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Sample records for acceptable macronutrient distribution

  1. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; Del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain") cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. PMID:27011202

  2. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. PMID:27011202

  3. A Distributive Model of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A model of treatment acceptability is proposed that distributes overall treatment acceptability into three separate categories of influence. The categories are comprised of societal influences, consultant influences, and influences associated with consumers of treatments. Each of these categories are defined and their inter-relationships within…

  4. Effect of macronutrient enrichment on the size distribution, sorption, and bioconcentration factor of iron by coastal phytoplanktonic diatoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying

    2011-09-01

    The influences of macronutrient enrichment on iron absorption, adsorption, and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of iron by coastal diatoms were examined. In addition, the distribution of different iron size fractions in seawater in relation to two diatom species exposed to nutrient enrichment over an extended period (6 days for Thalassiosira weissflogii, and 4 days for Skeletonema costatum), was investigated. Iron concentrations were measured of seven size fractions: particles (>0.4 μm), colloidal particles (0.4 μm-100, 100-50, 50-30, 30-10, 10-3 kDa), and soluble species (<3 kDa). The absorption, adsorption, uptake, BCF of iron by the diatoms, and the iron species distribution in seawater were affected by the diatom species, as well as the nitrate (N) and phosphate (P) concentration. The addition of P could affect the iron internalization strategy. The content of soluble iron species was positively correlated with the amount of iron absorption by T. weissflogii, but it was not suitable for S. costatum. PMID:21774978

  5. 75 FR 51058 - Web-Distributed Labeling User Acceptance Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) is exploring a new initiative called ``web-distributed labeling'' (web-distributed labeling) that would make the most current version of some pesticide labeling available to users via the Internet. Through this Federal Register Notice, OPP is announcing its intention to conduct a web- distributed labeling ``User Acceptance Pilot'' and is soliciting......

  6. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal D.; Gloede, Lise; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J.A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Green, Amber A.; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-01-01

    Background Although therapeutic diets are critical to diabetes management, their acceptability to patients is largely unstudied. Objective To quantify adherence and acceptability for two types of diets for diabetes. Design Controlled trial conducted 2004 – 2006. Subjects/setting Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) at a community-based research facility. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines or a low-fat, vegan diet for 74 weeks. Main outcome measures Attrition, adherence, dietary behavior, diet acceptability, and cravings. Statistical analyses For nutrient intake and questionnaire scores, t-tests determined between-group differences. For diet-acceptability measures, the related samples Wilcoxon rank test assessed within-group changes; the independent samples Mann-Whitney U test compared the diet groups. Chi-square for independent samples compared the groups for changes in reported symptoms. Results All participants completed the initial 22 weeks; 90% (45/50) of ADA-group and 86% (42/49) of vegan-group participants completed 74 weeks. Fat and cholesterol intake fell more and carbohydrate and fiber intake increased more in the vegan group. At 22 weeks, group-specific diet adherence criteria were met by 44% (22/50) of ADA-group and 67% (33/49) of vegan-group participants (P=0.019); the ADA group reported a greater increase in dietary restraint; this difference was not significant at 74 weeks. Both groups reported reduced hunger and reduced disinhibition. Questionnaire responses rated both diets as satisfactory, with no significant differences between groups, except for ease of preparation, for which the 22-week ratings marginally favored the ADA group. Cravings for fatty foods diminished more in the vegan group at 22 weeks, with no significant difference at 74 weeks. Conclusions Despite its greater influence on macronutrient intake, a low-fat, vegan diet has an acceptability

  7. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p < .001) wake times. Also, the Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p < .05) sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  8. Energy balance and macronutrient distribution in relation to C-reactive protein and HbA1c levels among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bawadi, Hiba; Katkhouda, Rami; Al-Haifi, Ahmad; Tayyem, Reema; Elkhoury, Cosette Fakih; Jamal, Zeina

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently growing evidence indicates that obesity and diabetes are states of inflammation associated with elevated circulation of inflammatory mediators. Excess adiposity and oxidative stress, induced by feeding, may also lead to a state of low-grade inflammation. Objective This study aimed at investigating energy balance and distribution in relation to low-grade inflammation among patients with type 2 diabetes. Design A cross-sectional study included 198 male and female patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients’ weight, height, waist circumference, total body fat and truncal fat percent, energy, and macronutrient intake were measured. Venous blood specimens were collected, and levels of HbA1c and serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were determined. Results After adjusting for covariates (body mass index, total body fat, and truncal fat), energy balance was positively correlated with hs-CRP and HbA1c. A positive energy balance was also associated with increased waist circumference and truncal fat percent (p<0.05). Total energy intake, percent energy from fat (p=0.04), and percent energy from proteins (p=0.03), but not percent energy from carbohydrates (p=0.12), were also correlated with higher hs-CRP levels among poorly glycemic-controlled patients. Conclusion Positive energy balance is associated with elevations in hs-CRP. Increased energy intake and increased percentages of energy from fat and protein are associated with elevated hs-CRP among patients with poor glycemic control. PMID:27238554

  9. 242A Distributed Control System Year 2000 Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    TEATS, M.C.

    1999-08-31

    This report documents acceptance test results for the 242-A Evaporator distributive control system upgrade to D/3 version 9.0-2 for year 2000 compliance. This report documents the test results obtained by acceptance testing as directed by procedure HNF-2695. This verification procedure will document the initial testing and evaluation of the potential 242-A Distributed Control System (DCS) operating difficulties across the year 2000 boundary and the calendar adjustments needed for the leap year. Baseline system performance data will be recorded using current, as-is operating system software. Data will also be collected for operating system software that has been modified to correct year 2000 problems. This verification procedure is intended to be generic such that it may be performed on any D/3{trademark} (GSE Process Solutions, Inc.) distributed control system that runs with the VMSTM (Digital Equipment Corporation) operating system. This test may be run on simulation or production systems depending upon facility status. On production systems, DCS outages will occur nine times throughout performance of the test. These outages are expected to last about 10 minutes each.

  10. 75 FR 55777 - Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... COMMISSION Pro-Pac Distributing Corp., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... check payable to the order of the United States Treasury. 18. Upon provisional acceptance of the... is published in the Federal Register. 19. Upon the Commission's final acceptance of the Agreement...

  11. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  12. Preservation of macronutrient preferences in cancer anorexia.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, J. A.; Morgan, M. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that cancer anorexia is associated with specific aversions to macronutrients. To investigate this, patients with cancer anorexia and hospitalized control subjects devised 3-day menus comprising foods that they wished to eat. These foods were then provided for 3 days and the intakes of each food carefully measured. As expected, patients with cancer anorexia consumed substantially less energy than hospitalized control subjects (6.0 +/- 0.9 MJ vs 9.5 +/- 0.5 MJ, P < 0.001). However, macronutrient composition was consistently maintained in the patients with cancer anorexia. These data argue against cancer anorexia representing a state of macronutrient aversion. PMID:9744494

  13. THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

  14. Modelling dose distribution in tubing and cable using CYLTRAN and ACCEPT Monte Carlo simulation code

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.E.; Kensek, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    One of the difficulties in the irradiation of non-slab geometries, such as a tube, is the uneven penetration of the electrons. A simple model of the distribution of dose in a tube or cable in relationship to voltage, composition, wall thickness and diameter can be mapped using the cylinder geometry provided for in the ITS/CYLTRAN code, complete with automatic subzoning. The reality of more complex 3D geometry to include effects of window foil, backscattering fixtures and beam scanning angles can be more completely accounted for by using the ITS/ACCEPT code with a line source update and a system of intersecting wedges to define input zones for mapping dose distributions in a tube. Thus, all of the variables that affect dose distribution can be modelled without the need to run time consuming and costly factory experiments. The effects of composition changes on dose distribution can also be anticipated.

  15. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  16. A combined geochemical and hydrological approach for understanding macronutrient sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapworth, Dan J.; Gooddy, Daren C.; Kent, Flo; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Cole, Steven J.; Allen, Debbie

    2013-09-01

    This study employed complementary geochemical techniques and distributed hydrological modelling to investigate multiple sources of catchment macronutrients and characterise their changes in contrasting storm and baseflow conditions. This approach was demonstrated for the Beult catchment in the county of Kent (England), a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) indentified as failing to meet water quality standards for key nutrients under the Water Framework Directive. Significant changes in nutrient stoichiometry and bioavailability are observed for surface waters under contrasting flow regimes. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations are approximately twice as high during baseflow compared to high flow, while the inverse is true for particulate, colloidal and dissolved hydrolysable phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. Nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) ratios are lower during baseflow for most surface waters impacted by diffuse sources of pollution. Fluorescence indices of dissolved organic matter (DOM) show that waste water inputs may be locally important sources of more complex low molecular weight DOM, particularly during baseflow. Nitrate N and O isotope signatures, combined with other dissolved chemical tracers, confirm the dominance of wastewater N inputs at sites downsteam of sewerage treatment works during baseflow, with a shift towards the soil N pool in surface waters across the catchment during high flow. Distributed hydrological modelling using the Grid-to-Grid model reveal areas with the greatest runoff also export higher N and P concentrations, and hence deliver a greater flux of macronutrients, while forested areas with low nutrient concentrations reduce runoff and nutrient fluxes. During periods of high runoff, nested sampling indicates that nutrient fluxes scale with catchment area. This combined approach enables a more thorough assessment of the macronutrient sources and dynamics, better informing management options

  17. Soil Macronutrient Sensing for Precision Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destru...

  18. The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Susanne S.; Pandey, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The most recent critical checklists of the Cucurbitaceae of India are 30 years old. Since then, botanical exploration, online availability of specimen images and taxonomic literature, and molecular-phylogenetic studies have led to modified taxon boundaries and geographic ranges. We present a checklist of the Cucurbitaceae of India that treats 400 relevant names and provides information on the collecting locations and herbaria for all types. We accept 94 species (10 of them endemic) in 31 genera. For accepted species, we provide their geographic distribution inside and outside India, links to online images of herbarium or living specimens, and information on publicly available DNA sequences to highlight gaps in the current understanding of Indian cucurbit diversity. Of the 94 species, 79% have DNA sequences in GenBank, albeit rarely from Indian material. The most species-rich genera are Trichosanthes with 22 species, Cucumis with 11 (all but two wild), Momordica with 8, and Zehneria with 5. From an evolutionary point of view, India is of special interest because it harbors a wide range of lineages, many of them relatively old and phylogenetically isolated. Phytogeographically, the north eastern and peninsular regions are richest in species, while the Jammu Kashmir and Himachal regions have few Cucurbitaceae. Our checklist probably underestimates the true diversity of Indian Cucurbitaceae, but should help focus efforts towards the least known species and regions. PMID:23717193

  19. Distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes in an aquifer having multiple contaminant sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Bruce, B.W.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and H2 in groundwater were measured to determine the distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) in an alluvial aquifer having multiple contaminant sources. Upgradient contaminant sources included two separate hydrocarbon point sources, one of which contained the fuel oxygenate methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE). Infiltrating river water was a source of dissolved NO31 SO4 and organic carbon (DOC) to the downgradient part of the aquifer. Groundwater downgradient from the MTBE source had larger concentrations of electron acceptors (dissolved O2 and SO4) and smaller concentrations of TEAP end products (dissolved inorganic C, Fe2+ and CH4) than groundwater downgradient from the other hydrocarbon source, suggesting that MTBE was not as suitable for supporting TEAPs as the other hydrocarbons. Measurements of dissolved H2 indicated that SO4 reduction predominated in the aquifer during a period of high water levels in the aquifer and river. The predominant TEAP shifted to Fe3+ reduction in upgradient areas after water levels receded but remained SO4 reducing downgradient near the river. This distribution of TEAPs is the opposite of what is commonly observed in aquifers having a single contaminant point source and probably reflects the input of Dec and SO4 to the aquifer from the river. Results of this study indicate that the distribution of TEAPs in aquifers having multiple contaminant sources depends on the composition and location of the contaminants and on the availability of electron acceptors.

  20. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. PMID:26921440

  1. Procedural justice in children: Preschoolers accept unequal resource distributions if the procedure provides equal opportunities.

    PubMed

    Grocke, Patricia; Rossano, Federico; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    When it is not possible to distribute resources equitably to everyone, people look for an equitable or just procedure. In the current study, we investigated young children's sense of procedural justice. We tested 32 triads of 5-year-olds in a new resource allocation game. Triads were confronted with three unequal reward packages and then agreed on a procedure to allocate them among themselves. To allocate the rewards, they needed to use a "wheel of fortune." Half of the groups played with a fair wheel (where each child had an equal chance of obtaining each reward package), and the other half played with an unfair wheel. We analyzed children's interactions when using the wheel and conducted an interview with each child after the game was over. Children using the unfair wheel often decided to change the rules of the game, and they also rated it as an unfair procedure in the interview. In contrast, children who played with the fair wheel were mostly accepting of both the outcome and the procedure. Overall, we found that children as young as preschool age are already sensitive not only to distributive justice but to procedural justice as well. PMID:26255603

  2. Alternatives for macronutrient intake and chronic disease: a comparison of the OmniHeart diets with popular diets and with dietary recommendations2

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Russell J; Swain, Janis F; Appel, Lawrence J; Sacks, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Background Enhancements to current dietary advice to prevent chronic disease are of great clinical and public health importance. The OmniHeart Trial compared 3 diets designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk—one high in carbohydrate and 2 that replaced carbohydrate with either unsaturated fat or protein. The lower carbohydrate diets improved the CVD risk factors. Several popular diets claiming health benefits emphasize carbohydrate, fat, or protein or various combined approaches. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the macronutrient contents of the OmniHeart trial diets to those of several popular diets and to evaluate each diet for consistency with national health guidelines. Design The macronutrient contents of 7-d menu plans from the OmniHeart Study, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Zone, Atkins, Mediterranean, South Beach, and Ornish diets were evaluated for consistency with the US Food and Nutrition Board's Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) and with the dietary recommendations of several health organizations. Results The OmniHeart diets fulfilled the major AMDRs, but, of the popular diets, only the Zone diet did. The OmniHeart diets were generally consistent with national guidelines to prevent cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, whereas most popular diets had limitations for fulfilling one or more guidelines. Conclusions Although the OmniHeart protein and unsaturated fat diets were superior to the carbohydrate diet in improving CVD risk, all 3 study diets were consistent with national guidelines to reduce chronic disease risk, which suggests that the guidelines might now be fine-tuned to optimize disease prevention. Popular diets vary in their nutritional adequacy and consistency with guidelines for risk reduction. PMID:18614716

  3. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  4. Planning replacement of natural gas distribution systems under constraints on acceptable risk from explosions.

