that the current budget for evacuation is too small and should be increased to improve the conditions of evacuation sites. The economic value of evacuation can be taken into consideration in the risk assessment process in order to evaluate the efficiency of risk reduction measures. Flood risk acceptability and home ownership are two major statistically significantly determinants of the WTP. Considering that those who accept flood risk have a lower WTP for flood risk control (ex ante measures) than those who reject it, it is reasonable to think that there may be a tradeoff between the public WTPs for ex ante or ex post measures.

  6. Workaholism, Health, and Self-Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Christine M.; Zhang, Naijian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between workaholism, perceived parental workaholism, self-acceptance, psychological well-being, and physical symptoms among 347 college students. Statistically significant relationships were found between college students' perceived parental workaholism and their own workaholism. Also, relationships between…

  7. Values, perceived risks and benefits, and acceptability of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    2013-02-01

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that egoistic values are positively related to the perceived benefits and acceptability of NE. In contrast, altruistic and biospheric values were positively related to the perceived risks of NE. Although it has been argued that NE may help to combat climate change through lower CO(2) emissions, these environmental benefits were not acknowledged by people with strong biospheric values. Furthermore, results confirmed that the more risks respondents perceived, the less they were inclined to accept NE. In contrast, the more a person believed that NE has beneficial consequences, the more acceptable NE was. Finally, as expected, perceived risks and benefits were found to partly mediate the relationship between personal values and acceptability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  8. Risk Acceptance in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Natalizumab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tur, Carmen; Tintoré, Mar; Vidal-Jordana, Ángela; Bichuetti, Denis; Nieto González, Pablo; Arévalo, María Jesús; Arrambide, Georgina; Anglada, Elisenda; Galán, Ingrid; Castilló, Joaquín; Nos, Carlos; Río, Jordi; Martín, María Isabel; Comabella, Manuel; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the ability of natalizumab (NTZ)-treated patients to assume treatment-associated risks and the factors involved in such risk acceptance. Methods From a total of 185 patients, 114 patients on NTZ as of July 2011 carried out a comprehensive survey. We obtained disease severity perception scores, personality traits’ scores, and risk-acceptance scores (RAS) so that higher RAS indicated higher risk acceptance. We recorded JC virus status (JCV+/-), prior immunosuppression, NTZ treatment duration, and clinical characteristics. NTZ patients were split into subgroups (A-E), depending on their individual PML risk. Some 22 MS patients on first-line drugs (DMD) acted as controls. Results No differences between treatment groups were observed in disease severity perception and personality traits. RAS were higher in NTZ than in DMD patients (p<0.01). Perception of the own disease as a more severe condition tended to predict higher RAS (p=0.07). Higher neuroticism scores predicted higher RAS in the NTZ group as a whole (p=0.04), and in high PML-risk subgroups (A-B) (p=0.02). In low PML-risk subgroups (C-E), higher RAS were associated with a JCV+ status (p=0.01). Neither disability scores nor pre-treatment relapse rate predicted RAS in either group. Conclusions Risk acceptance is a multifactorial phenomenon, which might be partly explained by an adaptive process, in light of the higher risk acceptance amongst NTZ-treated patients and, especially, amongst those who are JCV seropositive but still have low PML risk, but which seems also intimately related to personality traits. PMID:24340060

  9. Consumer acceptance of accountable-eHealth systems.

    PubMed

    Gajanayake, Randike; Iannella, Renato; Sahama, Tony

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a survey conducted to measure the attitudes of eHealth consumers towards Accountable-eHealth systems, which are designed for information privacy management. We developed a research model that identify the factors contributing to system acceptance from quantitative data of 187 completed survey responses from university students studying non-health-related courses at university (Queensland, Australia). The research model is validated using structural equation modeling and can be used to identify how specific characteristics of Accountable-eHealth systems would affect their overall acceptance by future eHealth consumers.

  10. PARALLELS OF RADIATION- AND FINANCIAL-RISK MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.

    2010-01-04

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified.

  11. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  12. Do health beliefs, health care system distrust, and racial pride influence HPV vaccine acceptability among African American college females?

    PubMed

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Annang, Lucy; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanner, Andrea; Sharpe, Patricia A

    2012-03-01

    The promise of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines rests with the ability to promote widespread uptake especially among populations at high risk of cervical cancer and other associated disease outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs and culturally specific influences of HPV vaccine acceptability among African American college females. Approximately 76 percent of participants reported HPV vaccine acceptability. Predictors of acceptability included: higher perceived benefit and lower racial pride. Findings can be used to inform development of campus-based HPV educational approaches to promote widespread HPV vaccine acceptability and safer sex practices among African American college females.

  13. Use and Acceptance of Social Media among Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; West, Joshua; Neiger, Brad; Thackeray, Rosemary; Barnes, Michael; McIntyre, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background: As social media use grows in popularity, health educators are challenged to think differently about how to communicate with audiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore social media use and factors that determine acceptance of social media use among health educators. Methods: A random sample of Certified Health…

  14. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  16. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: Cognitive bases acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, T. C.; Lindell, M. K.; Rankin, W. L.; Nealey, S. M.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies; and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: short term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), long term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  17. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established.

  18. Can Public Health Risk Assessment Using Risk Matrices Be Misleading?

    PubMed

    Vatanpour, Shabnam; Hrudey, Steve E; Dinu, Irina

    2015-08-14

    The risk assessment matrix is a widely accepted, semi-quantitative tool for assessing risks, and setting priorities in risk management. Although the method can be useful to promote discussion to distinguish high risks from low risks, a published critique described a problem when the frequency and severity of risks are negatively correlated. A theoretical analysis showed that risk predictions could be misleading. We evaluated a practical public health example because it provided experiential risk data that allowed us to assess the practical implications of the published concern that risk matrices would make predictions that are worse than random. We explored this predicted problem by constructing a risk assessment matrix using a public health risk scenario-Tainted blood transfusion infection risk-That provides negative correlation between harm frequency and severity. We estimated the risk from the experiential data and compared these estimates with those provided by the risk assessment matrix. Although we validated the theoretical concern, for these authentic experiential data, the practical scope of the problem was limited. The risk matrix has been widely used in risk assessment. This method should not be abandoned wholesale, but users must address the source of the problem, apply the risk matrix with a full understanding of this problem and use matrix predictions to inform, but not drive decision-making.

  19. Overeating: the health risks.

    PubMed

    Prentice, A M

    2001-11-01

    Overeating is a relative term. It refers to the consumption of an energy intake that is inappropriately large for a given energy expenditure, thus, leading to obesity. There are several key environmental and cultural factors that have converged in the past few decades to markedly increase the risk of both active and passive (inadvertent) overeating. Chief among these are the increased availability and promotion of cheap energy-dense diets (usually high in fat) and the transition toward extremely sedentary lifestyles. The importance of considering these factors together must be stressed. Data ranging from highly controlled metabolic studies to large-scale epidemiological and ecological analysis illustrate the strong interactions between diet and physical activity in relationship to the over-consumption of energy. Overeating of certain specific dietary components may also lead to health risks. Obvious examples are saturated and trans-fatty acids. More recently attention has switched to high glycemic foods and to n-6 fatty acids. Theories that excess consumption of these may be independent risk factors for obesity and ill health remain controversial but merit closer examination and additional research. The main barriers to changing widely prevalent overeating include the following: public and corporate ignorance about the effects of energy-dense diets in inducing passive over-consumption, commercial willfulness concerning energy density and portion sizes, and public ignorance about the profound health effects of inactive lifestyles. These represent key targets for the design of public health initiatives.

  20. Can Public Health Risk Assessment Using Risk Matrices Be Misleading?

    PubMed Central

    Vatanpour, Shabnam; Hrudey, Steve E.; Dinu, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The risk assessment matrix is a widely accepted, semi-quantitative tool for assessing risks, and setting priorities in risk management. Although the method can be useful to promote discussion to distinguish high risks from low risks, a published critique described a problem when the frequency and severity of risks are negatively correlated. A theoretical analysis showed that risk predictions could be misleading. We evaluated a practical public health example because it provided experiential risk data that allowed us to assess the practical implications of the published concern that risk matrices would make predictions that are worse than random. We explored this predicted problem by constructing a risk assessment matrix using a public health risk scenario—Tainted blood transfusion infection risk—That provides negative correlation between harm frequency and severity. We estimated the risk from the experiential data and compared these estimates with those provided by the risk assessment matrix. Although we validated the theoretical concern, for these authentic experiential data, the practical scope of the problem was limited. The risk matrix has been widely used in risk assessment. This method should not be abandoned wholesale, but users must address the source of the problem, apply the risk matrix with a full understanding of this problem and use matrix predictions to inform, but not drive decision-making. PMID:26287224

  1. When Failure Means Success: Accepting Risk in Aerospace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, NASA has been diligent in qualifying systems for human space flight. As the Agency transitions from operating the Space Shuttle, its employees must learn to accept higher risk levels to generate the data needed to certify its next human space flight system. The Marshall Center s Engineering workforce is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for safety, reliability, and cost-effective operations. This presentation will provide a risk retrospective, using first-hand examples from the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) and the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit flight demonstrators, while looking ahead to the upcoming Ares I-X uncrewed test flight. The DC-XA was successfully flown twice in 26 hours, setting a new turnaround-time record. Later, one of its 3 landing gears did not deploy, it tipped over, and was destroyed. During structural testing, the X-33 s advanced composite tanks were unable to withstand the forces to which it was subjected and the project was later cancelled. These are examples of successful failures, as the data generated are captured in databases used by vehicle designers today. More recently, the Ares I-X flight readiness review process was streamlined in keeping with the mission's objectives, since human lives are not at stake, which reflects the beginning of a cultural change. Failures are acceptable during testing, as they provide the lessons that actually lead to mission success. These and other examples will stimulate the discussion of when to accept risk in aerospace projects.

  2. Ready for eHealth? Health Professionals' Acceptance and Adoption of eHealth Interventions in Inpatient Routine Care.

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Severin; Beutel, Manfred E; Zwerenz, Rüdiger

    2017-03-01

    eHealth interventions can be effective in treating health problems. However, adoption in inpatient routine care seems limited. The present study therefore aimed to investigate barriers and facilitators to acceptance of eHealth interventions and of online aftercare in particular in health professionals of inpatient treatment. A total of 152 out of 287 health professionals of various professional groups in four inpatient rehabilitation facilities filled out a self-administered web-based questionnaire (response rate: 53%); 128 individuals were eligible for further data analysis. Acceptance and possible predictors were investigated with a complex research model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Acceptance of eHealth interventions was rather low (M = 2.47, SD = 0.98); however, acceptance of online aftercare was moderate (M = 3.08, SD = 0.96, t(127) = 8.22, p < .001), and eHealth literacy was elevated. Social influence, performance expectancy, and treatment-related internet and mobile use significantly predicted overall acceptance. No differences were found between professional and age groups. Although acceptance of eHealth interventions was limited in health professionals of inpatient treatment, moderate acceptance of online aftercare for work-related stress implies a basis for future implementation. Tailored eHealth education addressing misconceptions about inferiority and incongruity with conventional treatment considering the systemic aspect of acceptance formation are needed.

  3. The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination in the United States is a frequent source of controversy, with critics alleging failures by public health officials to adequately identify, monitor, and respond to risks associated with vaccines. In response to these charges, the case of RotaShield, a vaccine withdrawn in 1999 following confirmation of a serious adverse event associated with its use, is regularly invoked as evidence of the effectiveness of current vaccine safety activities. Methods This article examines the history of RotaShield, with particular attention paid to decision making regarding its use in the United States and internationally. I reviewed and analyzed federal advisory committee meeting transcripts, international conference reports, government and scientific publications, media coverage, and other primary and secondary source materials. I also conducted six semistructured interviews with former senior officials and advisory committee members at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who participated in decisions regarding the vaccine. Findings Decision making regarding RotaShield, including the ultimate withdrawal of its recommendation for use, was shaped significantly by government health officials’ concern for preserving public confidence in overall U.S. vaccination efforts amid several unrelated vaccine risk controversies ongoing at that time. This attention to public perception and external pressures occurred in tandem with the evaluation of the quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude and severity of the risk associated with the vaccine. The decisions made in the United States resulted in foreseen but unintended consequences for international use of the vaccine, including in nations where the profile of risks and potential benefits was dramatically different. Conclusions As enthusiasm for evidence-based decision making grows throughout medicine and public health, greater explicit attention should be directed to the processes by which decision

  4. Space Reactor Launch Safety--An Acceptably Low Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzberg, Abraham; Wright, Steven

    2008-01-21

    Results from previous space reactor and radioisotope power source risk assessments were combined to provide a scoping assessment of the possible risks from the launch of a reactor power system for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. It is assumed that future reactor power system launches would be subject to the same rigorous safety analysis and launch approval process as past nuclear payload launches. Using the same methodology that has gained approval of past launches, it was determined that the mission risk would be 0.029 person-rem worldwide which translates to 1.5*10{sup -5} latent health effects. It is seen that the only significant sources of radiological risks from a non-operating reactor are possible inadvertent criticality accidents and the consequences of such events have been shown to be extremely low. Passive means such as spectral shift poisons or high reactor core length/diameter ratios have been shown to be able to reduce or eliminate the possibility of the more credible criticality accidents, such as flooding or sand burial. This paper advances the premise that, for design purposes, future space reactor surface-power designs should primarily address the credible accidents and not the hypothetical accidents. For launch accidents and other safety assessments, a probabilistic risk assessment approach will have to be used to assess the safety impact of all types of accidents, including the hypothetical accidents. With this approach, the design of the system will not be burdened with design features that are based on hypothetical criticality accidents having negligible risk. Moreover, there is little chance of convincingly demonstrating that these design features can substantially reduce or eliminated the risk associated with hypothetical criticality accidents.

  5. Plastics and health risks.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  6. Children at health risks.

    PubMed

    Sekar, H R

    1992-01-01

    In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the

  7. Risk analysis for new nuclear waste sites: Will it generate public acceptance?

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses public acceptance of radioactive waste facilities and what seems to be increasingly militant stances against such facilities. The role of risk assessment in possibly enhancing public acceptance is investigated.

  8. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Adam; Božek, František

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction.

  9. The Mutable Nature of Risk and Acceptability: A Hybrid Risk Governance Framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine Mei Ling

    2015-11-01

    This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement.

  10. 14 CFR 435.35 - Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of a reentry vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of a reentry vehicle. To obtain safety approval for reentry, an applicant must demonstrate that risk for the proposed reentry, when assessed in combination with launch of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of...

  11. Acceptability and Trust of Community Health Workers Offering Maternal and Newborn Health Education in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Debra; Cumming, Robert; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    When trusted, Community Health Workers (CHWs) can contribute to improving maternal and newborn health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries through education. Issues of acceptability of CHWs by communities were explored through experiences gained in a qualitative study that is part of a cluster randomized trial in East Uganda. Initially,…

  12. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  13. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing...

  14. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing...

  15. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing...

  16. Affect and Acceptability: Exploring Teachers' Technology-Related Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Educational change, such as technology integration, involves risk. Teachers are encouraged to "take risks", but what risks they are asked to take and how do they perceive these risks? Developing an understanding of teachers' technology-related risk perceptions can help explain their choices and behaviours. This paper presents a way to…

  17. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  18. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  19. Developmental environment affects risk-acceptance in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Logue, David M; Abiola, Ife O; Cade, William H

    2011-02-01

    Consistent individual differences in the tendency to accept risk have been demonstrated in invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. These individual differences have been associated with size, growth rate, survival, and reproductive success. Little research, however, has investigated the effect of developmental environment on individual differences in risk-acceptance. Competing hypotheses offer different explanations of how variation in the quality of the developmental environment affects risk-acceptance in adults. The first hypothesis states that individuals developing in poor quality environments take risks because such behavior is their only means of obtaining adequate fitness returns. The second hypothesis states that individuals developing in poor environments avoid risk because their poor physical condition makes them especially vulnerable to injury or death. We measured several forms of risk-accepting behavior (exploration, foraging, and recovery after disturbance) in male hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) that had developed in nutritional and social environments of varying quality. Individuals raised on poor nutrition diets exhibited lower levels of risk-acceptance than those raised on high nutrition diets. Risk-acceptance among individuals that developed on poor nutrition diets was negatively correlated with body size. We conclude that quality of developmental environment affects risk-acceptance across behavioral contexts in male hissing cockroaches. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that condition-dependent vulnerability mediates the relationship between developmental environment and risk-acceptance.

  20. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  1. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HFAs accepting less than 50 percent... PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.305 HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk... electing to take less than 50 percent of the risk on certain projects are subject to review,...

  2. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy.

  3. Acceptability of tetanus toxoid vaccine by pregnant women in two health centres in Abidjan (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Ymba, Awa; Perrey, Christophe

    2003-07-28

    A study was conducted in two health centres in Abidjan, Ivory Coast (Abobo and Port Bouet) to compare the knowledge of pregnant women regarding tetanus and hepatitis B and to evaluate the acceptability of tetanus immunisation. A total of 124 women were interviewed. In spite of Information Education Communication (IEC) meetings held by midwives focusing on both diseases, knowledge about tetanus appeared to be substantially higher than that about hepatitis B. The acceptability of tetanus toxoid vaccine was good, the only barrier being the fear of useless injections. However, the risk of tetanus transmission during delivery should be better explained to women, who often give birth at home in the presence of traditional birth assistants. The awareness of men should also be raised by information campaigns, using different local networks.

  4. Day care health risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... This infection causes diarrhea, stomach cramps, and gas. Ear infections, colds, coughs, sore throats, and runny noses ... Head lice and scabies are other common health problems that occur in day care centers. You can ...

  5. Pregnancy - health risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs, stop drinking alcohol, and limit caffeine and coffee. Talk to your health care provider about any medicines you may be taking to see if they can affect your unborn baby. Eat a well-balanced diet ...

  6. An extension of the extended parallel process model (EPPM) in television health news: the influence of health consciousness on individual message processing and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of health consciousness in processing TV news that contains potential health threats and preventive recommendations. Based on the extended parallel process model (Witte, 1992), relationships among health consciousness, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and message acceptance/rejection were hypothesized. Responses collected from 175 participants after viewing four TV health news stories were analyzed using the bootstrapping analysis (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results confirmed three mediators (i.e., perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy) in the influence of health consciousness on message acceptance. A negative association found between health consciousness and perceived susceptibility is discussed in relation to characteristics of health conscious individuals and optimistic bias of health risks.

  7. The Department of Defense and the Power of Cloud Computing: Weighing Acceptable Cost Versus Acceptable Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    DISA is leading the way for the development of a private DOD cloud computing environment in conjunction with the Army. Operational in 2008, DISA...significant opportunities and security challenges when implementing a cloud computing environment . The transformation of DOD information technology...is this shared pool of resources, espe- cially shared resources in a commercial environment , that also creates numerous risks not usually seen in

  8. The Psychological Impact of the SARS Epidemic on Hospital Employees in China: Exposure, Risk Perception, and Altruistic Acceptance of Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Fang, Yunyun; Guan, Zhiqiang; Fan, Bin; Kong, Junhui; Yao, Zhongling; Liu, Xinhua; Fuller, Cordelia J; Susser, Ezra; Lu, Jin; Hoven, Christina W

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the psychological impact of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on hospital employees in Beijing, China. Methods In 2006, randomly selected employees (n = 549) of a hospital in Beijing were surveyed concerning their exposure to the 2003 SARS outbreak, and the ways in which the outbreak had affected their mental health. Results About 10% of the respondents had experienced high levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms since the SARS outbreak. Respondents who had been quarantined, or worked in high-risk locations such as SARS wards, or had friends or close relatives who contracted SARS, were 2 to 3 times more likely to have high PTS symptom levels, than those without these exposures. Respondents’ perceptions of SARS-related risks were significantly positively associated with PTS symptom levels and partially mediated the effects of exposure. Altruistic acceptance of work-related risks was negatively related to PTS levels. Conclusions The psychological impact of stressful events related to an infectious disease outbreak may be mediated by peoples’ perceptions of those events; altruism may help to protect some health care workers against these negative impacts. PMID:19497162

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of a multiple risk factor intervention: The Step Up randomized pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions are needed which can successfully modify more than one disease risk factor at a time, but much remains to be learned about the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of multiple risk factor (MRF) interventions. To address these issues and inform future intervention development, we conducted a randomized pilot trial (n = 52). This study was designed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the Step Up program, a MRF cognitive-behavioral program designed to improve participants' mental and physical well-being by reducing depressive symptoms, promoting smoking cessation, and increasing physical activity. Methods Participants were recruited from a large health care organization and randomized to receive usual care treatment for depression, smoking, and physical activity promotion or the phone-based Step Up counseling program plus usual care. Participants were assessed at baseline, three and six months. Results The intervention was acceptable to participants and feasible to offer within a healthcare system. The pilot also offered important insights into the optimal design of a MRF program. While not powered to detect clinically significant outcomes, changes in target behaviors indicated positive trends at six month follow-up and statistically significant improvement was also observed for depression. Significantly more experimental participants reported a clinically significant improvement (50% reduction) in their baseline depression score at four months (54% vs. 26%, OR = 3.35, 95% CI [1.01- 12.10], p = 0.05) and 6 months (52% vs. 13%, OR = 7.27, 95% CI [1.85 - 37.30], p = 0.004) Conclusions Overall, results suggest the Step Up program warrants additional research, although some program enhancements may be beneficial. Key lessons learned from this research are shared to promote the understanding of others working in this field. Trial registration The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00644995). PMID:21414216

  10. Acceptability and feasibility of a virtual counselor (VICKY) to collect family health histories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Catharine; Bickmore, Timothy; Bowen, Deborah J.; Norkunas, Tricia; Campion, MaryAnn; Cabral, Howard; Winter, Michael; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome literacy-related barriers in the collection of electronic family health histories, we developed VICKY, an animated “virtual counselor”. This study examines the acceptability and accuracy of using VICKY to collect family histories, among underserved patients, compared to My Family Health Portrait (MFHP). Methods Participants were recruited from a patient registry at a safety net hospital and randomized to use either VICKY or MFHP. Accuracy was determined by comparing tool-collected histories to those obtained by a genetic counselor. Results A total of 70 participants completed this study. Participants rated VICKY easy to use (91%) and easy to follow (92%), would recommend VICKY to others (83%) and were highly satisfied (77%). VICKY identified 86% of first degree relatives, and 42% of second degree relatives; combined accuracy was 55%. Compared to MFHP, VICKY identified a greater number of health conditions overall (49% VICKY vs 31% MFHP, IRR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.13, 2.25, p=.008); in particular, hypertension (47% vs 15%; IRR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.66, 6.10; p=.001) and type 2 diabetes (54% vs 22%; IRR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.60; p=.004). Conclusion These results demonstrate that technological support for documenting family history risks can be highly accepted, feasible, and effective. PMID:25590980

  11. Guidance on the establishment of acceptable daily exposure limits (ADE) to support Risk-Based Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Edward V; Faria, Ellen; Pfister, Thomas; Sussman, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Health-based limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) referred to as acceptable daily exposures (ADEs) are necessary to the pharmaceutical industry and used to derive acceptance limits for cleaning validation purposes and evaluating cross-carryover. ADEs represent a dose of an API unlikely to cause adverse effects if an individual is exposed, by any route, at or below this dose every day over a lifetime. Derivations of ADEs need to be consistent with ICH Q9 as well as other scientific approaches for the derivation of health-based limits that help to manage risks to both product quality and operator safety during the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Previous methods for the establishment of acceptance limits in cleaning validation programs are considered arbitrary and have largely ignored the available clinical and toxicological data available for a drug substance. Since the ADE utilizes all available pharmaceutical data and applies scientifically acceptable risk assessment methodology it is more holistic and consistent with other quantitative risk assessments purposes such derivation of occupational exposure limits. Processes for hazard identification, dose response assessment, uncertainty factor analysis and documentation are reviewed.

  12. Biological risk and occupational health.

    PubMed

    Corrao, Carmela Romana Natalina; Mazzotta, Adele; La Torre, Giuseppe; De Giusti, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Many work activities include hazards to workers, and among these biological risk is particularly important, mostly because of different types of exposure, contact with highly dangerous agents, lack of limit values able to compare all exposures, presence of workers with defective immune systems and therefore more susceptible to the risk. Bioaerosols and dust are considered important vehicles of microganisms at workplaces and interaction with other occupational agents is assumed. Moreover, biological risk can be significant in countries with increasing economic development or particular habits and some biological agents are also classified as carcinogenic to human. Specific emerging biological risks have been recently pointed out by Risk Observatory of the European Agency for Safety and Health at work, and we must consider the worker's attitude and behaviour, influenced by his own perception of risk more than his real knowledge, that could over-underestimate the risk itself. Therefore, biological risk at work requires a complex approach in relation to risk assessment and risk management, made more difficult due to the wide variety of biological agents, working environments and working techniques that can determine the exposures.

  13. Health risks of energy systems.

    PubMed

    Krewitt, W; Hurley, F; Trukenmüller, A; Friedrich, R

    1998-08-01

    Health risks from fossil, renewable and nuclear reference energy systems are estimated following a detailed impact pathway approach. Using a set of appropriate air quality models and exposure-effect functions derived from the recent epidemiological literature, a methodological framework for risk assessment has been established and consistently applied across the different energy systems, including the analysis of consequences from a major nuclear accident. A wide range of health impacts resulting from increased air pollution and ionizing radiation is quantified, and the transferability of results derived from specific power plants to a more general context is discussed.

  14. Acceptance of selective contracting: the role of trust in the health insurer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a demand oriented health care system based on managed competition, health insurers have incentives to become prudent buyers of care on behalf of their enrolees. They are allowed to selectively contract care providers. This is supposed to stimulate competition between care providers and both increase the quality of care and contain costs in the health care system. However, health insurers are reluctant to implement selective contracting; they believe their enrolees will not accept this. One reason, insurers believe, is that enrolees do not trust their health insurer. However, this has never been studied. This paper aims to study the role played by enrolees’ trust in the health insurer on their acceptance of selective contracting. Methods An online survey was conducted among 4,422 people insured through a large Dutch health insurance company. Trust in the health insurer, trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer and acceptance of selective contracting were measured using multiple item scales. A regression model was constructed to analyse the results. Results Trust in the health insurer turned out to be an important prerequisite for the acceptance of selective contracting among their enrolees. The association of trust in the purchasing strategy of the health insurer with acceptance of selective contracting is stronger for older people than younger people. Furthermore, it was found that men and healthier people accepted selective contracting by their health insurer more readily. This was also true for younger people with a low level of trust in their health insurer. Conclusion This study provides insight into factors that influence people’s acceptance of selective contracting by their health insurer. This may help health insurers to implement selective contracting in a way their enrolees will accept and, thus, help systems of managed competition to develop. PMID:24083663

  15. Impact of the flu mask regulation on health care personnel influenza vaccine acceptance rates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Frances; Masick, Kevin D; Armellino, Donna

    2016-10-01

    Achieving high vaccination rates of health care personnel (HCP) is critical in preventing influenza transmission from HCP to patients and from patients to HCP; however, acceptance rates remain low. In 2013, New York State adopted the flu mask regulation, requiring unvaccinated HCP to wear a mask when in areas where patients are present. The purpose of this study assessed the impact of the flu mask regulation on the HCP influenza vaccination rate. A 13-question survey was distributed electronically and manually to the HCP to examine their knowledge of influenza transmission and the influenza vaccine and their personal vaccine acceptance history and perception about the use of the mask while working if not vaccinated. There were 1,905 respondents; 87% accepted the influenza vaccine, and 63% were first-time recipients who agreed the regulation influenced their vaccination decision. Of the respondents who declined the vaccine, 72% acknowledge HCP are at risk for transmitting influenza to patients, and 56% reported they did not receive enough information to make an educated decision. The flu mask protocol may have influenced HCP's choice to be vaccinated versus wearing a mask. The study findings supported that HCP may not have adequate knowledge on the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Regulatory agencies need to consider an alternative approach to increase HCP vaccination, such as mandating the influenza vaccine for HCP.

  16. The health risk of radon

    SciTech Connect

    Conrath, S.M.; Kolb, L.

    1995-10-01

    Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA`s risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy.

  17. Examining Acceptance of an Integrated Personal Health Record (PHR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Alicia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to examine the practice question, "What are the factors influencing acceptance of integrated PHRs for self-care management among the Howard University Hospital (HUH) Diabetes Treatment Clinic (DTC) patients?" These factors include a) demographic characteristics, b) computer…

  18. Testing the Electronic Personal Health Record Acceptance Model by Nurses for Managing Their Own Health

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A.M.; Storr, C.L.; Wilson, M.L.; Gurses, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To our knowledge, no evidence is available on health care professionals’ use of electronic personal health records (ePHRs) for their health management. We therefore focused on nurses’ personal use of ePHRs using a modified technology acceptance model. Objectives To examine (1) the psychometric properties of the ePHR acceptance model, (2) the associations of perceived usefulness, ease of use, data privacy and security protection, and perception of self as health-promoting role models to nurses’ own ePHR use, and (3) the moderating influences of age, chronic illness and medication use, and providers’ use of electronic health record (EHRs) on the associations between the ePHR acceptance constructs and ePHR use. Methods A convenience sample of registered nurses, those working in one of 12 hospitals in the Maryland and Washington, DC areas and members of the nursing informatics community (AMIA and HIMSS), were invited to respond to an anonymous online survey; 847 responded. Multiple logistic regression identified associations between the model constructs and ePHR use, and the moderating effect. Results Overall, ePHRs were used by 47%. Sufficient reliability for all scales was found. Three constructs were significantly related to nurses’ own ePHR use after adjusting for covariates: usefulness, data privacy and security protection, and health-promoting role model. Nurses with providers that used EHRs who perceived a higher level of data privacy and security protection had greater odds of ePHR use than those whose providers did not use EHRs. Older nurses with a higher self-perception as health-promoting role models had greater odds of ePHR use than younger nurses. Conclusions Nurses who use ePHRs for their personal health might promote adoption by the general public by serving as health-promoting role models. They can contribute to improvements in patient education and ePHR design, and serve as crucial resources when working with their

  19. HEALTH RISK ISSUES FOR OXYGENATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A substantial database exists on the inhalation toxicity of MTBE, but exposure information and health effects data for non-inhalation routes of exposure are limited. In addition, several issues complicate the interpretation of the avaialble data in assessing the healt risks of M...

  20. Health risks at the Hajj.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Qanta A; Arabi, Yaseen M; Memish, Ziad A

    2006-03-25

    Annually, millions of Muslims embark on a religious pilgrimage called the "Hajj" to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The mass migration during the Hajj is unparalleled in scale, and pilgrims face numerous health hazards. The extreme congestion of people and vehicles during this time amplifies health risks, such as those from infectious diseases, that vary each year. Since the Hajj is dictated by the lunar calendar, which is shorter than the Gregorian calendar, it presents public-health policy planners with a moving target, demanding constant preparedness. We review the communicable and non-communicable hazards that pilgrims face. With the rise in global travel, preventing disease transmission has become paramount to avoid the spread of infectious diseases, including SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fever. We examine the response of clinicians, the Saudi Ministry of Health, and Hajj authorities to these unique problems, and list health recommendations for prospective pilgrims.

  1. Acceptability and validity of older driver screening with the DrivingHealth Inventory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jerri D; Leonard, Kathleen M; Lunsman, Melissa; Dodson, Joan; Bradley, Stacy; Myers, Charlsie A; Hubble, Bridgette

    2008-05-01

    Research has indicated that technology can be effectively used to identify high-risk older drivers. However, adaptation of such technology has been limited. Researchers debate whether older drivers represent a safety problem as well as whether they should be screened for driving fitness. The present study examined how drivers feel regarding technological screening and mandatory state testing. The validity and acceptability of a new technological screening battery for identifying high-risk drivers, the DrivingHealth Inventory (DHI), was also evaluated. In a sample of 258 Alabama drivers aged 18-87, older drivers performed significantly worse than younger drivers on sensory, cognitive, and physical subtests of the DHI, and older drivers with a crash history performed worse than older drivers without crashes. Regardless of age, 90% of participants supported states requiring screening for older drivers' license renewal. The majority of the participants (72%) supported use of technological screening batteries such as the DHI as a driver screening tool. Considering the acceptability and potential efficacy of the DHI, it may be a useful tool in evaluating driving fitness among older adults.

  2. The role of acceptance and job control in mental health, job satisfaction, and work performance.

    PubMed

    Bond, Frank W; Bunce, David

    2003-12-01

    Acceptance, the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and physiological sensations without having to control them or let them determine one's actions, is a major individual determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in a more recent theory of psychopathology. This 2-wave panel study examined the ability of acceptance also to explain mental health, job satisfaction, and performance in the work domain. The authors hypothesized that acceptance would predict these 3 outcomes 1 year later in a sample of customer service center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 412). Results indicated that acceptance predicted mental health and an objective measure of performance over and above job control, negative affectivity, and locus of control. These beneficial effects of having more job control were enhanced when people had higher levels of acceptance. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical relevance of this individual characteristic to occupational health and performance.

  3. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  4. Electronic Health Record Patient Portal Adoption by Health Care Consumers: An Acceptance Model and Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The future of health care delivery is becoming more citizen centered, as today’s user is more active, better informed, and more demanding. Worldwide governments are promoting online health services, such as electronic health record (EHR) patient portals and, as a result, the deployment and use of these services. Overall, this makes the adoption of patient-accessible EHR portals an important field to study and understand. Objective The aim of this study is to understand the factors that drive individuals to adopt EHR portals. Methods We applied a new adoption model using, as a starting point, Ventkatesh's Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in a consumer context (UTAUT2) by integrating a new construct specific to health care, a new moderator, and new relationships. To test the research model, we used the partial least squares (PLS) causal modelling approach. An online questionnaire was administrated. We collected 360 valid responses. Results The statistically significant drivers of behavioral intention are performance expectancy (beta=.200; t=3.619), effort expectancy (beta=.185; t=2.907), habit (beta=.388; t=7.320), and self-perception (beta=.098; t=2.285). The predictors of use behavior are habit (beta=0.206; t=2.752) and behavioral intention (beta=0.258; t=4.036). The model explained 49.7% of the variance in behavioral intention and 26.8% of the variance in use behavior. Conclusions Our research helps to understand the desired technology characteristics of EHR portals. By testing an information technology acceptance model, we are able to determine what is more valued by patients when it comes to deciding whether to adopt EHR portals or not. The inclusion of specific constructs and relationships related to the health care consumer area also had a significant impact on understanding the adoption of EHR portals. PMID:26935646

  5. THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: ITS PAST AND ITS FUTURE IN HEALTH CARE

    PubMed Central

    HOLDEN, RICHARD J.; KARSH, BEN-TZION

    2009-01-01

    Increasing interest in end users’ reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods. PMID:19615467

  6. The technology acceptance model: its past and its future in health care.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in end users' reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods.

  7. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process.

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of Facebook for health promotion among people with serious mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Elevated obesity rates are a major contributor to the significantly reduced life expectancy impacting people with serious mental illness. With over 1.5 billion Facebook users worldwide, this platform may afford opportunities for reaching individuals with serious mental illness outside professional settings and fostering social support for adopting healthier behaviors. In this mixed methods pilot study, we explored the feasibility and acceptability of using Facebook to support a group lifestyle intervention for weight loss among obese adults with serious mental illness. Methods Nine of eleven participants enrolled in a six-month lifestyle intervention delivered through a community mental health center agreed to join a private Facebook group to support their healthy eating and exercise goals. We measured participants’ use of the Facebook group and collected post-intervention feasibility and acceptability questionnaires followed by in-depth qualitative interviews to elicit participants’ perspectives and recommendations for improving the use of Facebook. Results Of 188 posts to the Facebook group, the majority (79%) were from participants compared to study staff (21%). Participants also posted 186 comments, 299 likes, and recorded 1316 page views. Participants were positive about opportunities to interact and support each other outside group sessions, found content posted by other participants to be helpful, and indicated that the Facebook group was safe to use. Participants provided constructive feedback, including recommendations for more detailed instructions for accessing the group and posting content, finding ways to encourage more interaction within the group, and tips for responding to notifications or alerts directly from the Facebook website. Conclusions These findings suggest that Facebook may be feasible for supporting health promotion efforts targeting people with serious mental illness. Participants provided valuable feedback that can inform

  9. Client acceptability of the use of computers in a sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Tideman, R L; Pitts, M K; Fairley, C K

    2006-02-01

    Computers in sexual health medicine largely remain provider-centred for use in client care, data collection, administration and education. As a formative study for further work we undertook a cross-sectional survey of 679 consecutive new clients attending Melbourne Sexual Health clinic (MSHC) between 9 September 2002 and 15 October 2002 to establish client familiarity and experience with computers and acceptance of computer use in the clinic. A response rate of 616/679 (91%) was achieved. Important findings were: 1. 491/612 (80%) participants reported experience with a personal computer. 2. The majority 488/609 (80%) of clients expected computer technologies to be used in the clinic. 3. The proportion of clients not willing to supply their registration, general health or sexual behaviour details using a computer was 9%, 7% and 21%, respectively. 4. Clients assessed as being at higher risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection were no more reluctant than others to provide their details using a computer-assisted self-interview.

  10. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  11. [Health promotion-related duties and rules--the acceptance of governmental authorities in the private sphere of health].

    PubMed

    Altgeld, T

    2010-01-01

    The acceptance of governmental authorities in the private sphere of health is increasing, even if the regulated behaviour patterns concern only small groups of a population. The tobacco and alcohol control policies in Germany are a good example for the different acceptance within the population of structural prevention strategies. The scope of action for a sustainable health policy, along side the health care sector and the framework for health professionals, is only limited. The responsibility for health seems to be a personal topic. Furthermore, the interests of the producers of harmful products hinder an effective governmental regulation.

  12. Perception and acceptance of risk from radiation exposure in space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.

    1997-04-30

    There are a number of factors that influence how a person views a particular risk. These include whether the risk is judged to be voluntary and/or controllable, whether the effects are immediate or delayed, and the magnitude of the benefits that are to be gained as a result of being exposed to the risk. An important aspect of the last factor is whether those who suffer the risks are also those who stand to reap the benefits. The manner in which risk is viewed is also significantly influenced by the manner in which it is framed and presented. In short, risk does not exist in the world independent of our minds and cultures, waiting to be measured. Assessments of risk are based on models whose structure is subjective and associated evaluations are laden with assumptions whose inputs are dependent on judgments. In fact, subjectivity permeates every aspect of risk assessment. The assessment of radiation risks in space is no exception. The structuring of the problem includes judgments related to the probability, magnitude, and effects of the various types of radiation likely to be encountered and assumptions related to the quantitative relationship between dose and a range of specific effects, all of which have associated uncertainties. For these reasons, there is no magic formula that will lead us to a precise level of acceptable risk from exposure to radiation in space. Acceptable risk levels must evolve through a process of negotiation that integrates a large number of social, technical, and economic factors. In the end, a risk that is deemed to be acceptable will be the outgrowth of the weighing of risks and benefits and the selection of the option that appears to be best.

  13. [Health risks of oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph R

    2011-06-01

    smoking is also an important contributing factor to an increased VTE risk for women using OC. It is important that doctors and pharmacists inform new users of OC about potential health risks of OC use, and that the personal and family history of previous health risks is assessed thoroughly in order to rule out that important and relevant contraindications are present when a women starts taking OC.

  14. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  15. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants Are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Allison; Albarracín, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use correlate with subsequent acceptance of an HIV-prevention counseling session. Ironically, participants with high (vs. low) motivation to use condoms, high (vs. low) condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and high (vs. low) prior condom use were more likely to accept the HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, the influence of motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use on acceptance of the counseling was mediated by expectations that the counseling session would be useful. Methods to reduce barriers to recruitment of clients for counseling programs are discussed. PMID:19634960

  16. Summary of a workshop on regulatory acceptance of (Q)SARs for human health and environmental endpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Joanna S; Comber, M; Auer, C; Van Leeuwen, C J

    2003-01-01

    The "Workshop on Regulatory Use of (Q)SARs for Human Health and Environmental Endpoints," organized by the European Chemical Industry Council and the International Council of Chemical Associations, gathered more than 60 human health and environmental experts from industry, academia, and regulatory agencies from around the world. They agreed, especially industry and regulatory authorities, that the workshop initiated great potential for the further development and use of predictive models, that is, quantitative structure-activity relationships [(Q)SARs], for chemicals management in a much broader scope than is currently the case. To increase confidence in (Q)SAR predictions and minimization of their misuse, the workshop aimed to develop proposals for guidance and acceptability criteria. The workshop also described the broad outline of a system that would apply that guidance and acceptability criteria to a (Q)SAR when used for chemical management purposes, including priority setting, risk assessment, and classification and labeling. PMID:12896859

  17. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Allison; Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms,…

  18. Cognitive Processes Underlying Women's Risk Judgments: Associations with Sexual Victimization History and Rape Myth Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…

  19. Health Risks and Adverse Reactions to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Crooks, Christine; Simmons, Greg; Woon, See-Tarn

    2016-01-01

    Functional foods have become increasingly popular with consumers anxious to mitigate the effects of an unhealthy lifestyle or aging. In spite of attractive health claims, these products do not have legal or regulatory status in most countries and are regulated through their health claims. Regulation of functional foods by health claims does not address health risks and adverse effects of these products. In this essay regulatory aspects of functional foods are reviewed along with adverse effects published in the peer-reviewed literature. We detail why the lack of an internationally accepted definition of functional foods places consumers at risk of adverse outcomes. Our review will assist regulatory agencies, manufacturers and consumer groups to assess the benefits and reduce the risks associated with these products.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to measure HIV risk behavior among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2014-12-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group.

  2. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  3. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.

  4. The effect of acceptance training on psychological and physical health outcomes in elders with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Patricia E; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; DeHelian, Laura; Morris, Diana L

    2011-12-01

    This pilot trial investigated the short and long-term effects of Acceptance Training (ACT) intervention on acceptance, perceived health, functional status, anxiety, and depression in elders with chronic conditions living in retirement communities (RCs). The ACT intervention combined Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with music, relaxation, and guided imagery during six weekly 2-hour sessions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 African-American and 46 White elders across four data collection points in six randomly selected RCs using well-established measures of perceived health, functional status, anxiety, and depression, and a measure of acceptance of chronic conditions adapted from a previous measure of acceptance of diabetes. While changes were found in perceived health, functional status, anxiety, and depression, the most significant changes occurred in the elders' acceptance of chronic conditions immediately after the intervention (t = -2.62, p < .02), and these changes persisted for 6 and 12 weeks (t's = -2.74, -3.32, p's < .01), respectively. Although a 40% attrition rate reduced the sample size from 62 (N = 62) to 37 (N = 37), the significant increases in acceptance over time provide initial evidence for the fidelity of the ACT intervention.

  5. Health risk of chrysotile revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raúl; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20 µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7 d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration. PMID:23346982

  6. Health risk of chrysotile revisited.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David; Dunnigan, Jacques; Hesterberg, Thomas; Brown, Robert; Velasco, Juan Antonio Legaspi; Barrera, Raúl; Hoskins, John; Gibbs, Allen

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a basis for substantiating both kinetically and pathologically the differences between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile, which is rapidly attacked by the acid environment of the macrophage, falls apart in the lung into short fibers and particles, while the amphibole asbestos persist creating a response to the fibrous structure of this mineral. Inhalation toxicity studies of chrysotile at non-lung overload conditions demonstrate that the long (>20 µm) fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung, are not translocated to the pleural cavity and do not initiate fibrogenic response. In contrast, long amphibole asbestos fibers persist, are quickly (within 7 d) translocated to the pleural cavity and result in interstitial fibrosis and pleural inflammation. Quantitative reviews of epidemiological studies of mineral fibers have determined the potency of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos for causing lung cancer and mesothelioma in relation to fiber type and have also differentiated between these two minerals. These studies have been reviewed in light of the frequent use of amphibole asbestos. As with other respirable particulates, there is evidence that heavy and prolonged exposure to chrysotile can produce lung cancer. The importance of the present and other similar reviews is that the studies they report show that low exposures to chrysotile do not present a detectable risk to health. Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low with even high exposures experienced over a short duration.

  7. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  8. [Psychosocial risks at work and occupational health].

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2012-06-01

    The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population.

  9. Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borcherding, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

  10. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  11. Factors influencing nursing students' acceptance of electronic health records for nursing education (EHRNE) software program.

    PubMed

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Pulcini, Joyce; Wang, Wenru

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Health Information Technology Act (2009) in America had recommended that electronic health records (EHRs) should be fully adopted by 2014. This has urged educational institutions to prepare healthcare professionals to be competent in using electronic health records (EHRs) while they are in schools. To equip nursing students with competency in using EHRs, an electronic health record for nursing education (EHRNE) has been developed and integrated it into nursing curricula. The purposes of the study were to investigate the factors influencing nursing students' acceptance of the EHRs in nursing education using the extended Technology Acceptance Model with self-efficacy as a conceptual framework. The study is a descriptive study design using self-reported questionnaires with 212 student participants. The IBM SPSS and AMOS 22.0 were used to analyze the data. The results showed that attitude toward using the EHRNE was the most influential factor on students' acceptance. The preliminary findings suggested that to enhance the students' acceptance of the EHRNE, cultivation of a positive attitude toward using this EHR as well as increasing the perceived usefulness is very important. Also, the study's framework could be used in guiding learning health informatics and be applied to nursing students.

  12. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  13. User acceptance of mobile health services from users' perspectives: The role of self-efficacy and response-efficacy in technology acceptance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Han, Xiaocui; Dang, Yuanyuan; Meng, Fanbo; Guo, Xitong; Lin, Jiayue

    2017-03-01

    With the swift emergence of electronic medical information, the global popularity of mobile health (mHealth) services continues to increase steadily. This study aims to investigate the efficacy factors that directly or indirectly influence individuals' acceptance of mHealth services. Based on the technology acceptance model, this research incorporates efficacy factors into the acceptance decision process. A research model was proposed involving the direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy and response-efficacy on acceptance intention, along with their moderating effects. The model and hypotheses were validated using data collected from a field survey of 650 potential service users. The results reveal that: (1) self-efficacy and response-efficacy are both positively associated with perceived ease of use; and (2) self-efficacy and response-efficacy moderate the impact of perceived usefulness toward adoption intention. Self-efficacy and response-efficacy both play an important role in individuals' acceptance of mHealth services, which not only affect their perceived ease of use of mHealth services, but also positively moderate the effects of perceived usefulness on adoption intention. Our findings serve to provide recommendations that are specifically customized for mHealth service providers and their marketers.

  14. Soy Goes to School: Acceptance of Healthful, Vegetarian Options in Maryland Middle School Lunches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazor, Kathleen; Chapman, Nancy; Levine, Elyse

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soyfoods provide healthful options for school breakfasts and lunches that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, fat, and calories and can help meet demands for vegetarian choices. Researchers tested acceptance of soy-based options substituted for popular lunch items with a diverse student population. Methods: Researchers conducted a…

  15. Mental Health Agency Directors' Acceptance and Perceptions of Licensed Professional Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin; Partin, Ron; Trivette, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Directors (N=203) of mental-health agencies responded to a survey designed to examine their level of acceptance and satisfaction with licensed professional counselors (LPC) in Ohio. Responses suggest a preference for hiring social workers over counselors; starting salaries were similar for both groups with comparable educational levels.…

  16. The Acceptability of Credentials Earned Online for Obtaining Employment in the Health Care Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan; DeFleur, Margaret H.; Heald, Gary R.

    2007-01-01

    A national survey of health care administrators was used to assess the acceptability of a job applicant's qualifications that included a degree earned online, partly online, or in a traditional program. A questionnaire was sent in response to job advertisements that were posted in newspapers from 38 metropolitan areas throughout the United States.…

  17. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  18. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  19. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9% for the monthly model, and 80.4% for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and it was 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM & MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average willingness-to-accept estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model for targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  20. New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, David

    To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

  1. The Health Risks of Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frances M.

    This report compiles scientific evidence and statistics on the health risks of weight loss interventions and is intended to help both professionals and consumers cope in healthful ways with the complex dilemmas of weight. The publication is organized into six chapters: (1) "Risks of Losing Weight"; (2) "Effectiveness of…

  2. The effect of marriage and HIV risks on condom use acceptability in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use.

  3. Risk communication for public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C

    2007-01-01

    This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk communication for public health. Literature from four different disciplines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (a) environmental risk communication, (b) disaster management, (c) health promotion and communication, and (d) media and communication studies. Current curricula and training materials are briefly reviewed. Although this literature review suggests much progress has been made to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, and case studies suggest that public health workers have gained skills and experience, this emerging field still lacks in-depth evaluation of the effectiveness of event-specific crisis risk communication efforts.

  4. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  5. The influence of health care on contraceptive acceptance in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Potter, J E; Mojarro, O; Nuñez, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper offers two types of evidence in support of the idea that family planning services are most expediently provided as an integral part of the health and medical organization for maternity care. First, prenatal care and medical attention at delivery are found to be closely associated with postpartum contraceptive acceptance in a 1981 survey of family planning in rural Mexico. Second, interviews of a sample of doctors, nurses, and auxiliaries who provide maternal health services to the rural population reveal that these practitioners favor long birth intervals and small completed families, that they recommend the use of modern contraceptive methods including female sterilization, and that those in the employ of public institutions are motivated to recruit acceptors of these methods. The main impediment to contraceptive acceptance in this context is believed to be fear of side effects and permanent health consequences rather than the desire for additional children.

  6. Why should I?--Acceptance of Health Information Technology Among health professionals.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Joseph M J; Hunter, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Applying the Technology Acceptance Model, the end user intentions to use technology applications is studied. The study finds the end users negative perception of the usefulness of the application as a major factor in its suboptimal utilisation.

  7. Acceptability of a Mobile Health Unit for Rural HIV Clinical Trial Enrollment and Participation

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Margaret Shandor; Banks, Bahby; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Few rural minorities participate in HIV clinical trials. Mobile health units (MHUs) may be one strategy to increase participation. We explored community perceptions of MHU acceptability to increase clinical trial participation for rural minorities living with HIV/AIDS. We conducted 11 focus groups (service providers and community leaders) and 35 interviews (people living with HIV/AIDS). Responses were analyzed using constant comparative and content analysis techniques. Acceptable MHU use included maintaining accessibility and confidentiality while establishing credibility, community ownership and control. Under these conditions, MHUs can service rural locations and overcome geographic barriers to reaching major medical centers for clinical trials. PMID:22350829

  8. Acceptable Interventions to Reduce Syphilis Transmission Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Aaron; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cross, John; Montoya, Jorge A.; Bolan, Robert; Kerndt, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined perceptions of and attitudes toward existing and potential syphilis interventions, including case management and Web-based programs, to increase syphilis testing among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Between October 2010 and June 2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 MSM in Los Angeles, California, with repeat early syphilis infections (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) within the previous 5 years. We analyzed the interviews inductively to determine the most acceptable potential interventions. Results. Experiences with health department and community-based standard of care case management were generally positive. The most popular interventions among respondents included a Web site providing information on syphilis and syphilis testing, automated Web reminders to test, being paid to test, free online home testing kits, and preexposure prophylactic medication. Respondents’ beliefs that they would continue to practice high-risk sexual behaviors reinforced their reasons for wanting increased accessibility and convenient testing strategies. Conclusions. Public health officials should consider participant responses to potential interventions for syphilis, which suggest that high-risk MSM would consider testing more often or using other interventions. PMID:25602881

  9. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  10. Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

  11. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Anderson, E.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 {times} 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 {times} 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  12. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses.

  13. Designing an intelligent health monitoring system and exploring user acceptance for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kevin C; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Chuang, Yu-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Recently, many healthcare or health monitoring systems are proposed to improve life quality of the elderly in the aging process. The elderly are generally with poor health and low information literacy. Low information literacy might be an obstacle of using such systems. This research considered the characteristics and the needs of the elderly and developed an intelligent health monitoring system for the elderly with low information literacy living in the nursing home. The system is intelligent since it can monitor the health status of the elderly based on clinical and medical knowledge, provide an easy-to-understand and easy-to-use user interface for the elderly, and automatically send important or emergency feedback to caregivers. Finally, we explored the user acceptance for the elderly using our proposed system based on the unified theory of acceptance and user of technology model. The experimental results indicate the developed system is highly accepted by the elderly in terms of performance expectation, endeavor expectation, social influence, and facilitating condition.

  14. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu). PMID:27974141

  15. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  16. Risk communication for environmental health hazards.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, P M; Schütz, H

    1999-08-01

    Starting with the analysis of communication problems in the field of therapeutical and environmental risks the special requirements and challenges of communicating environmental health risks will be outlined. Important problems of this type of risk communication include: (1) The political context which imposes a new role structure upon the doctor and the people involved, (2) the special importance of credibility of scientific statements, given the limited understanding of health risks related to the environment, and (3) the strong emotional component and therefore the conflict-proneness of communication.

  17. Health risk implications from simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Genthe, B; Le Roux, W J; Schachtschneider, K; Oberholster, P J; Aneck-Hahn, N H; Chamier, J

    2013-07-01

    Water quality has deteriorated in the upper Olifants River system, South Africa, as a result of land use activities which include mining, agriculture and industries. A health risk assessment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the catchment to determine the possible risks local communities face from various pollutants such as microbials, heavy metals and oestrogen in the river water and vegetation. Aluminium and manganese accumulated in plants and vanadium and aluminium concentrations found in selective water samples posed significant health risks when consumed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment revealed that the combined risk of infection ranged from 1 to 26 percent with the Norovirus posing the overall greatest health risk. The anticipated disability adjusted life years resulting from drinking untreated water from these sites are in the order of 10,000 times greater than what is considered acceptable. The oestradiol activity, caused by endocrine disrupting compounds in the water, measured above the trigger value of 0.7ngL(-1). Impoverished communities in the area, who partially depend on river water for potable and domestic use, are exposed to immune-compromising metals that increase their probability of infection from waterborne diseases caused by the excess microbial pathogens in the contaminated surface water.

  18. Human and Animal Sentinels for Shared Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Scotch, Matthew; Conti, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Summary The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions, and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such “shared risks” from environmental hazards has not been realized. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data, and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The One Health initiative and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sharing of knowledge about sentinel events in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species. PMID:20148187

  19. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  20. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015

  1. Types of social support and parental acceptance among transfemale youth and their impact on mental health, sexual debut, history of sex work and condomless anal intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Le, Victory; Arayasirikul, Sean; Chen, Yea-Hung; Jin, Harry; Wilson, Erin C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transfemale youth (TFY) are an underserved and understudied population at risk for numerous poor physical and mental health outcomes, most notably HIV. Research suggests that parental acceptance and social support may serve as protective factors against HIV and other risks for TFY; however, it is unclear whether TFY receive primary social support from parents with or without parental acceptance of their gender identity. This study examines differences in parental acceptance, mental health and the HIV risk factors of history of sex work, age at sexual debut and engagement in condomless anal intercourse between TFY with two types of primary social support – non-parental primary social support (NPPSS) and parental primary social support (PPSS). Methods Cross-sectional data collected from 301 TFY from 2012 to 2014 in the San Francisco Bay Area were analyzed to determine differences in parental acceptance, mental health and HIV risk factors between youth with and without PPSS. Univariate statistics and chi-squared tests were conducted to determine if parental acceptance and health outcomes were correlated with type of social support. Results Two-hundred fifty-one participants (83.7%) reported having NPPSS, and 49 (16.3%) reported PPSS. Significantly more youth with PPSS reported affirmative responses on parental acceptance items than their NPPSS counterparts. For example, 87.8% of youth with PPSS reported that their parents believed they could have a happy future as a trans adult, compared with 51.6% of youth with NPPSS (p<0.001). Fewer participants with PPSS reported symptoms of psychological distress (2.0% vs. 12.5%, p=0.057), though this finding was not statistically significant; no significant associations were found between primary social support type and HIV risk factors. Conclusions These results suggest that TFY with parental acceptance of their gender identity may be more likely to reach out to their parents as their primary source of social

  2. Theory development in health care informatics: Information and communication technology acceptance model (ICTAM) improves the explanatory and predictive power of technology acceptance models.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this web-based study was to explain and predict consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of Internet health information and services. Toward this goal, the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM) was developed and tested. Individuals who received a flyer through the LISTSERV of HealthGuide were eligible to participate. The study population was eighteen years old and older who had used Internet health information and services for a minimum of 6 months. For the analyses, SPSS (version 13.0) and AMOS (version 5.0) were employed. More than half of the respondents were women (n = 110, 55%). The average age of the respondents was 35.16 years (S.D. = 10.07). A majority reported at least some college education (n = 126, 63%). All of the observed factors accounted for 75.53% of the total variance explained. The fit indices of the structural model were within an acceptable range: chi2/df = 2.38 (chi2 = 1786.31, df = 752); GFI = .71; RMSEA = .08; CFI = .86; NFI = .78. The results of this study provide empirical support for the continued development of ICTAM in the area of health consumers' information and communication technology acceptance.

  3. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0–29.9 Obesity 30.0 and Above Waist Circumference Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come ... Risks of Obesity-Associated Diseases by BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your ...

  4. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  5. Communication Technology Use and mHealth Acceptance among HIV-infected Men who have Sex with Men in Peru: Implications for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Archana; Ferro, Enrico G.; Weikum, Damian; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Peru is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Given that MSM have been documented as early adopters of emerging technology, we examined communication technology access and utilization, and mobile health (mHealth) acceptance among Peruvian MSM and transgender women (TGW) in order to gauge opportunities for mHealth-enabled HIV interventions. A convenience sample of 359 HIV-infected MSM and TGW recruited from three sites in Lima, Peru completed standardized assessments of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), risky sexual behavior, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence along with self-constructed measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. Most (86%) participants had daily access to any cell phone, including smartphones (30%). The most frequent communication activities were receiving and making calls, and receiving and sending text messages using cell phones. On a 5-point Likert scale, participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (M=3.21, SD=1.32) and engaging in anonymous online interactions with health professionals to discuss HIV-related issues (M=3.56, SD=1.33). Importantly, no significant differences were found in communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among participants with AUDs, depression and suboptimal ART adherence, all of which are associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Findings show support for implementing mHealth-based intervention strategies using cell phones to assess and reduce HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM and TGW. PMID:25285464

  6. Communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Peru: implications for HIV prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Archana; Ferro, Enrico G; Weikum, Damian; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Peru is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Given that MSM have been documented as early adopters of emerging technology, we examined communication technology access and utilization, and mobile health (mHealth) acceptance among Peruvian MSM and transgender women (TGW) in order to gauge opportunities for mHealth-enabled HIV interventions. A convenience sample of 359 HIV-infected MSM and TGW recruited from three sites in Lima, Peru completed standardized assessments of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), risky sexual behavior, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence along with self-constructed measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. Most participants (86%) had daily access to any cell phone, including smartphones (30%). The most frequent communication activities were receiving and making calls, and receiving and sending text messages using cell phones. On a 5-point Likert scale, participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (M = 3.21, SD = 1.32) and engaging in anonymous online interactions with health professionals to discuss HIV-related issues (M = 3.56, SD = 1.33). Importantly, no significant differences were found in communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among participants with AUDs, depression, and suboptimal ART adherence, all of which are associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Findings show support for implementing mHealth-based intervention strategies using cell phones to assess and reduce HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM and TGW.

  7. Environmental Risk to Health of the Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anopchenko, Tatiana Y.; Murzin, Anton D.; Kandrashina, Elena A.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Surnina, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    Researches of the last years in the field of ecological epidemiology and the analysis of risk for health allow to claim with confidence that the polluted environment is one of the important factors defining changes of a state of health of the population. Expert opinions on the scale of this influence differ considerably now. These estimations vary…

  8. Student Perceptions of the Acceptability and Utility of Standardized and Idiographic Assessment in School Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Mylien T.; Lyon, Aaron R.; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment (EBA) comprises the use of research and theory to select methods and processes that have demonstrated reliability, validity, and clinical usefulness for prescribed populations. EBA can lead to positive clinical change, and recent work has suggested that it is perceived to be useful by school mental health providers. However, virtually nothing is known about student perceptions of assessment use. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 ethnically diverse middle and high school students (71% female) receiving mental health services in school-based health centers. Findings indicated that the majority of students found assessments to be useful, and perceived three primary functions of assessments: structuring the therapy session, increasing students’ self-awareness, and improving communication with the provider. Barriers to acceptability were also found for a minority of respondents. Some students found the nature of standardized assessments to be confining, and others expressed that they wanted more feedback from their counselors about their responses. Idiographic assessments demonstrated especially high acceptability in this sample, with students reporting that tracking idiographic outcomes increased self-awareness, spurred problem-solving, and helped them to reach behavioral goals. Implications for school mental health service improvements are discussed. PMID:27441029

  9. Investigating the feasibility and acceptability of health psychology-informed obesity training for medical students.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Anna; Hart, Jo; Mann, Karen; Perry, Mark; Duthie, Harriet; Rezvani, Leila; Peters, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Health psychologists have succeeded in identifying theory-congruent behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to prevent and reduce lifestyle-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, cancers and diabetes. Obesity management discussions between doctors and patients can be challenging and are often avoided. Despite a clear training need, it is unknown how best to tailor BCT research findings to inform obesity-management training for future healthcare professionals. The primary objective of this descriptive study was to gather information on the feasibility and acceptability of delivering and evaluating health psychology-informed obesity training to UK medical students. Medical students (n = 41) attended an obesity management session delivered by GP tutors. Sessions were audio-recorded to enable fidelity checks. Acceptability of training was explored qualitatively. Tutors consistently delivered training according to the intervention protocol; and students and tutors found the training highly acceptable. This psychology-informed training can be delivered successfully by GP tutors and further research is warranted to explore its efficacy.

  10. Awareness and acceptance of the nurse practitioner role in one BC health authority.

    PubMed

    Sawchenko, Linda; Fulton, Tom; Gamroth, Lucia; Budgen, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The Interior Health Authority (IH) is one of six health authorities in British Columbia, whose goal of delivering the best possible healthcare services to its residents requires proven and innovative healthcare delivery strategies. The nurse practitioner initiative is one such strategy used by IH. The following paper describes marketing strategies and early evaluation results of the awareness and acceptance of the nurse practitioner (NP) role in IH. Multiple marketing strategies were used prior to and after NP hiring. Three evaluation questions focused on people's awareness of and willingness to be seen by a NP instead of a doctor for minor illnesses or health maintenance. Evaluation results were consistent with evaluation results of other provincial and national studies.

  11. Uncontrolled pilot study of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Health at Every Size intervention for obese, depressed women: Accept Yourself!