    PubMed

    Noonan, F

    1991-12-01

    Natural gas distribution systems in the United States were developed primarily in the first half of this century, utilizing materials such as cast iron and then steel. Over time, cast iron and steel pipe sections became weak from corrosion and are subject to failure which in turn can lead to explosions and possible injury and loss of life. Gas utilities maintain system integrity through repair-replacement programs where pipe sections are prioritized for replacement in any given year through cost-benefit analysis; however, the total annual amount to be budgeted for replacement is left to engineering judgment. This approach has left some utilities vulnerable to criticism that their current replacement rate on cast iron pipe is not great enough and that public safety is being compromised. This paper addresses the problem situation by formulating a linear programming replacement decision model which augments cost-benefit analysis with explicit constraints on acceptable risk to human life from fire/explosion. The model is illustrated for a hypothetical utility. PMID:1780504

  5. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  6. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kulcheski, Franceli R.; Côrrea, Régis; Gomes, Igor A.; de Lima, Júlio C.; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plant–microbe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding. PMID:26136763

  7. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items. PMID:12493093

  8. A detection system with broad angular acceptance for particle identification and angular distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; de Barbará, E.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martí, G. V.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    A new detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements has been designed and constructed. This device is composed by an ionization chamber with a segmented-grid anode and three position-sensitive silicon detectors. This particular arrangement allows identifying reaction products emitted within a 30° wide angular range with better than 1° angular resolution. As a demonstration of its capabilities, angular distributions of the elastic scattering cross-section and the production of alpha particles in the 7Li+27Al system, at an energy above the Coulomb barrier, are presented.

  9. Distribution System Residuals – Is “Detectable” Still Acceptable for Chloramines?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, Roberson (2014) noted that one of the distribution system issues currently on the regulatory radar is, “Should disinfectant residual requirements be a specific number as opposed to the current detectable residual?” As our title suggests, we seek to assess what it means...

  10. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification.

  11. Neural responses to macronutrients: hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Alastair J; Murray, Susan; Vaicekonyte, Regina; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-05-01

    The brain responds to macronutrients via intricate mechanisms. We review how the brain's neural systems implicated in homeostatic control of feeding and hedonic responses are influenced by the ingestion of specific types of food. We discuss how these neural systems are dysregulated in preclinical models of obesity. Findings from these studies can increase our understanding of overeating and, perhaps in some cases, the development of obesity. In addition, a greater understanding of the neural circuits affected by the consumption of specific macronutrients, and by obesity, might lead to new treatments and strategies for preventing unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25644095

  12. Validation testing of a soil macronutrient sensing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid on-site measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for site-specific crop management, where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. This study reports on validation testing of a previously develop...

  13. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. Objective: How RRVfood is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Design: Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRVfood, the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. Results: The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRVprop) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRVprop was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. Conclusion: These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117. PMID:21543545

  14. ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES FOR SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF SOIL MACRONUTRIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing of soil macronutrients would be useful in mapping soil nutrient variability for variable-rate nutrient management. Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are a promising approach because of their small size, rapid response, and ability to directly measure the analyte. This study reports ...

  15. SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF SOIL MACRONUTRIENTS USING ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing of soil macronutrients would be useful in mapping soil nutrient variability for variable-rate nutrient management. Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are a promising approach because of their small size, rapid response, and ability to directly measure the analyte. This study reports ...

  16. Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Short-Term Food Intake and Weight Loss12

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. PMID:25979503

  17. Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10–19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19 year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11) statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males) was 13.5 years (SD = 1.4). Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural) of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99). Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56), being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19), feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46) and living with a guardian (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling comfortable being

  18. COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON LONG TERM VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION IN MEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a means to investigate the effect of daily macronutrient composition on food intake, twelve healthy normal weight men (79.9 ± 8.3 kg, 39 ± 9 yrs, 24.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were fed continuously for two 8-week periods. They were allowed cafeteria-style ad libitum access to a variety of foods of varying ma...

  19. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  20. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  1. Plants use macronutrients accumulated in leaf-cutting ant nests

    PubMed Central

    da S.L Sternberg, Leonel; Pinzon, Maria Camila; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Moutinho, Paulo; Rojas, Enith I; Herre, Edward Allen

    2006-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.) are known for their extensive defoliation in neo-tropical forests and savannahs. Debate about the costs and benefits of their activities has been largely dominated by their detrimental effects on agriculture and agroforestry. However, the large accumulation of nutrients and changes in soil properties near their nests might benefit plants growing near them. Here, we test whether trees use nutrients that accumulate in debris piles near, or refuse chambers within, leaf-cutting ant nests. At two tropical sites (a moist tropical forest site in Panama and a savannah site in Brazil), we fed leaves labelled with the stable isotope 15N to two species of leaf-cutting ants (Atta colombica and Atta laevigata) and traced the stable isotope label in plants surrounding the two nests. Thus, we show that plants in both sites access resources associated with Atta nests. In addition, leaf tissue of trees near the nests labelled with 15N had significantly higher calcium concentrations than those of distal, unlabelled conspecifics. It has been documented that calcium is a limiting macronutrient in tropical forests and savannahs. Atta may thus play an important ecological role through their long-distance transport, redistribution and concentration of critical macronutrients. PMID:17164194

  2. Functional food microstructures for macronutrient release and delivery.

    PubMed

    Norton, J E; Gonzalez Espinosa, Y; Watson, R L; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to understand the role of fat, protein and carbohydrate in human health, and also how foods containing and/or structured using these macronutrients can be designed so that they can have a positive impact on health. This may include a reduction in fat, salt or sugar, the protection and targeted release of micronutrients or active ingredients from/to particular parts of the digestive system, improvement of gastrointestinal health or satiety enhancing properties. Such foods can be designed with various macro- and microstructures that will impact on macronutrient release and delivery. These include simple and double emulsions, the use of Pickering particles and shells, nanoparticles, liposomes, gelled networks, fluid gels and gel particles, foams, self-assembled structures, and encapsulated systems. In order to design foods that deliver these benefits understanding of how these structures behave in the gastrointestinal tract is also required, which should involve utilising both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review aims to draw together research in these areas, by focusing on the current state of the art, but also exciting possibilities for future research and food development. PMID:25553863

  3. Macronutrient-induced changes in serum and urinary zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.H.; Holl, M.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of macronutrient ingestion on serum (SZn) and urinary (UZn) zinc were investigated in 3 studies. Fasted volunteers were fed test meals at 9 a.m. and blood and urine collected for up to 4 h. In experiment I, 11 adults were fed formula meals containing 3.75 mg zinc and either 15 g protein (control = C), 45 g protein (high protein = HP) or 15 g protein plus sulfur amino acids equivalent to the HP meal. UZn peaked at 3 h and was 0.8, 1.5 and 1.6 ..mu..g/min after the C, HP and CS meals. Protein-induced zincuria may be caused by the sulfur amino acids in protein. In experiment II, 13 adults consumed 2 g/kg sucrose and negligible zinc. UZn was increased at 1.0, 1.5 and 3 h, peaking at 3 h at 288% of fasting values. SZn averaged 0.85 ppm both pre- and post-prandially. In experiment III, 12 subjects consumed 4 meals containing 5.8 mg zinc and the following weight (g) of protein, sucrose, starch and oil; control = 15, 7.5, 37.5, 20.3; HP = 45, 7.5, 7.5, 7; starch = 15, 7.5, 37.5, 7; sucrose = 15, 37.5, 7.5, 7. Meal composition had no effect on SZn or UZn but both parameters changed postprandially (p<0.001). UZn increased from 420 ng/min to peak at 690 ng/min at 1.5 h. SZn decreased significantly from 0.85 to 0.75 ppm at 3 h. GFR did not change after any meal. Macronutrients inhibit the renal reabsorption of zinc, and postprandial SZn may not reflect zinc absorption.

  4. Food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Explanations for the phenomenal success of East African distance runners include unique dietary practices. The aim of the present study was to assess the food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners during a period of high intensity exercise training at altitude and prior to major competition. Methods The dietary intake of 10 highly-trained Ethiopian long distance runners, living and training at high altitude (approximately 2400 m above sea level) was assessed during a 7 day period of intense training prior to competition using the standard weighed intake method. Training was also assessed using an activity/training diary. Results Body mass was stable (i.e., was well maintained) over the assessment period (pre: 56.7 ± 4.3 kg vs. post: 56.6 ± 4.2 kg, P = 0.54; mean ± SD). The diet comprised of 13375 ± 1378 kJ and was high in carbohydrate (64.3 ± 2.6%, 545 ± 49 g, 9.7 ± 0.9 g/kg). Fat and protein intake was 23.3 ± 2.1% (83 ± 14 g) and 12.4 ± 0.6% (99 ± 13 g, 1.8 ± 0.2 g/kg), respectively. Fluid intake comprised mainly of water (1751 ± 583 mL), while no fluids were consumed before or during training with only modest amounts being consumed following training. Conclusions Similar to previous studies in elite Kenyan distance runners, the diet of these elite Ethiopian distance runners met most recommendations of endurance athletes for macronutrient intake but not for fluid intake. PMID:21595961

  5. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Bruce A.; Kim, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall. PMID:25610411

  6. Macronutrients, Diet Quality, and Frailty in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Dam, Thuy-Tien L.; Shannon, Jackilen; Redden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Frailty, a phenotype of multisystem impairment and expanding vulnerability, is associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes not entirely explained by advancing age. We investigated associations of macronutrients, dietary fiber, and overall diet quality with frailty status in older community-dwelling men. Methods. Participants were 5,925 men aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study at six U.S. centers. Diet was assessed at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire. We assessed frailty status (robust, intermediate, or frail) at baseline and at a second clinic visit (a mean of 4.6 years later) using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study frailty index. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess associations between macronutrient intake, dietary fiber, and the Diet Quality Index Revised with frailty status at baseline and at the second clinic visit. Results. At baseline, 2,748 (46.4%) participants were robust, 2,681 (45.2%) were intermediate, and 496 (8.4%) were frail. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and dietary fiber showed no consistent associations with frailty status. Overall diet quality exhibited fairly consistent associations with frailty status. The Diet Quality Index Revised was inversely associated with frail status relative to robust status at the baseline visit (odds ratio for Q5 vs Q1 = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.63; p for trend < .0001) and at the second clinic visit (odds ratio for Q5 vs Q1 = 0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.97; p for trend = .0180). Conclusions. Overall diet quality was inversely associated with prevalent and future frailty status in this cohort of older men. PMID:24304504

  7. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (p<0.034) and carbohydrate consumption in the objects with euriplastic and subathletic somatotypes (p<0.046). The most significant of the findings is the absence of veracious differences in daily energy consumption between the cohorts with different somatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes. PMID:27455598

  8. Isoosmolar Enemas Demonstrate Preferential Gastrointestinal Distribution, Safety, and Acceptability Compared with Hyperosmolar and Hypoosmolar Enemas as a Potential Delivery Vehicle for Rectal Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Leyva, Francisco J.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Fuchs, Edward J.; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S.; Goldsmith, Arthur J.; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Lee, Linda A.; Torbenson, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types—hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)—in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma 99mTc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the 99mTc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of 99mTc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (p<0.01). Colon biopsies also showed that only the hyperosmolar enema caused sloughing of the colonic epithelium (p<0.05). In permeability testing, the hypoosmolar enema had higher plasma 99mTc-DTPA 24-h area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration compared to the hyperosmolar and isoosmolar enemas, respectively. Acceptability was generally good with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle. PMID:23885722

  9. Consistent proportional macronutrient intake selected by adult domestic cats (Felis catus) despite variations in macronutrient and moisture content of foods offered.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Hewson-Hughes, Victoria L; Colyer, Alison; Miller, Andrew T; Hall, Simon R; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the ability of domestic cats to regulate the macronutrient composition of their diet when provided with foods that differed not only in macronutrient content but also in texture and moisture content, as typically found in the main forms of commercially manufactured cat foods. Cats were provided with foods in different combinations (1 wet + 3 dry; 1 dry + 3 wet; 3 wet + 3 dry) in three separate experiments. Within each experiment cats were offered the wet and dry food combinations in two (naïve and experienced) diet selection phases where all the foods were offered simultaneously, separated by a phase in which the foods were offered sequentially in 3-day cycles in pairs (1 wet with 1 dry). Using nutritional geometry we demonstrate convergence upon the same dietary macronutrient composition in the naïve and experienced self-selection phases of each experiment as well as over the course of the 3-day cycles in the pair-wise choice phase of each experiment. Furthermore, even though the dietary options were very different in each of these experiments the macronutrient composition of the diets achieved across all experiments were remarkably similar. These results indicate that a mammalian obligate carnivore, the domestic cat, is able to regulate food selection and intake to balance macronutrient intake despite differences in moisture content and textural properties of the foods provided. PMID:23233166

  10. Structure and location of macronutrients in ancient and alternative crops (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structure, histochemistry and composition of mature seeds of several ancient or alternative crops were studied by light and electron microscopies to localize specific macronutrients including protein, starch, non-starch carbohydrates and lipid. Botanically, these seeds fall into different classifica...