    PubMed

    Berman, Margit I; Morton, Stephanie N; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-12-01

    Depression and obesity frequently co-occur, but providing adequate treatment to depressed obese women is challenging because existing treatments for each problem in isolation are suboptimal, and treatments to address one problem may exacerbate the other. This study used an uncontrolled, pretreatment-to-posttreatment design, with 3-month follow-up, to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a novel, self-acceptance-based treatment for obese women with depression, "Accept Yourself!" Accept Yourself! is an 11-week manualized, group-based intervention that integrates Health At Every Size (an evidence-based paradigm to enhance physical health) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (an evidence-based psychotherapy often used to treat depression and eating-related concerns) to improve the physical and mental health of obese, depressed women without encouraging weight loss. Twenty-one obese women with Major Depressive Disorder received the intervention; 18 completed at least seven sessions, a minimal dose of the intervention. Depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, physical health outcomes (including physical activity and blood pressure), and obesity-related quality of life were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Weight was also monitored. Depression, blood pressure, and obesity-related quality of life significantly improved from pretreatment to posttreatment, and improvements were sustained over a 3-month follow-up. Participants did not gain significant weight during the intervention or at follow-up. These data, although preliminary and nonexperimental, suggest that Accept Yourself! could be a promising treatment for obese, depressed women, and support the value of larger randomized controlled trials. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. The prevention of health risks in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, S

    1987-01-01

    Cuba still has a double burden of health risks. It must contend with some risks to health that persist in underdeveloped rural areas, and it must also deal with the risk factors associated with modern, urban living conditions. The economic and social changes fostered in the postrevolutionary period have reduced the relative importance of the first set of factors, but the changes have also introduced or intensified a myriad of factors derived from their own successes. In this article, the risk factors of greatest concern in contemporary Cuba are described, and the strategies adopted to combat these risk factors, together with the ways in which such strategies are shaped by Cuba's social and economic development are discussed.

  13. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  14. Promoting multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) in Peru: acceptance by caregivers and role of health personnel

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Rosario; Abad, Melissa; Arevalo, Varinia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iron deficiency causes anaemia and other adverse effects on the nutritional status and development of millions of children. Multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) have been shown to reduce anaemia in young children. In Peru, 50% of children 6–36 months are anaemic. Since 2009, the government has started distributing MNP. This qualitative study explored the acceptability of MNP by caregivers and the role of health personnel (HP) in three regions (Apurimac, Ayacucho and Cajamarca), piloting the MNP programme between 2009 and 2011. Data collection consisted of interviews (35) and observations (13) with caregivers and HP (11). In Cajamarca, 16 families were visited three times in their homes to understand caregivers' use and difficulties. Results showed the critical role HP has in influencing caregiver understanding and use of the MNP, as well as the need for training to avoid confusing messages and provide counselling techniques that consider cultural sensitivity to optimize HP interactions with caregivers and adapt the recommendations for MNP use to local family feeding routines. There was greater acceptance of MNP by caregivers giving semi‐solid foods (e.g. purees) to their children than those who served dilute preparations (e.g. soups). Acceptance was similar across regions, but there were some differences between urban and rural settings. Home visits were shown to be a key in improving the use of MNP by caregivers as misunderstandings on preparation, required consistency and optimum practices were common. These findings can contribute to strategies to enhance acceptability and use. Key messages Acceptance and use of multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) by caregivers greatly depend upon how it is presented, promoted and counselled by health personnel.Counselling for MNP use needs to consider and adapt to the local cultural context and incorporate family and child feeding routines.MNP are presented as part of appropriate feeding practices, encouraging

  15. Policy on acceptable levels of earthquake risk for California gas and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Earthquake specialists from the major California gas and electric power utilities have prepared a policy statement and associated implementation program as a framework for assessing and achieving acceptable levels of earthquake risk. The policy states: ``Each California gas and electric power utility system shall withstand earthquakes to provide reasonable protection of life, to limit damage to property, and to provide for resumption of utility system functions in a reasonable and timely manner.`` The policy scope is broad, to permit its application to utilities in the differing seismic hazard regions of the State. Because each utility also has its own unique earthquake vulnerabilities, it also has it own long-term seismic safety implementation plan. It is the goal of this policy that each utility meet its responsibilities to provide reasonable public safety and customer service. Compliance will not prevent all loss of life, property damage, or loss of utility function. Experience with recent earthquakes in California suggests that implementing this policy through long-term implementation plans is an effective and practical means of reducing earthquake vulnerability to acceptable levels.

  16. Coverage and acceptability of cholera vaccine among high-risk population of urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Wahed, Tasnuva; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Kaukab, Sheikh Shah Tanvir; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Clemens, John David; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-09-29

    The oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol), along with other interventions, is a potential new measure to prevent or control cholera. A mass cholera-vaccination programme was launched in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, during February-April 2011 targeting about 173,041 people who are at high risk of cholera. This cross-sectional, descriptive study assessed the coverage and acceptability of the vaccine. The study used a quantitative household survey and qualitative data-collection techniques comprising focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and observations for assessment. The findings revealed that 88% of the target population received the first dose of the vaccine, and 79% received the second dose. Absence of persons at home was a prominent cause of not administering the first (71%) and the second dose (67%). Thirty-three percent of the respondents (n=9308) did not like the taste of the vaccine. Only 1.3% and 3% recipients of the first dose and the second dose of the vaccine respectively reported adverse effects within 28 days of vaccination, and the adverse effects included vomiting or vomiting tendency and diarrhoea. To improve the coverage of the cholera vaccine, exploration of effective solutions to reach the unvaccinated population is required. The vaccine may be more acceptable to the community through changing its taste.

  17. Adverse or acceptable: negotiating access to a post-apartheid health care contract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    fragile and post-conflict societies requires the negotiation of a new social contract. Surfacing and engaging with differences in patient and provider expectations of this contract may contribute to more acceptable, accessible health care services. Additionally, the health system is well positioned to highlight and connect the political economy, institutions and social relationships that create and sustain identities of exclusion and inclusion – (re)politicise suffering - and co-ordinate and lead intersectoral action for overcoming affordability and availability barriers to inclusive and equitable health care services. PMID:24885882

  18. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  19. Consumer acceptable risk: how cigarette companies have responded to accusations that their products are defective

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, K Michael; Brown, Anthony; Douglas, Clifford E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe arguments used by cigarette companies to defend themselves against charges that their cigarettes were defective and that they could and should have done more to make cigarettes less hazardous. Methods The data for this paper come from the opening statements made by defendants in four court cases: two class action lawsuits (Engle 1999, and Blankenship 2001) and two individual cases (Boeken 2001, and Schwarz 2002). The transcripts of opening statements were reviewed and statements about product defect claims, product testing, and safe cigarette research were excerpted and coded. Results Responses by cigarette companies to charges that their products were defective has been presented consistently across different cases and by different companies. Essentially the arguments made by cigarette companies boil down to three claims: (1) smoking is risky, but nothing the companies have done has made cigarettes more dangerous than might otherwise be the case; (2) nothing the companies have done or said has kept someone from stopping smoking; and (3) the companies have spent lots of money to make the safest cigarette acceptable to the smoker. Conclusions Cigarette companies have argued that their products are inherently dangerous but not defective, and that they have worked hard to make their products safer by lowering the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes as recommended by members of the public health community. As a counter argument, plaintiff attorneys should focus on how cigarette design changes have actually made smoking more acceptable to smokers, thereby discouraging smoking cessation. PMID:17130628

  20. Microbicide Acceptability Among High-Risk Urban U.S. Women: Experiences and Perceptions of Sexually Transmitted HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Mosack, Katie E.; Abbott, Maryann; Sylla, Laurie Novick; Valdes, Barbara; Prince, Mary

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of microbicide acceptability among high-risk African American, Puerto Rican, non-Hispanic White, and other women in Hartford, Connecticut indicated limited experience with vaginal contraceptives but significant interest in and willingness to adopt vaginal microbicides for HIV/STI prevention. Objectives To measure microbicide acceptability among high-risk women in Hartford, Connecticut and contextual factors likely to affect acceptability and use. Goal To assess usefulness of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention for high-risk women. Study Design Ethnographic interviews (n=75) and a survey (n=471) explored women’s perspectives on HIV/STI prevention, vaginal contraceptives similar to microbicides, and microbicide acceptability. Participants (n=94) in a two-week behavioral trial used an over-the-counter vaginal moisturizer to simulate microbicide use during sex with primary, casual, and/or paying partners. Results Findings showed limited experience with vaginal contraceptives, but high interest in microbicides as an alternative to condoms, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.73 (SD .49, scale 1–4) in the overall sample. General microbicide acceptability varied by ethnicity, prior contraceptive and violence/abuse experiences, relationship power, and other attitudinal factors. The simulation trial indicated significant willingness to use the product in various locations and with all types of partners. Conclusions Vaginal microbicides may improve prevention outcomes for high-risk inner-city women. PMID:15502677

  1. Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

    1986-10-01

    Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

  2. The association of health risks with workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Musich, S; Napier, D; Edington, D W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between health risks and workers' compensation (WC) costs. The 4-year study used Health Risk Appraisal data and focused on 1996-to-1999 WC costs among Xerox Corporation's long-term employees. High WC costs were related to individual health risks, especially Health Age Index (a measure of controllable risks), smoking, poor physical health, physical inactivity, and life dissatisfaction. WC costs increased with increasing health risk status (low-risk to medium-risk to high-risk). Low-risk employees had the lowest costs. In this population, 85% of WC costs could be attributed to excess risks (medium- or high-risk) or non-participation. Among those with claims, a savings of $1238 per person per year was associated with Health Risk Appraisal participation. Addressing WC costs by focusing on employee health status provides an important additional strategy for health promotion programs.

  3. Adolescent Health Risk Profiles: The Co-Occurrence of Health Risks among Females and Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)

  4. Tissue allografts and health risks.

    PubMed

    Delloye, C

    1994-01-01

    Like vascularized transplants, tissue allografts are able to transmit viral and bacterial diseases. Transmission of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C virus) has been proved for sterilized, unprocessed and deep-frozen allografts. It is the prime responsibility of the tissue bank to select the donor correctly and to perform careful biological screening. However, standard screening is not enough to detect a seronegative but contaminated donor. It is necessary to quarantine the tissues until complementary screening confirms the absence of viral disease. If secondary screening is not possible, the tissues should be discarded or should be processed. If donor selection, relevant and appropriate screening tests and adequate procurement of tissues are carefully made, then the risk of disease transmission from tissue allografts will remain remote.

  5. Assessment of health risks of policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana; and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  6. Exploring Healthcare Consumer Acceptance of Personal Health Information Management Technology through Personal Health Record Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huijuan

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare technologies are evolving from a practitioner-centric model to a patient-centric model due to the increasing need for technology that directly serves healthcare consumers, including healthy people and patients. Personal health information management (PHIM) technology is one of the technologies designed to enhance an individual's ability…

  7. Radiation release and health effects lessons from the Three Mile Island incident: assessment of objective risks for emergency preparedness planning

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Mynatt, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The accepted theories of radiation health effects are briefly discussed so that the Three Mile Island health effects estimations can be better understood. The author recommends that emergency response planners weigh the objective risks rather than the perceived risks of low-level radiation against those associated with evacuation of large population zones before a final plan is put into effect. (ACR)

  8. The Careful Puppet Master: Reducing risk and fortifying acceptance testing with Jenkins CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jason A.; Richman, Gabriel; DeStefano, John; Pryor, James; Rao, Tejas; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Centralized configuration management, including the use of automation tools such as Puppet, can greatly increase provisioning speed and efficiency when configuring new systems or making changes to existing systems, reduce duplication of work, and improve automated processes. However, centralized management also brings with it a level of inherent risk: a single change in just one file can quickly be pushed out to thousands of computers and, if that change is not properly and thoroughly tested and contains an error, could result in catastrophic damage to many services, potentially bringing an entire computer facility offline. Change management procedures can—and should—be formalized in order to prevent such accidents. However, like the configuration management process itself, if such procedures are not automated, they can be difficult to enforce strictly. Therefore, to reduce the risk of merging potentially harmful changes into our production Puppet environment, we have created an automated testing system, which includes the Jenkins CI tool, to manage our Puppet testing process. This system includes the proposed changes and runs Puppet on a pool of dozens of RedHat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) virtual machines (VMs) that replicate most of our important production services for the purpose of testing. This paper describes our automated test system and how it hooks into our production approval process for automatic acceptance testing. All pending changes that have been pushed to production must pass this validation process before they can be approved and merged into production.

  9. The risks of innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2015-04-01

    Innovation in health care creates risks that are unevenly distributed. An evolutionary analogy using species to represent business models helps categorize innovation experiments and their risks. This classification reveals two qualitative categories: early and late diversification experiments. Early diversification has prolific innovations with high risk because they encounter a "decimation" stage, during which most experiments disappear. Participants face high risk. The few decimation survivors can be sustaining or disruptive according to Christensen's criteria. Survivors enter late diversification, during which they again expand, but within a design range limited to variations of the previous surviving designs. Late diversifications carry lower risk. The exception is when disruptive survivors "diversify," which amplifies their disruption. Health care and radiology will experience both early and late diversifications, often simultaneously. Although oversimplifying Christensen's concepts, early diversifications are likely to deliver disruptive innovation, whereas late diversifications tend to produce sustaining innovations. Current health care consolidation is a manifestation of late diversification. Early diversifications will appear outside traditional care models and physical health care sites, as well as with new science such as molecular diagnostics. They warrant attention because decimation survivors will present both disruptive and sustaining opportunities to radiology. Radiology must participate in late diversification by incorporating sustaining innovations to its value chain. Given the likelihood of disruptive survivors, radiology should seriously consider disrupting itself rather than waiting for others to do so. Disruption entails significant modifications of its value chain, hence, its business model, for which lessons may become available from the pharmaceutical industry's current simultaneous experience with early and late diversifications.

  10. Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mixtures is poorly characterized, exposure data are uncertain and toxicologic data on the known components of the mixture are limited. However, a potential human health hazard may exist and the U.S.EPA, state and local governments need to be able to assess the total hazard in order to make decisions on appropriate action. This report describes a procedure for assessing the risks from chemical mixtures that includes options when different kinds of data are available. Good-quality information on the mixture of concern or a similar mixture should always be used. Less desirable, but still useful approach, is to utilize data on components and their interactions. The quality of exposure and toxicity data must be determined and the uncertainties involved in each risk assessment must be thoroughly discussed. ater contamination is briefly discussed since it is of vital concern as the primary exposure medium for chemical mixtures. The methodology for estimating the human health risk from single chemicals, both carcinogens and systemic toxicants, is reviewed as it forms the basis for the assessment of mixtures. The Implementation of Superfund requires a methodology for estimating health risk from multi-chemical contamination at ambient levels. Most often, the chemical composition of these mix

  11. Acceptance of the German e-mental health portal www.psychenet.de: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    Tlach, Lisa; Thiel, Juliane; Härter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Taking into account the high prevalence of mental disorders and the multiple barriers to the use of mental health services, new forms of fostering patient information, involvement, and self-management are needed to complement existing mental health services. The study aimed at investigating acceptance regarding design and content of the e-mental health portal www.psychenet.de. Methods. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 2013 and May 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire including items on perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude towards using, and perceived trust. Effects of different participants’ characteristics on the portals’ acceptance were analyzed. Results. The majority of the N = 252 respondents suffered from mental disorders (n = 139) or were relatives from persons with mental disorders (n = 65). The portal was assessed as “good” or “very good” by 71% of the respondents. High levels of agreement (89–96%) were shown for statements on the perceived ease of use, the behavioral intention to use the portal, and the trustworthiness of the portal. Lower levels of agreement were shown for some statements on the perceived usefulness of the portals’ content. There were no effects of different participants’ characteristics on the perceived ease of use, the perceived usefulness, the attitude towards using the website and the perceived trust. Discussion. This survey provides preliminary evidence that the e-mental health portal www.psychenet.de appears to be a usable, useful and trustworthy information resource for a broad target group. The behavioral usefulness of the portals’ content might be improved by integrating more activating patient decision aids. PMID:27547515

  12. Acceptability of a Personally Controlled Health Record in a Community-Based Setting: Implications for Policy and Design

    PubMed Central

    Kaci, Liljana; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumer-centered health information systems that address problems related to fragmented health records and disengaged and disempowered patients are needed, as are information systems that support public health monitoring and research. Personally controlled health records (PCHRs) represent one response to these needs. PCHRs are a special class of personal health records (PHRs) distinguished by the extent to which users control record access and contents. Recently launched PCHR platforms include Google Health, Microsoft’s HealthVault, and the Dossia platform, based on Indivo. Objective To understand the acceptability, early impacts, policy, and design requirements of PCHRs in a community-based setting. Methods Observational and narrative data relating to acceptability, adoption, and use of a personally controlled health record were collected and analyzed within a formative evaluation of a PCHR demonstration. Subjects were affiliates of a managed care organization run by an urban university in the northeastern United States. Data were collected using focus groups, semi-structured individual interviews, and content review of email communications. Subjects included: n = 20 administrators, clinicians, and institutional stakeholders who participated in pre-deployment group or individual interviews; n = 52 community members who participated in usability testing and/or pre-deployment piloting; and n = 250 subjects who participated in the full demonstration of which n = 81 initiated email communications to troubleshoot problems or provide feedback. All data were formatted as narrative text and coded thematically by two independent analysts using a shared rubric of a priori defined major codes. Sub-themes were identified by analysts using an iterative inductive process. Themes were reviewed within and across research activities (ie, focus group, usability testing, email content review) and triangulated to identify patterns. Results Low levels of familiarity with

  13. Acceptance and Use of Health Information Technology By Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Shira H; David, Daniel; Crotty, Bradley H; Dierks, Meghan; Safran, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives With the worldwide population growing in age, information technology may help meet important needs to prepare and support patients and families for aging. We sought to explore the use and acceptance of information technology for health among the elderly by reviewing the existing literature. Methods Review of literature using PubMed and Google Scholar, references from relevant papers, and consultation with experts. Results Elderly people approach the Internet and health information technology differently than younger people, but have growing rates of adoption. Assistive technology, such as sensors or home monitors, may help ‘aging in place,' but these have not been thoroughly evaluated. Elders face many barriers to using technology for healthcare decision-making, including issues with familiarity, willingness to ask for help, trust of the technology, privacy, and design challenges. Conclusions Barriers must be addressed for these tools to be available to this growing population. Design, education, research, and policy all play roles in addressing these barriers to acceptance and use. PMID:24996581

  14. Prospective method for estimating occupational health risks in new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P D; Briggs, T; Ungers, L; Hamilton, L D

    1981-09-01

    In design, development, and acceptance of new energy technologies, concern for health and safety is increasingly important. Determining risks for emerging technologies is difficult because health statistics associated with these new alternatives are unavailable. Nevertheless boundaries on such risks must be determined to identify potentially significant hazards and to permit technology comparisons to be made. An approach to determining occupational health costs is to disaggregate labor requirements of an emerging industy by different worker classifications. Risks to workers can then be determined for these classifications from occupational health statistics of related industries. By summing risks for each worker classification, prospective estimates of individual and societal risk from an emerging technology can be developed. Although this approach identifies accident-related effects, it cannot be used to quantitate occupationally induced disease. An example of this method analyzing different photovoltaic fabrication alternatives is given. Individual vs. societal risk is considered in these analyses.

  15. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2016-10-01

    Health anxiety is prevalent (5-9%) in all healthcare settings and in the general population, may have an early onset, and a poor prognosis is seen in severe cases if untreated. Research shows that health anxiety is rarely diagnosed though it causes great suffering for the individual and constitutes a substantial socio-economic burden. Studies have shown that individual cognitive behavioural therapy can relieve health anxiety, but these studies are affected by methodological problems, among others, struggling with patients declining participation, high dropout rates, and some patients not responding to the treatment. Moreover, the impact of health anxiety on sick leave is only scarcely examined. This thesis examines the effect of a new treatment approach, group-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT-G) for patients with severe health anxiety in an uncontrolled pilot study and a randomised controlled study (RCT) on ACT-G compared with a 10-month waitlist control condition (paper I and II). Also, the thesis comprises a study on sick leave in patients with health anxiety compared with the general population during a 5-year period and the effect of ACT-G on sick leave. The findings from this study are described in paper III. Patients (age 20-60 years) consecutively referred from general practitioners from Jutland and Funen in the period of March 2010 - April 2012  (approx. 2.5 million citizens) to the Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, were included. The pilot study included 34 patients, the RCT on ACT-G included 126 patients. In the RCT, patients were block-randomised to either ACT-G and received treatment in 7 groups of each 9 patients in the period of December 2010 - October 2012, or to a 10-month waitlist control group. The primary outcome measure was the Whiteley-7 paper and pencil index for illness worrying. The last paper is based on data on sickness-related benefits from the DREAM social register of

  17. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods.

  18. Evaluation of the Compliance, Acceptance, and Usability of a Web-Based eHealth Intervention for Parents of Children With Infantile Hemangiomas: Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Totte, Joan; Breugem, Corstiaan; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Pasmans, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common benign vascular tumors in children. Recognition and timely referral of high risk IH to specialized centers is important. This might be achieved by involving parents in the care for IH by means of an eHealth intervention. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate parent compliance, acceptance, and usability of an open access, Web-based eHealth intervention (including e-learning and e-consult) designed to increase parents’ knowledge and (risk) evaluation of IH. Methods A cross-sectional study of parents who completed the eHealth intervention between October 2010 and November 2012 was carried out. All parents were sent a study questionnaire. Questions to evaluate compliance (to the advice given by a dermatologist during e-consultation) were asked. Acceptance and usability were evaluated by using the modified Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 224 parents completed the eHealth intervention and received the questionnaire, 135/224 parents responded (response rate was 60.3%). There were 128/135 questionnaires that were completed and included. A total of 110/128 (85.9%) parents were compliant to the advice of the dermatologist. There were 116.8/128 (91.3%) that perceived the eHealth intervention as useful and almost all parents (98.4%, 126/128) found the information in the e-learning clear. There were 29/128 (22.7%) that experienced technical problems. The majority of the parents (94.5%, 121/128) found the eHealth intervention reliable and most of them (98.4%, 126/128) would recommend the eHealth intervention to other parents. Noncompliant parents judged the eHealth intervention significantly less reliable compared to compliant parents (71%, 10/14 versus 97.3%, 107/110; P=.003). Conclusions Parents of children with an IH showed a high compliance (85.9%, 110/128) to the advice of the dermatologist given via our Web-based eHealth intervention. This high compliance might be positively influenced by the

  19. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  20. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Share Tweet ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  1. Evaluating Potential Health Risks in Relocatable Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Mark; LaPierre, Adrienne; Charlin, Cary; Brucker, Barry; Ferguson, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Only limited data exist describing potential exposures to chemical and biological agents when using portable classrooms or outlining how to assess and reduce associated health risks. Evaluating indoor air quality involves examining ventilating rates, volatile organic compounds, and microbiologicals. Open communication among key stakeholders is…

  2. Telehealth to Expand Community Health Nurse Education in Rural Guatemala: A Pilot Feasibility and Acceptability Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Kelly A.; Krisher, Lyndsay K.; Lenssen, Maureen; Bunik, Maya; Bunge Montes, Saskia; Domek, Gretchen J.

    2017-01-01

    show that a telehealth program between a US-based university and a rural community health program in a low- and middle-income country is both feasible and acceptable.

  3. Telehealth to Expand Community Health Nurse Education in Rural Guatemala: A Pilot Feasibility and Acceptability Evaluation.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kelly A; Krisher, Lyndsay K; Lenssen, Maureen; Bunik, Maya; Bunge Montes, Saskia; Domek, Gretchen J

    2017-01-01

    show that a telehealth program between a US-based university and a rural community health program in a low- and middle-income country is both feasible and acceptable.

  4. Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

  5. Social Network and Risk-Taking Behavior Most Associated with Rapid HIV Testing, Circumcision, and Preexposure Prophylaxis Acceptability Among High-Risk Indian Men

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupali; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Laumann, Edward; Mayer, Kenneth; Dandona, Lalit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Indian truck drivers and their younger apprentice drivers are at increased risk of HIV infection. We determine network and risk practices associated with willingness to adopt HIV prevention interventions currently not being used in India: rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to inform the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Truck drivers and truck cleaners were systematically recruited to participate in a social network and risk survey in Hyderabad, Southern India. Three separate composite measures of acceptability of rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were utilized to independently assess the relationship of these prevention interventions with risk-practices and social network characteristics. An 89% participation rate yielded 1602 truck drivers and truck cleaners with 54.2% younger than 30 years of age and 2.8% HIV infected. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported sex with female sex workers (FSW) and 5% with men (MSM). Rapid testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were 97.4%, 9.1%, and 85.9%, respectively. Participants reporting prosocial network characteristics were more accepting of rapid testing (adjusted odds ratio [AORs] 3.07–6.71; p<0.05) and demonstrated variable PrEP acceptability (AORs 0.08–2.22; p<0.001). Sex with FSWs was associated with PrEP acceptability (AOR 4.27; p<0.001); sex with MSM was associated with circumcision acceptability only (AOR 2.66; p<0.01). Social network factors and risk-practices were associated with novel prevention acceptability, but not consistently across intervention type and with variable directionality. The NACP will need to consider that intervention uptake may likely be most successful when efforts are targeted to individuals with specific behavior and social network characteristics. PMID:22973951

  6. Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a supplement to the EPA Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures of 1986. The 1986 Guidelines represent the Agency's science policy and are a procedural guide for evaluating data on the health risks from exposures to chemical mixtures. The emphasis is on dose response and risk characterization. The principles and concepts put forth in the Guidelines remain in effect. However, where the Guidelines describe broad principles and include few specific procedures, the present guidance is a supplement that is intended to provide more detail on these principles and their applications.After an overview of the background and scope, this supplementary guidance puts forth the risk assessment paradigm for mixtures. This paradigm begins with problem formulation, then briefly discusses hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure, and risk characterization. The document is organized according to the type of data available. Procedures are described for assessment using data on the mixture of concern, data on a toxicologically similar mixture, and data on the mixture component chemicals. The state of the science varies dramatically for these three approaches. The whole-mixture procedures are most advanced for assessing carcinogenic risk, mainly because of the long use of in vitro mutagenicity tests to indicate carcinogenic potency. In vitro test procedures for noncancer endpoints are still in the pionee

  7. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-02-04

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods.

  8. Awareness and acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among health sciences students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Chin, Nang Sue; Num, Kelly Sze Fang

    2015-12-01

    The major cause of cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) for which vaccination is available. The success HPV vaccination programme largely depend on the degree of knowledge of the healthcare providers who can recommend to the public. Health sciences students as future healthcare providers play a major role in HPV vaccination initiatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, practice and to find out the willingness to pay for HPV vaccination among the health sciences students in a private university. The cross-sectional study was conducted among the university students studying health sciences program using a validated questionnaire to measure their awareness and acceptance of HPV vaccination. The students demonstrated moderate knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination with mean knowledge scores of 9.3 out of 17. Students were showing positive attitude towards HPV vaccination with mean scores of 3.80 out of 5. However, low HPV vaccination uptake rate was reported among the students. Most of the students were willing to recommend HPV vaccine. The participants felt that the cost is the major barrier towards HPV vaccination and they felt the government should cover the cost of vaccination for all. The results of this study may be helpful in establishing educational policies on cervical cancer-related topics in the universities.

  9. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health.

  10. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates.

  11. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  12. To Treat or Not to Treat? Health Risks of Obesity and Obesity Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersmarck, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Presents summary of a panel discussion at the Conference of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity (1992) on the health risks of treating obesity. The panel focused on selectivity in accepting patients, obesity and mortality, genetic individuality, weight loss mode and outcome, weight loss and longevity, and weight maintenance.…

  13. Self-esteem and self-acceptance: an examination into their relationship and their effect on psychological health.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, D L

    2006-10-01

    Nurses are increasingly using cognitive behaviour therapy as an intervention for psychological problems attached to a variety of clinical conditions. Developing both self-acceptance and self-esteem have been identified as ways to enhance cognitive interventions. However, there are disagreements about the relationship between self-esteem and self-acceptance and their influence on psychological health. The study examined the relationship between these concepts and also the association between the concepts and psychological health. Fifty-eight participants with a diagnosis of severe and enduring mental health problems were assessed recording levels of self-esteem, self-acceptance, depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. The results revealed that, in comparison with the general population, the sample were more likely to have lower self-acceptance and self-esteem, and higher levels of anxiety, depression and psychological ill health. The concepts of self-esteem and self-acceptance were found to be similar but not synonymous. Self-esteem was more closely associated with affect, with higher levels of self-esteem being indicative of lower levels of depression. Self-acceptance appeared to be more closely associated with general psychological well-being and to be more helpful when undertaking clinical work for general psychological problems.

  14. Women brothel workers and occupational health risks

    PubMed Central

    Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  16. Health risk appraisals in Swedish occupational health services

    PubMed Central

    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Müller, Mira; Forsman, Mikael; Kjellberg, Katarina; Toomingas, Allan; Björn Olov, Ång; Svartengren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health risk appraisals (HRAs) in occupational health services (OHS) in Sweden are very commonly used for health promotion issues, but not much research has explored the extent and nature of individual feedback that is provided. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and explore HRAs in OHS regarding the content of the feedback in relation to the individual status and overall employee satisfaction. METHODS: Feedback (evaluation and advice) and employee satisfaction with HRA were studied in employees that participated in health risk appraisals with a specific feedback session (HRA-F) (n = 272) and employees that participated in a single session (HRA-S) (n = 104). Associations between feedback and individual status concerning life style were assessed with Cohen’s kappa (k). RESULTS: The employees received mainly information and advice for improvement on health and lifestyle issues (89–100%), while advice for improvement of working conditions was less common (15–59%). The feedback provided on life style was not based on individual status (k < 0.4), except for smoking and risky alcohol consumption (k > 0.55). A great majority of employees reported good overall satisfaction with their HRAs. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation and feedback given to employees after HRAs should be based more on HRA-results and advice could be focused more on work-related factors. PMID:28059808

  17. A pilot test of the acceptability and efficacy of narrative and non-narrative health education materials in a low health literacy population.

    PubMed

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Murphy, Sheila T; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Although entertainment-education narratives are increasingly being used to communicate health information to a diversity of populations, there is limited evidence examining the use of narrative health education videos in low compared with adequate health literacy populations. There are also very few studies directly comparing narrative materials to more traditional, non-narrative materials. Because individuals with low health literacy are less likely than those with adequate health literacy to benefit from health communication interventions, it is especially important to develop an evidence base supporting the use of narrative health education materials in low literacy populations. This study extends knowledge on the use of narrative health education materials in populations with low health literacy by conducting a randomized trial comparing the acceptability and efficacy (knowledge gain) of two fact-equivalent films, one in a narrative and one in a non-narrative format, on individuals with adequate and low health literacy. This study finds that while both films were well-accepted and produced knowledge gains, the narrative film was more effective in this regard. This effect occurred regardless of health literacy level, indicating that narrative health communication materials are appropriate for individuals with low health literacy and do not exacerbate existing health disparities. These findings add to a small but growing body of evidence testing narrative health education materials in individuals with low health literacy, and provide new evidence supporting narrative, entertainment-education style video as a health communication tool to help reduce health literacy-related health disparities.

  18. A pilot test of the acceptability and efficacy of narrative and non-narrative health education materials in a low health literacy population

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Frank, Lauren B.; Chatterjee, Joyee S.; Murphy, Sheila T.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Although entertainment-education narratives are increasingly being used to communicate health information to a diversity of populations, there is limited evidence examining the use of narrative health education videos in low compared with adequate health literacy populations. There are also very few studies directly comparing narrative materials to more traditional, non-narrative materials. Because individuals with low health literacy are less likely than those with adequate health literacy to benefit from health communication interventions, it is especially important to develop an evidence base supporting the use of narrative health education materials in low literacy populations. This study extends knowledge on the use of narrative health education materials in populations with low health literacy by conducting a randomized trial comparing the acceptability and efficacy (knowledge gain) of two fact-equivalent films, one in a narrative and one in a non-narrative format, on individuals with adequate and low health literacy. This study finds that while both films were well-accepted and produced knowledge gains, the narrative film was more effective in this regard. This effect occurred regardless of health literacy level, indicating that narrative health communication materials are appropriate for individuals with low health literacy and do not exacerbate existing health disparities. These findings add to a small but growing body of evidence testing narrative health education materials in individuals with low health literacy, and provide new evidence supporting narrative, entertainment-education style video as a health communication tool to help reduce health literacy-related health disparities. PMID:27872657

  19. Using risk communication to disclose the outcome of a participatory decision-making process: effects on the perceived acceptability of risk-policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Arvai, Joseph L

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that public participation during decision making about risks can lead to more widely accepted risk policies. This article discusses an experiment to determine if this is true when people are made aware of the fact that a participatory decision-making process has taken place only through information disclosed during a subsequent risk communication effort. The results from this experiment showed that, after receiving information during risk communication that cast risk policies about space exploration as the product of a participatory decision process, participants in the study felt more supportive of the resulting decisions than did participants in a control group. This result coincided with the participants in the study group perceiving the risks associated with the decision to be lower and the benefits higher. Responses from these participants also showed that they were more satisfied with the decision-making process than they were with the outcome of the decision itself Therefore, it may be premature to view the objective of participatory decision-making approaches-and the risk communication efforts that discuss them-as a means of making risk policies more widely acceptable to the public at large. Rather, it may be better to view the benefits of these approaches in terms of their ability to help lead to higher quality decisions that are the product of more widely accepted decision processes.

  20. Validation of the French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES) for mental E-health systems.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sauteraud, Alain; Olive, Jérôme; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Despite the increasing use of E-health systems for mental-health organizations, there is a lack of psychometric tools to evaluate their acceptability by patients with mental disorders. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate a French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES), a 6-item self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which patients find E-health systems acceptable. A forward-backward translation of the AES was performed. The psychometric properties of the French AES version, with construct validity, internal structural validity and external validity (Pearson's coefficient between AES scores and depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II) were analyzed. In a sample of 178 patients (mean age=46.51 years, SD=12.91 years), the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: factor analysis revealed two factors: "Satisfaction" (3 items) and "Usability" (3 items) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. No significant relation was found between AES scores and depression symptoms. The French version of the AES revealed a two-factor scale that differs from the original version. In line with the importance of acceptability in mental health and with a view to E-health systems for patients with mental disorders, the use of the AES in psychiatry may provide important information on acceptability (i.e., satisfaction and usability).

  1. [Cyanobacteria, their toxins and health risks].

    PubMed

    Thébault, L; Lesne, J; Boutin, J P

    1995-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) commonly occur in fresh and brackish water where they produce blooms under certain environmental and climatic conditions. Since some species produce neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, and endotoxins, blooms can be hazardous for animal and human health. Several cases of human cyanobacterial poisoning have been documented, but accurate assessment of the risk is difficult for lack of knowledge concerning exposure levels and the incidence of this kind of poisoning. Most human cases have been reported after oral consumption of contaminated drinking water or swimming in recreation waters where blooms have occurred. Further study is needed to evaluate and manage this risk, especially in regions dependent on surface water for drinking and recreational water areas. This is especially true in tropical and intertropical areas where climatic conditions promote occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms and nothing is known of the impact on public health.

  2. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  3. Diving in Contaminated Water: Health Risk Matrix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    health effects if they are present in high concentrations. Some of the metals are insoluble ( mercury , lead) and are associated with particles. Therefore...risk associated with that parameter is really low (for example, copper and mercury ). However, divers have to keep in mind that they may encounter higher...levels if they dive in special areas (areas severely affected by mining activities in the case of copper and mercury ). As research and monitoring

  4. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  5. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  6. Patients’ Acceptance towards a Web-Based Personal Health Record System: An Empirical Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Jang, Fong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The health care sector has become increasingly interested in developing personal health record (PHR) systems as an Internet-based telehealthcare implementation to improve the quality and decrease the cost of care. However, the factors that influence patients’ intention to use PHR systems remain unclear. Based on physicians’ therapeutic expertise, we implemented a web-based infertile PHR system and proposed an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates the physician-patient relationship (PPR) construct into TAM’s original perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) constructs to explore which factors will influence the behavioral intentions (BI) of infertile patients to use the PHR. From ninety participants from a medical center, 50 valid responses to a self-rating questionnaire were collected, yielding a response rate of 55.56%. The partial least squares (PLS) technique was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the extended model. The results indicate that infertile patients expressed a moderately high intention to use the PHR system. The PPR and PU of patients had significant effects on their BI to use PHR, whereas the PEOU indirectly affected the patients’ BI through the PU. This investigation confirms that PPR can have a critical role in shaping patients’ perceptions of the use of healthcare information technologies. Hence, we suggest that hospitals should promote the potential usefulness of PHR and improve the quality of the physician-patient relationship to increase patients’ intention of using PHR. PMID:24142185

  7. Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2011-01-01

    Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine. PMID:22253507

  8. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  9. Compounding conservatisms: EPA's health risk assessment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stackelberg, K. von; Burmaster, D.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Superfund conjures up images of hazardous waste sites, which EPA is spending billions of dollars to remediate. One of the law's most worrisome effects is that it drains enormous economic resources without returning commensurate benefits. In a Sept. 1, 1991, front page article in The New York Times, experts argued that most health dangers at Superfund sites could be eliminated for a fraction of the billions that will be spent cleaning up the 1,200 high-priority sites across the country. Even EPA has suggested that the Superfund program may receive disproportionate resources, compared with other public health programs, such as radon in houses, the diminishing ozone layer and occupational diseases. Public opinion polls over the last decade consistently have mirrored the public's vast fear of hazardous waste sites, a fear as great as that held for nuclear power plants. Fear notwithstanding, the high cost of chosen remedies at given sites may have less to do with public health goals than with the method EPA uses to translate them into acceptable contaminant concentrations in soil, groundwater and other environmental media.

  10. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F.; McColl, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics? Methods We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Results Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Conclusions Cash or shopping voucher

  11. Ozone Health Risk Assessment for Selected Urban Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The health risk assessment described in this report estimated various health effects associated with O3 exposures as well as the reduced risks for one O3 season associated with just meeting the current O3 NAAQS.

  12. Acceptance, Usability and Health Applications of Virtual Worlds by Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual worlds allow users to communicate and interact across various environments, scenarios, and platforms. Virtual worlds present opportunities in health care to reduce the burden of illness and disability by supporting education, rehabilitation, self-management, and social networking. The application of virtual worlds to older adults who bear the burden and cost of health conditions associated with age has not been evaluated. Objective The aim of this study is to explore the usability, ease of use, and enjoyment of a virtual world by older adults, the types of virtual world activities that older adults may engage in, and the perceptions of older adults regarding the application of virtual worlds in health care. Methods This quasi-experimental pre-post design research was guided by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Participants were recruited from a Lifelong Learning Institute (LLI) program at Nova Southeastern University. Participants attended four training sessions over a 5-week period in the Second Life (SL) virtual world. Subjects were surveyed before and after the training on perceived ease of use, attitudes towards technology, behavioral intention to use the system, facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, and self-efficacy. Results Older adults (N=19) completed the informed consent and attended the first training session, and 11 participants (58%, 11/19) completed the full training and the post survey. Completers (82%, 9/11) were more likely than non-completers (37%, 3/8) to consider themselves technologically savvy (P=.048), and to express confidence in being able to use the virtual world (100%, 11/11 vs 37%, 3/8; P=.002). All completers (100%, 11/11) perceived that SL has application in health behaviors and disease and reducing social isolation among people who are homebound. Of the completers, 10 (91%, 10/11) responded that they enjoyed learning how to use SL. Completers suggested that future trainings include more assistants and

  13. 77 FR 37803 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk Management; Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated... Clearing Member Risk Management, and Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract...

  14. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  15. Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Edward J.; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Research has suggested that a higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep characteristics exists. However, studies have not thoroughly assessed the potential confounding effects of mental health conditions associated with alterations in sleep. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively assessed the association between sleep characteristics and self-reported incident diabetes among Millennium Cohort Study participants prospectively followed over a 6-year time period. Surveys are administered approximately every 3 years and collect self-reported data on demographics, height, weight, lifestyle, features of military service, sleep, clinician-diagnosed diabetes, and mental health conditions assessed by the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version. Statistical methods for longitudinal data were used for data analysis. RESULTS We studied 47,093 participants (mean 34.9 years of age; mean BMI 26.0 kg/m2; 25.6% female). During 6 years of follow-up, 871 incident diabetes cases occurred (annual incidence 3.6/1,000 person-years). In univariate analyses, incident diabetes was significantly more likely among participants with self-reported trouble sleeping, sleep duration <6 h, and sleep apnea. Participants reporting incident diabetes were also significantly older, of nonwhite race, of higher BMI, less likely to have been deployed, and more likely to have reported baseline symptoms of panic, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. After adjusting for covariates, trouble sleeping (odds ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.03–1.42]) and sleep apnea (1.78 [1.39–2.28]) were significantly and independently related to incident diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Trouble sleeping and sleep apnea predict diabetes risk independent of mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:23835691

  16. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  17. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  18. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  19. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  20. Acceptability of an Online Health Videogame to Improve Diet and Physical Activity in Elementary School Students: “Fitter Critters”

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, John; Lance, Bri; Karetas, Andrew; Druker, Susan; Panza, Emily; Olendzki, Barbara; Andersen, Victoria; Pbert, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Interest in health videogames to stimulate health behavior change is increasing, yet little research exists on their use. This study tested the acceptability of an online health videogame called “Fitter Critters™” (Megazoid Games, Collegeville, PA) for improving healthy diet and activity in elementary school students. Subjects and Methods In October and November 2011, fifth grade students (n=97) from a school in central Massachusetts played the game for 1 week during their health class. Measures of nutrition and activity knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were completed prior to playing the game and again on the final day along with a videogame acceptability questionnaire. Results The videogame was highly acceptable to participants as measured by the acceptability questionnaire mean rating of 4.52 (SD=0.60), where 1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree; 73% of students played the game at least once outside of class. Significant increases in positive attitudes toward healthy eating (P<0.001) and healthy eating self-efficacy (P=0.02) and marginally significant increases in nutrition knowledge (P=0.08) were observed. Conclusions The “Fitter Critters” health videogame engages students in learning about healthy eating and activity. Further research should assess whether the positive changes observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy translate into behavior change. PMID:24761317

  1. Enhancing user acceptance of mandated mobile health information systems: the ePOC (electronic point-of-care project) experience.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Lois; Sargent, Jason

    2007-01-01

    From a clinical perspective, the use of mobile technologies, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) within hospital environments is not new. A paradigm shift however is underway towards the acceptance and utility of these systems within mobile-based healthcare environments. Introducing new technologies and associated work practices has intrinsic risks which must be addressed. This paper contends that intervening to address user concerns as they arise throughout the system development lifecycle will lead to greater levels of user acceptance, while ultimately enhancing the deliverability of a system that provides a best fit with end user needs. It is envisaged this research will lead to the development of a formalised user acceptance framework based on an agile approach to user acceptance measurement. The results of an ongoing study of user perceptions towards a mandated electronic point-of-care information system in the Northern Illawarra Ambulatory Care Team (TACT) are presented.

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Transdiagnostic Behavioral Intervention for Mental Health and Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dindo, Lilian; Van Liew, Julia R; Arch, Joanna J

    2017-03-07

    Psychological interventions have a long history of successful treatment of patients suffering from mental health and certain medical conditions. At the same time, psychotherapy research has revealed key areas of growth for optimizing patient care. These include identifying novel treatment delivery methods that increase treatment adherence, developing new strategies to more effectively address the ever-growing population of patients with comorbid conditions, and elucidating the mechanisms by which effective treatments work in order to further refine their design. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported psychotherapy that offers promise for patients suffering from a wide range of mental and physical conditions, while addressing these gaps and challenges in the field. ACT rests on the fundamental premise that pain, grief, disappointment, illness, and anxiety are inevitable features of human life, with the therapeutic goal of helping individuals productively adapt to these types of challenges by developing greater psychological flexibility rather than engaging in counterproductive attempts to eliminate or suppress undesirable experiences. This is achieved through committed pursuit of valued life areas and directions, even in the face of the natural desire to escape or avoid painful and troubling experiences, emotions, and thoughts. ACT is transdiagnostic (applies to more than one condition), process-focused, and flexibly delivered. In a relatively short period of time, ACT has been effectively implemented across a broad range of therapeutic settings, including mental health, primary care, and specialty medical clinics. ACT has also been delivered in a variety of formats, including 1-day group workshops, online and smartphone applications, and telehealth. Focus on how best to package and deliver treatment to meet the unique needs of different patient populations helps to ensure treatment adherence and has fostered successful application of

  3. Respiratory health risks among nonmetal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.R.; Petsonk, E.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The risks of occupational respiratory disease faced by nonmetal miners are the focus of this review. An understanding of the respiratory risks requires an understanding of the minerology of the ground and rock around the materials being mined. Relevant exposures encompass radon gas and deisel fumes, as well as mineral and rock dusts, including free silica. The types of materials mined and their associated health effects are examined, including the silicates (fibrous silicates such as asbestos, asbestiform fibrous minerals such as wollastonite and fuller's earth, and nonfibrous silicates such as talc and kaolin), sedimentary precipitates such as phosphates, potash, gypsum, and salt, as well as hydrocarbon-containing sedimentary rock such as oil shale. 56 refs.

  4. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  5. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  6. Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Mental Health Problems in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael E; Haeger, Jack A; Pierce, Benjamin G; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-07-20

    There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to waitlist, participants receiving ACT improved on overall distress, general anxiety, social anxiety, depression, academic concerns, and positive mental health. There were no between-group effects on eating concerns, alcohol use, or hostility, or on some key ACT process of change measures. ACT participants improved more on mindful acceptance and obstruction to valued living, both of which mediated treatment outcomes. Results are discussed in the context of lessons learned with the website prototype, and areas for further research are presented.

  7. Acceptability of Interventions Delivered Online and Through Mobile Phones for People Who Experience Severe Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lobban, Fiona; Emsley, Richard; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological interventions are recommended for people with severe mental health problems (SMI). However, barriers exist in the provision of these services and access is limited. Therefore, researchers are beginning to develop and deliver interventions online and via mobile phones. Previous research has indicated that interventions delivered in this format are acceptable for people with SMI. However, a comprehensive systematic review is needed to investigate the acceptability of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI in depth. Objective This systematic review aimed to 1) identify the hypothetical acceptability (acceptability prior to or without the delivery of an intervention) and actual acceptability (acceptability where an intervention was delivered) of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI, 2) investigate the impact of factors such as demographic and clinical characteristics on acceptability, and 3) identify common participant views in qualitative studies that pinpoint factors influencing acceptability. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science in April 2015, which yielded a total of 8017 search results, with 49 studies meeting the full inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they measured acceptability through participant views, module completion rates, or intervention use. Studies delivering interventions were included if the delivery method was online or via mobile phones. Results The hypothetical acceptability of online and mobile phone-delivered interventions for SMI was relatively low, while actual acceptability tended to be high. Hypothetical acceptability was higher for interventions delivered via text messages than by emails. The majority of studies that assessed the impact of demographic characteristics on acceptability reported no significant relationships between the two. Additionally, actual acceptability was higher when

  8. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  9. Feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an online sexual health promotion program for LGBT youth: the Queer Sex Ed intervention.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Greene, George J; Ryan, Daniel; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience multiple sexual health inequities driven, in part, by deficits in parental and peer support, school-based sex education programs, and community services. Research suggests that the Internet may be an important resource in the development of sexual health among LGBT youth. We examined the feasibility of recruiting youth in same-sex relationships into an online sexual health intervention, evaluated intervention acceptability, and obtained initial estimates of intervention efficacy. LGBT youth (16 to 20 years old) completed Queer Sex Ed (QSE), an online, multimedia sexual health intervention consisting of five modules. The final sample (N = 202) completed the pretest, intervention, and posttest assessments. The primary study outcomes were sexual orientation identity and self-acceptance (e.g., coming-out self-efficacy), sexual health knowledge (e.g., sexual functioning), relationship variables (e.g., communication skills), and safer sex (e.g., sexual assertiveness). Analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 outcomes were found to be significant (p < .05). Effect sizes ranged from small for sexual orientation (e.g., internalized homophobia) and relationship variables (e.g., communication skills) to moderate for safer sex (e.g., contraceptive knowledge) outcomes. This study demonstrated the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of QSE, an innovative online comprehensive sexual health program for LGBT youth.

  10. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project.

  11. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is adopting rules to implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. These rules address: The documentation between a customer and a futures commission merchant that clears on behalf of the customer; the timing of acceptance or rejection of trades for......

  12. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  13. [A report on attempted suicide cases involving patients accepted by public health care institutions].

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsushi; Tsuji, Motohiro; Yamada, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attempted suicide cases, both successful and failed involving patients, accepted by public health care institutions in Shiga Prefecture, whose population is about 1. 4 million, from the 12th January 2010 to 14th February 2010. Prefectural emergency hospitals, fire stations, and pathologists cooperated in the investigation, and the cases were reported with the age and sex as well as the means and results of the attempts. How these institutions cooperated in the cases was also reported. A total number of 104 people attempted suicide, in which 40 people (38.5%) succeeded, 54 people (51.9%) failed, and the outcome was unknown in 10 people (9.6%). Forty-one people (39.4%) were in their 30s, being the most common age group. Successful suicides were most prominent among elderly males, and failed attempts were most prominent among young females. Hanging and poisonous gassing were the common means of suicide among the successful cases, and overdose, drinking, and wrist -cutting were the common means among the failed attempts. Sixty-four people (61.5%) were admitted to public emergency hospitals, 51 people (49.0%) were rescued by fire workers, and 34 people (32.7%) were sent for autopsy following police reports on fatal cases as suicide. Successful suicides and males were mostly sent for pathological examination without any coordinated care from different medical institutions, whereas, failed cases and females were often taken care of by several institutions. Five people (4.8%) were referred for psychiatric help. Suicide intervention needs to take account of differences in the sex, age, means, and other characteristics of those who attempt suicide. Each institution plays an important role, and they need to cooperate in order to establish an effective intervention.

  14. The provision of accessible, acceptable health care in rural remote areas and the right to health: Bedouin in the North East region of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Alzaroo, Salah; Hasna, Fadia; Alsmeiran, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Provision of accessible acceptable health care in remote rural areas poses a challenge to health care providers. This case study of formal and informal health care provision for Bedouin in North East Jordan is based on interviews conducted in 2007-2008 involving clinic providers, policymakers and Bedouin as part of an EC funded study from 2006 to 2010. The paper explores to what extent the right to health as set out in UN General Comment 14 (on Article 12 and 12.2 of the International Covenant on Social Economic and Cultural Rights on the right to health) can provide a framework for considering the availability, accessibility and acceptability of current provision in a rural setting in Jordan. Health care is provided in the public sector by the Ministry of Health and the Royal Medical Services to a dispersed population living in encampments and villages over a large rural area. There are issues of accessibility in terms of distance, and of acceptability in relation to the lack of local and female staff, lack of cultural competencies and poor communication. We found that these providers of health care have a developing partnership that could potentially address the challenge of provision to this rural area. The policymakers have an overview that is in line with applying the concept of health care justice for a more equitable distribution of resources and adjustment of differential access and availability. The health providers are less aware of the right to accessible acceptable health care in their day to day provision whilst the Bedouin population are quite aware of this. This case study of Bedouin in North East Jordan has particular relevance to the needs of populations - both pastoralists and non pastoralists living in remote and rural areas.

  15. [Mass gatherings - health risks and preventive strategies].

    PubMed

    Steffen, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Experience from mass gatherings - usually attended by at least 25'000 persons - shows that approximately one in a thousand participants will consult with an on-site medical emergency service. Communicable diseases usually play a minor role. Historically outbreaks of meningococcal disease were recorded after the hajj, but this has been well controlled in the past few years subsequent to vaccinations and other measures required by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia health authorities. Major stress of the regional public health system is associated with accidents and non-communicable diseases, the majority being trivial. Host and environmental risk factors can result in a dramatic increase in the rate of consultations: Age and pre-existing illness play a decisive role particularly in pilgrims, be that in Mecca or Lourdes. Emotional factors may influence behavior; aggressions can develop. Alcohol and drugs, also the duration of an event may play a decisive role. Extreme climatic conditions, both heat and cold, also exhaustion result in a dramatic increase of emergency consultations. Infrastructure must be adapted for the crowd size, particularly stampede associated disasters can be avoided. The World Health Organization and other interested expert groups have in the past few years formulated interdisciplinary programs for prevention.

  16. Health risk assessment: WTE (waste-to-energy) vs. peanut butter

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, R.A. )

    1988-10-01

    The degree to which society will come to accept potential health risks associated with municipal waste-to-energy plants depends on three factors: the reliability with which exposure and adverse health effects associated with facility emissions can be described, quantified, and gradually reduced; the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of other waste management options, especially landfilling and recycling; and the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of more familiar activities, such as driving, flying, smoking, and eating peanut butter sandwiches. Progress in risk assessment has already improved quantification of human exposure to emissions through the food chain, as well as through other pathways within the general categories of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Where does this progress leave municipal refuse incineration relative to other risks This article explores that issue.

  17. Concentrations and Potential Health Risks of Metals in Lip Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sa; Rojas-Cheatham, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metal content in lip products has been an issue of concern. Objectives: We measured lead and eight other metals in a convenience sample of 32 lip products used by young Asian women in Oakland, California, and assessed potential health risks related to estimated intakes of these metals. Methods: We analyzed lip products by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and used previous estimates of lip product usage rates to determine daily oral intakes. We derived acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) based on information used to determine public health goals for exposure, and compared ADIs with estimated intakes to assess potential risks. Results: Most of the tested lip products contained high concentrations of titanium and aluminum. All examined products had detectable manganese. Lead was detected in 24 products (75%), with an average concentration of 0.36 ± 0.39 ppm, including one sample with 1.32 ppm. When used at the estimated average daily rate, estimated intakes were > 20% of ADIs derived for aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese. In addition, average daily use of 10 products tested would result in chromium intake exceeding our estimated ADI for chromium. For high rates of product use (above the 95th percentile), the percentages of samples with estimated metal intakes exceeding ADIs were 3% for aluminum, 68% for chromium, and 22% for manganese. Estimated intakes of lead were < 20% of ADIs for average and high use. Conclusions: Cosmetics safety should be assessed not only by the presence of hazardous contents, but also by comparing estimated exposures with health-based standards. In addition to lead, metals such as aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese require further investigation. PMID:23674482

  18. The influence of program acceptability on the effectiveness of public health policy: a study of directly observed therapy for tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, S J; Sell, R; Brewer, T F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined how patient acceptability influences the effectiveness of directly observed therapy for tuberculosis. METHODS: Decision and sensitivity analyses were used in assessing influences. RESULTS: If mandatory directly observed therapy discourages 6% of initial tuberculosis patients (range: 4% to 10%) from seeking care, then such therapy will be less effective than self-administered therapy. Directly observed therapy is more effective than repeated self-administered therapy for patients failing to complete initial treatment unless 32% (range: 27% to 38%) of patients avoid seeking care. CONCLUSIONS: Patient acceptability must be taken into consideration before selecting public health strategies. PMID:9518978

  19. Occupational Health Promotion Programs to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Russell E.; Terborg, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys literature on worksite health promotion programs targeting cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews findings on health-risk appraisal, hypertension control, smoking cessation, weight reduction, exercise, and programs addressing multiple risk factors. Discusses current knowledge, highlights exemplary studies, and identifies problems and…

  20. Is risk attitude outcome specific within the health domain?

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Marjon; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether individuals' risk attitude for life years differ from their risk attitude for quality of life. The study also investigates two different framing effects, an order and sequence effect, and the interaction between risk attitude and time preferences. The results showed that individuals tended to be risk averse with respect to the gamble involving risk of immediate death and risk seeking with respect to the other health gambles. Varying the order of the questions or the sequence of full health and ill-health did not seem to systematically bias the estimates.

  1. Older Adults' Perceptions of and Preferences for a Fall Risk Assessment System: Exploring Stages of Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Galambos, Colleen; Rantz, Marilyn; Back, Jessie; Jun, Jung Sim; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J

    2017-02-09

    Aging in place is a preferred and cost-effective living option for older adults. Research indicates that technology can assist with this goal. Information on consumer preferences will help in technology development to assist older adults to age in place. The study aim was to explore the perceptions and preferences of older adults and their family members about a fall risk assessment system. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of 13 older adults and five family members about their experience living with the fall risk assessment system during five points in time. Themes emerged in relation to preferences and expectations about the technology and how it fits into daily routines. We were able to capture changes that occurred over time for older adult participants. Results indicated that there was acceptance of the technology as participants adapted to it. Two themes were present across the five points in time-safety and usefulness. Five stages of acceptance emerged from the data from preinstallation to 2 years postinstallation. Identified themes, stages of acceptance, and design and development considerations are discussed.

  2. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: effect of sample size and accept/reject limit on reducing the risk of misclassifying lots.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Yilmaz, Aysun; Whitaker, Thomas B; Slate, Andrew B; Giesbrecht, Francis G

    2007-01-01

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts. Studies were developed to measure the uncertainty and distribution among replicated sample aflatoxin test results taken from aflatoxin-contaminated treenut lots. The uncertainty and distribution information is used to develop a model that can evaluate the performance (risk of misclassifying lots) of aflatoxin sampling plan designs for treenuts. Once the performance of aflatoxin sampling plans can be predicted, they can be designed to reduce the risks of misclassifying lots traded in either the domestic or export markets. A method was developed to evaluate the performance of sampling plans designed to detect aflatoxin in hazelnuts lots. Twenty hazelnut lots with varying levels of contamination were sampled according to an experimental protocol where 16 test samples were taken from each lot. The observed aflatoxin distribution among the 16 aflatoxin sample test results was compared to lognormal, compound gamma, and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution was selected to model aflatoxin distribution among sample test results because it gave acceptable fits to observed distributions among sample test results taken from a wide range of lot concentrations. Using the negative binomial distribution, computer models were developed to calculate operating characteristic curves for specific aflatoxin sampling plan designs. The effect of sample size and accept/reject limits on the chances of rejecting good lots (sellers' risk) and accepting bad lots (buyers' risk) was demonstrated for various sampling plan designs.

  3. Primary Care Patients with Depression Are Less Accepting of Treatment Than Those Seen by Mental Health Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Cooper, Lisa A; Rost, Kathryn M; Nutting, Paul; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined whether depressed patients treated exclusively in primary care report less need for care and less acceptability of treatment options than those depressed patients treated in the specialty mental health setting after up to 6 months of treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Forty-five community primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS A total of 881 persons with major depression who had received mental health services in the previous 6 months and who enrolled in 3 of the 4 Quality Improvement for Depression Collaboration Studies. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups: 1) having received mental health services exclusively from a primary care provider (45%), or 2) having received any services from a mental health specialist (55%) in the previous 6 months. Compared with patients who received care from mental health specialists, patients who received mental health services exclusively from primary care providers had 2.7-fold the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 4.4) of reporting that no treatment was definitely acceptable and had 2.4-fold the odds (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9) of reporting that evidence-based treatment options (antidepressant medication) were definitely not acceptable. These results were adjusted for demographic, social/behavioral, depression severity, and economic factors using multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Patients with depression treated exclusively by primary care providers have attitudes and beliefs more averse to care than those seen by mental health specialists. These differences in attitudes and beliefs may contribute to lower quality depression care observed in comparisons of primary care and specialty mental health providers. PMID:14687257

  4. Human health and performance risk management—an approach for exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    During long duration exploration missions, maintaining human health and performance will be essential to enabling success. Therefore, NASA has developed standards through the Health and Medical Technical Authority to insure human health and performance during exploration. Human health standards are the first step in defining acceptable risk for human space flight and take into consideration both short-term (mission) and long-term (lifetime) health risk. These standards are based on the best medical evidence from terrestrial standards; analog spaceflight environments; and spaceflight experience. Standards drive the development of focused program requirements to mitigate risks associated with specific missions. Program requirements include vehicle design as well as health care systems including medical, environmental and countermeasures. NASA has also developed the risk mitigation analysis tool (RMAT), a process to evaluate the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies. The RMAT facilitates documentation and analysis of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies, enables NASA to baseline a risk mitigation approach based on the best evidence, and provides the traceability from research and technology development projects to specific mission deliverables.

  5. [Cell phones: health risks and prevention].

    PubMed

    Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries.

  6. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  7. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  8. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  9. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  10. More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163755.html More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk Study shows increasing risk of brain blockage ... as people with healthy gums to suffer a stroke, new research suggests. It's not the first study ...

  11. Evaluation of the acceptability of a CD-Rom as a health promotion tool for Inuit in Ottawa

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Kelly E.; Smylie, Janet K.; Hastings, Paul D.; Prince, Conrad; Siedule, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few health promotion tools for urban Inuit, and there is a specific dearth of evaluations on such tools. Objective The current study used a community-specific approach in the evaluation of a health promotion tool, based on an urban Inuit community's preferences of health knowledge sources and distribution strategies. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Health Team in Ottawa, a CD-Rom was developed featuring an Inuk Elder presenting prenatal health messages in both Inuktitut and English. Also, relevant evaluation materials were developed. Design Using a mixed methods approach, 40 participants completed interviews prior to viewing the CD-Rom and participated in a focus group at follow-up. Questionnaires were also completed pre- and post-viewing to assess changes between expectations and reactions in order to document acceptability. Results Significant increases were found on satisfaction, acceptability of medium and relevance of content ratings. Qualitative findings also included (a) interest, uncertainty and conditional interest prior to viewing; and (b) positive evaluations of the CD-Rom. Conclusions This suggests that CD-Rom technology has the potential for health promotion for urban Inuit, and the community-specific evaluation approach yielded useful information. PMID:23717816

  12. Association of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors with Adolescents’ Willingness to Engage in eHealth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness. Methods A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression). Results The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (β =.12, p =.03). Conclusions Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566

  13. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  14. Quantitative health risk assessment of inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on citizens in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhipeng; Hu, Yandi; Yu, Huan; Wu, Nan; You, Yan

    2009-08-01

    Considering the large amounts of PAHs emitted into the ambient air in China, it is urgent to take preliminary health risk assessment of citizens through inhalation exposure to PAHs in China. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model was used to get the risk level of Tianjin citizens as an example, and Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to deal with the uncertainty. Exposure analysis found that the average values of B[a]P equivalent (B[a]Peq) daily exposure doses for children in the indoor, traffic and outdoor settings were estimated to be 2,446.8, 478.4, and 321.6 ng day(-1), respectively. And those for adults were 3,344.1, 794.9, and 519.0 ng day(-1), respectively. Much attention must be paid to indoor exposure, as it contributes more than 70% of the B[a]Peq daily exposure dose. ILCR falls within the range of 10(-5)-10(-3), which is higher than the acceptable risk level of 10(-6), and lower than the priority risk level (10(-3)). So this risk should be compared with those of other public health issues in the purpose of risk management. Sensitivity analysis found that the two variables, indoor air PAHs concentration distribution and the cancer slope factor (CSF) of BaP, contribute about 89% of the total risk uncertainty. Thus they are considered as the two main factors influencing the accuracy of the PAHs health risk assessment.

  15. Accuracy of Parents' Perceptions of Their College Student Children's Health and Health Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Baxter, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared parents' perceptions of their college student children's health and health risk behaviors with the college students' own reports. One hundred sixty-four parent-college student child dyads completed questionnaires regarding the students' health, illness status, and health risk behaviors. Parents tended to be overoptimistic…

  16. [Improving Mental Health Care in People at Risk for Getting Homeless].

    PubMed

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Arnold, Maja; Uber, Elisa; Hoell, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Overall aim was to reduce the untreated prevalence in persons with untreated mental disorders and at risk for loosing accommodation and descending into homelessness. Primary aim was treatment initiation and treatment adherence by motivational interviewing. Secondary aims were to reduce social or financial problems. Methods: Persons at risk were identified in social welfare services or labour agencies, diagnosed and motivated to initiate treatment in a community mental health service. Results: 58 persons were included, 24 were referred to regular mental health care, 8 were stabilized enough after the initial motivational to refrain from acute treatment, 26 dropped out. During a 6-month follow-up quality of life and social support was improved (partly statistically significant) and psycho-social needs for care decreased. Conclusion: Motivational interviewing is likely to increase insight into illness and acceptance of mental health care in untreated persons with mental disorders at risk for social decline.