  11. Long-term macronutrient stoichiometry of UK ombrotrophic peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillereff, Daniel; Boyle, John; Toberman, Hannah; Adams, Jessica; Tipping, Ed

    2016-04-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands across northern latitudes represent a globally-important store for carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) through the Holocene. A key characteristic of ombrotrophic bogs is that N, P and other elements vital to their biogeochemical functioning are almost exclusively supplied by hydrological and biological inputs from the atmosphere. While different mechanisms regulating the atmospheric supply of N and P and their limiting effects on bog productivity have been widely studied, limited attention has been paid to the long-term patterns of, and controls on, macronutrient accumulation, cycling and stoichiometry in ombrotrophic peatlands. Indeed there is a dearth of C, N and P stoichiometric data from the UK despite decades of peatland research. Using data from 15 sites, we report the first estimates of millennial-scale macronutrient concentrations and accumulation rates in UK ombrotrophic peats. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were measured on cores from five ombrotrophic blanket mires, spanning 4000-10000 years to present, and integrated with existing nutrient profiles from ten Scottish sites. Long-term C, N and P concentrations for the UK are 55.1, 1.55 and 0.037 wt%, similar to the few existing northern and tropical comparable sites worldwide. The uppermost peat (0 - 0.2 m) is more enriched in P and N (51.0, 1.86, and 0.070 wt%), while the deeper peat (0.5 - 1.25 m) is more depleted (56.6, 1.39, and 0.028 wt%). Long-term average (whole core) accumulation rates of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are 25.3±2.2 gC m‑2 yr‑1, 0.70±0.09 gN m‑2 yr‑1 and 0.018±0.004 gP m‑2 yr‑1, again similar to values reported elsewhere in the world. A number of significant findings can be drawn from our results: i) N and P concentrations in ombrotrophic peat are strongly associated, such that a regression model of N concentration on P concentration and mean annual precipitation, based on global meta data for surface peat samples, can

  12. Altered salience network connectivity predicts macronutrient intake after sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Senhua; Hu, Siyuan; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A.; Dinges, David F.; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Although insufficient sleep is a well-recognized risk factor for overeating and weight gain, the neural mechanisms underlying increased caloric (particularly fat) intake after sleep deprivation remain unclear. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined brain connectivity changes associated with macronutrient intake after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Compared to the day following baseline sleep, healthy adults consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat and a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates during the day following TSD. Subjects also exhibited increased brain connectivity in the salience network from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) to bilateral putamen and bilateral anterior insula (aINS) after TSD. Moreover, dACC-putamen and dACC-aINS connectivity correlated with increased fat and decreased carbohydrate intake during the day following TSD, but not during the day following baseline sleep. These findings provide a potential neural mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased fat intake. PMID:25645575

  13. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  14. Macronutrients mediate the functional relationship between Drosophila and Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Ponton, Fleur; Wilson, Kenneth; Holmes, Andrew; Raubenheimer, David; Robinson, Katie L.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that naturally infect a diverse array of arthropods. They are primarily known for their manipulation of host reproductive biology, and recently, infections with Wolbachia have been proposed as a new strategy for controlling insect vectors and subsequent human-transmissible diseases. Yet, Wolbachia abundance has been shown to vary greatly between individuals and the magnitude of the effects of infection on host life-history traits and protection against infection is correlated to within-host Wolbachia abundance. It is therefore essential to better understand the factors that modulate Wolbachia abundance and effects on host fitness. Nutrition is known to be one of the most important mediators of host–symbiont interactions. Here, we used nutritional geometry to quantify the role of macronutrients on insect–Wolbachia relationships in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results show fundamental interactions between diet composition, host diet selection, Wolbachia abundance and effects on host lifespan and fecundity. The results and methods described here open a new avenue in the study of insect–Wolbachia relationships and are of general interest to numerous research disciplines, ranging from nutrition and life-history theory to public health. PMID:25520356

  15. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  16. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  17. Spatial variability of soil macronutrients in two cultivated areas with different sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; da Silva Días, Rosane; Aprecida de Abreu, Cleide; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Soil spatial variability is a naturally occurring and/or management induced feature that is important for site-specific management practices such as variable rate fertilization. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) at two different landscape scales in a Coruña province (Northwest of Spain). Soil samples were taken from the topsoil of a 2.1 ha hillslope and a 24 ha agricultural catchment. Soil N, P and K availability were routinely determined, whereas Ca and Mg were determined after Mehlich-3 extraction. The statistical variability was significant with coefficients of variation ranging from 0.28 to 0.37 within the field at the hillslope and from 0.38 to 0.77 within the agricultural catchment. At the 2.1 ha field scale, N, P and K showed spatial dependence, whereas Ca and Mg didn't show it. At the 24.9 ha small catchment all five elements analyzed showed spatial dependence, so that spherical semivariograms were adjusted to the experimental data. The strength of the spatial variability was assessed by the nugget effect and the ranges of spatial dependence. When spatial dependence was evidenced, kriging maps were constructed. Kriging maps and maps made by conventional techniques were used to analyze similarities in the spatial distribution of the study nutrients.

  18. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies. PMID:24630913

  19. Nature and consequences of non-covalent interactions between flavonoids and macronutrients in foods.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, Nicolas; Hamaker, Bruce R; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Many of the potential health benefits of flavonoids have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to interact and bind non-covalently to macronutrients in foods. While flavonoid-protein interactions and binding have been the subject of intensive study, significantly less is understood about non-covalent interactions with carbohydrates and lipids. These interactions with macronutrients are likely to impact both the flavonoid properties in foods, such as their radical scavenging activity, and the food or beverage matrix itself, including their taste, texture and other sensorial properties. Overall, non-covalent binding of flavonoids with macronutrients is primarily driven by van der Waals interactions. From the flavonoid perspective, these interactions are modulated by characteristics such as degree of polymerization, molecular flexibility, number of external hydroxyl groups, or number of terminal galloyl groups. From the macronutrient standpoint, electrostatic and ionic interactions are generally predominant with carbohydrates, while hydrophobic interactions are generally predominant with lipids and mainly limited to interactions with flavonols. All of these interactions are involved in flavonoid-protein interactions. While primarily associated with undesirable characteristics in foods and beverages, such as astringency, negative impact on macronutrient digestibility and hazing, more recent efforts have attempted to leverage these interactions to develop controlled delivery systems or strategies to enhance flavonoids bioavailability. This paper aims at reviewing the fundamental bases for non-covalent interactions, their occurrence in food and beverage systems and their impact on the physico-chemical, organoleptic and some nutritional properties of food. PMID:24326533

  20. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

  1. Nutritional Status of the Cauliflower Cultivar ‘Verona’ Grown with Omission of out Added Macronutrients

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower ‘Verona’ and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively. PMID:25856380

  2. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Hewson-Hughes, Victoria L; Colyer, Alison; Miller, Andrew T; McGrane, Scott J; Hall, Simon R; Butterwick, Richard F; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

  3. Nutritional status of the cauliflower cultivar 'verona' grown with omission of out added macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower 'Verona' and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively. PMID:25856380

  4. The effect of ingested macronutrients on postprandial ghrelin response: a critical review of existing literature data.

    PubMed

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is a powerful orexigenic gut hormone with growth hormone releasing activity. It plays a pivotal role for long-term energy balance and short-term food intake. It is also recognized as a potent signal for meal initiation. Ghrelin levels rise sharply before feeding onset, and are strongly suppressed by food ingestion. Postprandial ghrelin response is totally macronutrient specific in normal weight subjects, but is rather independent of macronutrient composition in obese. In rodents and lean individuals, isoenergetic meals of different macronutrient content suppress ghrelin to a variable extent. Carbohydrate appears to be the most effective macronutrient for ghrelin suppression, because of its rapid absorption and insulin-secreting effect. Protein induces prolonged ghrelin suppression and is considered to be the most satiating macronutrient. Fat, on the other hand, exhibits rather weak and insufficient ghrelin-suppressing capacity. The principal mediators involved in meal-induced ghrelin regulation are glucose, insulin, gastrointestinal hormones released in the postabsorptive phase, vagal activity, gastric emptying rate, and postprandial alterations in intestinal osmolarity. PMID:20798765

  5. Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal abdominal adiposity: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study1-4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V.; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. Objective We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Methods Macronutrient intakes of mothers were ascertained using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 weeks gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed using MRI in the second week of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n= 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models using multivariable linear regressions. Results Mothers [mean age: 30 y; 44% Chinese, 38% Malay, 18% Indians] consumed 15.5 ± 4.3% (mean ± SD) of their energy intakes from protein, 32.4 ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1 ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher protein, lower carbohydrate/fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 (-0.35, -0.001) mL per 1% protein to carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 (-0.46, -0.04) mL per 1% protein to fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interactions <0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein [-0.26 (-0.47, -0.05) mL for fat substitution], but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not consistently associated with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Conclusions Higher maternal protein intake (at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake

  6. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in the adult domestic cat, Felis catus.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Hewson-Hughes, Victoria L; Miller, Andrew T; Hall, Simon R; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2011-03-15

    We report feeding studies on adult domestic cats designed to disentangle the complex interactions among dietary protein, fat and carbohydrate in the control of intake. Using geometric techniques that combine mixture triangles and intake plots from the geometric framework, we: (1) demonstrate that cats balance their macronutrient intake, (2) estimate the composition of the target balance and (3) reveal the priorities given to different macronutrients under dietary conditions where the target is unachievable. Our analysis indicates that cats have a ceiling for carbohydrate intake, which limits ingestion and constrains them to deficits in protein and fat intake (relative to their target) on high-carbohydrate foods. Finally, we reanalyse data from a previous experiment that claimed that kittens failed to regulate protein intake, and show that, in fact, they did. These results not only add to the growing appreciation that carnivores, like herbivores and omnivores, regulate macronutrient intake, they also have important implications for designing feeding regimens for companion animals. PMID:21346132

  7. Macronutrient intake induces oxidative and inflammatory stress: potential relevance to atherosclerosis and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Husam; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Kim, Sung Soo

    2010-01-01

    With the global increase in the epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes with a concomitant increase in atherosclerotic disease, an investigation into the effects of various macronutrients and food products has become necessary. Such investigation will allow us to better understand the relationship between the intake of various macronutrients and the pathogenesis of mechanisms underlying the regulation of insulin sensitivity and resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation, the regulation of hunger and satiety and atherogenesis. This review covers the first decade of work in this area relating the intake of usual foods and diets to their immediate and long term outcomes. The review also covers the exciting novel area of anti-inflammatory effects of certain foods. Hopefully, a comprehensive understanding of these actions of macronutrients and their long term effects will allow us to formulate food combinations which will lead to healthy eating habits and improvement in our overall health status. PMID:20200475

  8. Climate sensitivity and macronutrient regulation of peat decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Rachel; Ostle, Nick; McNamara, Niall; Baggs, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Organic soils act as vital global carbon stores maintained in northern latitudes by climate and nutrient limited rates of organic matter decomposition. Peatland decomposition rates are sensitive to climate change, however predicting the magnitude of the microbial respiratory response is complex due to unknown interactions between climate and substrate quality. The nutrient status of peatlands varies widely from mineral rich fens to nutrient poor ombrotrophic bogs, which have the potential to respond differently to climate driven changes in temperature and carbon (C) inputs. In this work we examine the links between peatland macronutrient C, phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, microbial community structure and the microbial response to direct and indirect effects of climate change. Using total soil C:N and C:P ratios to define nutrient gradients in organic soils from Svalbard and Finland we investigated the interaction between the microbial response to temperature and nutrient limitation of decomposition. In organic rich soils from Svalbard we found there was a significant relationship between increasing temperature sensitivity of respiration and decreasing total soil P concentrations. Further investigation of the potential direct link between P limitation of decomposition and increased temperature sensitivity along a minerotrophic-ombroptrophic gradient in Finland was performed using multi-factorial P limitation assays. These showed that despite varying degrees of P limitation across four peatland soils there was no relationship between P limitation and increased temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Throughout this study we found consistently high temperature sensitivity of decomposition in organic rich soils with Q10 values ranging between 2 to 4.5, indicating potentially higher vulnerability of these C stores to warming than is currently predicted using a globally invariant Q10. Following on from this we examined the interaction between

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Ion-Selective Electrodes for Simultaneous Analysis of Macronutrients in Hydroponic Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing of macronutrients in hydroponic solution would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed hydroponic systems. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane or a solid metal material that responds selectively to one analyte in...

  10. Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-06-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different 'attractiveness' (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768

  11. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-08-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. PMID:24149429

  12. Cranberry Interacts With Dietary Macronutrients to Promote Healthy Aging in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T.; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar–low protein, and low sugar–high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar–high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar–low protein diet but not with the low sugar–high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly’s resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. PMID:24149429

  13. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  14. Inflammation but Not Dietary Macronutrients Insufficiency Associated with the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences of macronutrients (calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc) were found between the two nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population. PMID:24349471

  15. Fusion of spectral and electrochemical sensor data for estimating soil macronutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and efficient quantification of plant-available soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is needed to support variable-rate fertilization strategies. Two methods that have been used for estimating these soil macronutrients are diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in visible and near-infrared (VNIR) w...

  16. Effect of dietary macronutrient composition under moderate hypocaloric intake on maternal adaptation during lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No evidence-based recommendations exist concerning what dietary macronutrient composition optimizes weight loss during lactation while maintaining milk production. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: compared to a reduced-calorie, high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet, an isonitrogen...

  17. Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K.; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different ‘attractiveness’ (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768

  18. APPLICATION OF ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES FOR SIMULTANIOUS ANALYSIS OF SOIL MACRONUTRIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing of soil macronutrients would be useful in mapping soil nutrient variability for variable-rate nutrient management. This study reports on the evaluation of a sensor array composed of three different ion selective electrodes (ISEs), in conjunction with the Kelowna soil extractant, f...

  19. Carbon and macronutrient loss during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of tillage and crop residue removal on erosion and associated macronutrient fluxes on erodible soils subjected to a high intensity simulated rain event (70 mm/h) were investigated in an experimental watershed in Ohio, USA. A set of plots which constitute two experiments at this site were...

  20. Discriminating tastes: self-selection of macronutrients in two populations of grasshoppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity to self-select an optimal balance of macronutrients (protein and carbohydrate) was studied in two populations of Melanoplus sanguinipes F. (Orthoptera: Acrididae). One population was derived from subarctic Alaska, and the other from temperate Idaho, USA. During the 4th and 5th stadia, A...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Macronutrients in a Lime-amended Acid Paddy Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Morales, L. A.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    tillering could be also attributed to lime addition, but a negative effect of liming on P availability was observed during flowering. Mehlich I extractable K was in general low to very low and decreased from sowing to flowering, irrespective of lime treatment. Semivariogram analysis showed a rather strong spatial dependence of NH4+, P and K concentrations and this all over the three study periods and for the three lime treatments. Empirical semivariograms could be adjusted quite well by a nugget component (C0) plus a spatial structure (C1), which was described by spherical or exponential models with a correlation range between 40 and 85 m. Geostatistical analysis provided insight into possible processes responsible of the observed spatial variability patterns within the rice soil. Kriging was useful in mapping macronutrient variability allowing identifying microrregions with high or low values of the target soil properties clearly showing the presence of small scale variability for the study soil attributes within each liming treatment and during each of the three sampling dates. Also the position of patches with maxima and minima values changed between successive sampling dates illustrating the lack of temporal stability of the pattern of spatial distribution for the study soil attributes. Results illustrate the potential for applying the principles of precision agriculture to control spatiotemporal variability in rice fields.

  2. Comparison of mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy with biochemical methods for the determination of macronutrients in human milk.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Dolores; Fraga, Miriam; Gormaz, María; Torres, Ester; Vento, Máximo

    2014-07-01

    The variability of human milk (HM) composition renders analysis of its components essential for optimal nutrition of preterm fed either with donor's or own mother's milk. To fulfil this requirement, various analytical instruments have been subjected to scientific and clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a rapid method for the analysis of macronutrients in HM as compared with the analytical methods applied by cow's milk industry. Mature milk from 39 donors was analysed using an infrared human milk analyser (HMA) and compared with biochemical reference laboratory methods. The statistical analysis was based on the use of paired data tests. The use of an infrared HMA for the analysis of lipids, proteins and lactose in HM proved satisfactory as regards the rapidity, simplicity and the required sample volume. The instrument afforded good linearity and precision in application to all three nutrients. However, accuracy was not acceptable when compared with the reference methods, with overestimation of the lipid content and underestimation of the amount of proteins and lactose contents. The use of mid-infrared HMA might become the standard for rapid analysis of HM once standardisation and rigorous and systematic calibration is provided. PMID:22784213

  3. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  4. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  5. Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Children and Adolescents from 1999-2000 through 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Children and Adolescents From 1999– ... Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Did the average energy intake for children and adolescents in the United ...

  6. Energy intake and macronutrient selection in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) challenged with fat dilution and fat deprivation using encapsulated diets.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; Seco-Rovira, V; Hernández, M D; Madrid, J A; De Costa, J; Mendiola, P

    2008-02-27

    Sharpsnout seabream fed pure macronutrient capsules were challenged to fat dilution and fat deprivation in order to investigate the effects of fat level on energy intake regulation and macronutrient selection by fish, as they lack oropharyngeal chemosensory information from the diet. During the control phase, the fish were fed three individually encapsulated macronutrients, from which they composed a diet containing 67.36% protein (P), 19.08% carbohydrates (CH) and 13.57% fat (F), in terms of macronutrient weight intake percentage. During the second phase of the experiment, a lipid content reduction in F capsules from 55.0% to 13.4% did not significantly modify this selection pattern, energy ingestion or the number of capsules ingested of each macronutrient. During the third phase, in which they were subjected to fat deprivation, starting on almost the first day, the fish increased their total energy intake and total ingested number of capsules. These results reveal that fish are capable of distinguishing and selecting each of the three macronutrients contained in gelatine capsules, and that fish selection of a balanced diet from pure macronutrients is remarkably stable. Fish are capable of sustaining their macronutrient selection pattern and energy intake with very low amounts of fat in their diets (Phase 2). A certain instability in the initial P, CH and energy intake was only observed when fat was totally deprived (Phase 3), which resulted in higher values than those observed in Phase 1. In order to examine any possible effects of diet encapsulation, digestibility assays were performed in a second experiment. The fish were divided into two experimental groups and fed the same complete commercial diet, the only difference being the way it was presented to each group (pelleted or encapsulated). No statistical differences between the experimental groups were found with regards to both apparent digestibility coefficients and fish growth. PMID:17997462

  7. Nitrogen Assimilation and Protein Synthesis in Wheat Seedlings As Affected by Mineral Nutrition. I. Macronutrients 1

    PubMed Central

    Harper, James E.; Paulsen, Gary M.

    1969-01-01

    Deficiencies of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca. Mg, S, and Fe) decreased the specific activity of nitrate reductase from Triticum aestivum L. seedlings. Nitrate content was decreased by N, P, K, Ca, and Mg deficiencies and unaffected by S and Fe deficiencies. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase activity was decreased by N, P, and S deficiencies, unchanged by K deficiency, and increased by Ca, Mg, and Fe deficiencies. Glutamine synthetase activity closely paralleled nitrate reductase activity and was decreased by deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was not sensitive to macronutrient deficiencies. High 14C-leucine incorporation into tissue sections of N-, P-, K-, Ca-, and S-deficient seedlings did not appear indicative of protein synthesis rates in intact seedlings. Nutritional deficiencies apparently depleted endogenous amino acid pools and caused less inhibition of exogenous 14C-leucine incorporation into protein. PMID:16657034

  8. Deficiencies of macronutrient intake among HIV-positive breastfeeding women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kim, Faith; Neke, Nyasule M; Hendricks, Kristy; Wamsele, Joyce; Lukmanji, Zohra; Waddell, Richard; Maro, Isaac; Connor, Ruth; Mackenzie, Todd; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2014-12-15

    We compared macronutrient intake, food insecurity, and anthropometrics in breastfeeding women: 40 HIV-positive women not yet on antiretroviral therapy and 40 HIV-negative women. Calculated deficits at 2 weeks were 517 kcal per day for HIV-positive women vs 87 kcal per day surplus for HIV-negative women (P = 0.01) and 29 g protein per day for HIV-positive women vs 16 g protein per day for HIV-negative women (P = 0.04). Food insecurity scores were 11.3 for HIV-positive women vs 7.8 for HIV-negative women (P < 0.01). Enhanced dietary education together with macronutrient supplementation may be required to improve health outcomes in HIV-positive women and their infants. PMID:25230293

  9. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  10. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  11. Preferences for foods varying in macronutrients and tannins by lambs supplemented with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Titus, C H; Provenza, F D; Perevolotsky, A; Silanikove, N

    2000-06-01

    Supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases intake when animals eat foods high in tannins, but little is known about how PEG affects preference for foods that vary in concentrations of macronutrients and tannin. We investigated how varying macronutrients and tannins (commercially available extracts from quebracho trees) affected food intake, and we assessed the degree to which PEG (MW 3350) affected intake of tannin-rich foods by sheep. From 0715 to 1800 daily, lambs were offered diets that varied in concentrations of macronutrients: high energy/low protein (75% barley/25% alfalfa), medium energy/medium protein (35% barley/65% alfalfa), and low energy/high protein (100% alfalfa). Preference for these diets was determined in the absence of tannin, and then, in Trials 1 to 3, tannin was added in increasing concentrations (from 5 to 20%) to the diets with high and medium levels of energy. In Trial 4, tannin (10%) also was added to the low-energy diet. Lambs were supplemented with either 50 g of PEG mixed with 50 g of ground barley or 50 g of ground barley alone from 0700 to 1715 daily; lambs always consumed all of these supplements. In the absence of added tannins, all lambs preferred high energy/low protein > medium energy/medium protein > low energy/high protein. As tannin levels increased, preference for the high- and medium-energy foods decreased, and all lambs preferred foods that were lower in tannins and higher in protein. Lambs supplemented with PEG ate more macronutrients and tannins than unsupplemented lambs, and the effect became increasingly apparent as tannin levels increased from Trials 1 to 4. We conclude that the effectiveness of supplemental PEG may be low if alternative forages are equal or superior in nutritional quality and contain fewer metabolites with adverse effects. In such cases, animals would likely prefer alternatives to high-tannin foods. PMID:10875625

  12. Seasonal dietary shifting in yellow-rumped warblers is unrelated to macronutrient targets.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Taylor J; Dick, Morag F; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2016-02-01

    Dietary shifting, for example from insects to fruits, is a common mechanism used in migratory songbirds to accumulate fat to fuel migratory flights. We examined a potential underlying cause of dietary shifting in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata) by comparing energy and protein intake goals of birds during fall migration and winter. We offered captive warblers pairs of three diets differing in macronutrient composition in both the fall and winter. Using the principles of the geometric framework of nutrition we evaluated protein and energy intake to determine if consumption of the diet pairs was adjusted to meet an energy or protein intake target, and if the target differed seasonally. Regardless of season, the warblers preferred the diet with the lowest protein content and highest carbohydrate content. Total energy intake was maintained relatively constant during migration, at around 60 kJ/day, regardless of diet combination, and at about 50 kJ/day during winter. This suggests that warblers consume macronutrients available to them without protein limitations to reach their total energy intake target. When the diet combination offered allows, the warblers mixed their diet intake to consume roughly 0.5 g/day of protein, regardless of season, which suggested a constant protein target. Our findings suggest that songbirds prefer to alter non-protein energy intake proportionally to meet changing energy demand, rather than an overall increase in macronutrient intake. Additionally, they have the ability to shift their diet based on availability, resulting in high flexibility in their macronutrient intakes to maintain energy intake. PMID:26626955

  13. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Houjeghani, Shiva; Farzadi, Laya; Houjeghani, Sheyda; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS pa- tients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05). This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin. PMID:26644854

  14. Bias and error in the determination of common macronutrients in foods: interlaboratory trial.

    PubMed

    Hollman, P C; Katan, M B

    1988-05-01

    Chemical analyses of nutrient values in foods form the basis of much of the science and practice of nutrition and dietetics, but little is known about the accuracy and precision of common macronutrient analyses. Therefore, an interlaboratory study was set up. One batch each of egg powder, full-fat milk powder, whole rye flour, whole wheat flour, biscuits, and French beans (snap beans, "haricots verts") was thoroughly homogenized. Samples were sent to 19 leading food analysis laboratories in Europe and the U.S., and each performed analyses of macronutrients by its own routine methods. Most were government or semi-government laboratories and major contributors to national nutrient data banks. The results for dry matter content and ash agreed well between laboratories. For protein, the coefficient of variation between laboratories (CV between) ranged from 2.8% to 6.4%. The reproducibility within laboratories was sometimes quite poor. The CV between for total fat ranged from 5.4% to 54%. For "available" carbohydrates, the CV between ranged from 9% to 27%. The CV between for total dietary fiber ranged from 23% to 84%. Only part of the variability could be explained by the use of methods of different principle. It is concluded that leading laboratories produce widely different values for macronutrients in common foods. Quality control programs and reference materials of certified nutrient concentration are urgently needed. PMID:2835409

  15. Macronutrient cycles and climate change: key science areas and an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J

    2012-09-15

    Human activities have doubled global cycles of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) and elevated N and P have compromised ecosystem services through the degradation of natural resources of soils, freshwaters and marine waters with a subsequent loss of biodiversity. Elevated Carbon (C) levels in the atmosphere have been linked to global warming, with positive feedback mechanisms accelerating the warming process. In order to initiate nutrient control, both national and international mitigation measures have been implemented. However, many of these initiatives focus upon a single nutrient without considering cycle interactions. A sound understanding of processes and transformations involved in the interactions of macronutrient cycles is required to avoid inadvertently enhancing effects of one nutrient, during mitigation for impacts of another. Emerging research initiatives are addressing these research gaps, with programmes in the US (USGCRP) and the UK (Macronutrient Cycles) advocating integration between scientists and stakeholders, in order to deliver results directly to policy makers. Through these programmes the scales of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes will be quantified, and a determination made of the nature of nutrient transformations in catchments under a changing climate and perturbed carbon cycle. The consideration of connectivity between multiple macronutrient cycles will help to minimise the threats to biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, public water supplies and human health by improved management and better focused policy. PMID:21937085

  16. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment. PMID:26137793

  17. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  18. Diet Variety Based on Macronutrient Intake and Its Relationship With Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Thomas E.; Desmond, Renee; Faulk, Lori E.; Henson, Suzanne; Hubbert, Kathy; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2006-01-01

    Context Increased dietary variety has been associated with increased body weight; however, diet variety is not measured using a standardized methodology. Objective We developed a new dietary variety score (DVS) based on food macronutrient content, and determined the relationship between DVS and measures of adiposity. Design Cross-sectional, observation study. Setting University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), EatRight Weight Management Program Patients Study subjects (n = 74) were former participants of UAB's EatRight Weight Management Program who completed the program at least 1 year ago. Main Outcome Measures Unique items from 4-day food records were converted to macronutrient categories using the diabetic exchange. Foods were categorized as a source of carbohydrate if containing ≥ 5 g carbohydrate and ≥ 20 calories; fat if containing ≥ 5g fat; protein if containing ≥ 7g protein. Height and weight were measured; BMI (kg/m2) was calculated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured body fat. Generalized linear modeling in SAS (Ver.9) determined relationships between adiposity and DVS. Results On average, participants weighed 92.7 ± 30.9 kg (BMI = 32.5 kg/m2). Men and women's body fat were 37.4 ± 6.4% and 47.3 ± 6.4%, respectively. Separate linear regression models containing terms for sex and DVS showed significant relationships between macronutrient DVS and BMI. In a multivariate model controlling for each of the macronutrient DVS, BMI was not related to fat DVS, but was found to be positively related to protein DVS (beta = 0.87, P = .04). Sex modified the relationship between carbohydrate DVS and BMI, with an inverse relationship between BMI and carbohydrate DVS among women, and a positive relationship among men. Percent body and trunk fat were not related to DVS for either gender. Conclusions The new DVS, based on macronutrient content of foods, had significant associations with BMI. These dietary variety scores may provide another way to evaluate