  17. Catalogue of Risks: Natural, Technical, Social and Health Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, Kristie L.

    2009-01-01

    Financial, geophysical, and terrorist-related disasters have been headline news in the past few months. As amply demonstrated on a regular basis, the recognition and evaluation of risks are skills that could be more widespread. As such, Proske's Catalogue of Risks is timely and of potential interest. The book is a revised and expanded version of an earlier German publication that aims to provide an encyclopedic discussion of issues related to risks and disasters, with a goal of facilitating an understanding of the components and assessment of risk. The book includes chapters that discuss the difficulty of coming to a consensus on a definition of risk, a comprehensive range of risks and disasters, objective risk measures, subjective risk judgment, quality of life measures, and legal aspects of risk. The book ends with an example of applying the concepts discussed to ship impacts against bridges.

  18. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  19. A review of heavy metals in indoor dust and its human health-risk implications.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sock Yin; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Cheema, Manraj Singh

    2016-12-01

    Indoor dust acts as a media for heavy metal deposition. Past studies have shown that heavy metal concentration in indoor dust is affected by local human activities and atmospheric transport can have harmful effects on human health. Additionally, children are more sensitive to heavy metals due to their hand-to-mouth behaviour and rapid body development. However, limited information on health risks were found in past dust studies as these studies aimed to identify heavy metal concentrations and sources of indoor dust. The objective of this review is to discuss heavy metal concentration and sources influencing its concentration in indoor dust. Accordingly, high lead (Pb) concentration (639.10 μg/g) has been reported in heavy traffic areas. In addition, this review paper aims to estimate the health risk to children from heavy metals in indoor dust via multiple exposure pathways using the health-risk assessment (HRA). Urban areas and industrial sites have revealed high heavy metal concentration in comparison to rural areas. Hazard index (HI) values found in arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and Pb were 21.30, 1.10 and 2.40, respectively, indicate that non-carcinogenic elements are found in children. Furthermore, most of the past studies have found that carcinogenic risks for As, cadmium (Cd), Cr and Pb were below the acceptable total lifetime cancer risk (TLCR) range (1×10-6-1×10-4). The results of health risk assessment in this review show that carcinogenic risk exists among children. Hence, this proves that future studies need to focus on children's carcinogenic risk in indoor dust studies in order to find out the sources of heavy metals in indoor dust. This review highlights the importance of having the HRA application using bioavailable heavy metal concentration as it provides more accurate health-risk estimation. Moreover, this review is also useful as a reference for policy decision making in protecting children's health.

  20. 2011 Behavioral Health Risk Assessment Data Report (BH-RADR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited General Medicine: 500A, Public Health Data 2011 Behavioral Health Risk Assessment Data...REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 JAN 2011 - 31 DEC 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2011 Behavioral Health Risk...ABSTRACT This publication describes characteristics of Soldiers who completed a behavioral health (BH) screening at the two post-deployment Touch Points

  1. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  2. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  3. [Promoting competition and improving quality. Accepting the intergenerational contract by stabilizing health care reform].

    PubMed

    Wasem, J

    2002-08-01

    The challenge of demographic transition requires a health care reform which strengthens competition and quality in health care. With this, important contributions in stabilizing intergenerational relations, especially intergenerational solidarity in the public health care system, can be achieved. The reform proposal by an expert group, invited by the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation to develop a concept of health care reform, takes these considerations into account.

  4. Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: barriers and benefits.

    PubMed

    Wu, R Ryanne; Orlando, Lori A

    2015-09-01

    Health risk assessments provide an opportunity to emphasise health promotion and disease prevention for individuals and populations at large. A key component of health risk assessments is the detailed collection of family health history information. This information is helpful in determining risk both for common chronic conditions and more rare diseases as well. While the concept of health risk assessments has been around since the Framingham Heart Study was launched in the 1950s, and such assessments are commonly performed in the workplace today, the US healthcare system has been slow to embrace them and the emphasis on prevention that they represent. Before wider implementation of health risk assessments within healthcare can be seen, several concerns must be addressed: (1) provider impact, (2) patient impact, (3) validity of patient-entered data and (4) health outcomes effect. Here, we describe recent developments in health risk assessment design that are helping to address these issues.

  5. Acceptance and Usage of Electronic Health Record Systems in Small Medical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannan, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the U.S. government has been the development of a nationwide health information infrastructure, including adoption and use of an electronic health records (EHR) system. However, a 2008 survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics indicated a 41.5% usage of the EHR system by physicians in office-based…

  6. Are people willing to buy natural disaster insurance in China? Risk awareness, insurance acceptance, and willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Liao, Chuan; Yang, Saini; Zhao, Weiting; Liu, Min; Shi, Peijun

    2012-10-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake (magnitude 7.9, May 12, 2008), intensive debates on how China should establish a natural disaster insurance system were initiated among researchers, policymakers, and insurance professionals. Our focus was the social aspects of disaster insurance, explored in China through a nationwide survey. Our questionnaires investigated people's risk awareness, insurance acceptance, their opinions on governmental measures for disaster management, and their willingness to pay for disaster house insurance. We analyzed the results at both regional and individual scales. We found that the integrated hazard index and respondents' experience of insurance (considered objective factors), and their opinions on the importance of insurance and government responsibility (considered subjective factors) showed strong correlation with the regional overall acceptance of disaster insurance. An individual's decision to participate highly depended on his/her experience of both insurance and disaster and his/her opinion on the importance of insurance as a coping mechanism. Respondents from poverty-stricken or less-developed counties were not necessarily more reluctant to accept natural disaster insurance, though they exhibited relatively lower ability to afford insurance. In general, respondents had correct perceptions of natural disasters in their areas; however, people from regions with a greater multihazard threat showed less willingness to accept disaster insurance because they tended to expect the government to undertake to cover losses and considered insurance to be less important. People's willingness to pay for an assumed disaster house insurance was also investigated and analyzed. We consequently discuss the policy implications for developing a disaster insurance system in China.

  7. Service User- and Carer-Reported Measures of Involvement in Mental Health Care Planning: Methodological Quality and Acceptability to Users

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Chris J.; Bee, Penny E.; Walker, Lauren; Price, Owen; Lovell, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning is a key healthcare priority but one that is difficult to achieve in practice. To better understand and measure user and carer involvement, it is crucial to have measurement questionnaires that are both psychometrically robust and acceptable to the end user. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the terms “care plan$,” “mental health,” “user perspective$,” and “user participation” and their linguistic variants as search terms. Databases were searched from inception to November 2012, with an update search at the end of September 2014. We included any articles that described the development, validation or use of a user and/or carer-reported outcome measures of involvement in mental health care planning. We assessed the psychometric quality of each instrument using the “Evaluating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes” (EMPRO) criteria. Acceptability of each instrument was assessed using novel criteria developed in consultation with a mental health service user and carer consultation group. Results: We identified eleven papers describing the use, development, and/or validation of nine user/carer-reported outcome measures. Psychometric properties were sparsely reported and the questionnaires met few service user/carer-nominated attributes for acceptability. Where reported, basic psychometric statistics were of good quality, indicating that some measures may perform well if subjected to more rigorous psychometric tests. The majority were deemed to be too long for use in practice. Discussion: Multiple instruments are available to measure user/carer involvement in mental health care planning but are either of poor quality or poorly described. Existing measures cannot be considered psychometrically robust by modern standards, and cannot currently be recommended for use. Our review has identified an important knowledge gap, and an urgent need to

  8. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  9. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

  10. 78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... during September.\\2\\ NASA, the ] U.S. Air Force and other U.S. National Test ranges use 0.0001 as the... Standards for National Test Ranges (2010). If the Falcon 9 v1.1's collective risk were to exceed 0.0001... from U.S. National Test Ranges is 0.0001, which, because it comprises debris, toxics, and...

  11. Weighing health benefit and health risk information when consuming sport-caught fish.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Barbara A; A Connelly, Nancy; Sheeshka, Judy; Patterson, Jacqueline

    2003-12-01

    Fish consumers may incur benefits and risks from eating fish. Health advisories issued by states, tribes, and other entities typically include advice about how to limit fish consumption or change other behaviors (e.g., fish cleaning or cooking) to reduce health risks from exposure to contaminants. Eating fish, however, may provide health benefits. Risk communicators and fish consumers have suggested the importance of including risk comparison information, as well as health risk-benefit comparisons in health advisory communications. To improve understanding about how anglers fishing in waters affected by health advisories may respond to such risk-risk or risk-benefit information, we surveyed Lake Ontario (NY, USA) anglers. We interviewed by telephone 4,750 anglers, 2,593 of which had fished Lake Ontario in the past 12 months and were sent a detailed mail questionnaire (1,245 responded). We posed questions varying the magnitude of health risks and health benefits to be gained by fish consumption, and varied the population affected by these risks and benefits (anglers, children, women of childbearing age, and unborn children). Respondents were influenced by health benefit and health risk information. When risks were high, most respondents would eat less fish regardless of the benefit level. When risks were low, the magnitude of change in fish consumption was related to level of benefit. Responses differed depending on the question wording order, that is, whether "risks" were posed before "benefits." For a given risk-benefit level, respondents would give different advice to women of childbearing age versus children, with more conservative advice (eat less fish) provided to women of childbearing age. Respondents appeared to be influenced more strongly by risk-risk comparisons (e.g., risks from other foods vs. risks from fish) than by risk-benefit comparisons (e.g., risks from fish vs. benefits from fish). Risk analysts and risk communicators should improve efforts to

  12. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  13. TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  14. Nuclear power — is the health risk too great?

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, B E

    1982-01-01

    Apparently objective and value-free `scientific' assessments of health risks are often highly value-laden and incorporate contentious social assumptions. Mr Wynne exposes some of the complexities underlying attempts to compare the health risks of nuclear and other sources of energy. PMID:7108912

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Daily Life Training: A Feasibility Study of an mHealth Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Jindra; Vaessen, Thomas; Kasanova, Zuzana; Collip, Dina; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke; Germeys, Inez; Peeters, Frenk

    2016-01-01

    Background With the development of mHealth, it is possible to treat patients in their natural environment. Mobile technology helps to bridge the gap between the therapist’s office and the “real world.” The ACT in Daily Life training (ACT-DL) was designed as an add-on intervention to help patients practice with acceptance and commitment therapy in their daily lives. The ACT-DL consists of two main components: daily monitoring using experience sampling and ACT training in daily life. Objectives To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the ACT-DL in a general outpatient population. A secondary objective was to conduct a preliminary examination of the effectiveness of the ACT-DL. Methods An observational comparative study was conducted. The experimental group consisted of 49 patients who volunteered for ACT-DL, and the control group consisted of 112 patients who did not volunteer. As part of an inpatient treatment program, both groups received a 6-week ACT training. Participants went home to continue their treatment on an outpatient basis, during which time the experimental group received the 4-week add-on ACT-DL. Acceptability and feasibility of the ACT-DL was assessed weekly by telephone survey. Effectiveness of the ACT-DL was evaluated with several self-report questionnaires ( Flexibility Index Test (FIT-60): psychological flexibility, Brief Symptom Inventory: symptoms, Utrechtse Coping List: coping, and Quality of life visual analog scale (QoL-VAS): quality of life). Results More than three-quarters of the participants (76%) completed the full 4-week training. User evaluations showed that ACT-DL stimulated the use of ACT in daily life: participants practiced over an hour a week (mean 78.8 minutes, standard deviation 54.4), doing 10.4 exercises (standard deviation 6.0) on average. Both ACT exercises and metaphors were experienced as useful components of the training (rated 5 out of 7). Repeated measures ANCOVA did not show significant effects of the ACT

  16. Prejudices and perceptions: patient acceptance of mobile technology use in health care.

    PubMed

    Alexander, S M; Nerminathan, A; Harrison, A; Phelps, M; Scott, K M

    2015-11-01

    mHealth is transforming health care, yet few studies have evaluated patient and carer perceptions of the use of smartphones at the patient bedside. In this study, 70 patients and carers answered a short survey on health professionals' use of mobile devices. Half the participants were tolerant of doctors using such devices if it was work-related; others believed it was a distraction and not beneficial to patient care. Changes in practice and patient education may be needed to enable effective use of mobile devices in health.

  17. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M.; Svendsen, Kristin V.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Methods Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual level of importance of chemical health hazards and a model for working out the risk index (RI) indicating enterprises' conceptual risk level was established and used to categorize the enterprises. Results In 72.3% of cases, training takes place concurrently with task performances and in 67.4% experienced workers conduct the trainings. There is disparity between employers' opinion on competence level of the workers and reality. Lower conceptual level of importance was observed for cleaning enterprises of different sizes compared with regional safety delegates and occupational hygienists. Risk index values show no difference in risk level between small and large enterprises. Conclusion Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step. PMID:26929848

  18. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  19. A Need for Better Studies to Identify Those Populations at Greatest Risk of a Pollutant-Related Health Effect

    EPA Science Inventory

    This invited editorial on a paper accepted for publication in the Journal of Pediatrics details scientific advances needed to improve the identification of those populations at greatest risk of a pollutant-related health effect with a primary focus on air pollution.

  20. Health-Based Capitation Risk Adjustment in Minnesota Public Health Care Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Gregory A.; Edwards, Kevan R.; Knutson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the history and implementation of health-based capitation risk adjustment in Minnesota public health care programs, and identifies key implementation issues. Capitation payments in these programs are risk adjusted using an historical, health plan risk score, based on concurrent risk assessment. Phased implementation of capitation risk adjustment for these programs began January 1, 2000. Minnesota's experience with capitation risk adjustment suggests that: (1) implementation can accelerate encounter data submission, (2) administrative decisions made during implementation can create issues that impact payment model performance, and (3) changes in diagnosis data management during implementation may require changes to the payment model. PMID:25372356

  1. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents.

  2. Mental Health and Students at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses issues pertaining to students who are at risk, possibly due to a psychological disability. Some of the challenges institutions of higher education confront in addressing at-risk students' struggles are identified, with specific focus placed on risk management and evolving legal mandates. No content is intended to represent…

  3. Women in biomedical engineering and health informatics and its impact on gender representation for accepted publications at IEEE EMBC 2007.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Carolyn; Smith, Kathleen P; Percival, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The study of women within the professions of Engineering and Computer Science has consistently been found to demonstrate women as a minority within these professions. However none of that previous work has assessed publication behaviours based on gender. This paper presents research findings on gender distribution of authors of accepted papers for the IEEE Engineering and Medicine Society annual conference for 2007 (EMBC '07) held in Lyon, France. This information is used to present a position statement of the current state of gender representation for conference publication within the domain of biomedical engineering and health informatics. Issues in data preparation resulting from the lack of inclusion of gender in information gathered from accepted authors are presented and discussed.

  4. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

  5. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  6. Health Care Providers: A Missing Link in Understanding Acceptability of the Female Condom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; West, Brooke S.; Sue, Kimberly; Hoffman, Susie; Exner, Theresa M.; Kelvin, Elizabeth; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Health care providers can play a key role in influencing clients to initiate and maintain use of the female condom, an underused method for HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention. In 2001-2002, based on semistructured interviews with 78 health care providers from four types of settings in New York City, we found that most providers had seen the female…

  7. Early term birth: understanding the health risks to infants.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Debra Vela

    2012-01-01

    Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth.

  8. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups.

  9. A qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among health workers, teachers, parents, female pupils, and religious leaders in northwest Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Remes, Pieter; Selestine, Veronica; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Wight, Daniel; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Background As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in developing countries, acceptability studies can help to better understand potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination and guide immunisation programs. Methods Prior to a cluster-randomised phase IV trial of HPV vaccination delivery strategies in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, qualitative research was conducted to assess attitudes and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV, and acceptability of and potential barriers to HPV vaccination of Tanzanian primary schoolgirls. Semi-structured interviews (n = 31) and group discussions (n = 12) were conducted with a total of 169 respondents (parents, female pupils, teachers, health workers and religious leaders). Results While participants had heard of cancer in general, most respondents had no knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, or HPV vaccines. Only health workers had heard of cervical cancer but very few knew its cause or had any awareness about HPV vaccines. After participants were provided with information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, the majority stated that they would support HPV vaccination of their daughter to protect them against cervical cancer. Opt-out consent for vaccination was considered acceptable. Most preferred age-based vaccination, saying this would target more girls before sexual debut than class-based vaccination. Potential side effects and infertility concerns were raised by 5/14 of participating male teachers. Discussion Reported acceptability of HPV vaccination amongst parents, teachers and other community members was high in this population. Respondents stressed the need to provide adequate information about the vaccine to parents, that also addresses side effects and infertility concerns. PMID:22732428

  10. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  11. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  12. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-10-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  13. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Ruth; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Godefay, Hagos; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Background The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles) with district (woreda) health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs) assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs’ and mother’s attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region. Methods In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women’s social status and mobility; and women’s perceptions of skilled birth attendant’s care. All data were analyzed thematically. Findings There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women), and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women’s Development Groups (WDGs), and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman’s Expected Due Date (EDD) or if labour started at home. Conclusion With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women’s groups to improve maternal

  14. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  15. 75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services...

  16. The Use of Microcomputers in Health Risk Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gary D.

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the contributions of computerized health risk appraisal when used as a supplement to the traditional methods of health instruction. Subjects were a convenience sample of 26 students enrolled in a university level, personal health course. Using a one group pretest posttest design, these subjects were…

  17. Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.
METHODS—The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.
RESULTS—In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.
CONCLUSIONS—Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.


Keywords: self rated health; risk behaviours PMID:11604437

  18. Methodology and application for health risk classification of chemicals in foods based on risk matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping Ping; Liu, Zhao Ping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ai Dong; Song, Yan; Yong, Ling; Li, Ning

    2014-11-01

    The method has been developed to accurately identify the magnitude of health risks and provide scientific evidence for implementation of risk management in food safety. It combines two parameters including consequence and likelihood of adverse effects based on risk matrix. Score definitions and classification for the consequence and the likelihood of adverse effects are proposed. The risk score identifies the intersection of consequence and likelihood in risk matrix represents its health risk level with different colors: 'low', 'medium', 'high'. Its use in an actual case is shown.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in wild fishes captured from the South China Sea and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Wang, Xue-Hui; Du, Fei-Yan; Yu, Zi-Ling; Huang, Hong-Hui

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in 29 marine wild fish species from the South China Sea. Concentrations (wet weight) were 0.51-115.81 ng/g (Cd), 0.54-27.31 ng/g (Pb), 0.02-1.26 μg/g (Cr), 8.32-57.48 ng/g (Ni), 0.12-1.13 μg/g (Cu), 2.34-6.88 μg/g (Zn), 2.51-22.99 μg/g (Fe), and 0.04-0.81 μg/g (Mn), respectively. Iron concentrations in all and Mn in some fish species were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of these wild fish species may pose a health risk. Human health risk assessment, however, indicated no significant adverse health effects with consumption.

  20. Integrating the patient portal into the health management work ecosystem: user acceptance of a novel prototype

    PubMed Central

    Eschler, Jordan; Meas, Perry Lin; Lozano, Paula; McClure, Jennifer B.; Ralston, James D.; Pratt, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    People with a chronic illness must manage a myriad of tasks to support their health. Online patient portals can provide vital information and support in managing health tasks through notification and reminder features. However, little is known about the efficacy of these features in managing health tasks via the portal. To elicit feedback about reminder and notification features in patient portals, we employed a patient-centered approach to design new features for managing health tasks within an existing portal tool. We tested three iteratively designed prototypes with 19 patients and caregivers. Our findings provide insights into users’ attitudes, behavior, and motivations in portal use. Design implications based on these insights include: (1) building on positive aspects of clinician relationships to enhance engagement with the portal; (2) using face-to-face visits to promote clinician collaboration in portal use; and (3) allowing customization of portal modules to support tasks based on user roles. PMID:28269850

  1. Integrating the patient portal into the health management work ecosystem: user acceptance of a novel prototype.

    PubMed

    Eschler, Jordan; Meas, Perry Lin; Lozano, Paula; McClure, Jennifer B; Ralston, James D; Pratt, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    People with a chronic illness must manage a myriad of tasks to support their health. Online patient portals can provide vital information and support in managing health tasks through notification and reminder features. However, little is known about the efficacy of these features in managing health tasks via the portal. To elicit feedback about reminder and notification features in patient portals, we employed a patient-centered approach to design new features for managing health tasks within an existing portal tool. We tested three iteratively designed prototypes with 19 patients and caregivers. Our findings provide insights into users' attitudes, behavior, and motivations in portal use. Design implications based on these insights include: (1) building on positive aspects of clinician relationships to enhance engagement with the portal; (2) using face-to-face visits to promote clinician collaboration in portal use; and (3) allowing customization of portal modules to support tasks based on user roles.

  2. Evaluation of teledermatology adoption by health-care professionals using a modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Orruño, Estibalitz; Gagnon, Marie Pierre; Asua, José; Ben Abdeljelil, Anis

    2011-01-01

    We examined the main factors affecting the intention of physicians to use teledermatology using a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The investigation was carried out during a teledermatology pilot study conducted in Spain. A total of 276 questionnaires were sent to physicians by email and 171 responded (62%). Cronbach's alpha was acceptably high for all constructs. Theoretical variables were well correlated with each other and with the dependent variable (Intention to Use). Logistic regression indicated that the original TAM model was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology and that the variables Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use were both significant (odds ratios of 8.4 and 7.4, respectively). When other theoretical variables were added, the model was still significant and it also became more powerful. However, the only significant predictor in the modified model was Facilitators with an odds ratio of 9.9. Thus the TAM was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology. However, the most important variable was the perception of Facilitators to using the technology (e.g. infrastructure, training and support).

  3. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in wheat using different water qualities: implication for human health.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Rehman, Sidrah; Siddique, Samra; Bashir, Humayun; Zafar, Asma; Sohail, Muhammad; Ali, Salem Alhajj; Cazzato, Eugenio; De Mastro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the use of sewage water for irrigation has attracted the attention of arid and semi-arid countries where the availability of fresh water is poor. Despite the potential use of sewage water in crop irrigation as effective and sustainable strategy, the environmental and human risks behind this use need to be deeply investigated. In this regard, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in Nursery, University College of Agriculture Sargodha, to evaluate the possible health risks of undesirable metals in wheat grains. Wheat variety Sarang was cultivated and irrigated with different combinations of ground (GW) and sewage water (SW). The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) in wheat grains as well as in soil were determined. Moreover, the pollution load index (PLI), accumulation factor (AF), daily intake of metals (DIM), and health risk index (HRI) were calculated. Results showed that the concentration trend of heavy metals was Pbacceptable levels as suggested by World Health Organization, when 100 % of SW was used for irrigation. Similar observation was reported for Cd concentration in the soil when wheat was irrigated with 100 % SW. In comparison to soil, the edible part of wheat presented lower concentration of all studied metals, except for Zn which was much higher compared to the tested soil samples. The higher concentration of Zn was responsible for increasing the DIM of Zn where, in average, the highest value was reported, particularly in 75 % SW treatment. This was reflected also in HRI where the maximum value was reported for Zinc under the same treatment. Higher value of HRI for wheat cultivated on polluted soils suggested that appropriate management of

  4. The impact of a public health nurse intervention on influenza vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed Central

    Black, M E; Ploeg, J; Walter, S D; Hutchinson, B G; Scott, E A; Chambers, L W

    1993-01-01

    Public health clients in an Ontario community 65 years of age or older were randomly allocated to receive an intervention by a public health nurse during a home visit promoting either influenza immunization or safety measures. There was no statistically significant differences in influenza immunization rates between these two groups (56.1% vs 56.6%). Men were significantly more likely to receive immunization. PMID:8259810

  5. The Health Risk assessment of Pb and Cr leached from fly ash monolith landfill.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Lung; Wu, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Yen-Chuan; Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Yu, Yue-Hwa; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2009-12-15

    As of 2004, nearly two hundred thousand tons of fly ash monoliths are created each year in Taiwan to confine heavy metals for reducing the leaching quantity by precipitation. However, due to abnormal monolith fracture, poorly liner quality or exceeding usage over designed landfill capacity, serious groundwater pollution of the landfills has been reported. This research focuses on Pb and Cr leaching from monolithic landfill to assess the risk of groundwater pollution in the vicinity. The methodology combines water budget simulations using HELP model with fate and risk simulations using MMSOILS model for 5 kinds of landfill structures and 2 types of leaching models, and calculates the risk distribution over 400 grids in the down gradient direction of groundwater. The results demonstrated that the worst liner quality will cause the largest risk and the most significant exposure pathway is groundwater intake, which accounted for 98% of the total risk. Comparing Pb and Cr concentrations in the groundwater with the drinking water standards, only 14.25% of the total grids are found to be under 0.05 mg/L of Pb, and over 96.5% of the total grids are in the safety range of Cr. It indicates that Pb leaching from fly ash monolithic landfills may cause serious health risks. Without consideration of the parameters uncertainty, the cancer and noncancer risk of Pb with the sanitary landfill method was 4.23E-07 and 0.63, respectively, both under acceptable levels. However, by considering the parameters uncertainty, the non-carcinogenic risk of Pb became 1.43, exceeding the acceptable level. Only under the sealed landfill method was the hazard quotient below 1. It is important to use at least the sealed landfill for fly ash monoliths containing lead to effectively reduce health risks.

  6. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  7. RISK CORRIDORS AND REINSURANCE IN HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETPLACES

    PubMed Central

    LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.

    2016-01-01

    Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer’s distribution of expected costs. This paper compares the economic costs and consequences of reinsurance and risk corridors. We simulate the insurer’s cost distribution under reinsurance and risk corridors using data for a group of individuals likely to enroll in Marketplace plans from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We compare reinsurance and risk corridors in terms of risk reduction and incentives for cost containment. We find that reinsurance and one-sided risk corridors achieve comparable levels of risk reduction for a given level of incentives. We also find that the policies being implemented in the Marketplaces (a mix of reinsurance and two-sided risk corridor policies) substantially limit insurer risk but perform similarly to a simpler stand-alone reinsurance policy. PMID:26973861

  8. The impact of an integrated population health enhancement and disease management program on employee health risk, health conditions, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Loeppke, Ron; Nicholson, Sean; Taitel, Michael; Sweeney, Matthew; Haufle, Vince; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an integrated population health enhancement program on employee health risks, health conditions, and productivity. Specifically, we analyzed changes in these measures among a cohort of 543 employees who completed a health risk assessment in both 2003 and 2005. We compared these findings with 2 different sets of employees who were not offered health enhancement programming. We found that the DIRECTV cohort showed a significant reduction in health risks after exposure to the program. Relative to a matched comparison group, the proportion of low-risk employees at DIRECTV in 2005 was 8.2 percentage points higher; the proportion of medium-risk employees was 7.1 percentage points lower; and the proportion of high-risk employees was 1.1 percentage points lower (p < 0.001). The most noticeable changes in health risk were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high cholesterol; an improvement in diet; a reduction of heavy drinking; management of high blood pressure; improved stress management; increased exercise; fewer smokers; and a drop in obesity rates. We also found that a majority of employees who improved their risk levels from 2003 to 2005 maintained their gains in 2006. Employees who improved their risks levels also demonstrated relative improvement in absenteeism. Overall, this study provides additional evidence that integrated population health enhancement positively impacts employees' health risk and productivity; it also reinforces the view that "good health is good business."

  9. Pathways to health risk exposure in adult film performers.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers' exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  11. Developing a risk-based air quality health index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

  12. Acceptability and applicability of an American health videogame with story for childhood obesity prevention among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese ...

  13. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  14. Acceptability of a team-based mobile health (mHealth) application for lifestyle self-management in individuals with chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Mohan, Shiwali; Silva, Michael; Lozano, Paula; Ralston, James D; Ludman, Evette; Rosenberg, Dori; Newton, Katherine M; Nelson, Lester; Pirolli, Peter

    2016-08-01

    With increased incidence of chronic illnesses arising due to unhealthy lifestyle habits, it is increasingly important to leverage technology applications to promote and sustain health behavior change. We developed a smartphone-based application, NutriWalking (NW), which recommends personalized daily exercise goals and promotes healthy nutritional habits in small peer teams. Here, we demonstrate an early study of usability and acceptability of this app in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Depression. Our goal was to evaluate the potential of NW as a self-management support tool. Findings point to design considerations for team-based self-management tools delivered via mHealth platforms.

  15. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male.

  16. An exploration of the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of professional, multitasked community health workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Colin; Semu, Helen; Baraka, Jitihada; Mushi, Hildegalda; Ramsey, Kate; Kante, Almamy Malick; Phillips, James F

    2016-02-19

    Despite four decades of global experience with community-based primary health care, the strategic details of community health worker (CHW) recruitment, training, compensation, and deployment remain the subject of continuing discussion and debate. Responsibilities and levels of clinical expertise also vary greatly, as well as contrasting roles of public- versus private-sector organisations as organisers of CHW effort. This paper describes a programme of implementation research in Tanzania, known as the Connect Project, which aims to guide national policies with evidence on the impact and process of deploying of paid, professional CHWs. Connect is a randomised-controlled trial of community exposure to CHW integrated primary health-care services. A qualitative appraisal of reactions to CHW implementation of community stakeholders, frontline workers, supervisors, and local managers is reviewed. Results highlight the imperative to plan and implement CHW programmes as a component of a broader, integrated effort to strengthen the health system. Specifically, the introduction of a CHW programme in Tanzania should draw upon community structures and institutions and strengthen mechanisms to sustain their participation in primary health care. This should be coordinated with efforts to address poorly functioning logistics and supervisory systems and human resource and management challenges.

  17. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  18. Attitudes toward health risks and sunbathing behavior.

    PubMed

    Beech, J R; Sheehan, E; Barraclough, S

    1996-11-01

    Sunbathing confers the benefits of looking and feeling good but presents the long-term risk of skin cancer. In a disguised experiment exploring attitudes toward sunbathing by British adults, participants were asked to rate their willingness to take a hypothetical new drug (with different levels of risk) that would make them look and feel good. One aspect of the resulting risk profiles was significantly related to a positive attitude to open-air sunbathing but not to sunbed use, possibly because it was erroneously thought that using a sunbed is not risky. The well-established finding that women are more cautious was confirmed; the risk function for men was curvilinear, in contrast to women, who were willing to increase their risk linearly over their lifetime.

  19. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing metropolitan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the exposure risks of trace metals in contamination soils and apportioning their sources are the basic preconditions for soil pollution prevention and control. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to assess the health risks of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing which is one of the most populated cities in the world and to apportion their potential sources. The data set of metals for 12 elements in 240 soil samples was collected. Pollution index and enrichment factor were used to identify the general contamination characteristic of soil metals. The probabilistic risk model was employed for health risk assessment, and a chemometrics technique, multivariate curve resolution-weighted alternating least squares (MCR-WALS), was applied to apportion sources. Results suggested that the soils in Beijing metropolitan region were contaminated by Hg, Cd, Cu, As, and Pb in varying degree, lying in the moderate pollution level. As a whole, the health risks posed by soil metals were acceptable or close to tolerable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and natural source were apportioned as the potential sources determining the contents of trace metals in soils of Beijing area with contributions of 15.5%-16.4%, 5.9%-7.7% and 76.0%-78.6%, respectively.