  19. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    PubMed

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  20. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. PMID:25900884

  1. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group. PMID:27087119

  2. Macronutrient Optimization and Seasonal Diet Mixing in a Large Omnivore, the Grizzly Bear: A Geometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Sean C. P.; Raubenheimer, David; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L.), relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots), which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction) and population density

  3. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Sean C P; Raubenheimer, David; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Nielsen, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L.), relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots), which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction) and population density

  4. The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Siri-Tarino, Patty W

    2016-09-01

    Diets to treat obesity have been in existence since Hippocrates treated obesity some 2500 years ago. There are currently a wide variety of diets and a common misconception that a single magical diet can cure overweight and obesity. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that all diets work when adhered to and that initial weight loss can predict the amount of weight lost and maintained for up to 4 years. Individual preferences are thus key in selecting a diet. There are emerging data pinpointing genetic variability in the metabolic responses to variation in macronutrient intake. PMID:27519132

  5. Macronutrient composition of nickel-treated wheat under different sulfur concentrations in the nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława

    2016-03-01

    The effect of different sulfate(VI) sulfur (2, 6, and 9 mM S) levels and nickel(II) chloride (0, 0.0004, 0.04 and 0.08 mM Ni) in the nutrient solution on productivity and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) status and accumulation in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Zebra cv. was studied. Ni treatment reduced the biomass and disturbed the balance and accumulation of macronutrients in wheat. Intensive S nutrition, especially with 6 mM S, at least partially increased the biomass, improved ionic equilibrium, and enhanced nutrient accumulation in Ni-exposed plants in spite of increased Ni accumulation. Admittedly, the dose 9 mM S reduced Ni accumulation in shoots but increased accumulation thereof in roots. Compared to 6 mM, the dose 9 mM was less effective in improving the mineral status of Ni-treated wheat. PMID:26593727

  6. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  7. Commercial 'ready-to-feed' infant foods in the UK: macro-nutrient content and composition.

    PubMed

    Zand, Nazanin; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Pollard, Lucie V; Pullen, Frank S; Snowden, Martin J; Zotor, Francis B

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative analyses of the macronutrient content of eight popular commercial 'ready-to-feed' baby meals for 6-9-month old infants in the UK market have been undertaken in order to ascertain their nutritional suitability in relation to the total daily dietary intake as well as nutritional profiling of the products. The chemical analyses conducted included Kjeldhal for protein, acid hydrolysis and extraction for fat, phenol sulphuric acid for carbohydrate and Association of Official Analytical Chemists 985.29 for fibre. The only difference found between different varieties (meat- and vegetable-based) was with respect to the protein content (P=0.04) per 100 g of food. The experimentally determined concentrations of macronutrients (g/100 kcal) were compared with the declared values provided by the manufacturers on the product labels and, despite some variations, the values obtained comply with regulatory requirements (Commission Directive 2006/125/EC). The total daily intake of fat (27.0 g per day) - based on the menu composed from commercial complementary food - is suggested to exceed the daily recommended values for fat (31%), if the intake of snacks and desserts are incorporated. These findings imply that the formulation of recipes, based on a standard commercial menu, is an important consideration in relation to the nutritional quality of the diet of infants. PMID:23020067

  8. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  9. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  10. Changes in hyperspectral reflectance signatures of lettuce leaves in response to macronutrient deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacumbaba, R. O.; Beyl, C. A.

    2011-07-01

    The adaptation of specific remote sensing and hyperspectral analysis techniques for the determination of incipient nutrient stress in plants could allow early detection and precision supplementation for remediation, important considerations for minimizing mass of advanced life support systems on space station and long term missions. This experiment was conducted to determine if hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect nutrient stress in Lactuca sativa L. cv. Black Seeded Simpson. Lettuce seedlings were grown for 90 days in a greenhouse or growth chamber in vermiculite containing modified Hoagland's nutrient solution with key macronutrient elements removed in order to induce a range of nutrient stresses, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Leaf tissue nutrient concentrations were compared with corresponding spectral reflectances taken at the end of 90 days. Spectral reflectances varied with growing location, position on the leaf, and nutrient deficiency treatment. Spectral responses of lettuce leaves under macronutrient deficiency conditions showed an increase in reflectance in the red, near red, and infrared wavelength ranges. The data obtained suggest that spectral reflectance shows the potential as a diagnostic tool in predicting nutrient deficiencies in general. Overlapping of spectral signatures makes the use of wavelengths of narrow bandwidths or individual bands for the discrimination of specific nutrient stresses difficult without further data processing.

  11. Early infant diet is not a predictor of body mass index and macronutrient intake at 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many retrospective studies have suggested that breast feeding during the first year of life may provide protection against overweight and obesity during childhood and later in life. We compared body mass index (BMI) and macronutrient composition in 2-year-old children who were fed breast milk (BF, ...

  12. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel; Knight, Annemarie; Asante, Matilda; Thomas, Jane; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26) and London (n=57) was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001), fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005), and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, p<0.001) and a significantly lower energy from carbohydrate (52.2±7.7 vs. 61.5±9.3%, p<0.001). Dietary fibre intake was significantly higher in the UK-Ghanaian diet compared to the native Ghanaian diet (8.3±3.1 vs. 6.7±2.2 g/1,000 kcal, p=0.007). There was significantly less energy, macronutrients, and fibre derived from traditional foods post-migration. Non-traditional foods including breakfast cereals, wholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities. PMID:26610275

  13. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  14. Macronutrient modifications of optimal foraging theory: an approach using indifference curves applied to some modern foragers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.

    1988-06-01

    The use of energy (calories) as the currency to be maximized per unit time in Optimal Foraging Models is considered in light of data on several foraging groups. Observations on the Ache, Cuiva, and Yora foragers suggest men do not attempt to maximize energetic return rates, but instead often concentration on acquiring meat resources which provide lower energetic returns. The possibility that this preference is due to the macronutrient composition of hunted and gathered foods is explored. Indifference curves are introduced as a means of modeling the tradeoff between two desirable commodities, meat (protein-lipid) and carbohydrate, and a specific indifference curve is derived using observed choices in five foraging situations. This curve is used to predict the amount of meat that Mbuti foragers will trade for carbohydrate, in an attempt to test the utility of the approach.

  15. Species richness and macronutrient content of wawo worms (Polychaeta, Annelida) from Ambonese waters, Maluku, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this research were to: (1) investigate the species richness of wawo worms, and to (2) analyze macronutrient content of the worms. Wawo worms were sampled using a fishing net on March 18th-19th, 2014, from Ambonese waters, Maluku. As many as 26 wawo species belonging to 5 families were identified. Palola sp. was identified as the most abundant species of wawo, followed by Lysidice oele, Horst 1905, Eunice spp. and nereidids. Results of the proximate analysis reveal that female epitokes of Palola sp. contain 10.78 % ash, 10.71 % moisture, 11.67 % crude fat, 54.72 % crude protein and 12.12 % carbohydrate. PMID:25829856

  16. Macronutrient Content of the Diet: What Do We Know About Energy Balance and Weight Maintenance?

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2016-06-01

    The 2013 AHA/ACC Clinical Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity recommends a reduced energy diet for weight loss regardless of the macronutrient content. However, diet composition may affect the maintenance of weight loss. In general, a healthful dietary pattern with reduced portion sizes, low energy dense foods, and physical activity are successful for many. Certain populations, such as those with insulin resistance, may find reductions in carbohydrate and higher levels of unsaturated fats to be more effective and promote greater adherence. Of importance is that metabolic adaptations following weight loss also may impact weight loss maintenance and should be considered in the transition from weight loss to weight stabilization. Thus, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies are both important in an intervention for sustaining long-term behavior change. PMID:27038809

  17. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Bernhard, Annette; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Sonne, Si Brask; Mortensen, Alicja; Hao, Qin; Brattelid, Trond; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adipose tissue expansion. As different nutrients modulate adipose tissue development, we investigated the influence of dietary composition on POP accumulation, obesity development and related disorders. Lifespan was determined in mice fed fish-oil-based high fat diets during a long-term feeding trial and accumulation of POPs was measured after 3, 6 and 18months of feeding. Further, we performed dose-response experiments using four abundant POPs found in marine sources, PCB-153, PCB-138, PCB-118 and pp'-DDE as single congeners or as mixtures in combination with different diets: one low fat diet and two high fat diets with different protein:sucrose ratios. We measured accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue and liver and determined obesity development, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics. Compared with mice fed diets with a low protein:sucrose ratio, mice fed diets with a high protein:sucrose ratio had significantly lower total burden of POPs in adipose tissue, were protected from obesity development and exhibited enhanced hepatic expression of genes involved in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics. Exposure to POPs, either as single compounds or mixtures, had no effect on obesity development, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the dietary composition of macronutrients profoundly modulates POP accumulation in adipose tissues adding an additional parameter to be included in future studies. Our results indicate that alterations in macronutrient composition might be an additional route for reducing total body burden of POPs. PMID:26507541

  18. Postprandial Metabolism of Macronutrients and Cardiometabolic Risk: Recent Developments, Emerging Concepts, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Parks, Elizabeth J; Bruno, Richard S; Tasali, Esra; Lewis, Gary F; Schneeman, Barbara O; Rains, Tia M

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the role of habitual lifestyle factors such as physical activity and dietary patterns in increasing CVD risk has long been appreciated, less is known about how acute daily activities may cumulatively contribute to long-term disease risk. Here, the term acute refers to metabolic responses occurring in a short period of time after eating, and the goal of this article is to review recently identified stressors that can occur after meals and during the sleep-wake cycle to affect macronutrient metabolism. It is hypothesized that these events, when repeated on a regular basis, contribute to the observed long-term behavioral risks identified in population studies. In this regard, developments in research methods have supported key advancements in 3 fields of macronutrient metabolism. The first of these research areas is the focus on the immediate postmeal metabolism, spanning from early intestinal adsorptive events to the impact of incretin hormones on these events. The second topic is a focus on the importance of meal components on postprandial vasculature function. Finally, some of the most exciting advances are being made in understanding dysregulation in metabolism early in the day, due to insufficient sleep, that may affect subsequent processing of nutrients throughout the day. Key future research questions are highlighted which will lead to a better understanding of the relations between nocturnal, basal (fasting), and early postmeal events, and aid in the development of optimal sleep and targeted dietary patterns to reduce cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26980820

  19. 5 CFR 1655.11 - Loan acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 1653.3(c); or (f) The participant has received a taxable loan distribution from the TSP within the... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan acceptance. 1655.11 Section 1655.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.11 Loan acceptance....

  20. 5 CFR 1655.11 - Loan acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 1653.3(c); or (f) The participant has received a taxable loan distribution from the TSP within the... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan acceptance. 1655.11 Section 1655.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.11 Loan acceptance....

  1. Macronutrient composition influence on breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Herrick, Jennifer; Sweeney, Carol; Guiliano, Anna; Baumgartner, Kathy; Byers, Tim; Slattery, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The association of dietary macronutrient composition with risk of breast cancer is not well understood. We investigated the macronutrient composition of diet in the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study. Logistic regression models were used for case-control comparisons adjusted for age, center, education, smoking, total activity, calories, dietary fiber, dietary calcium, height, parity, recent hormone exposure, reference year body mass index (BMI), and the interaction of BMI and recent hormone exposure. Breast cancer risk declined with increasing dietary fat and increased with carbohydrates similarly across ethnicity and menopausal status. Associations of carbohydrate (direct) and fat (inverse), particularly saturated and monounsaturated fat, with breast cancer were present among normal and overweight postmenopausal women and absent among obese postmenopausal women. No substantive differences were noted in the association of macronutrients with risk of breast cancer between non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women. Associations of the macronutrients carbohydrate and fat with breast cancer risk were attenuated among postmenopausal obese women. PMID:21271459

  2. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  3. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC). To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables) to BMI change/year (dependent variable). Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving)/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)+19.73 (84.44+total fat g)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving))*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P < 0.0001). DCCT/EDIC formula for four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.898 (102.2+protein g per serving)*4/(2,297+kilocalories per serving)+1.063 (264.2+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,297+ kilocalories per serving)–13.19 (24.29+dietary fiber g per serving)/ (2,297+kilocalories per serving)+ 0.973 (74.59+(total fat g per serving–PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,297+kilocalories per serving))*85.82–68.11 (n=1,055, R2=0.03, P < 0.0001). (FAO/WHO+ DCCT/EDIC formula forecasts averaged correlated strongly with published food group profiling findings except for potatoes and

  4. Effects of Maize Residue Removal and Tillage on Soil Erosion, Carbon, and Macronutrient Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, J.; Shipitalo, M.; Lal, R.; Dayton, E. A.; Hopkins, D.; Jones, F. S.; Joynes, A.; Dungait, J.

    2013-12-01

    Erosion by water is a principal process of soil degradation in agricultural lands. Soil erosion influences the storage and fluxes of C and key macronutrients N and P in soil surface layers. No till (NT) crop management significantly reduces erosion on susceptible landscapes. The selective removal of crop residues for bio-energy production from no-till systems has been suggested as a secondary crop, but the effect of this practice on the conservation benefits of NT has not been quantified. Therefore, this study was initiated in spring 2012 to examine the effects of soil management practices on erosion and associated macronutrient fluxes on erodible soils subjected to a high intensity simulated rain storm at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) in Coshocton, OH, U.S.A. The soil management practices evaluated included: long term no-till with 100% crop residue (NT100) , no-till with 50% crop reside (NT50), NT with complete crop residue removal (NT0), long term conventional tillage (CT), and long term no-tillage plots that were cultivated (TNT) with a rototiller before the rainfall application. A field rainfall simulator was utilized to apply rainfall at an intensity of 7 cm hr-1 to a 4 m2 area of each plot for 30 minutes. Total runoff from the NT0 plots (22.1 mm) was almost double compared with the NT 50% (13.3 mm), CT (12.8 mm) and TNT (12.8 mm) plots and was more than 5 times greater than the NT100 plots (4.4mm). CT and NT0 plots produced 40 (2.7 Mg ha-1) and 20 times (1.4 Mg ha-1) more soil loss, respectively, than NT100 plots (0.07 Mg ha-1). Tillage of the no-till (TNT) soil produced the largest sediment-bound fluxes of C and N, while sediment-bound P fluxes were largest in the CT soils. Natural abundance δ13C and δ15N values were distinct between eroded sediments and the source topsoils and suggested enhanced loss of older (>28 yrs) C residues in CT plots. All observations suggest NT management provides greater resilience to soils than CT during

  5. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes of children in Oklahoma child-care centres, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rasbold, Andrea H; Adamiec, Ruth; Anderson, Michael P; Campbell, Janis E; Horm, Diane M; Sitton, Leslie K; Sisson, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine macronutrients and micronutrients in foods served to and consumed by children at child-care centres in Oklahoma, USA and compare them with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Design Observed lunch nutrients compared with one-third of the age-based DRI (for 1–3 years-olds and 4–8-year-olds). Settings Oklahoma child-care centres (n 25), USA. Subjects Children aged 3–5 years (n 415). Results Regarding macronutrients, children were served 1782 (sd 686) kJ (426 (sd 164) kcal), 22·0 (sd 9·0) g protein, 51·5 (sd 20·4) g carbohydrate and 30·7 (sd 8·7) % total fat; they consumed 1305 (sd 669) kJ (312 (sd 160 kcal), 16·0 (sd 9·1) g protein, 37·6 (sd 18·5) g carbohydrate and 28·9 (sd 10·6) % total fat. For both age-based DRI: served energy (22–33 % of children), protein and carbohydrate exceeded; consumed energy (7–13% of children) and protein exceeded, while carbohydrate was inadequate. Regarding micronutrients, for both age-based DRI: served Mg (65·9 (sd 24·7) mg), Zn (3·8 (sd 11·8) mg), vitamin A (249·9 (sd 228·3) µg) and folate (71·9 (sd 40·1) µg) exceeded; vitamin E (1·4 (sd 2·1) mg) was inadequate; served Fe (2·8 (sd 1·8) mg) exceeded only in 1–3-year-olds. Consumed folate (48·3 (sd 38·4) µg) met; Ca (259·4 (sd 146·2) mg) and Zn (2·3 (sd 3·0) mg) exceeded for 1–3-year-olds, but were inadequate for 4–8-year-olds. For both age-based DRI: consumed Fe (1·9 (sd 1·2) mg) and vitamin E (1·0 (sd 1·7) mg) were inadequate; Mg (47·2 (sd 21·8) mg) and vitamin A (155·0 (sd 126·5) µg) exceeded. Conclusions Lunch at child-care centres was twice the age-based DRI for consumed protein, while energy and carbohydrate were inadequate. Areas of improvement for micronutrients pertain to Fe and vitamin E for all children; Ca, Zn, vitamin E and folate for older pre-schoolers. Adequate nutrients are essential for development and the study reveals where public health nutrition experts, policy makers and care providers

  6. Synergism by individual macronutrients explains the marked early GLP-1 and islet hormone responses to mixed meal challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahlkvist, L; Vikman, J; Pacini, G; Ahrén, B

    2012-10-10

    Apart from glucose, proteins and lipids also stimulate incretin and islet hormone secretion. However, the glucoregulatory effect of macronutrients in combination is poorly understood. We therefore developed an oral mixed meal model in mice to 1) explore the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and islet hormone responses to mixed meal versus isocaloric glucose, and 2) characterize the relative contribution of individual macronutrients to these responses. Anesthetized C57BL/6J female mice were orally gavaged with 1) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal; glucose, whey protein and peanut oil; 60/20/20% kcal) versus an isocaloric glucose load (0.285 kcal), and 2) a mixed meal (0.285 kcal) versus glucose, whey protein or peanut oil administered individually in their mixed meal caloric quantity, i.e., 0.171, 0.055 and 0.055 kcal, respectively. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin and intact GLP-1 before and during oral challenges. Plasma glucose was lower after mixed meal versus after isocaloric glucose ingestion. In spite of this, the peak insulin response (P=0.02), the peak intact GLP-1 levels (P=0.006) and the estimated β-cell function (P=0.005) were higher. Furthermore, the peak insulin (P=0.004) and intact GLP-1 (P=0.006) levels were higher after mixed meal ingestion than the sum of responses to individual macronutrients. Compared to glucose alone, we conclude that there is a marked early insulin response to mixed meal ingestion, which emanates from a synergistic, rather than an additive, effect of the individual macronutrients in the mixed meal and is in part likely caused by increased levels of GLP-1. PMID:22750278

  7. High wholegrain barley β-glucan lowers food intake but does not alter small intestinal macronutrient digestibility in ileorectostomised rats.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Hino, Shingo; Kondo, Takashi; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Topping, David L; Morita, Tatsuya; Bird, Anthony R

    2016-09-01

    Using barley cultivars differing widely in β-glucan content, we aimed to determine their effects on small intestinal macronutrient digestion in 24 ileorectostomised rats. The rats were fed 1 of 4 experimental diets, each containing a different barley variety, for 11 d. The diets had a content of 0, 2.1, 2.6 and 4.3 g of β-glucan/100 g. Feed intake and faecal excretion of fat, protein, starch, and non-starch polysaccharides were determined in the final 5 d of the study and apparent macronutrient digestibility calculated. Higher dietary levels of β-glucan (2.6% and 4.3%) lowered feed intake (by 15 and 19%, respectively) but final body weight was only lowered by the 4.3% β-glucan diet relative to rats fed the 0% β-glucan diet (all ps < 0.05). Protein, lipid and starch digestibility was unrelated to the dietary β-glucan content. Higher dietary levels of barley β-glucan lower feed intake of ileorectostomised rats, which is independent of intestinal fermentation and unrelated to macronutrient digestibility. PMID:27282074

  8. Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Kittl, S; Dickhaut, B; Schweiger, M; Pirke, K M

    1986-01-01

    Influence of diet composition on mood during weight-reducing diets was studied in healthy young women of normal weight. A broad range of macronutrient intake was achieved by means of divergent dietary instructions for the composition of a 1,000 kcal per day diet adhered to for six weeks. Global mood during the last three weeks of the diet was significantly better in the "vegetarian" than in the "mixed" diet group. During this time a significant correlation was observed between relative carbohydrate intake and global mood (r = -0.74; p less than 0.01) and between the ratio of plasma tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (a predictor of tryptophan flow into brain) and global mood (r = -0.52; p less than 0.05). Results suggest that group differences are related to differences in carbohydrate intake. It is hypothesized that impairment of central serotonergic function due to reduced tryptophan availability can prompt mood deterioration in situations of relatively low carbohydrate intake. PMID:3783150

  9. Health effects of changes in the structure of dietary macronutrients intake in western societies.

    PubMed

    Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    A Western-type diet, characterized by a significant share of highly processed and refined foods and high content of sugars, salt, fat and protein from red meat, has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the development of metabolic disorders and the obesity epidemic around the world. Excessive body fat causes metabolic pathologies, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. According to the World Health Organization 1.5 billion adults are overweight, nearly 500 million are obese and 220 million suffer from type 2 diabetes. The Western-type diet is also associated with an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease. It is known that a combination of nutrients typical for this diet contributes to impaired renal function, renal steatosis and inflammation, hypertension and dysfunctional renal hormonal regulation. The Western diet is also associated with a chronic inflammatory process that is involved in all stages of atherosclerosis development and is increasingly recognized as a universal mechanism of various chronic degenerative diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, some neoplasms or osteoporosis. The present article is focused on the results of the most recent research investigating the effects of dietary macronutrients and the type of fatty acids on selected mechanisms associated with the occurrence of the most common diet-related diseases. PMID:26024397

  10. Macronutrient Balance Modulates the Temperature-Size Rule in an Ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Pum; Jang, Taehwan; Ravzanaadii, Nergui; Rho, Myung Suk

    2015-08-01

    Most ectotherms mature at a larger body size in colder conditions, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. While a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain this rule, little work has been done to understand it from a nutritional perspective. We have used the final-instar caterpillars of Spodoptera litura to investigate how dietary protein∶carbohydrate (P∶C) balance influences the relationship between temperature and body size. The strength and direction of the thermal reaction norm for body size were significantly altered by dietary P∶C balance. The slope of the reaction norm was nearly flat for caterpillars raised on a balanced food ([Formula: see text]) but was significantly negative for those on nutritionally imbalanced foods (1∶5 or 5∶1), especially when carbohydrates were in considerable excess. These nutrient-dependent effects of temperature on body size were caused mainly by corresponding changes in body lipid storage. When allowed to choose between imbalanced diets, caterpillars increased their preference for carbohydrates to meet high energy demands at higher temperatures. The slope of the thermal reaction norm for body size was substantially reduced by such a temperature-driven shift in nutrient preference, indicating that the impact of high temperature on body size was buffered by altered food selection. This study highlights the importance of macronutrient balance as a key factor modulating the relationship between temperature and body size in ectotherms and provides a novel approach for understanding the temperature-size rule. PMID:26655150

  11. Diet Macronutrients Composition in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review on the Related Documents

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi Kani, Ali; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health problem in both developed and developing countries. Metabolic abnormalities, specially insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are highly correlated with NAFLD. Lifestyle modifications including physical activity and promoting nutrient intakes are critical in prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hence, in this article we aimed to review the evidence regarding the effects of various macronutrients on fat accumulation in hepatic cells as well as the level of liver enzymes. Evidence Acquisitions: The relevant English and non-English published papers were searched using online databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, Science Direct and EMBASE from January 2000 to January 2013. We summarized the findings of 40 relevant studies in this review. Results: Although a hypocaloric diet could prevent the progression of fat accumulation in liver, the diet composition is another aspect which should be considered in diet therapy of patients with NAFLD. Conclusions: Several studies assessed the effects of dietary composition on fat storage in liver; however, their findings are inconsistent. Most studies focused on the quantity of carbohydrate and dietary fat; whilst there is very limited information regarding the role of protein intake. PMID:24693306

  12. Light limitation of phytoplankton biomass and macronutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, B.G.; Brody, E.A.; Holm-Hansen, O. ); McClain, C. ); Bishop, J. )

    1991-12-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is unique in that it has continually high concentrations of major plant nutrients but low phytoplankton biomass. This enigmatic phenomenon is the focus of significant speculation that trace nutrients, including Fe, may limit phytoplankton crop size. Global climatologies indicate that the ACC is a region with low surface temperatures, weak density stratification, little summertime surface solar irradiance, and strong wind stress. These physical phenomena act to limit growth rates of the phytoplankton community. Using a photo-physiological description of phytoplankton growth in a simple one-dimensional ecosystem model forced by observations or climatologies of mixing depth and surface irradiance, the authors make an evaluation of the potential for massive, nutrient-exhausting, phytoplankton blooms forming in the ACC. The ACC has persistent mixed layers in excess of 50 m. Literature values and model optimization indicate that the minimal aggregate specific loss rate and typical physical conditions of stratification and surface irradiance, the model predicts that phytoplankton in the ACC would not utilize >10% of the available macronutrients. Without a mechanism for increasing the strength of stratification, the authors predict that massive Fe additions to the Southern Ocean would fail to significantly mitigate the atmospheric CO{sub 2} derived from fossil fuel.