  20. Quantifying trace elements in the emitted particulate matter during cooking and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Kerimray, Aiymgul; Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Keleş, Melek; Ozturk, Fatma; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-02-25

    Particulate matter (PM) measurements were conducted during heating corn oil, heating corn oil mixed with the table salt and heating low fat ground beef meat using a PTFE-coated aluminum pan on an electric stove with low ventilation. The main objectives of this study were to measure the size segregated mass concentrations, emission rates, and fluxes of 24 trace elements emitted during heating cooking oil or oil with salt and cooking meat. Health risk assessments were performed based on the resulting exposure to trace elements from such cooking activities. The most abundant elements (significantly different from zero) were Ba (24.4 ug m(-3)) during grilling meat and Ti during heating oil with salt (24.4 ug m(-3)). The health assessment indicates that the cooking with an electric stove with poor ventilation leading to chronic exposures may pose the risk of significant adverse health effects. Carcinogenic risk exceeded the acceptable level (target cancer risk 1 × 10(-6), US EPA 2015) by four orders of magnitude, while non-carcinogenic risk exceeded the safe level (target HQ = 1, US EPA 2015) by a factor of 5-20. Cr and Co were the primary contributors to the highest carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, respectively.

  1. Minimizing health risks during secondary effluent application via subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Oron, Gideon; Gillerman, Lieonid; Lael, Avraham; Manor, Yossi; Braude, Erez; Bick, Amos

    2010-01-01

    Health risks posed on consumers due to the use of agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater were assessed by numerical simulation. The analysis is based on defining of an Exposure Model (EM) which takes into account several parameters: (i) the quality of the applied wastewater, (ii) the irrigation method, (iii) the elapsed times between irrigation, harvest, and product consumption, and; (iv) the consumers' habits. The exposure model is used for numerical simulation of human consumers' risks by running the Monte Carlo simulation method. Although some deviations in the numerical simulation which are probably due to uncertainty (impreciseness in quality of input data) and variability due to diversity among populations reasonable results were accepted. Accordingly, there is a several orders of magnitude difference in the risk of infection between the different exposure scenarios with the same water quality. The variability indicates the need for setting risk-based criteria for wastewater reclamation, including the application method and environmental conditions, rather than single water quality guidelines. Extra data is required to decrease uncertainty in the risk assessment. Future research needs to include definite acceptable risk criteria, more accurate dose-response modeling, information regarding pathogen survival in treated wastewater, additional data related to the passage of pathogens into and in the plants during irrigation, and information referring to the consuming habits of the human community.

  2. Cell Phone Usage among Adolescents in Uganda: Acceptability for Relaying Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Bull, Sheana; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in cell phone use has manifested a growing interest in using this technology for health promotion. The portability and "always on" features of the cell phone, along with increasing capability for the devices to carry and transfer data suggest that they will reach more people than computers and the Internet in coming years.…

  3. [The urgent problems of the improvement of the environment management system based on the analysis of health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Avaliani, S L; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A; Dodina, N S; Kislitsin, V A; Mishina, A L

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate legislative and regulatory framework for ensuring minimization of the health risks in the field of environmental protection is the obstacle for the application of the risk analysis methodology as a leading tool for administrative activity in Russia. "Principles of the state policy in the sphere of ensuring chemical and biological safety of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 and beyond", approved by the President of the Russian Federation on 01 November 2013, No PR-25 73, are aimed at the legal support for the health risk analysis methodology. In the article there have been supposed the main stages of the operative control of the environmental quality, which lead to the reduction of the health risk to the acceptable level. The further improvement of the health risk analysis methodology in Russia should contribute to the implementation of the state policy in the sphere of chemical and biological safety through the introduction of complex measures on neutralization of chemical and biological threats to the human health and the environment, as well as evaluation of the economic effectiveness of these measures. The primary step should be the legislative securing of the quantitative value for the term: "acceptable risk".

  4. Trends in task shifting in HIV treatment in Africa: Effectiveness, challenges and acceptability to the health professions

    PubMed Central

    Mayers, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Task shifting has been suggested to meet the demand for initiating and managing more patients on antiretroviral therapy. Although the idea of task shifting is not new, it acquires new relevance in the context of current healthcare delivery. Aim To appraise current trends in task shifting related to HIV treatment programmes in order to evaluate evidence related to the effectiveness of this strategy in addressing human resource constraints and improving patient outcomes, challenges identified in practice and the acceptability of this strategy to the health professions. Method Electronic databases were searched for studies published in English between January 2009 and December 2014. Keywords such as ‘task shifting’, ‘HIV treatment’, ‘human resources’ and ‘health professions’ were used. Results Evidence suggests that task shifting is an effective strategy for addressing human resource constraints in healthcare systems in many countries and provides a cost-effective approach without compromising patient outcomes. Challenges include inadequate supervision support and mentoring, absent regulatory frameworks, a lack of general health system strengthening and the need for monitoring and evaluation. The strategy generally seems to be accepted by the health professions although several arguments against task shifting as a long-term approach have been raised. Conclusion Task shifting occurs in many settings other than HIV treatment programmes and is viewed as a key strategy for governing human resources for healthcare. It may be an opportune time to review current task shifting recommendations to include a wider range of programmes and incorporate initiatives to address current challenges. PMID:26245622

  5. Health risks for students on overseas placements.

    PubMed

    Driver, Carolyn

    Health profession students are encouraged to take an elective during training and many do this overseas in tropical, low-income countries. Higher education institutions should offer advice and support on organising these placements but this varies and students may present for pre-travel health advice at their general practice or travel clinic. This article discusses how they should be advised.

  6. Feasibility and acceptability of delivering adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Mwanga, Joseph; Neke, Nyasule; Changalucha, John; Broutet, Nathalie; Maduhu, Ibrahim; Kapiga, Saidi; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Bloem, Paul; Ross, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers an opportunity to strengthen provision of adolescent health interventions (AHI). We explored the feasibility of integrating other AHI with HPV vaccination in Tanzania. Methods: A desk review of 39 policy documents was preceded by a stakeholder meeting with 38 policy makers and partners. Eighteen key informant interviews (KIIs) with health and education policy makers and district officials were conducted to further explore perceptions of current programs, priorities and AHI that might be suitable for integration with HPV vaccination. Results: Fourteen school health interventions (SHI) or AHI are currently being implemented by the Government of Tanzania. Most are delivered as vertical programmes. Coverage of current programs is not universal, and is limited by financial, human resource and logistic constraints. Limited community engagement, rumours, and lack of strategic advocacy has affected uptake of some interventions, e.g. tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization. Stakeholder and KI perceptions and opinions were limited by a lack of experience with integrated delivery and AHI that were outside an individual’s area of expertise and experience. Deworming and educational sessions including reproductive health education were the most frequently mentioned interventions that respondents considered suitable for integrated delivery with HPV vaccine. Conclusions: Given programme constraints, limited experience with integrated delivery and concern about real or perceived side-effects being attributed to the vaccine, it will be very important to pilot-test integration of AHI/SHI with HPV vaccination. Selected interventions will need to be simple and quick to deliver since health workers are likely to face significant logistic and time constraints during vaccination visits. PMID:26768827

  7. Reevaluation of health risk benchmark for sustainable water practice through risk analysis of rooftop-harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2013-12-15

    Health risk concerns associated with household use of rooftop-harvested rainwater (HRW) constitute one of the main impediments to exploit the benefits of rainwater harvesting in the United States. However, the benchmark based on the U.S. EPA acceptable annual infection risk level of ≤1 case per 10,000 persons per year (≤10(-4) pppy) developed to aid drinking water regulations may be unnecessarily stringent for sustainable water practice. In this study, we challenge the current risk benchmark by quantifying the potential microbial risk associated with consumption of HRW-irrigated home produce and comparing it against the current risk benchmark. Microbial pathogen data for HRW and exposure rates reported in literature are applied to assess the potential microbial risk posed to household consumers of their homegrown produce. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) model based on worst-case scenario (e.g. overhead irrigation, no pathogen inactivation) is applied to three crops that are most popular among home gardeners (lettuce, cucumbers, and tomatoes) and commonly consumed raw. The infection risks of household consumers attributed to consumption of these home produce vary with the type of produce. The lettuce presents the highest risk, which is followed by tomato and cucumber, respectively. Results show that the 95th percentile values of infection risk per intake event of home produce are one to three orders of magnitude (10(-7) to 10(-5)) lower than U.S. EPA risk benchmark (≤10(-4) pppy). However, annual infection risks under the same scenario (multiple intake events in a year) are very likely to exceed the risk benchmark by one order of magnitude in some cases. Estimated 95th percentile values of the annual risk are in the 10(-4) to 10(-3) pppy range, which are still lower than the 10(-3) to 10(-1) pppy risk range of reclaimed water irrigated produce estimated in comparable studies. We further discuss the desirability of HRW for irrigating home

  8. Risk as moral danger: the social and political functions of risk discourse in public health.

    PubMed

    Lupton, D

    1993-01-01

    Risk is a concept with multiple meanings and is ideologically loaded. The author reviews the literature on risk perception and risk as a sociocultural construct, with particular reference to the domain of public health. Pertinent examples of the political and moral function of risk discourse in public health are given. The author concludes that risk discourse is often used to blame the victim, to displace the real reasons for ill-health upon the individual, and to express outrage at behavior deemed socially unacceptable, thereby exerting control over the body politic as well as the body corporeal. Risk discourse is redolent with the ideologies of mortality, danger, and divine retribution. Risk, as it is used in modern society, therefore cannot be considered a neutral term.

  9. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  10. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  11. Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

  12. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established...

  13. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-04-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995.

  14. Updated Human Health Risk Analyses for Chlorpyrifos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has revised the human health hazard assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos.

  15. Glutaraldehyde: a potential health risk to nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.A.; Kachuba, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    This article discusses the potential toxicity of glutaraldehyde, a chemical commonly used in endoscopy units. The literature review cites adverse health effects experienced by workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. The sampling methodology for glutaraldehyde relative to the Occupational Safety and Health standard for glutaraldehyde is presented. Air monitoring should be performed to assess employee exposure to airborne glutaraldehyde in endoscopy departments. Recommendations for reducing exposure to glutaraldehyde in endoscopy units are included.

  16. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  17. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (<150μm) were considered to represent the maximum and minimum risk levels, respectively. The study outcomes confirmed that Cr, Mn and Pb pose the highest risks, although these elements are generally present in low concentrations. The study also found that even though the presence of a single heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  18. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10−6) and lower than priority risk levels (10−4) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4). PMID:27669274

  19. BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

    2015-02-01

    Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population.

  20. Are Text Messages a Feasible and Acceptable Way to Reach Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia with Health Messages? A Cross-Sectional Phone Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV, eliminating new HIV infections remains a challenge in Cambodia. Entertainment venues such as restaurants, karaoke bars, beer gardens, cafes, pubs, and massage parlors are now considered important venues for HIV prevention efforts and other health outreach interventions. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore phone use and texting practices of female entertainment workers (FEWs) in order to determine if text messaging is a feasible and acceptable way to link FEWs to health services. Methods This cross-sectional phone survey was conducted in May 2015 with 97 FEWs aged 18–35 years and currently working at an entertainment venue in Phnom Penh. Results Of the 96 respondents, 51% reported sending text messages daily; of them, 47% used Khmer script and 45% used Romanized Khmer. Younger FEWs were more likely to report daily texting (P<.001). Most FEWs (98%) in this study reported feeling comfortable receiving private health messages despite the fact that 39% were sharing their phone with others. Younger FEWs were less likely to share their phone with others (P=.02). Of all of the FEWs, 47% reported owning a smartphone, and younger women were more likely to own a smartphone than were older women (P=.08). Conclusions The findings from this study support the development of mHealth interventions targeting high-risk groups in urban areas of Cambodia. Our data suggest that mHealth interventions using texting may be a feasible way of reaching FEWs in Phnom Penh. PMID:27207374

  1. Health risks associated with swimming at an inland river

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming exposure to fecally-contaminated oceans and lakes has been associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Although treated and untreated sewage are often discharged to rivers, the health risks of swimming exposure on rivers has been less frequently ...

  2. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  3. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  4. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  5. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  6. INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  7. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  8. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient <1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)).

  9. Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U), thorium-232 (232Th), and potassium-40 (40K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards. PMID:27338424

  10. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  11. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  12. Health aspects of caffeine: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, C

    This article examines the benefits and risks associated with caffeinated foods and drinks, taking an evidence-based approach to identify appropriate daily caffeine limits. Suggestions are provided on how to structure dietary advice for different patient groups including children, individuals with hypertension, renal patients, athletes and older adults.

  13. The health risks of new-wave vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Szabo, L

    1997-05-15

    Many young people call themselves vegetarians because they don't eat meat, but the eating style they are adopting is fraught with health risks. In this article, which won CMAJ's 1996 Army Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest for Canadian journalism students, Laura Brydges Szabo looks at the "new vegetarianism" and the recommendations health care professionals are making to young people intent on following this incomplete diet. The contest encourages journalism students to write on health care topics.

  14. Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.

    PubMed Central

    Scriver, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens. PMID:6763817

  15. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.

  16. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  17. Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance: The South Africa experience.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Heather; Grobler, Pieter

    2010-11-01

    South Africa intends implementing major reforms in the financing of healthcare. Free market reforms in private health insurance in the late 1980s have been reversed by the new democratic government since 1994 with the re-introduction of open enrolment, community rating and minimum benefits. A system of national health insurance with income cross-subsidies, risk-adjusted payments and mandatory membership has been envisaged in policy papers since 1994. Subsequent work has seen the design of a Risk Equalisation Fund intended to operate between competing private health insurance funds. The paper outlines the South African health system and describes the risk equalisation formula that has been developed. The risk factors are age, gender, maternity events, numbers with certain chronic diseases and numbers with multiple chronic diseases. The Risk Equalisation Fund has been operating in shadow mode since 2005 with data being collected but no money changing hands. The South African experience of risk equalisation is of wider interest as it demonstrates an attempt to introduce more solidarity into a small but highly competitive private insurance market. The measures taken to combat over-reporting of chronic disease should be useful for countries or funders considering adding chronic disease to their risk equalisation formulae.

  18. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10(-6). To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10(-6). The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  19. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  20. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy bibliotherapy for enhancing the psychological health of Japanese college students living abroad.

    PubMed

    Muto, Takashi; Hayes, Steven C; Jeffcoat, Tami

    2011-06-01

    International students often experience significant psychological distress but empirically tested programs are few. Broadly distributed bibliotherapy may provide a cost-effective approach. About half of the Japanese international students in a western university in the United States (N=70) were randomly assigned to a wait-list or to receive a Japanese translation of a broadly focused acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) self-help book. Although recruited without regard to health status, the sample was highly distressed with nearly 80% exceeding clinical cutoffs on one or more measures. After a 2-months period for the first treatment group to read the book and a 2-month follow up, wait-list participants also received the book. Students receiving the book showed significantly better general mental health at post and follow up. Moderately depressed or stressed, and severely anxious students showed improvement compared to those not receiving the book. These patterns were repeated when the wait-list participants finally received the book. Improvements in primary outcomes were related to how much was learned about an ACT model from the book. Follow-up outcomes were statistically mediated by changes in psychological flexibility, but not vice versa and were moderated by level of initial flexibility. Overall, the data suggest that ACT bibliotherapy improved the mental health and psychological flexibility of Japanese international students.

  1. [Risk communication in analysis of occupational health risk for industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Barg, A O; Lebedeva-Nesevrya, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of risk communication system function on industrial enterprise. Sociologic study in machinery construction enterprise of Perm area helped to consider main procedures of informing on occupational risk for health of workers exposed to occupational hazards, to describe features and mechanisms of risk communication, to specify its model. The authors proved that main obstacles for efficient system of occupational risks communication are insufficiently thorough legal basis, low corporative social responsibility of the enterprise and low social value of health for workers. This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-16-59011).

  2. Risk Selection under Public Health Insurance with Opt-Out.

    PubMed

    Panthöfer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies risk selection between public and private health insurance when some, but not all, individuals can opt out of otherwise mandatory public insurance. Using a theoretical model, I show that public insurance is adversely selected when insurers and insureds are symmetrically informed about health-related risks, and that there can be adverse or advantageous selection when insureds are privately informed. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, I find that (i) public insurance is, on balance, adversely selected under the German public health insurance with opt out scheme, (ii) individuals advantageously select public insurance based on risk aversion and residential location, and (iii) there is suggestive evidence of asymmetric information in the market for private health insurance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Integrating Risk Adjustment and Enrollee Premiums in Health Plan Payment

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D.; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In two important health policy contexts – private plans in Medicare and the new state-run “Exchanges” created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PMID:24308878

  4. Industrial metal pollution in water and probabilistic assessment of human health risk.

    PubMed

    Saha, Narottam; Rahman, M Safiur; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Zhou, John L; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2016-10-28

    Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in surface water decreased as a function of distance. Estimations of non-carcinogenic health risk for surface water revealed that mean hazard index (HI) values of As, Cr, Cu, and Pb for combined pathways (i.e., ingestion and dermal contact) were >1.0 for both age groups. The estimated risk mainly came from the ingestion pathway. However, the HI values for all the examined metals in groundwater were <1.0, indicating no possible human health hazard. Deterministically estimated total cancer risk (TCR) via Bangshi River water exceeded the acceptable limit of 1 × 10(-4) for adult and children. Although, probabilistically estimated 95th percentile values of TCR exceeded the benchmark, mean TCR values were less than 1 × 10(-4). Simulated results showed that 20.13% and 5.43% values of TCR for surface water were >1 × 10(-4) for adult and children, respectively. Deterministic and probabilistic estimations of cancer risk through exposure to groundwater were well below the safety limit. Overall, the population exposed to Bangshi River water remained at carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health threat and the risk was higher for adults. Sensitivity analysis identified exposure duration (ED) and ingestion rate (IR) of water as the most relevant variables affecting the probabilistic risk estimation model outcome.

  5. Clinical mentorship to improve pediatric quality of care at the health centers in rural Rwanda: a qualitative study of perceptions and acceptability of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence supporting Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) as a strategy to improve pediatric care in countries with high child mortality, its implementation faces challenges related to lack of or poor post-didactic training supervision and gaps in necessary supporting systems. These constraints lead to health care workers’ inability to consistently translate IMCI knowledge and skills into practice. A program providing mentoring and enhanced supervision at health centers (MESH), focusing on clinical and systems improvement was implemented in rural Rwanda as a strategy to address these issues, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of pediatric care at rural health centers. We explored perceptions of MESH from the perspective of IMCI clinical mentors, mentees, and district clinical leadership. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 40 health care workers from 21 MESH-supported health centers. Two FGDs in each district were carried out, including one for nurses and one for director of health centers. District medical directors and clinical mentors had individual in-depth interviews. We performed a hermeneutic analysis using Atlas.ti v5.2. Results Study participants highlighted program components in five key areas that contributed to acceptability and impact, including: 1) Interactive, collaborative capacity-building, 2) active listening and relationships, 3) supporting not policing, 4) systems improvement, and 5) real-time feedback. Staff turn-over, stock-outs, and other facility/systems gaps were identified as barriers to MESH and IMCI implementation. Conclusion Health care workers reported high acceptance and positive perceptions of the MESH model as an effective strategy to build their capacity, bridge the gap between knowledge and practice in pediatric care, and address facility and systems issues. This approach also improved relationships between the district supervisory team and health center-based care

  6. Infant mental health promotion and the discourse of risk.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Angela; Coveney, John; MacDougall, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The field of infant mental health promotion has rapidly developed in academia, health policy and practice. Although there are roots in earlier childhood health and welfare movements, recent developments in infant mental health promotion are distinct and different. This article examines the development and practice of infant mental health promotion in South Australia. A regional, intersectoral forum with a focus on families and young children was used as a case study. In-depth interviews with forum members were analysed using a governmentality lens. Participants identified a range of risks to the healthy development of the infant. The study suggests that the construction of risk acts as a technique of governing, providing the rationale for intervention for the child, the mother and the public's good. It places responsibility on parents to self-govern. Although the influence of broader social contexts is acknowledged, the problematisation of mothering as risk shifts the focus to individual capacity, rather than encompassing the systems and social conditions that support healthy relationships. This research suggests that the representations of risk are a pervasive and potent influence that can act to undermine health promotion efforts that seek to empower and enable people to have more control over their own health.

  7. Environmental risks and children's health: What can PRAMS tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina; Suter, Barbara J.; Cai, Xueya; Brownson, Susan A.; Dozier, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Environmental exposures during pregnancy have a lasting impact on children's health. We combined environmental and maternal risk factor survey data to inform efforts to protect children's health. We made recommendations for future use of such data. Methods A modified version of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System(PRAMS) mail survey was conducted based on weighted sampling design with low-income and non-low income women in Monroe County, NY (1022 respondents). A series of environmental questions were included in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and Poisson loglinear regression model to identify patterns in environmental health risk and sociodemographic characteristics. Results We identified women who rented their homes, had lower incomes, and lived in inner city zip codes as “high environmental health risk” (HEHR). HEHR respondents were more likely to report that a health care provider talked with them about lead and on average reported more behaviors to protect their children from lead poisoning. Conclusions Combining environmental and perinatal risk factor data could yield important recommendations for medical practice, health education, and policy development. However, at present PRAMS gathers only limited and inconsistent environmental data. We found that existing PRAMS environmental questions are insufficient. Further work is needed to develop updated and more comprehensive environmental health survey questions and implement them consistently across the country. PMID:23955384

  8. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society. PMID:24771993

  9. Health risks for marine mammal workers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tania D; Ziccardi, Michael H; Gulland, Frances M D; Yochem, Pamela K; Hird, David W; Rowles, Teresa; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2008-08-19

    Marine mammals can be infected with zoonotic pathogens and show clinical signs of disease, or be asymptomatic carriers of such disease agents. While isolated cases of human disease from contact with marine mammals have been reported, no evaluation of the risks associated with marine mammal work has been attempted. Therefore, we designed a survey to estimate the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses in marine mammal workers and volunteers. The 17-question survey asked respondents to describe their contact with marine mammals, injuries sustained, and/or illnesses acquired during their period of marine mammal exposure. Most respondents, 88% (423/483), were researchers and rehabilitators. Of all respondents, 50% (243/483) reported suffering an injury caused by a marine mammal, and 23% (110/483) reported having a skin rash or reaction. Marine mammal work-related illnesses commonly reported included: 'seal finger' (Mycoplasma spp. or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae), conjunctivitis, viral dermatitis, bacterial dermatitis, and non-specific contact dermatitis. Although specific diagnoses could not be confirmed by a physician through this study, severe illnesses were reported and included tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and serious sequelae to seal finger. Risk factors associated with increased odds of injury and illness included prolonged and frequent exposure to marine mammals; direct contact with live marine mammals; and contact with tissue, blood, and excretions. Diagnosis of zoonotic disease was often aided by veterinarians; therefore, workers at risk should be encouraged to consult with a marine mammal veterinarian as well as a physician, especially if obtaining a definitive diagnosis for an illness becomes problematic.

  10. Cell phone usage among adolescents in Uganda: acceptability for relaying health information.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Bull, Sheana; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele L

    2011-10-01

    The increase in cell phone use has manifested a growing interest in using this technology for health promotion. The portability and 'always on' features of the cell phone, along with increasing capability for the devices to carry and transfer data suggest that they will reach more people than computers and the Internet in coming years. Self-reported quantitative survey data from 1503 secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda collected in 2008-2009 suggest that 27% currently have cell phones and about half (51%) of all students and 61% of those who owned a cell phone believe that they would access a text messaging-based HIV prevention program if it were available. Other forms of program delivery modality (e.g. Internet, religious organizations, schools) were preferred to text messaging however. We are in need of effective HIV prevention programs that can reach large audiences at low cost and are culturally relevant for the East African context. Researchers are encouraged to consider translation of effective HIV prevention programs for cell phone delivery in Africa.

  11. Comparative quantification of health risks: Conceptual framework and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christopher JL; Ezzati, Majid; Lopez, Alan D; Rodgers, Anthony; Vander Hoorn, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been conducted in the context of methodological traditions of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual and methodological issues for quantifying the population health effects of individual or groups of risk factors in various levels of causality using knowledge from different scientific disciplines. The issues include: comparing the burden of disease due to the observed exposure distribution in a population with the burden from a hypothetical distribution or series of distributions, rather than a single reference level such as non-exposed; considering the multiple stages in the causal network of interactions among risk factor(s) and disease outcome to allow making inferences about some combinations of risk factors for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted, including the joint effects of multiple risk factors; calculating the health loss due to risk factor(s) as a time-indexed "stream" of disease burden due to a time-indexed "stream" of exposure, including consideration of discounting; and the sources of uncertainty. PMID:12780936

  12. Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Saemi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 × 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 × 10?5 and 1.97 × 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for central tendency exposure to trichloroethylene was 1.71 for male and female residents. The hazard indexes for reasonable maximum exposure were 3.27 and 2.41 for males and females, respectively. These values were over one, which is equivalent to the threshold value. This result showed that adverse cancer and non-cancer health effects may occur and that some risk management of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A was needed. PMID:24278607

  13. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, Renee E; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, BR Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-01-01

    Background Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. Objective The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of TeensTalkHealth, an interactive sexual health website designed to promote condom use and other healthy decision making in the context of romantic and sexual relationships. Methods Evaluation data were obtained from 147 adolescents who participated in a feasibility and acceptability study. Video vignettes, teen-friendly articles, and other content served as conversation catalysts between adolescents and health educators on message boards. Results Adolescents’ perceptions that the website encouraged condom use across a variety of relationship situations were very high. Almost 60% (54/92, 59%) of intervention participants completed two-thirds or more of requested tasks across the 4-month intervention. Adolescents reported high levels of comfort, perceived privacy, ease of website access and use, and perceived credibility of health educators. Potential strategies to enhance engagement and completion of intervention tasks during future implementations of TeensTalkHealth are discussed, including tailoring of content, periodic website chats with health educators and anonymous peers, and greater incorporation of features from popular social networking websites. Conclusions TeensTalkHealth is a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to complement and enhance existing services for youth. PMID:26336157

  14. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  15. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  16. Interactive graphics for expressing health risks: development and qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Jessica S; Chan, Connie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that interactive game-like graphics might be useful in communicating probabilities. We developed a prototype for a risk communication module, focusing on eliciting users' preferences for different interactive graphics and assessing usability and user interpretations. Feedback from five focus groups was used to design the graphics. The final version displayed a matrix of square buttons; clicking on any button allowed the user to see whether the stick figure underneath was affected by the health outcome. When participants used this interaction to learn about a risk, they expressed more emotional responses, both positive and negative, than when viewing any static graphic or numerical description of a risk. Their responses included relief about small risks and concern about large risks. The groups also commented on static graphics: arranging the figures affected by disease randomly throughout a group of figures made it more difficult to judge the proportion affected but often was described as more realistic. Interactive graphics appear to have potential for expressing risk magnitude as well as the feeling of risk. This affective impact could be useful in increasing perceived threat of high risks, calming fears about low risks, or comparing risks. Quantitative studies are planned to assess the effect on perceived risks and estimated risk magnitudes.

  17. In vitro assessment of equivalence of occupational health risk: welders.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, R M

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of using in vitro testing to determine the equivalence of risk for various occupational groups is discussed. In the absence of epidemiological evidence or relevant animal in vivo bioassays on which to determine the health effects of specific occupational exposures, it is proposed to use similarities in the in vitro response to substances with known (or strongly suspected) and unknown risk to demonstrate their risk equivalence. Identification and evaluation of a high risk "hot spot" due to exposure to Cr(VI) for stainless steel welders is discussed in terms of recent developments in collection, analysis and bioassay of welding fumes. PMID:6641655

  18. Assessment of metals pollution and health risk in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Loretta Y; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations, pollution and health risks of metals in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China were determined. In comparison with local soil, dust samples have elevated metals concentrations except for Mn. The results indicate no distinct pollution of Mn, Ni, As and Ba in the dust, while Cu, Co and Zn are moderate pollution, Pb is significant pollution, and Cr with large pollution range. Most samples presented moderately polluted by metals. The non-cancer risks of the studied metals are within the safe range, and the cancer risks of As, Co, Cr and Ni are also within the currently acceptable range.

  19. A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

    1998-09-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act.

  20. Food safety risks and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-11-30

    The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor.

  1. Nanoparticles – known and unknown health risks

    PubMed Central

    Hoet, Peter HM; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Salata, Oleg V

    2004-01-01

    Manmade nanoparticles range from the well-established multi-ton production of carbon black and fumed silica for applications in plastic fillers and car tyres to microgram quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences are experiencing massive investment worldwide, there will be a further rise in consumer products relying on nanotechnology. While benefits of nanotechnology are widely publicised, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use in the consumer and industrial products are just beginning to emerge. This review provides comprehensive analysis of data available on health effects of nanomaterials. PMID:15588280

  2. Health insurance does not guarantee access to primary care: a national study of physicians' acceptance of publicly insured patients.

    PubMed

    Cykert, S; Kissling, G; Layson, R; Hansen, C

    1995-06-01

    The roles of reimbursement and other predictors that affect physicians' willingness to accept publicly insured continuing care patients were examined in a national survey. The response rate was 47%. Eighty-eight percent of the respondents were accepting new patients. Forty-two percent of these physicians were willing to accept new continuing care patients insured by Medicaid, 70% reported accepting those paying by Medicare assignment, and 85% said they accept patients covered by Medicare plus balance-billing payments. Low reimbursement was the strongest predictor for lack of acceptance. The results suggest that systems of multitiered reimbursement are associated with diminished access for patients insured in the lower tiers.

  3. Health Risk Assessment using in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal in rice: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Omar, N A; Praveena, S M; Aris, A Z; Hashim, Z

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal<1), whereas total Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCRTotal) values were higher than the acceptable range (LCRTotal values >1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.

  4. Health, safety and environmental risk management in laboratory fields

    PubMed Central

    Yarahmadi, Rasoul; Moridi, Parvin; Roumiani, YarAllah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that, if transpire, will have positive or negative effects on objectives of a project. The Management of Health and Safety at Work (MHSW) Regulations 1999 require all employers and the self-employed persons to assess the risks from their work on anyone who may be affected by their activities. Risk assessment is the first step in risk-management procedure, and due to its importance, it has been deemed to be a vital process while having a unique place in the researchbased management systems. Methods: In this research, a two-pronged study was carried out. Firstly, health and safety issues were studied and analyzed by means of ISO 14121. Secondly, environmental issues were examined with the aid of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Both processes were utilized to determine the risk level independently for each research laboratory and corrective measure priorities in each field (laboratory). Results: Data analysis showed that the total main and inherent risks in laboratory sites reduced by 38% to 86%. Upon comparing the average risk levels before and after implementing the control and protective actions utilizing risk management approaches which were separate from health, safety and environmental aspects, a highly effective significance (p<0.001) was obtained for inherent risk reduction. Analysis of health, safety and environmental control priorities with the purpose of comparing the ratio of the number of engineering measures to the amount of management ones showed a relatively significant increase. Conclusion: The large number of engineering measures was attributed to the employment of a variety of timeworn machinery (old technologies) along with using devices without basic protection components. PMID:27284544

  5. [Health risk assessment of heavy metals in typical township water sources in DongjianG River basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruo-Shi; Xu, Qiu-Jin; Zhang, Xian; Wei, Qun-Shan; Yan, Chang-Zhou

    2012-09-01

    In order to clarify the distribution characteristics and risk levels of heavy metals in typical drinking water sources of towns in Dongjiang River Basin, several regular water quality indexes as well as concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, As, Cr, Hg, Pb and Cd were analyzed in the 45 random water samples of 9 towns in the study area. The risk assessment was conducted according to different drinking water types using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by U. S. EPA. The results indicated that the metal carcinogenic risk is relatively high in this area. The highest carcinogenic risk was from Cr in reservoir water, with the risk for adult people reaching 1.14 x 10(-4) x(-1) and the risk of children reaching 2.14 x 10(-4) x a(-1). Total carcinogenic risk of reservoir, river and underground water exceeded the accepted level of 5.0 x 10(5) x a(-1) as suggested by ICRP while all the non-carcinogenic risk levels were within the acceptable range. The primary control sequence of metal pollution in this area was Cr > As > Pb > Fe > Zn; the risk value of different drinking water sources descended in this order: reservoir > river > underground water > mountain spring.