  13. Dissolution kinetics of macronutrient fertilizers coated with manufactured zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Beak, Douglas G; Cornelis, Geert

    2012-04-25

    The solubility of Zn in Zn fertilizers plays an important role in the agronomic effectiveness of the fertilizer. On the basis of thermodynamics, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) should dissolve faster and to a greater extent than bulk ZnO particles (equivalent spherical diameter >100 nm). These novel solubility features of ZnO NPs might be exploited to improve the efficiency of Zn fertilizers. In this study, we compared the Zn solubility and dissolution kinetics of ZnO nanoparticles and bulk ZnO particles coated onto two selected granular macronutrient fertilizers, urea and monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The main Zn species on coated MAP and urea granules were zinc ammonium phosphate and ZnO, respectively. Coated MAP granules showed greater Zn solubility and faster dissolution rates in sand columns compared to coated urea granules, which may be related to pH differences in the solution surrounding the fertilizer granules. The kinetics of Zn dissolution was not affected by the size of the ZnO particles applied for coating of either fertilizer type, possibly because solubility was controlled by formation of the same compounds irrespective of the size of the original ZnO particles used for coating. PMID:22480134

  14. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  15. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  16. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  17. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  18. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants12345

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E; Tanaka, Toshiko; Cade, Brian E; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Hruby, Adela; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Richardson, Kris; Saxena, Richa; Scheer, Frank AJL; Kovanen, Leena; Bartz, Traci M; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Jonsson, Anna; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Mikkilä, Vera; Partonen, Timo; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lahti, Jari; Hernandez, Dena G; Toft, Ulla; Johnson, W Craig; Kanoni, Stavroula; Raitakari, Olli T; Perola, Markus; Psaty, Bruce M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Grarup, Niels; Highland, Heather M; Rallidis, Loukianos; Kähönen, Mika; Havulinna, Aki S; Siscovick, David S; Räikkönen, Katri; Jørgensen, Torben; Rotter, Jerome I; Deloukas, Panos; Viikari, Jorma SA; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linneberg, Allan; Seppälä, Ilkka; Hansen, Torben; Salomaa, Veikko; Gharib, Sina A; Eriksson, Johan G; Bandinelli, Stefania; Pedersen, Oluf; Rich, Stephen S; Dedoussis, George; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. Objectives: We examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. Design: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Results: We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001) in the overall sample; however, associations between sleep duration and relative macronutrient intake were evident in age- and sex-stratified analyses only. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower saturated fatty acid intake in younger (aged 20–64 y) adults (men: 0.11 ± 0.06%, P = 0.03; women: 0.10 ± 0.05%, P = 0.04) and with lower carbohydrate (−0.31 ± 0.12%, P < 0.01), higher total fat (0.18 ± 0.09%, P = 0.05), and higher PUFA (0.05 ± 0.02%, P = 0.02) intakes in older (aged 65–80 y) women. In addition, the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. Conclusions: Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex-specific favorable dietary behaviors. Differences in the relative intake of specific macronutrients associated with short sleep duration could, at least in part, explain

  19. Influence of macronutrients and polyethylene glycol on intake of a quebracho tannin diet by sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Banner, R E

    2002-12-01

    We determined if supplemental macronutrients or polyethylene glycol (PEG) influenced intake of a tannin diet. Sheep (lambs 5 mo age, 36 kg) and goats (kids 7 mo age, 32 kg) were fed supplements high in either energy or protein or offered a choice between the two supplements before and after receiving a meal containing 15% quebracho tannin. The effect of PEG, a compound that attenuates the negative effects of tannins, was assessed by offering PEG while animals consumed the tannin diet for 4 h/d. Intake of the tannin diet was influenced by both macronutrients and PEG. Animals that chose their own supplements or that received the high-protein supplement, consumed more of the tannin diet than animals fed the high-energy supplement: 34 and 36 vs 31 g/kg(0.75) (lambs) and 41 and 39 vs 34 g/kg(0.75) (kids), respectively (P < 0.05). Animals supplemented with PEG ate much more of the tannin diet than unsupplemented animals: 70 vs 39 g/kg(0.75) (lambs) and 63 vs 34 g/kg(0.75) (kids), respectively (P < 0.001). Sheep and goats consumed more tannin food when given PEG than when supplemented with macronutrients (51 and 38 g/kg(0.75), P < 0.001). Sheep and goats offered a choice between supplements consumed more CP than animals fed the high-energy supplement and more ME than animals fed the high-protein supplement (P < 0.05). In so doing, they selected a combination of foods that yielded a more balanced intake of macronutrients, while achieving high levels of intake of the tannin food. Sheep and goats can be used as an environmentally safe and economically sound means to reduce the abundance of tannin-rich vegetation. Macronutrients and PEG enhance use of tannin-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of species in a plant community. PMID:12542156

  20. Conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Hardin, James W.; Nichols, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Validation-study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information—conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Subjects and design Children were observed eating school meals on one day (n = 12), or two (n = 13) or three (n = 79) nonconsecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat), and compared. Main outcome measures For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), inflation ratios (error measures). Statistical analyses Mixed-model analyses. Results Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (Ps > .61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (Ps < .04), indicating that reporting accuracy improved over time; inflation ratios decreased, although not significantly, over interviews, also suggesting that reporting accuracy improved over time. Correspondence rates were lower than report rates, indicating that reporting accuracy was worse than implied by conventional measures. Conclusions When analyzed using the reporting-error-sensitive approach, children’s dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. Applications The reporting

  1. Quantifying Sequestration of Carbon in the Ocean following Addition of Macronutrient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, D. P.; Lawrence, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of addition of limiting nutrients to the surface waters of the deep ocean has been investigated for the last twenty years, partly to explore ocean biogeochemical processes and partly because of the potential for sequestration of carbon in the deep ocean. Investigations have been performed for micronutrients (iron) and macronutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous). A methodology of estimating carbon stored is introduced here based on fertilization with nitrogen in those regions in which nitrogen is the limiting nutrient. The basis of the methodology is a combination of measurements in the photic zone and numerical modelling of the biogeochemical cycle. The calculation of the quantity of sequestered carbon is, after allowance for losses, equal to the carbon that is taken up by photosynthesis (new primary production equals export production) resulting from the added nitrogen. An essential feature of the biogeochemical process is that the added nitrogen is not lost from the upper waters by export to the deep ocean unless accompanied by carbon, in approximately the Redfield ratio. Determination of the quantity of carbon sequestered consists of three steps: (1.) Determination of the quantity of carbon converted by photosynthesis to biological form (new primary production). (2.) Allowance for factors potentially affecting carbon sequestration, such as: Loss of reactive nitrogen from the ocean; Greenhouse Gas (GHG) production by photosynthesis; GHG production by denitrification; GHG production following upwelling; Air-sea carbon transfer efficiency; Calcium carbonate production; Alkalinity change; and Respiration. (3.) Allowance for carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere during the manufacture and transport processes involved in providing added nutrients to the ocean. With these three steps, the net quantity of carbon sequestered by fertilisation may be determined.

  2. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation.

    PubMed

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 10(6) bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, "planktonic" state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system. PMID:27148183

  3. Macronutrient content of a hypoenergy diet affects nitrogen retention and muscle function in weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Walberg, J L; Leidy, M K; Sturgill, D J; Hinkle, D E; Ritchey, S J; Sebolt, D R

    1988-08-01

    Weight lifters (WL) attempt to achieve a low body fat while maintaining fat free mass (FFM) and muscle function. Body composition and isometric muscular endurance were tested in 19 experienced male WL at the end of a weight maintenance and exercise routine standardization week. The subjects were assigned to either a control (C), moderate-protein (0.8 g.kg-1.d-1), high-carbohydrate hypoenergy diet (MP/HC), or high-protein (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1), moderate-carbohydrate hypoenergy diet (HP/MC). Both hypoenergy diets provided 75.3 kJ (18 kcal).kg-1.d-1. Apparent nitrogen balance (NBAL) was assessed using nitrogen in the diet, urine, and sweat. Body fat and FFM loss via hydrostatic weighing were not different between the hypoenergy groups. However, lean body mass (LBM) change as assessed by NBAL showed that the MP/HC group had an average negative NBAL of -3.19 g.d-1 while the HP/MC group had a positive NBAL of 4.13 g.d-1. Macronutrient mix did not affect biceps endurance, but quadriceps endurance declined for the HP/MC group during the experimental week. In conclusion, a hypoenergy diet providing twice the RDA for protein was more effective in retaining body protein in WL than a diet with higher carbohydrate but the RDA for protein. However, the lower carbohydrate of this diet contributed to reduced muscular endurance in these athletes. PMID:3182156

  4. Developmental contributions to macronutrient selection: a randomized controlled trial in adult survivors of malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Claudia P.; Raubenheimer, David; Badaloo, Asha V.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Martinez, Claudia; Gosby, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J.; Osmond, Clive; Boyne, Michael S.; Forrester, Terrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Birthweight differences between kwashiorkor and marasmus suggest that intrauterine factors influence the development of these syndromes of malnutrition and may modulate risk of obesity through dietary intake. We tested the hypotheses that the target protein intake in adulthood is associated with birthweight, and that protein leveraging to maintain this target protein intake would influence energy intake (EI) and body weight in adult survivors of malnutrition. Methodology: Sixty-three adult survivors of marasmus and kwashiorkor could freely compose a diet from foods containing 10, 15 and 25 percentage energy from protein (percentage of energy derived from protein (PEP); Phase 1) for 3 days. Participants were then randomized in Phase 2 (5 days) to diets with PEP fixed at 10%, 15% or 25%. Results: Self-selected PEP was similar in both groups. In the groups combined, selected PEP was 14.7, which differed significantly (P < 0.0001) from the null expectation (16.7%) of no selection. Self-selected PEP was inversely related to birthweight, the effect disappearing after adjusting for sex and current body weight. In Phase 2, PEP correlated inversely with EI (P = 0.002) and weight change from Phase 1 to 2 (P = 0.002). Protein intake increased with increasing PEP, but to a lesser extent than energy increased with decreasing PEP. Conclusions and implications: Macronutrient intakes were not independently related to birthweight or diagnosis. In a free-choice situation (Phase 1), subjects selected a dietary PEP significantly lower than random. Lower PEP diets induce increased energy and decreased protein intake, and are associated with weight gain. PMID:26817484

  5. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C.; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 106 bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, “planktonic” state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system. PMID:27148183

  6. Riboflavin requirement of healthy elderly humans and its relationship to macronutrient composition of the diet.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, W A; Mendoza, I; Castañeda, C; De Portocarrero, L; Solomons, N W; Gershoff, S N; Russell, R M

    1993-05-01

    The riboflavin requirements of two groups of riboflavin-deficient, but otherwise healthy, Guatemalan elderly persons over the age of 60 y were studied by varying the fat:carbohydrate ratio in two diets. The first group consumed a diet similar in macronutrient content to a Western-type diet with low carbohydrate and high fat; the second group consumed a typical Guatemalan diet with high carbohydrate and low fat. Energy and protein intakes of both groups were similar. Riboflavin status was monitored by weekly measurements of erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) and urinary riboflavin excretion. Increasing increments of riboflavin were added to the subjects' diets until their status was normalized, as indicated by EGRAC of < 1.34 and a sharp increase in urinary riboflavin excretion. Using the EGRAC method, the mean value of riboflavin intake at which the subjects' EGRAC reached the limit of normality was 1.37 +/- 0.03 mg/d in the first phase and 1.29 +/- 0.03 mg/d in the second phase. The sharp increase in urinary excretion occurred at riboflavin intakes of 1.13 and 1.03 mg/d for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Thus, the differences between the two groups suggest that diets with a lower fat:carbohydrate ratio can decrease the dietary need for riboflavin. The dietary requirement of riboflavin, as estimated by the more reliable urinary excretion method, was 1.1-1.3 mg/d for those consuming the Western-type diet, which is similar to values found over 40 y ago in young adults. We conclude that the dietary requirements of riboflavin in the elderly do not differ from those of young adults. PMID:8487103

  7. Macronutrient Composition or Social Determinants? Impact on Infant Outcomes With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Trout, Kimberly K; Homko, Carol J; Wetzel-Effinger, Lisa; Mulla, Wadia; Mora, Ricardo; McGrath, Joanna; Basel-Brown, Lisa; Arcamone, Angelina; Sami, Parichehr; Makambi, Kepher H

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through a randomized, controlled trial, the effects of a maternal carbohydrate-restricted diet on maternal and infant outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women diagnosed with GDM were randomly allocated into one of two groups: an intervention group that was placed on a lower-carbohydrate diet (35-40% of total calories) or a control group that was placed on the usual pregnancy diet (50-55% carbohydrate). A convenience sample of participants diagnosed with GDM (ages 18-45 years) was recruited from two different sites: one urban and low-income and the other suburban and more affluent. Individual face-to-face diet instruction occurred with certified diabetes educators at both sites. Participants tested their blood glucose four times daily. Specific socioeconomic status indicators included enrollment in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children or Medicaid-funded health insurance, as well as cross-sectional census data. All analyses were based on an intention to treat. Although there were no differences found between the lower-carbohydrate and usual-care diets in terms of blood glucose or maternal-infant outcomes, there were significant differences noted between the two sites. There was a lower mean postprandial blood glucose (100.59 ± 7.3 mg/dL) at the suburban site compared to the urban site (116.3 ± 15 mg/dL) (P <0.01), even though there was no difference in carbohydrate intake. There were increased amounts of protein and fat consumed at the suburban site (P <0.01), as well as lower infant complications (P <0.01). Further research is needed to determine whether these disparities in outcomes were the result of macronutrient proportions or environmental conditions. PMID:27182173

  8. Summer and fall ants have different physiological responses to food macronutrient content.

    PubMed

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2016-04-01

    Seasonally, long-lived animals exhibit changes in behavior and physiology in response to shifts in environmental conditions, including food abundance and nutritional quality. Ants are long-lived arthropods that, at the colony level, experience such seasonal shifts in their food resources. Previously we reported summer- and fall-collected ants practiced distinct food collection behavior and nutrient intake regulation strategies in response to variable food protein and carbohydrate content, despite being reared in the lab under identical environmental conditions and dietary regimes. Seasonally distinct responses were observed for both no-choice and choice dietary experiments. Using data from these same experiments, our objective here is to examine colony and individual-level physiological traits, colony mortality and growth, food processing, and worker lipid mass, and how these traits change in response to variable food protein-carbohydrate content. For both experiments we found that seasonality per se exerted strong effects on colony and individual level traits. Colonies collected in the summer maintained total worker mass despite high mortality. In contrast, colonies collected in the fall lived longer, and accumulated lipids, including when reared on protein-biased diets. Food macronutrient content had mainly transient effects on physiological responses. Extremes in food carbohydrate content however, elicited a compensatory response in summer worker ants, which processed more protein-biased foods and contained elevated lipid levels. Our study, combined with our previously published work, strongly suggests that underlying physiological phenotypes driving behaviors of summer and fall ants are likely fixed seasonally, and change circannually. PMID:26860359