  6. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X

    2014-04-01

    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  7. Risk Factors for Physical Domestic Violence in a High-Prevalence HIV Setting: Findings from Project Accept Baseline Data (HPTN-043)

    PubMed Central

    Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B.; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M.; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001), (ii) two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001), (iii) some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant), and (iv) low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels. PMID:28299090

  8. Risk Factors for Physical Domestic Violence in a High-Prevalence HIV Setting: Findings from Project Accept Baseline Data (HPTN-043).

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F

    2013-06-25

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001), (ii) two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001), (iii) some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant), and (iv) low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  9. Global health risks and cosmopolitisation: from emergence to interference.

    PubMed

    Figuié, Muriel

    2013-02-01

    According to Beck's 'World at Risk' theory, global risks push nations towards a cosmopolitisation of their health policy and open opportunities for a democratic turn. This article provides an empirical analysis of Beck's theory, based on the experience of Vietnamese authorities from 2003 to 2007 in managing the emerging avian flu virus. It shows how Vietnam's framing of avian flu has shifted, under the pressure from international organisations and the US administration, from an epizootic and zoonotic risk (or a classic risk) to a pandemic threat (or a late modern risk). Vietnam's response was part of its overall strategy to join the World Trade Organization and it was limited by Vietnam's defence of its sovereignty. This strategy has been successful for Vietnam but has limited the possibility of cosmopolitan and democratic transformations. The case study highlights the constructed dimension of risks of late modernity and their possible instrumentalisation: it minimises the role of a community of fear relative to a community of trade.

  10. Screening and health risk of organic micropollutants in rural groundwater of Liaodong Peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehua; Shang, Xiaochen; Luo, Tianlie; Du, Xu; Wang, Ya; Xie, Qing; Matsuura, Naoki; Chen, Jingwen; Kadokami, Kiwao

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater serves as a main drinking water source for rural residents in China. However, little is known regarding the pollution of organic micropollutants in groundwater that may pose health risks. In this study, more than 1300 organic micropollutants were screened in the groundwater samples collected from 13 drinking water wells distributed across five rural regions of Liaodong Peninsula in China. A total of 80 organic micropollutants including 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 11 alkanes, 9 pesticides, 7 substituted phenols, 7 perfluoroalkyl acids, 6 heterocyclic compounds, 5 alcohols, 5 phthalic acid esters, 5 pharmaceutical and personal care products, 3 ketones, 2 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2 alkylbenzenes and 2 chlorinated benzenes were detected, with their total concentration of 32-1.5 × 10(4) ng/L. Noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of a part of pollutants were assessed. Exposure through skin absorption and oral ingestion was considered in the assessment. Generally the risks are within the acceptable limits, except for that the carcinogenic risk at two sites in Jinzhou is higher than 10(-6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on health risks of groundwater micropollutants in China.

  11. Women at risk: Gender inequality and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Banda, Pamela C; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Ntoimo, Lorretta F C; Muchiri, Evans

    2017-04-01

    Gender inequality has been documented as a key driver of negative health outcomes, especially among women. However, studies have not clearly examined the role of gender inequality in maternal health in an African setting. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the role of gender inequality, indicated by lack of female autonomy, in exposing women to maternal health risk. Data were obtained from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey on a weighted sample of 3,906 married or partnered women aged 15-49 years. Multivariable analyses revealed that low autonomy in household decision power was associated with maternal health risk (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52, p < .001). Autonomy interacted with household wealth showed that respondents who were in the wealthier households and had low autonomy in household decision power (OR = 2.03, p < .05) were more likely to be exposed to maternal health risk than their counterparts who had more autonomy. Efforts to lower women's exposure to maternal mortality and morbidity in Zambia should involve interventions to alter prevailing gender norms that limit women's active participation in decisions about their own health during pregnancy and delivery.

  12. Speciation and Health Risks of Atmospheric Nanoparticulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kennedy

    Exposure to air pollution causes several adverse health effects such as asthma, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature death; and the San Joaquin Valley is one of the most heavily polluted regions in the US. The mountains that surround the valley allow air pollution, including particulate matter, to remain stagnant, prolonging the exposure of valley populations to it. The primary sources of particulate matter for this region are aluminosilicate dust from agricultural activities, and soot emissions from diesel trucks and vehicular traffic. A substantial fraction of emitted material is nanoparticulate matter (<100 nm), which contains trace iron and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can traverse into human organs via the lungs, initiate inflammation, and lead to disease. The traditional approach of reducing the total mass of emitted material is beginning to reach its limit of effectiveness for mitigating the negative health impacts of particulate matter. There is a need for chemical speciation of particulate matter that will allow the identification of the chemical and physical properties of particulates by source, the creation of well-controlled proxy particles with those properties for testing in cell culture studies, and correlation of particulate properties and sources with their negative health impacts. These results can help identify the sources of air pollution to prioritize for mitigation for the greatest health benefit. In addition, further chemical speciation can help monitor the results of such mitigation efforts. Here, natural particulate matter samples from Merced and Fresno, two cities in the San Joaquin Valley, were analyzed. Ultrafine particles present were 40 to 50 nm in diameter and mostly composed of aluminum, silicon, oxygen, and iron hydroxide. XAS data confirmed the presence of the aluminosilicate as smectite clay and the iron hydroxide as ferrihydrite. Furthermore, a chemical speciation study investigated

  13. Rural community leaders' perceptions of environmental health risks: improving community health.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia; Christopher, Suzanne; Hill, Wade

    2006-03-01

    Qualitative description was used to explore how rural community leaders frame, interpret, and give meaning to environmental health issues affecting their constituents and communities. Six rural community leaders discussed growth, vulnerable families, and the action avoidance strategies they use or see used in lieu of adopting health-promoting behaviors. Findings suggest intervention strategies should be economical, use common sense, be sensitive to regional identity, and use local case studies and "inside leadership." Occupational health nurses addressing the disparate environmental health risks in rural communities are encouraged to use agenda-neutral, scientifically based risk communication efforts and foster collaborative relationships among nurses, planners, industry, and other community leaders.

  14. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  15. Rejection and Acceptance across Contexts: Parents and Peers as Risks and Buffers for Early Adolescent Psychopathology. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover, we examined whether acceptance in one context…

  16. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O’Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83–2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41–1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42–2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes. PMID:26635600

  17. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  18. Mom Power: preliminary outcomes of a group intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age <6 years old), focused on enhancing mothers' mental health, parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among

  19. Mom Power: Preliminary Outcomes of a Group Intervention to Improve Mental Health and Parenting Among High-Risk Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Alfafara, Emily A.; Schuster, Melisa M.; Miller, Nicole M.; Waddell, Rachel M.; Kohler, Emily Stanton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child’s early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age <6 years old), focused on enhancing mothers’ mental health, parenting competence and engagement in treatment. Methods Mothers were referred from community health providers for a Phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty and single parenthood. 99 mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post- self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and PTSD), parenting and intervention satisfaction. Results Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70% of the 10 groups (completers; N=68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N=12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Conclusions Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads

  20. The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management.

    PubMed

    Peeler, E J; Murray, A G; Thebault, A; Brun, E; Giovaninni, A; Thrush, M A

    2007-09-14

    Risk analysis has only been regularly used in the management of aquatic animal health in recent years. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) stimulated the application of risk analysis to investigate disease risks associated with international trade (import risk analysis-IRA). A majority (9 of 17) of the risk analyses reviewed were IRA. The other major focus has been the parasite of Atlantic salmon--Gyrodactylus salaris. Six studies investigated the spread of this parasite, between countries, rivers and from farmed to wild stocks, and clearly demonstrated that risk analysis can support aquatic animal health policy development, from international trade and biosecurity to disease interaction between wild and farmed stocks. Other applications of risk analysis included the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens and disease emergence in aquaculture. The Covello-Merkhofer, risk analysis model was most commonly used and appears to be a flexible tool not only for IRA but also the investigation of disease spread in other contexts. The limitations of the identified risk assessments were discussed. A majority were qualitative, partly due to the lack of data for quantitative analysis, and this, it can be argued, constrained their usefulness for trade purposes (i.e. setting appropriate sanitary measures); in other instances, a qualitative result was found to be adequate for decision making. A lack of information about the disease hazards of the large number of fish species traded is likely to constrain quantitative analysis for a number of years. The consequence assessment element of a risk analysis was most likely to be omitted, or limited in scope and depth, rarely extending beyond examining the evidence of susceptibility of farmed and wild species to the identified hazard. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made to develop guidelines for a consistent, systematic and multi-disciplinary approach to consequence

  1. Health of North American forests: Stress and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s will be remembered by forest professionals as a decade of intense and widespread societal concern for the vitality and integrity of forest systems. Daily reports of tropical deforestation and temperate forest decline have heightened social consciousness of forest health. It is therefore appropriate, as we enter the 1990s, to assess the health of our forests and propose new initiatives in this critically important area. Making generalizations about the health of North American forests is difficult because of the extraordinary diversity of forests, management regimes, and stress factors. This overview article summarizes forest health fundamentals, significant health risks, and priorities in future forest health management for temperate forests of the United States.

  2. Effective health risk communication about pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008.

  3. A pilot study of immigration status, homosexual self-acceptance, social support, and HIV reduction in high risk Asian and Pacific Islander men.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, L S; Faust, M; Roque, J S; Loue, S

    1999-04-01

    This article reports the results of a cross-sectional study that was conducted to describe the sexual behavior and HIV risk reduction behaviors of homosexual and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men and to relate immigration status, self-acceptance as a homosexual, and levels of social support to the adoption of safe sexual behaviors in this population. Thirty-one gay and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men in San Diego County, California, participated. Generally high levels of knowledge about HIV and transmission risks as well as self-acceptance and social support were found. While most (84%) reported some attempts to increase condom use in the previous 6 months, 42% reported engaging in unprotected intercourse during that same time period. An inverse relationship between self-acceptance and utilization of risk reduction strategies was found. No association was found between immigration status or self-reported HIV status and level of HIV knowledge, level of HIV risk behavior, or level of HIV risk reduction efforts. The findings are discussed within the context of other social network studies and HIV prevention programs for gay and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men.

  4. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: health risk uncertainties and research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M

    1998-01-01

    With the way cleared for increased use of the fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in the United States, the issue of possible public health impacts associated with this additive has gained greater attention. In assessing potential health risks of particulate Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency not only considered the qualitative types of toxic effects associated with inhaled Mn, but conducted extensive exposure-response analyses using various statistical approaches and also estimated population exposure distributions of particulate Mn based on data from an exposure study conducted in California when MMT was used in leaded gasoline. Because of limitations in available data and the need to make several assumptions and extrapolations, the resulting risk characterization had inherent uncertainties that made it impossible to estimate health risks in a definitive or quantitative manner. To support an improved health risk characterization, further investigation is needed in the areas of health effects, emission characterization, and exposure analysis. PMID:9539013

  5. Which college students are at higher health risk?

    PubMed

    Magnus, Marcia H

    2010-03-01

    An electronic health risk appraisal was used to determine which demographic factors were associated with higher health risk among college students at an urban state university. Students' real age was assessed as the primary indicator of health risk and it was associated to demographic characteristics. Real age represents the physiological age of the body based on lifestyle choices, and this is often different to chronological age. Approximately 26.0% of 576 students were more than 5 years older than their chronological age, 29.8% were 0 to 5 years older, 29.8% were 0 to 5 years younger, and 14.1% were more than 5 years younger than their chronological age. Students who were male, Black, and nonnutrition majors had significantly higher positive real age differentials: their bodies were more likely to be more than 5 years older than their chronological age. Students with significantly lower negative real age differential--those whose real age was lower than their chronological age--were female and nutrition majors. Students were significantly more likely to report that they were "very motivated" if they were female (88.6%), compared with male (66.7%). These data suggest that when health disparities are assessed at the level of real age differential and motivation to make lifestyle changes, male Black college students are at highest health risk and they are less likely to be "very motivated" to make lifestyle changes than their peers.

  6. Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

  7. Improving Health Worker Adherence to Malaria Treatment Guidelines in Papua New Guinea: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message Reminder Service

    PubMed Central

    Kurumop, Serah F.; Bullen, Chris; Whittaker, Robyn; Betuela, Inoni; Hetzel, Manuel W.; Pulford, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether a text message reminder service designed to support health worker adherence to a revised malaria treatment protocol is feasible and acceptable in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The study took place in six purposively selected health facilities located in the Eastern Highlands Province (EHP) of PNG. Ten text messages designed to remind participants of key elements of the new NMTP were transmitted to 42 health workers twice over a two week period (two text messages per day, Monday to Friday) via the country’s largest mobile network provider. The feasibility and acceptability of the text message reminder service was assessed by transmission reports, participant diaries and group discussions. Findings indicate that the vast majority of text messages were successfully transmitted, participants’ had regular mobile phone access and that most text messages were read most of the time and were considered both acceptable and clinically useful. Nevertheless, the study found that PNG health workers may tire of the service if the same messages are repeated too many times and that health workers may be reluctant to utilize more comprehensive, yet complementary, resources. In conclusion, a text message reminder service to support health worker adherence to the new malaria treatment protocol is feasible and acceptable in PNG. A rigorous pragmatic, effectiveness trial would be justified on the basis of these findings. PMID:24116122

  8. A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children, which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the analysis phase with a multidisciplinary team. Major findings and conclusions: This report outlines the framework in which mode of action(s) (MOA) can be considered across life stages. The framework is based upon existing approaches adopted in the Framework on Cumulative Risk Assessment and identifies existing guidance, guidelines and policy papers that relate to children's health risk assessment. It emphasizes the importance of an iterative approach between hazard, dose response, and exposure analyses. In addition, it includes discussion of principles for weight of evidence consideration across life stages for the hazard characterization database.Key science/assessment issues:This framework addresses the questions of why and how an improved children's health risk assessment will strengthen the overall risk assessment process across the Agency. This approach improves the scientific explanation of children's risk and will add value by: 1) providing for a more complete evaluation of the potential for vulnerability at different life stages, including a focus on the underlying biological events and critical developmental periods for incorporating MOA considerations; 2) evaluating of the potential fo

  9. Health risks of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Dona, Artemis; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2009-02-01

    As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007

    EPA Science Inventory

    This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

  11. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  12. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion

  13. Lifestyle and health-related risk factors and risk of cognitive aging among older veterans.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Kristine; Hoang, Tina D; Byers, Amy L; Barnes, Deborah E; Friedl, Karl E

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle and health-related factors are critical components of the risk for cognitive aging among veterans. Because dementia has a prolonged prodromal phase, understanding effects across the life course could help focus the timing and duration of prevention targets. This perspective may be especially relevant for veterans and health behaviors. Military service may promote development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors, but the period directly after active duty has ended could be an important transition stage and opportunity to address some important risk factors. Targeting multiple pathways in one intervention may maximize efficiency and benefits for veterans. A recent review of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease estimated that a 25% reduction of a combination of seven modifiable risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, smoking, and education/cognitive inactivity could prevent up to 3 million cases worldwide and 492,000 cases in the United States. Lifestyle interventions to address cardiovascular health in veterans may serve as useful models with both physical and cognitive activity components, dietary intervention, and vascular risk factor management. Although the evidence is accumulating for lifestyle and health-related risk factors as well as military risk factors, more studies are needed to characterize these factors in veterans and to examine the potential interactions between them.

  14. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can

  15. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part I—Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine whether workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments (HRAs), individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives succeeded in improving employee health and reducing employer health benefit costs. Methods We reviewed the proprietary HRA available to us and conducted a literature review to determine the efficacy of HRRPs using HRAs, individualized employee interventions, and financial incentives for employee participation. Results There is some evidence that HRRPs in employer-sponsored programs improve measures of employee health, but the results of these studies are somewhat equivocal. Conclusion Employer-sponsored HRRPs may have some benefits, but problems in plan design and in the studies assessing their efficacy complicate drawing conclusions. PMID:19625972

  16. Human health risk assessment of dissolved metals in groundwater and surface waters in the Melen watershed, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Ahmet; Sengörür, Bülent; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Determination of metal risk levels in potable water and their effects on human health are vital in assessment of water resources. Risk assessment of metals to human health in a watershed, which has not been studied before, is the main objective of the present study. Surface and groundwater sampling was carried out between September 2010 and August 2011 in the Melen Watershed, Turkey, an important drinking water resource for millions of people. Metals were analyzed in the laboratory using inductively coupled plasma. Of the 26 different metals monitored, Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and V were found in surface water and As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and Zn in groundwater. In groundwater, unitless hazard quotient (HQ) values were 6 for As, 2.7 for Mn and 1 for Zn, while in surface water all metals were below the risk level (HQ < 1). The ingestion risk was found to be higher than the dermal uptake risk. Arsenic mean concentration was observed to be 0.044 mg/L in groundwater. The As carcinogenic risk (CR) value was higher than the internationally accepted risk level (10(-4)) and with maximum ingestion of groundwater the carcinogenic risk was found to be higher in adults than children. These results show that even unpolluted watersheds can pose a risk to human health and that potential carcinogenic impacts should receive more attention.

  17. Feasibility and Acceptability of Global Positioning System (GPS) Methods to Study the Spatial Contexts of Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A P18 Cohort Sub-Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Kapadia, Farzana; Regan, Seann D.; Goedel, William C.; Levy, Michael D.; Barton, Staci C.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Background No global positioning system (GPS) technology study has been conducted among a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM). As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using GPS methods to understand the spatial context of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of YMSM in New York City, a high-risk population. Methods Data came from a subsample of the ongoing P18 Cohort Study (n = 75). GPS feasibility and acceptability among participants was measured with: 1) a pre- and post-survey and 2) adherence to the GPS protocol which included returning the GPS device, self-report of charging and carrying the GPS device as well as objective data analyzed from the GPS devices. Analyses of the feasibility surveys were treated as repeated measures as each participant had a pre- and post-feasibility survey. When comparing the similar GPS survey items asked at baseline and at follow-up, we present percentages and associated p-values based on chi-square statistics. Results Participants reported high ratings of pre-GPS acceptability, ease of use, and low levels of wear-related concerns in addition to few concerns related to safety, loss, or appearance, which were maintained after baseline GPS feasibility data collection. The GPS return rate was 100%. Most participants charged and carried the GPS device on most days. Of the total of 75 participants with GPS data, 75 (100%) have at least one hour of GPS data for one day and 63 (84%) had at least one hour on all 7 days. Conclusions Results from this pilot study demonstrate that utilizing GPS methods among YMSM is feasible and acceptable. GPS devices may be used in spatial epidemiology research in YMSM populations to understand place-based determinants of health such as substance use and sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26918766

  18. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  19. Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Ivanova, Katja; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Higa, Jerilyn; Beck, John C; Iliffe, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been tested outside the United States. Methods Based on the original HRA-E, we developed a scientifically updated and regionally adapted multilingual Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and software-generated feed-back reports. We evaluated the practicability and performance of the questionnaire in non-disabled community-dwelling older persons in London (U.K.) (N = 1090), Hamburg (Germany) (N = 804), and Solothurn (Switzerland) (N = 748) in a sub-sample of an international randomised controlled study. Results Over eighty percent of invited older persons returned the self-administered HRA-O questionnaire. Fair or poor self-perceived health status and older age were correlated with higher rates of non-return of the questionnaire. Older participants and those with lower educational levels reported more difficulty in completing the HRA-O questionnaire as compared to younger and higher educated persons. However, even among older participants and those with low educational level, more than 80% rated the questionnaire as easy to complete. Prevalence rates of risks for functional decline or problems were between 2% and 91% for the 19 HRA-O domains. Participants' intention to change health behaviour suggested that for some risk factors participants were in a pre-contemplation phase, having no short- or medium-term plans for change. Many participants perceived their health behaviour or preventative care uptake as optimal, despite indications of deficits according to the HRA-O based evaluation. Conclusion The HRA-O questionnaire was highly accepted by a broad range of community-dwelling non-disabled persons. It identified a high number of risks and problems, and provided information on

  20. Risk management assessment of Health Maintenance Organisations participating in the National Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Princess Christina; Korie, Patrick Chukwuemeka; Nnaji, Feziechukwu Collins

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), operated majorly in Nigeria by health maintenance organisations (HMOs), took off formally in June 2005. In view of the inherent risks in the operation of any social health insurance, it is necessary to efficiently manage these risks for sustainability of the scheme. Consequently the risk-management strategies deployed by HMOs need regular assessment. This study assessed the risk management in the Nigeria social health insurance scheme among HMOs. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 33 HMOs participating in the NHIS. Results: Utilisation of standard risk-management strategies by the HMOs was 11 (52.6%). The other risk-management strategies not utilised in the NHIS 10 (47.4%) were risk equalisation and reinsurance. As high as 11 (52.4%) of participating HMOs had a weak enrollee base (less than 30,000 and poor monthly premium and these impacted negatively on the HMOs such that a large percentage 12 (54.1%) were unable to meet up with their financial obligations. Most of the HMOs 15 (71.4%) participated in the Millennium development goal (MDG) maternal and child health insurance programme. Conclusions: Weak enrollee base and poor monthly premium predisposed the HMOs to financial risk which impacted negatively on the overall performance in service delivery in the NHIS, further worsened by the non-utilisation of risk equalisation and reinsurance as risk-management strategies in the NHIS. There is need to make the scheme compulsory and introduce risk equalisation and reinsurance. PMID:25298605

  1. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  2. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  3. [Democracy and science advice: the case of environmental health risks].

    PubMed

    Zmirou-Navier, D

    2006-09-01

    Science advice, in the context of environmental health, is an activity consisting in bringing together and evaluating available scientific data at a given moment on a particular question or concern regarding the hazardous nature of an agent or substance--whether it be of a physical, chemical or microbiological nature. Science advice also relates to assessing health risks linked to the quality of the environment, in vue of rendering this information useful to those in charge of decision making and risk management. Naturally, many groups are interested by a potential hazard or risk, and they all would like to effectively intervene over the course of the process in order to influence the decision or measure taken. In this article, the author recalls that risk is an entity which is both scientific and political by nature. Hence, this demand is well founded. Nevertheless, he proposes and explicates a series of different steps, whether concurrent or successive, throughout the entire process of science advice in support of decision-making on matters related to environmental risk. He justifies why hazard and risk assessment, followed by risk analysis, requisites a clear delineation of the roles of the various actors so that their own responsibilities could be clearly attributed. The "procedural" approach of science advice, which is more and more frequently implemented within international expert groups in the international arena, satisfactorily achieves the target of objectivity, transparency and accountability.

  4. Psychometric Properties and Validity of a Multi-dimensional Risk Perception Scale Developed in the Context of a Microbicide Acceptability Study

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Joseph L.; Severy, Lawrence; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Salomon, Liz; Shulman, Lawrence; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-01-01

    Currently available risk perception scales tend to focus on risk behaviors and overall risk (vs partner-specific risk). While these types of assessments may be useful in clinical contexts, they may be inadequate for understanding the relationship between sexual risk and motivations to engage in safer sex or one’s willingness to use prevention products during a specific sexual encounter. We present the psychometric evaluation and validation of a scale that includes both general and specific dimensions of sexual risk perception. A one-time, audio computer-assisted self-interview was administered to 531 women aged 18–55 years. Items assessing sexual risk perceptions, both in general and in regards to a specific partner, were examined in the context of a larger study of willingness to use HIV/STD prevention products and preferences for specific product characteristics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two sub-scales: general perceived risk and partner-specific perceived risk. Validity analyses demonstrated that the two subscales were related to many sociodemographic and relationship factors. We suggest that this risk perception scale may be useful in research settings where the outcomes of interest are related to motivations to use HIV and STD prevention products and/ or product acceptability. Further, we provide specific guidance on how this risk perception scale might be utilized to understand such motivations with one or more specific partners. PMID:26621151

  5. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  6. Human Health Risk Assessment Simulations in a Distributed Environment for Shuttle Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of a rocket under prevailing weather conditions, commanders at Cape Canaveral Air Force station evaluate the possibility of whether wind blown toxic emissions might reach civilian and military personnel in the near by area. In our model, we focused mainly on Hydrogen chloride (HCL), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Nitric acid (HNO3), which are non-carcinogenic chemicals as per United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) classification. We have used the hazard quotient model to estimate the number of people at risk. It is based on the number of people with exposure above a reference exposure level that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The risk to the exposed population is calculated by multiplying the individual risk and the number in exposed population. The risk values are compared against the acceptable risk values and GO or NO-go situation is decided based on risk values for the Shuttle launch. The entire model is simulated over the web and different scenaria can be generated which allows management to choose an optimum decision.

  7. Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

  8. The impact of the Citibank, NA, health management program on changes in employee health risks over time.

    PubMed

    Ozminkowski, R J; Goetzel, R Z; Smith, M W; Cantor, R I; Shaughnessy, A; Harrison, M

    2000-05-01

    This study estimated the impact of the Citibank Health Management Program on changes in health risks among Citibank employees. McNemar chi-squared tests compared the probability of being at high risk for poor health when the first and last health-risk appraisal surveys were taken. Logistic regression controlled for baseline differences in subsequent analyses when those who participated in more intensive program features were compared with those who participated in less intensive features. Declines in risk were noted for 8 of 10 risk categories. Most changes were small, except those related to exercise habits, seatbelt use, and stress levels. For nine health risk categories, those who participated in more intensive program services were significantly more likely than others to reduce their health risks. Thus, the Citibank Health Management Program was associated with significant reductions in health risk.

  9. Exploring perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental risks, and health behaviors of blacks.

    PubMed

    Rice, LaShanta J; Brandt, Heather M; Hardin, James W; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Wilson, Sacoby M

    2015-06-01

    Cancer risk perceptions and cancer worry are shaped by race/ethnicity, and social, economic, and environmental factors, which in turn shape health decision-making. A paucity of studies has explored risk perceptions and worry in metropolitan areas with disparate environmental conditions and cancer outcomes. This study examined perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental health risks, and risk-reducing health behaviors among Blacks. A 59-item survey was administered to respondents in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina from March to September 2013. A convenience sample of males and females was recruited at local venues and community events. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses (Chi square tests), and logistic regression models were estimated using SAS 9.3 software. Respondents (N = 405) were 100% Black, 81% female (n = 323), and ranged from 18 to 87 years of age (M = 49.55, SD = 15.27). Most respondents reported lower perceptions of cancer risk (37%) and equated their cancer beliefs to direct or indirect (i.e. personal or family) experiences. Low perceived cancer risk (absolute risk) was significantly associated (p < .05) with non-alcohol consumption, having a colon cancer screening test, being female, and being age 25-44 or 45-64. Cancer worry was significantly associated (p < .05) with being a current smoker, having a "fair" diet, non-alcohol consumption, and having any colon cancer screening test. Perceived cancer risk is an important indicator of health behaviors among Blacks. Direct or indirect experiences with cancer and/or the environment and awareness of family history of cancer may explain cancer risk perceptions.

  10. Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities

    PubMed Central

    Wyżgowski, Przemysław; Rosiek, Anna; Grzela, Tomasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-infected patients will be aging, and most of them will become the candidates for procedures such as major vascular reconstruction and artery bypass grafting, where the risks of blood contact and staff injury are high. For these reasons, all health care workers need to know how to prevent, and fight following the accidental exposure to HIV. PMID:27366077

  11. [The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night risks].

    PubMed

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Gonnelli, Irene Margherita; Garbarino, Sergio; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangelil, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night work. Night work, in the last 30-40 years, has been extended to almost all areas of employment. The potential effects on workers' health--related to the disruption of circadian rhythms--are now well defined and studied in the Literature. All issues about the protection of safety and health for night workers are governed by the Italian Legislative Decree no. 66/2003 and subsequent amendments. The management of night work hasn't been included into the main Law on Occupational Safety and Health (Italian Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments) and a coordination between the two disciplines is desirable. The occupational health physician, as a global consultant for the protection of all health issues into a company, has to evaluate the potential effects of night work on health, both individually and as a group of workers. In this way, the physician may use either traditional tools (history, physical examination, blood tests) or innovative tools (questionnaires, health promotion programs, interventions on shift schedules). In the management of night work is useful to employ schedules that respect both psychophysical integrity and social welfare of workers and the needs of the production. The occupational health physician plays a significant role in information and training of workers, both individually and as a group of workers, and in the organization of health promotion programs (whit a voluntary participation by the workers).

  12. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  13. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  14. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  15. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern

  16. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  17. "Misfearing"--culture, identity, and our perceptions of health risks.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Lisa

    2014-02-13

    Despite knowing that heart disease kills more women each year than all cancers combined, most women fear breast cancer far more - and their health-related behavior reflects this difference. If our sense of risk is less about fact than about feeling, how do we adjust it?

  18. Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

    The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

  19. Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

  20. Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

  1. A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

  2. The ethics of distress: toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian

    2014-04-01

    Distressing health promotion advertising involves the elicitation of negative emotion to increase the likelihood that health messages will stimulate audience members to adopt healthier behaviors. Irrespective of its effectiveness, distressing advertising risks harming audience members who do not consent to the intervention and are unable to withdraw from it. Further, the use of these approaches may increase the potential for unfairness or stigmatization toward those targeted, or be considered unacceptable by some sections of the public. We acknowledge and discuss these concerns, but, using the public health ethics literature as a guide, argue that distressing advertising can be ethically defensible if conditions of effectiveness, proportionality necessity, least infringement, and public accountability are satisfied. We do not take a broad view as to whether distressing advertising is ethical or unethical, because we see the evidence for both the effectiveness of distressing approaches and their potential to generate iatrogenic effects to be inconclusive. However, we believe it possible to use the current evidence base to make informed estimates of the likely consequences of specific message presentations. Messages can be pre-tested and monitored to identify and deal with potential problems. We discuss how advertisers can approach the problems of deciding on the appropriate intensity of ethical review, and evaluating prospective distressing advertising campaigns against the conditions outlined.

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-06-30

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >>1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10−4 implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10−4). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values. PMID:27376316

  5. Speciated arsenic concentrations, exposure, and associated health risks for rice and bulgur.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Güzelkaya, Hilal; Akgül, Özlem; Kavcar, Pınar; Kurucaovalı, Filiz; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    2014-02-01

    Arsenic species were determined in rice and bulgur samples that were collected from 50 participants who also supplied exposure related information through a questionnaire survey. Speciation analysis was conducted using an HPLC-ICP-MS system. Ingestion exposure to arsenic and associated health risks were assessed by combining the concentration and questionnaire data both for individual participants and the subject population. Inorganic arsenic dominated both in rice and bulgur but concentrations were about an order of magnitude higher in rice (160±38 ng/g) than in bulgur. Because participants also consumed more rice than bulgur, exposures were significantly higher for rice resulting in carcinogenic risks above acceptable level for 53% and 93% of the participants when the in-effect and the proposed potencies were used, respectively, compared to 0% and 5% for bulgur. An inorganic arsenic standard for rice would be useful to lower the risks while public awareness about the relation between excessive rice consumption and health risks is built, and bulgur consumption is promoted.

  6. Identifying patterns of early risk for mental health and academic problems in adolescence: a longitudinal study of urban youth.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the "well-adjusted" class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the "academic-peer risk" class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class in the first grade; the "academic-peer risk" class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes.

  7. Occupational Risks and Exposures Among Wildlife Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Garland-Lewis, Gemina; Whittier, Christopher; Murray, Suzan; Trufan, Sally; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, with wildlife a frequent source of zoonotic disease events. Although individuals with extensive wildlife contact may be at the greatest risk of contracting novel infectious agents, the occupational risk of those working closely with wildlife has not been well studied. This study assessed the occupational exposures among wildlife health professionals working in multiple countries worldwide. An occupational risk survey of past and present exposures was developed and administered online in a confidential manner to wildlife workers recruited through an ongoing international wildlife pathogen surveillance project. Surveys were completed by 71 participants in 14 countries. Significant lifetime exposures reported included bites from bats and rodents and touching dead animals. Completion of training in occupational safety was reported by 75% of respondents. While gloves were used for most tasks, use of N95 respirators and other personal protective equipment varied by task. Eighty percent of workers reported rabies vaccination. Some respondents indicated interest in enhanced occupational health services targeting their unique needs. Wildlife workers represent an occupational population at risk of zoonotic infection and injury. Enhanced occupational health services targeting wildlife workers could reduce the risk and sequelae of zoonotic exposure and infection.

  8. Venous thromboembolism in women: a specific reproductive health risk.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Workshop Group. RESULTS VTE is a multifactorial disease with a baseline annual incidence around 50 per 100 000 at 25 years and 120 per 100 000 at age 50. Its major complication is pulmonary embolism, causing death in 1-2% of patients. Higher VTE risk is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together. In pregnancy, the risk of VTE is increased ~5-fold, while the use of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) doubles the risk and this relative risk is higher with the more recent pills containing desogestrel, gestodene and drospirenone when compared with those with levonorgestrel. Similarly, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians managing pregnancy or treating women for infertility or prescribing CHC and HRT should be aware of the increased risks of VTE and the need to take a careful medical history to identify additional co-existing risks, and should be able to diagnose VTE and know how to approach its prevention.

  9. eHealth Literacy and Intervention Tailoring Impacts the Acceptability of a HIV/STI Testing Intervention and Sexual Decision Making Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Keith J; Bauermeister, José A

    2017-02-01

    We assessed whether young men who have sex with men's acceptability with the online Get Connected! intervention and subsequent sexual health decision making were influenced by their baseline eHealth literacy (high vs. low competency) and intervention tailoring (tailored or nontailored intervention condition). Compared to the high eHealth literacy/tailored intervention group: (1) those in the low eHealth literacy/tailored intervention condition and participants in the nontailored intervention condition (regardless of eHealth literacy score) reported lower intervention information quality scores; and (2) those in the low eHealth literacy/nontailored intervention group reported lower intervention system quality scores and that the intervention had less influence on their sexual health decision making. Future similar intervention research should consider how eHealth literacy might influence participants' abilities to navigate intervention content and integrate it into their sexual decision making.

  10. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil for a township in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanxue; Chao, Sihong; Liu, Jianwei; Yang, Yue; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Aichen; Cao, Hongbin

    2017-02-01

    Human activities contribute greatly to heavy metal pollution in soils. Concentrations of 15 metal elements were detected in 105 soil samples collected from a typical rural-industrial town in southern Jiangsu, China. Among them, 7 heavy metals-lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel-were considered in the health risk assessment for residents via soil inhalation, dermal contact, and/or direct/indirect ingestion. Their potential sources were quantitatively apportioned by positive matrix factorization using the data set of all metal elements, in combination with geostatistical analysis, land use investigation, and industrial composition analysis. Furthermore, the health risks imposed by sources of heavy metal in soil were estimated for the first time. The results indicated that Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Co accumulated in the soil, attaining a mild pollution level. The total hazard index values were 3.62 and 6.11, and the total cancer risks were 9.78 × 10(-4) and 4.03 × 10(-4) for adults and children, respectively. That is, both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by soil metals were above acceptable levels. Cr and As require special attention because the health risks of Cr and As individually exceeded the acceptable levels. The ingestion of homegrown produce was predominantly responsible for the high risks. The potential sources were apportioned as: a) waste incineration and textile/dyeing industries (28.3%), b) natural sources (45.4%), c) traffic emissions (5.3%), and d) electroplating industries and livestock/poultry breeding (21.0%). Health risks of four sources accounted for 23.5%, 32.7%, 7.4%, and 36.4% of the total risk, respectively.

  11. Health Risk Information Engagement and Amplification on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2017-04-01

    Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, this study examined the characteristics of communicative behaviors of social media audiences in response to Ebola outbreak news. Grounded in the social amplification of risks framework, this study adds to an understanding of information behaviors of online audiences by showing empirical differences in audience engagement with online health information. The data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook channel. The final data set included 809 CDC posts and 35,916 audience comments. The analysis identified the differences in audience information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, Ebola, and health promotion posts. While the CDC had fewer posts on Ebola than health promotion topics, the former received more attention from active page users. Furthermore, audience members who actively engaged with Ebola news had a small overlap with those who engaged with non-Ebola information during the same period. Overall, this study demonstrated that information behavior and audience engagement is topic dependent. Furthermore, audiences who commented on news about an emerging pandemic were homogenous and varied in their degree of information amplification.

  12. Public health risks of the flesh of farmed crocodiles.

    PubMed

    Millan, J M; Purdie, J L; Melville, L F

    1997-08-01

    The farming of crocodiles in the Northern Territory of Australia is a rapidly growing industry. The saltwater crocodile produces a premium quality skin which is sought world-wide for the lucrative leather trade and manufacture of finished articles. Flesh is considered to be a by-product of skin production. Several procedures are used in abattoirs to prevent the risk of cross contamination of flesh. The public health risks linked to the production of crocodile flesh are described for the two main diseases of concern, namely: sparganosis and salmonellosis. The slaughter and hygienic processing procedures and local laboratory evidence indicate that the consumption of crocodile flesh produced in the Northern Territory carries a negligible public health risk.

  13. Using Virtual Reality to Provide Health Care Information to People With Intellectual Disabilities: Acceptability, Usability, and Potential Utility

    PubMed Central

    Conboy-Hill, Suzanne; Taylor, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Background People with intellectual disabilities have poor access to health care, which may be further compromised by a lack of accessible health information. To be effective, health information must be easily understood and remembered. People with intellectual disabilities learn better from multimodal information sources, and virtual reality offers a 3-dimensional (3D) computer-generated environment that can be used for providing information and learning. To date, research into virtual reality experiences for people with intellectual disabilities has been limited to skill-based training and leisure opportunities within the young to mid age ranges. Objective This study assessed the acceptability, usability, and potential utility of a virtual reality experience as a means of providing health care-related information to people with intellectual disabilities. We designed a prototype multimodal experience based on a hospital scenario and situated on an island in the Second Life 3D virtual world. We wanted to know how people of different ages and with varying levels of cognitive function would participate in the customized virtual environment, what they understood from being there, and what they remembered a week later. Methods The study drew on qualitative data. We used a participatory research approach that involved working alongside people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters in a community setting. Cognitive function was assessed, using the Matrix Analogies Test and the British Picture Vocabulary Scale, to describe the sample. Participants, supported by facilitators, were video recorded accessing and engaging with the virtual environment. We assessed recall 1 week later, using a specialized interview technique. Data were downloaded into NVivo 8 and analyzed using the framework analysis technique. Results Study participants were 20 people aged between 20 and 80 years with mild to severe intellectual disabilities. All participants were able to access

  14. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations

  15. Health risk assessment for exposure to nitrate in drinking water from village wells in Semarang, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ross; Maetam, Brooke; Edokpolo, Benjamin; Connell, Des; Yu, Jimmy; Stewart, Donald; Park, M-J; Gray, Darren; Laksono, Budi

    2016-09-01

    The levels of nitrate in 52 drinking water wells in rural Central Java, Indonesia were evaluated in April 2014, and the results were used for a health risk assessment for the local populations by using probabilistic techniques. The concentrations of nitrate in drinking water had a range of 0.01-84 mg/L, a mean of 20 mg/L and a medium of 14 mg/L. Only two of the 52 samples exceeded the WHO guideline values of 50 mg/L for infant methaemoglobinaemia. The hazard quotient values as evaluated against the WHO guideline value at the 50 and 95 percentile points were HQ50 at 0.42 and HQ95 at 1.2, respectively. These indicated a low risk of infant methaemoglobinaemia for the whole population, but some risk for the sensitive portion of the population. The HQ50 and HQ95 values based on WHO acceptable daily intake dose for adult male and female were 0.35 and 1.0, respectively, indicating a generally a low level of risk. A risk characterisation linking birth defects to nitrate levels in water consumed during the first three months of pregnancy resulted in a HQ50/50 values of 1.5 and a HQ95/5 value of 65. These HQ values indicated an elevated risk for birth defects, in particular for the more sensitive population. A sanitation improvement program in the study area had a positive effect in reducing nitrate levels in wells and the corresponding risk for public health. For example, the birth defect HQ50/50 values for a subset of wells surveyed in both 2014 and 2015 was reduced from 1.1 to 0.71.

  16. Using a relative health indicator (RHI) metric to estimate health risk reductions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan

    2017-03-01

    When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.

  17. Eating disorders "mental health literacy" in low risk, high risk and symptomatic women: implications for health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Bryan; Darby, Anita; Nillson, Jodi; Quirk, Frances; Owen, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs concerning the nature and treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) were compared among young adult women at low risk of an eating disorder (n = 332), at high risk (n = 83), or already showing symptoms (n = 94). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire that included a measure of eating disorder symptoms. A vignette of a fictional person suffering from BN was presented, followed by a series of questions addressing the nature and treatment of the problem described. High-risk and symptomatic participants were more likely than low-risk participants to report that they would not approach anyone for advice or help, were they to have BN or a similar problem, because they would not want anyone to know. Symptomatic participants were more likely to believe that someone with BN would be discriminated against, more likely to consider bulimic behaviors to be acceptable, and more likely to view BN as being common among women in the community, than low-risk participants, participants in the high-risk group being intermediate on each of these questions. The findings suggest that the attitudes and beliefs of individuals with eating disorder symptoms differ systematically from those of individuals at high risk, but who do not yet have symptoms, and from those at low risk. They also indicate specific attitudes and beliefs that may need to be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs. The potential benefits of assessing individuals' attitudes and beliefs concerning the nature and treatment of eating-disordered behaviour and tailoring program content accordingly may be worthy of investigation.

  18. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process. PMID:28098817

  19. [Science, technique, and culture: relations between risk and health practices].

    PubMed

    Czeresnia, Dina

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world.

  20. Impact and Acceptability of the Coach and Teacher Training within a School-Based Sport-for-Health Smoking Prevention Intervention: Smokefree Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…

  1. Health risks of children's cumulative and aggregative exposure to metals and metalloids in a typical urban environment in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Chen, Yiting; Wang, Beibei; Sun, Chengye; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Rapid development of industrialization and urbanization results in serious environmental contamination by metal(loid)s, which would consequently cause deleterious health effects to the exposed people through multi-pathways. Therefore, total health risk assessment for the population in urban environment is very important. Unfortunately, few studies to date investigate the cumulative health risks of metal(loid)s through aggregative pathways in Children who are often susceptible population. 12 metal(loid)s including Lead(Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Arsenic(As), Chromium(Cr), Zinc(Zn), Copper(Cu), Nickel(Ni), Manganese(Mn), Cobalt(Co), Selenium(Se), Antimony(Se) and Vanadium(V), were analyzed in PM10, drinking water, food, soil and indoor dust in this study. The cumulative and aggregative risks of these metal(loid)s among the local children were then evaluated on a field sampling and questionnaire-survey basis. The results showed that the environments were heavily polluted by metal(loid)s. For most metal(loid)s, food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total daily exposure dose. The non-cancer risks were up to 30 times higher than the acceptable level due to the food ingestion via Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Sb, and the PM10 inhalation via Cr and Mn. While, the cancer risks were mainly attributed to Cr via food ingestion and As via food and dust ingestion, and approximately 100 times of the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study highlights the cumulative and aggregative exposure assessment, instead of pollutant investigation to evaluate the potential health risks and emphasizes concerns to improve indoor hygienic and environmental quality and to decrease the potential harmful health effects of children living in urban area.

  2. Key Scientific Issues in the Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

    2006-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

  3. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    PubMed Central

    Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J.L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one’s medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the risk of SA of insured persons with exclusions added to their insurance contract differs from the risk of persons without exclusions. Methods: A dynamic cohort of 15 632 applicants for private disability insurance at a company insuring only college and university educated self-employed in the Netherlands. Mean follow-up was 8.94 years. Duration and number of SA periods were derived from insurance data to calculate the hazard of SA periods and of recurrence of SA periods. Results: Self-employed with an exclusion added to their insurance policy experienced a higher hazard of one or more periods of SA and on average more SA days than self-employed without an exclusion. Conclusion: Persons with an exclusion had a higher risk of SA than persons without an exclusion. The question to what extent an individual should benefit from being less vulnerable to disease and SA must be addressed in a larger societal context, taking other aspects of health inequality and solidarity into account as well. PMID:27371668

  4. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  5. mHealth to promote pregnancy and interconception health among African-American women at risk for adverse birth outcomes: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lindsey; Isbell, Sheila; Shields, Tekesia; Worthy, Natasha; Dunlop, Anne Lang

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phone applications (mHealth) to provide health education and behavioral prompts is 1 of the 12 common mHealth functions identified by the World Health Organization as innovations to strengthen health systems. Among low-income pregnant and parenting women, health education is widely recognized as a way to improve maternal and infant health outcomes, but the efficacy of written health education materials to change knowledge and behavior for this population is questionable. mHealth prompts, in contrast, is a promising alternative. Methods A team of researchers in medicine/epidemiology, anthropology/midwifery, computer science/sensors, and community-based case management created and pilot tested a mHealth application (mHealth app) for African-American women at high risk for adverse birth outcomes. We tested the acceptability and feasibility of the interactive application among women during the reproductive stages of early and late pregnancy, postpartum, and interconception. Results Interview data from 14 women in the various reproductive stages revealed that most women found the mHealth messages helpful. Also, 62 Ob-Gyn physicians and nurses and 19 Family Medicine residents provided feedback. Women’s responses to specific messages trended down over time. Women in the postpartum phase had the highest response rate to particular text messages, followed by those in the pregnancy phase. Responses dropped off dramatically during the interconception period. About 21% of women lost their phones. Unexpected findings were that all participants already had smartphones, women wanted messages about depression, and clinicians wanted the app to link to case management for individualized medical care. Conclusions Logistical challenges to app management were limitations but are useful for consideration before scale-up. This study corroborates findings in the health literacy literature that women most at risk for adverse birth outcomes need additional

  6. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters.

  7. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  8. Concentrations, sources and human health risk of inhalation exposure to air toxics in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2017-04-01

    With concern about levels of air pollutants in recent years in the Capital Region of Alberta, an investigation of ambient concentrations, sources and potential human health risk of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics was undertaken in the City of Edmonton over a 5-year period (2009-2013). Mean concentrations of individual HAPs in ambient air including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals ranged from 0.04 to 1.73 μg/m(3), 0.01-0.54 ng/m(3), and 0.05-3.58 ng/m(3), respectively. Concentrations of benzene, naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), arsenic, manganese and nickel were far below respective annual Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of air toxics were also compared with risk levels recommended by regulatory agencies. Positive matrix factorization identified six air toxics sources with traffic as the dominant contributor to total HAPs (4.33 μg/m(3), 42%), followed by background/secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (1.92 μg/m(3), 25%), fossil fuel combustion (0.92 μg/m(3), 11%). On high particulate air pollution event days, local traffic was identified as the major contributor to total HAPs compared to background/SOA and fossil fuel combustion. Carcinogenic risk values of traffic, background/SOA and metals industry emissions were above the USEPA acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), but below a tolerable risk (1 × 10(-4)) and Alberta benchmark (1 × 10(-5)). These findings offer useful preliminary information about current ambient air toxics levels, dominant sources and their potential risk to public health; and this information can support policy makers in the development of appropriate control strategies if required.

  9. Outpatient treatment of low-risk venous thromboembolism with monotherapy oral anticoagulation: patient quality of life outcomes and clinician acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Kahler, Zachary P; Beam, Daren M

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral monotherapy anticoagulation has facilitated home treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in outpatients. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure efficacy, safety, as well as patient and physician perceptions produced by a protocol that selected VTE patients as low-risk patients by the Hestia criteria, and initiated home anticoagulation with an oral factor Xa antagonist. Methods Patients were administered the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of life/Symptoms questionnaire [VEINEs QoL/Sym] and the physical component summary [PCS] from the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF36]). The primary outcomes were VTE recurrence and hemorrhage at 30 days. Secondary outcomes compared psychometric test scores between patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to those with pulmonary embolism (PE). Patient perceptions were abstracted from written comments and physician perceptions specific to PE outpatient treatment obtained from structured survey. Results From April 2013 to September 2015, 253 patients were treated, including 67 with PE. Within 30 days, 2/253 patients had recurrent DVT and 2/253 had major hemorrhage; all four had DVT at enrollment. The initial PCS scores did not differ between DVT and PE patients (37.2±13.9 and 38.0±12.1, respectively) and both DVT and PE patients had similar improvement over the treatment period (42.2±12.9 and 43.4±12.7, respectively), consistent with prior literature. The most common adverse event was menorrhagia, present in 15% of women. Themes from patient-written responses reflected satisfaction with increased autonomy. Physicians’ (N=116) before-to-after protocol comfort level with home treatment of PE increased 48% on visual analog scale. Conclusion Hestia-negative VTE patients treated with oral monotherapy at home had low rates of VTE recurrence and bleeding, as well as quality of life measurements similar to prior reports. PMID:27143861

  10. Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele S.; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Sanou, Armande K.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Falade, Catherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for case management of malaria using RDTs, ACTs, and rectal artesunate. Methods. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda in 2015 toward the end of an intervention using CHWs to provide diagnosis and treatment. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with parents of sick children, community leaders, and health workers to understand whether they accepted the package for case management of malaria using CHWs. Transcripts from FGDs and KII recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were described, interpreted, and reported in the form of narratives. Results. Treatment of malaria using the CHWs was acceptable to caregivers and communities. The CHWs were perceived to be accessible, diligent, and effective. There were no physical, social, or cultural barriers to accessing the CHWs’ services. Respondents were extremely positive about the intervention and were concerned that CHWs had limited financial and nonfinancial incentives that would reduce their motivation and willingness to continue. Conclusions. Treatment of malaria using CHWs was fully accepted. CHWs should be compensated, trained, and well supervised. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN13858170. PMID:27941109

  11. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    PubMed

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  12. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  13. Children's health and the social theory of risk: insights from the British measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) controversy.

    PubMed

    Casiday, Rachel Elizabeth

    2007-09-01

    Recent debates in the United Kingdom about the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and its alleged link with autism have centred on contested notions of risk. This paper presents findings from 87 parents' focus group and interview discussions of their decision-making about the vaccine in light of three streams of theoretical literature on risk (cultural theory, risk society, psychometric models of risk perception) and models of vaccination acceptance and resistance. In addition to the risks of infectious disease and autism, parents balanced other risk concerns-both biological and social-in making their decisions. Such decisions, made on behalf of children unable to choose for themselves, and in the midst of contradictory information and uncertainty, symbolised what it means to be a 'good parent'. To cope with uncertainty, parents sought explanations for why some children seem to be more vulnerable to adverse outcomes than others. Debates about children's risks may need special theoretical consideration beyond that offered by the current risk literature. Specific aspects of the MMR debate, namely, selecting between potentially competing risks, making risk judgements on behalf of dependent others, and tensions between private and public good, provide a platform for exploring how social theories of risk might be adapted for children's health controversies.

  14. Climate change and farmers' mental health: risks and responses.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Owen, Jennifer; Rickwood, Debra; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-03-01

    Climate change is exacerbating climate variability, evident in more frequent and severe weather-related disasters, such as droughts, fires, and floods. Most of what is known about the possible effects of climate change on rural mental health relates to prolonged drought. But though drought is known to be a disproportionate and general stressor, evidence is mixed and inconclusive. Over time, like drought other weather-related disasters may erode the social and economic bases on which farming communities depend. Rural vulnerability to mental health problems is greatly increased by socioeconomic disadvantage. Related factors may compound this, such as reduced access to health services as communities decline and a "stoical" culture that inhibits help-seeking. Australia has the world's most variable climate and is a major global agricultural producer. Yet despite Australia's (and, especially, rural communities') dependence on farmers' well-being and success, there is very little-and inconclusive-quantitative evidence about farmers' mental health. The aim of this review is to consider, with a view to informing other countries, how climate change and related factors may affect farmers' mental health in Australia. That information is a prerequisite to identifying, selecting, and evaluating adaptive strategies, to lessen the risks of adverse mental health outcomes. The authors identify the need for a systematic epidemiology of the mental health of farmers facing increasing climate change- related weather adversity.

  15. Acceptance rate, probability of follow-up, and expulsion of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device offered at two primary health centers, North India

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Shashi; Archana, S.; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahamed, Farhad; Haldar, Partha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acceptance rate of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device (PPIUCD) offered through a public health approach is unknown. Our aim was to describe the acceptance rate, expulsion, and follow-up and factors associated with it when PPIUCD was offered to women delivering at two primary health centers (PHCs). Methods: We analyzed routine health data of deliveries at two PHCs in district Faridabad, India between May and December 2014, having sociodemographic variables, obstetric history, and during the follow-up check-up at 6-weeks postpartum for in situ status of intrauterine contraceptive device, side effects, and complications. Results: The overall acceptance rate among those eligible for PPIUCD was 39% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.1–42.9). Independent predictor of acceptance was a monthly family income of 25 years (O.R.: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.03–4.73), gravida ≥4 (O.R.: 4.01, 95% CI: 1.28–12.56), and a living previous-child (O.R.: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.19). Conclusion: Acceptance rate of PPIUCD was higher than that reported in literature. Women from lower income family, having at least one living child, and having attended antenatal care clinic were more likely to accept PPIUCD. PMID:28348988

  16. Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: a human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Bradley W; Hayes, Eileen P; Fiori, Janice M; Mastrocco, Frank J; Roden, Nicholas M; Cragin, David; Meyerhoff, Roger D; D'Aco, Vincent J; Anderson, Paul D

    2005-08-01

    The detection of low levels of pharmaceuticals in rivers and streams, drinking water, and groundwater has raised questions as to whether these levels may affect human health. This report presents human health risk assessments for 26 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or their metabolites, representing 14 different drug classes, for which environmental monitoring data are available for the United States. Acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are derived using the considerable data that are available for APIs. The resulting ADIs are designed to protect potentially exposed populations, including sensitive sub-populations. The ADIs are then used to estimate predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for two sources of potential human exposure: drinking water and fish ingestion. The PNECs are compared to measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from the published literature and to maximum predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated using the PhATE model. The PhATE model predictions are made under conservative assumptions of low river flow and no depletion (i.e., no metabolism, no removal during wastewater or drinking water treatment, and no instream depletion). Ratios of MECs to PNECs are typically very low and consistent with PEC to PNEC ratios. For all 26 compounds, these low ratios indicate that no appreciable human health risk exists from the presence of trace concentrations of these APIs in surface water and drinking water.

  17. Human health risk assessment from the presence of human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; Binks, Stephen P; Olson, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Assessments for potential impact to human health from environmental exposures were carried out for 44 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), representing approximately 22 general pharmacological classes exhibiting a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities. These assessments use the considerable amount of information available on the human pharmacology and toxicology of the APIs to develop acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) which are believed to be without pharmacological or toxicological effect. With the exception of the anti-cancer drugs and some antibiotics, the minimum dose producing the intended therapeutic effect was typically used as the point of departure for calculation of ADIs. The ADI values were used to generate predicted no effect concentrations from environmental exposure for human health (PNEC(HH)s) from drinking water or fish consumption. These PNECs were compared to predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) calculated using the regional assessment models PhATE for North America and GREAT-ER for Europe. Risk was characterized by calculating the ratio of the 90th percentile PECs to the PNEC(HH)s. For the APIs reported here, these ratios are less than one for all of the compounds, varying from 7x10(-2) to 6x10(-11), indicating that based upon currently available data, these compounds do not appear to pose an appreciable risk to human health from potential environmental exposure from drinking water and fish consumption.

  18. [Risk management in health care systems: the new legislative orientations in medical civil responsibility].

    PubMed

    Tomassini, A; Signorelli, C; Colzani, E

    2004-01-01

    The recent radical change in the relationships between physicians and patients has increased the frequency of malpractice. Consequently, on one hand, many physicians got used to avoiding any possible risk of denunciation by applying the so called "defensive medicine", while on the other hand, the insurance companies raised the prices of their premiums for policies concerning civil responsibility of health operators. In order to avoid this "vicious circle", some health structures created Units for the Risk Management related to malpractice, while others took advantage of the collaboration of Associations for Patients' Rights to create database about the most frequent medical mistakes. The need for a legislative change has been accepted by the Parliament which expects with the proposal n.108 (approved in spring 2002 by the Commission for Hygiene and Health of the Senate) to attribute the civil responsibility of the physicians to the hospitals (both private and public) for which they work, to constitute a Register of experts and to accelerate the legal disputes. The problem is complex and still to be solved, but it seems that time for a strong intervention in order to improve the situation has to come.

  19. Characteristics, Sources and Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in PM10 in Panzhihua, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Huang, Yi; Long, Zhijie; Ni, Shijun; Shi, Zeming; Zhang, Chengjiang

    2017-01-01

    Ambient PM10 air samples were collected at two industrial sites and one urban residential site in the mining city of Panzhihua, China, from April, 2014, to January, 2015. Mass concentrations of ten trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in PM10 were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn and V were the most abundant elements from the industrial sites. Concentrations for Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn and Cu at industrial sites greatly exceeded the air quality standards of the World Health Organization and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of the trace metals were steel smelting, fuel combustion, geological and mineral dust. Four different clusters of particles (i.e., mineral, calcium-containing, soot and aluminosilicate) were identified by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Chromium (Cr) was found to present the highest excess cancer risk, implying the potential for carcinogenic health effects in local inhabitants. Manganese (Mn) presented a non-carcinogenic health risk to children and adults, while the other metals were within acceptable limits.

  20. Synthetic-fuel plants: potential tumor risks to public health.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, P D; Morris, S C; Fischer, H; Thode, H C; Hamilton, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article quantifies potential public health risks from tumor-producing pollutants emitted from two synthetic-fuel plants (direct liquefaction--Exxon Donor Solvent: and indirect liquefaction--Lurgi Fischer-Tropsch) located at a representative site in the eastern United States. In these analyses gaseous and aqueous waste streams were characterized; exposures via inhalation, terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and drinking water supplies were modeled. Analysis suggested that emissions of "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," "aromatic amines," "neutral N, O, S heterocyclics," "nitriles," and "other trace elements" pose the largest quantifiable risks to public health. Data and analysis for these pollutant categories should be refined to more accurately match compound-specific estimated exposure levels with tumorigenic potency estimates. Before these results are used for regulatory purposes, more detailed analysis for selected pollutant classes are needed, and more sophisticated aquatic exposure models must be developed. Also, differences in geographic scales among the environmental transport models used need to be rectified.

  1. Smoking as a risk factor in the health of women.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, V

    2003-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million women smoke worldwide. It is also estimated that if current smoking rates among men and women persist worldwide, by 2025, 9% of the world's deaths and disabilities will be related to tobacco use. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer (lung, cervix, pancreas, kidney, bladder, esophagus, pharynx), pulmonary disorders, cerebrovascular disease, and many other health risks. Smoking also adversely affects fertility and reproductive outcomes. Although a greater percentage of women smoke in developed than in developing countries, women in developing countries appear to be initiating smoking habits in increasing numbers. If current trends persist, the adverse effects of smoking on women's health clearly will continue to escalate.

  2. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties.

  3. Health benefits and possible risks of broccoli - an overview.

    PubMed

    Latté, Klaus Peter; Appel, Klaus-Erich; Lampen, Alfonso

    2011-12-01

    Chemopreventive effects of broccoli, a highly valued vegetable, have been known for a long time. Several studies have demonstrated that broccoli might be beneficial by reducing the risk for the development of certain forms of cancer. These effects are generally attributed to glucosinolate-derived degradation products like isothiocyanates and indoles which are formed by the hydrolytic action of plant myrosinase and/or glucosidases deriving from the human microbial flora. However, recent in vitro and experimental animal studies indicate that broccoli, its extracts and the glucosinolate-derived degradation products might also have undesirable effects, especially genotoxic activities. However, the relevance of the genotoxic activities to human health is not known yet. This paper gives an overview on genotoxic, anti-genotoxic/chemopreventive, nutritive and antinutritive properties of broccoli, its ingredients and their degradation products. A qualitative comparison of the benefit and risk of broccoli consumption benefit-risk assessment shows that the benefit from intake in modest quantities and in processed form outweighs potential risks. For other preparations (fortified broccoli-based dietary supplements, diets with extraordinary high daily intake, consumption as a raw vegetable) further studies both for potential risks and beneficial effects are needed in order to assess the benefit and risk in the future.

  4. Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

  5. Exposure to airborne amphibole structures and health risks: Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram

    2008-10-01

    Libby, Montana is the site of a large vermiculite deposit that was mined between 1920 and 1990 to extract vermiculite for commercial applications such as insulation, gardening products, and construction materials. The Libby vermiculite deposit also contains amphibole minerals including tremolite, actinolite, richterite, and winchite. Historically, Libby mine workers experienced high exposures to amphibole structures, and, as a group, have experienced the health consequences of those occupational exposures. It has been suggested that Libby residents also have been and continue to be exposed to amphibole structures released during the vermiculite mining operations and therefore are at increased risk for disease. The Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted two epidemiological-type studies of residents living in Libby and the surrounding areas to assess these risks. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed exposure data in Libby and used those data to project risks of asbestos-associated disease for Libby residents. The EPA has placed the Libby Asbestos Site, which includes the mine and the town of Libby, on its National Priority List of hazardous waste sites in need of clean up. This article presents a review of the exposure studies conducted in Libby and an analysis of health risks based on the data collected in those studies. Libby mine workers have experienced elevated levels of asbestos-associated disease as a consequence of their occupational exposures to amphibole structures. Libby residents' exposures typically are substantially lower than mine workers' historical exposures, and the health risk projections for residents are, accordingly, substantially lower.

  6. Groundwater nitrate pollution and human health risk assessment by using HHRA model in an agricultural area, NE China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhao, Xiaobing; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junjun; Wu, Jin; Zuo, Rui

    2017-03-01

    In order to learn the pollution circumstance of groundwater nitrate detailedly in Songnen Plain of Northeast China and estimate its potential risk to human health of local residents, a total of 389 groundwater samples were collected in 2014 and studied from residential areas and public water supply wells in 11 cities and counties in southeastern of Songnen Plain. The analysis results showed that the spatial distributions of main chemical components in groundwater had great variations with statistical concentrations in the order of TDS> HCO3> Ca> NO3> Cl> Na> SO4> Mg> K> NH4> NO2. As for NO3, it ranged from less than 0.02mg/L to 497mg/L with an average value of 39.46mg/L indicating an obviously anthropogenic pollution. Even more than 32% of the samples exceeded the Grade III threshold (20mg/L of N) according to China's standard. The results obtained from principal component analysis showed that high NO3 concentration could be attributed to human activities, especially the excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture. Further, a human health risk assessment (HHRA) model derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was applied to estimate the potential health risk of groundwater nitrate considering both drinking water and dermal contact pathways. The results indicated that potential health risks of adult males and females within about 60% of the area were at the acceptable level, while those within about 40% were beyond the acceptable level. The area at the acceptable level for children covered 49% of the total area while the same value for infants was 37%. The NO3 concentration in southeast and northeast of the study area was the highest so that residents in these regions were at the highest health risk. In conclusion, risk levels for different crowds in the study area varied obviously, generally in the order of infants> children> adult females> adult males, and the potential health risks of residents, especially minors and rural residents

  7. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico Mountain, known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations, both of which have left a legacy of pollution. In this study, trace elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses. Mean concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were statistically significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town used as a reference site, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels that are designed to be protective of human health. Adobe brick samples were analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Mean GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.841, 14.9, and 30.2 percent of the total concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of these elements were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000 mg/day). Although the majority of households have total Hg, As, and Pb concentrations that represent a potential health risk, fewer are of concern when GF extractable concentrations are considered at lower ingestion rates. For Hg, only a small percentage of the sampled houses have GF ex

  8. Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, P

    2003-01-01

    High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741

  9. Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.

  10. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  11. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.

  12. [Application of ICP-mS in the health risk assessment of