  9. Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: macronutrients and condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Houle, Alain; Conklin-Brittain, Nancy L; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Competing successfully for the best feeding sites is an important behavioral strategy but little is known about how feeding sites vary nutritionally within a fruit tree. To answer this question we tested how the nutritional value of a fruit is influenced by its ripeness and its height within the tree crown. A complementary objective was to assess the nutritional value of the midripe fruit, a food item rarely mentioned in the literature despite being exploited on a daily basis by many frugivores. We measured how the dry weight of pulp, water content, and concentration of macronutrients and condensed tannins varied within the tree crowns of 15 fruit species. Collections occurred early in the fruiting cycle, so as to assess the amount of food in the tree before its exploitation by primates. We found that (1) the upper crown produced fruit densities 4.2 times higher, and a fruit crop 4.8 times larger, than the lower crown of the same tree; (2) considering only midripe and ripe stages, upper-crown fruits contained 28.6% more dry pulp, 21.1% more water, and 13.5% more sugars per dry matter than lower-crown fruits of the same tree; (3) midripe fruits contained 80% of the concentrations of sugars of ripe fruits, making them a sweeter food item than one would expect from the intermediate color of their epidermis; (4) cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins, and ash proportionally decreased in concentration while dry pulp and sugars increased during ripening; and (5) ripe fruits were usually rare in the tree (<0.5% of all fruit available) compared to midripe fruits (3-8%). Overall, upper-crown feeding sites produced a higher density and quality of food than lower-crown sites of the same tree. Our data therefore provide a clear nutritional explanation for why tree-feeding frugivores compete for the highest feeding sites. PMID:24865650

  10. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  11. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  12. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  13. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  14. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  15. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana

    2012-01-01

    This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC) change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case–control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18–70 y), mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white) bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss) were inconclusive. PMID:22893781

  16. Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana

    2012-01-01

    This systematic literature review examined the role of dietary macronutrient composition, food consumption and dietary patterns in predicting weight or waist circumference (WC) change, with and without prior weight reduction. The literature search covered year 2000 and onwards. Prospective cohort studies, case-control studies and interventions were included. The studies had adult (18-70 y), mostly Caucasian participants. Out of a total of 1,517 abstracts, 119 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After a careful scrutiny, 50 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B or C. Forty-three papers with grading A or B were included in evidence grading, which was done separately for all exposure-outcome combinations. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or no conclusion. We found probable evidence for high intake of dietary fibre and nuts predicting less weight gain, and for high intake of meat in predicting more weight gain. Suggestive evidence was found for a protective role against increasing weight from whole grains, cereal fibre, high-fat dairy products and high scores in an index describing a prudent dietary pattern. Likewise, there was suggestive evidence for both fibre and fruit intake in protection against larger increases in WC. Also suggestive evidence was found for high intake of refined grains, and sweets and desserts in predicting more weight gain, and for refined (white) bread and high energy density in predicting larger increases in WC. The results suggested that the proportion of macronutrients in the diet was not important in predicting changes in weight or WC. In contrast, plenty of fibre-rich foods and dairy products, and less refined grains, meat and sugar-rich foods and drinks were associated with less weight gain in prospective cohort studies. The results on the role of dietary macronutrient composition in prevention of weight regain (after prior weight loss) were inconclusive. PMID:22893781

  17. In vitro antiplasmodial activity, macronutrients and trace metals in the medicinal plants: Phyllanthus spp. and Alpinia conchigera Griff.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, M S; Aiyub, Z; Bakar, N K A; Tohar, N; Musa, Y; Abdullah, N R; Ibrahim, H; Awang, K

    2015-03-01

    An antiplasmodial screening of Phyllanthus debilis and Phyllanthus urinaria was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D10 (chloroquine-sensitive, CQS) and Gombak A (chloroquine-resistant, CQR) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic crudes from the soxhlet extraction were active against both strains however, P. urinaria (IC50 8.9 μg/ml with CQR strain) exhibited better anti-malarial activity compared to P. debilis (IC50 12.2 μg/ml with CQR strain). Furthermore, the methanolic crude of P. urinaria obtained by the cold extraction has good anti-malarial activity towards CQS (IC50 4.1 μg/ml). The concentration of macronutrients (calcium and magnesium) and trace metals (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) from three Phyllanthus species i.e. P. debilis Klein ex Wild., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L. and Alpinia conchigera Griff. were determined using microwave digestion method and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Standard Reference Material 1547 (peach leaves) was used to validate the method throughout this study. The recovery values were in the range of 80% to 120% which were in very good agreement with the certified values. The three Phyllanthus species and leaves of A. conchigera showed the highest concentration of calcium compared to other metals and macronutrients studied. The significant presence of all the important macronutrients and trace metals which are essential for human health and well-being substantiate their use medicinally in traditional practices. PMID:25801263

  18. The Impact of Macronutrients on Retinal Microvasculature among Singapore Pregnant Women during the Mid-Late Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Jun; Ong, Peng Guan; Colega, Marjorelee T.; Han, Chad Yixian; Chen, Ling Wei; Man Eyn Kidd, Ryan; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap Seng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Wong, Tien Yin; Chong Foong-Fong, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Imbalanced macronutrient intakes can induce impairment of endothelial and vascular function, and further lead to metabolic and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the influence of such diets on endothelial and vascular dysfunction in pregnant women, even though high-fat diet is a known risk for pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. Objective We aimed to assess the association between maternal macronutrient intakes (protein, fat and carbohydrates), dietary quality and retinal microvascular changes in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Methods Pregnant women (n = 614) with singleton pregnancies were recruited during their first trimester from June 2009 to Sep 2010. Maternal diet quality and macronutrient intakes, expressed as a percentage of total energy during pregnancy, were ascertained using 24 hr recalls and 3 d food diaries at 26–28 weeks gestation. Retinal examination was completed at the same clinic visit. Dietary quality was assessed and scored using the Health Eating Index in Asian Pregnant women (HEI-AP), while macronutrients intakes ware expressed as percentages of total energy and further log transformed for analysis. Associations were examined cross-sectionally by substitution models with the use of multiple linear regression. Results In adjusted model, each 20 points decrease in HEI-AP score was associated with a significant increase of 1.70 μm (p<0.05) in retinal venular calibre. Each 0.1 log increase in percentage of total fat intake was associated with a significant increment of 1.84 μm (p<0.05) in retinal venular caliber. Additionally, each 0.1 log increase in percentage of mono-unsaturated fat intake was associated with an increment of 1.84 μm (p<0.01) in retinal venular caliber. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, we found that women with higher fat and lower protein intakes, and lower diet quality tended to have wider retinal venular caliber, which is

  19. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  20. Enhanced Lacto-Tri-Peptide Bio-Availability by Co-Ingestion of Macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Ten Have, Gabriella A M; van der Pijl, Pieter C; Kies, Arie K; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2015-01-01

    Some food-derived peptides possess bioactive properties, and may affect health positively. For example, the C-terminal lacto-tri-peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), Leu-Pro-Pro (LPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) (together named here XPP) are described to lower blood pressure. The bioactivity depends on their availability at the site of action. Quantitative trans-organ availability/kinetic measurements will provide more insight in C-terminal tri-peptides behavior in the body. We hypothesize that the composition of the meal will modify their systemic availability. We studied trans-organ XPP fluxes in catheterized pigs (25 kg; n=10) to determine systemic and portal availability, as well as renal and hepatic uptake of a water-based single dose of synthetic XPP and a XPP containing protein matrix (casein hydrolyte, CasH). In a second experiment (n=10), we compared the CasH-containing protein matrix with a CasH-containing meal matrix and the modifying effects of macronutrients in a meal on the availability (high carbohydrates, low quality protein, high fat, and fiber). Portal availability of synthetic XPP was 0.08 ± 0.01% of intake and increased when a protein matrix was present (respectively 3.1, 1.8 and 83 times for IPP, LPP and VPP). Difference between individual XPP was probably due to release from longer peptides. CasH prolonged portal bioavailability with 18 min (absorption half-life, synthetic XPP: 15 ± 2 min, CasH: 33 ± 3 min, p<0.0001) and increased systemic elimination with 20 min (synthetic XPP: 12 ± 2 min; CasH: 32 ± 3 min, p<0.0001). Subsequent renal and hepatic uptake is about 75% of the portal release. A meal containing CasH, increased portal 1.8 and systemic bioavailability 1.2 times. Low protein quality and fiber increased XPP systemic bioavailability further (respectively 1.5 and 1.4 times). We conclude that the amount and quality of the protein, and the presence of fiber in a meal, are the main factors that increase the systemic bioavailability of food

  1. Healthy Eating Index 2005 and selected macronutrients are correlated with improved lung function in humans.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin M; Houser, Shannon M; Anderson, John J B; Dawson, Hannah R

    2014-04-01

    A number of dietary components have been associated with lung function. However, a comprehensive measure of a healthy diet has not been compared with lung function. Herein, we test the hypothesis that a healthy overall diet, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), will be associated with increased lung function. This is an investigation using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Research Materials obtained from the National Heart Lung Blood Institute. The study surveyed dietary habits of 15 567 American subjects from 4 communities in 1987 to 1990. Spirometric measures of lung function were also taken at entry to the study and a second time 3 years later. Based on food and nutritional data collected by food frequency questionnaire, an HEI-2005 score was calculated for each subject. This total score, together with its 12 components scores and associated macronutrient, was compared with lung function results by linear regression. Models were controlled for smoking behavior, demographics, and other important covariates. The HEI-2005 total scores were positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second per forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) at visit 1 (β = .101 per increase in 1 quintile of HEI-2005) and visit 2 (β = .140), and FEV(1) as percentage of the predicted FEV(1) at visit 2 (β = .215) (P < .05). In addition, HEI-2005 component scores that represented high intakes of whole grains (β = .127 and .096); saturated fats (β = -.091); and solid fats, alcohol, and added sugar (β = -.109 and -.131) were significantly associated with FEV(1)/FVC at either visit 1 or visit 2. Intakes of total calories (β =-.082 at visit 1) and saturated fatty acids (β = -.085 at visit 2) were negatively associated with FEV(1)/FVC. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (β = .085 and .116) and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (β = .109 and .103), animal protein (β = .132 and .093), and dietary fiber (β = .129) were positively associated with lung health

  2. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  3. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  4. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  5. Assessing the gluten content in wheat as an expression of the nutrition deficit, through beta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pîslea, Daniela; Boldea, Marius; Sala, Florin

    2013-10-01

    The laboratory analysis of the gluten content of wheat in relation to the doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium used for fertilizing the soil reveals positive correlation between the two variables. The gluten content in wheat grains is an extremely important quality index in bread manufacturing. One of the farmers' objectives is to obtain high values of this index. The quality of bread manufacturing products is very sensitive to any changes in the percentage share of this indicator. The minimum limit of gluten accepted for bread manufacturing is 26%; even a small variation, of one percentage, of gluten, over this limit, changes the quality of the wheat yield, with considerable effects on the quality of bread. Therefore, farmers are interested in using crop technologies and especially fertilization in order to obtain wheat with high gluten content. Of the nutritive macronutrients, nitrogen plays a significant role in ensuring high gluten content. The definition domain of the measurements is (0;1). This ratio is not constant, but it has a tendency towards a certain medium value, depending on the chemical fertilizers, on fertilization. It follows that the statistic distribution which evaluates the phenomenon is the beta distribution.

  6. Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been questioned and reassessed. Modern nutritional recommendations for people with diabetes are headed towards individualization, but lack specific guidelines. Nutritional algorithms may help nutritionists in diabetes meal planning. This review aims to discuss: 1) the effects of the three major macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) on glucose levels, 2) current recommendations for macronutrient intake for people with diabetes, and 3) specific parameters that need to be taken into consideration when determining the macronutrient composition for a person with diabetes, for example body mass index, degree of insulin resistance, HbA1c value, and lipid profile (especially triglycerides and HDL cholesterol). These aspects are analyzed in the context of the results of recent studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Finally, we introduce an individualized nutritional concept that proposes carbohydrate over lipid restriction, substitution of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, and adequate intake of dietary fiber, which are key factors in optimizing diabetes management. PMID:27563693

  7. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  8. [The acceptability of different oral contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Fritzsche, H; Hempel, E; Carol, W; Böhme, W; Scholz, B; Grass, M; Chemnitius, K H

    1975-05-01

    Results of a survey of contraceptive acceptability are reported. In formation on oral and depot hormonal contraceptives was distributed to 1064 Ovosiston or Nonovlon users, 110 women using depot contraceptives, and 609 women who had never used hormonal contraception. The women's preferences with regard to administration schedule, and their perceptions of effectiveness and safety were noted. Non-users considered daily, weekly, or monthly administration acceptable, while only 2/3 of those taking oral contraceptives thought daily administration convenient. 90.2% of Deposiston patients did not care for daily administration. Deposiston patients also had the greatest confidence in their method. The authors believe on the basis of this survey that weekly administration may be highly acceptable alternative t o conventional oral contraception. PMID:1140078

  9. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. PMID:26190646

  10. Predicting In vitro Culture Medium Macro-Nutrients Composition for Pear Rootstocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, S.; Yadollahi, A.; Ahmadi, H.; Arab, M. M.; Eftekhari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Two modeling techniques [artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and stepwise regression analysis] were used to predict the effect of medium macro-nutrients on in vitro performance of pear rootstocks (OHF and Pyrodwarf). The ANN-GA described associations between investigating eight macronutrients (NO3-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, PO42-, SO42-, and Cl−) and explant growth parameters [proliferation rate (PR), shoot length (SL), shoot tip necrosis (STN), chlorosis (Chl), and vitrification (Vitri)]. ANN-GA revealed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction than for regression models. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables concentrations (mM), NH4+ (301.7), and NO3-, NH4+ (64), SO42- (54.1), K+ (40.4), and NO3- (35.1) in OHF and Ca2+ (23.7), NH4+ (10.7), NO3- (9.1), NH4+ (317.6), and NH4+ (79.6) in Pyrodwarf had the highest values of VSR in data set, respectively, for PR, SL, STN, Chl, and Vitri. The ANN-GA showed that media containing (mM) 62.5 NO3-, 5.7 NH4+, 2.7 Ca2+, 31.5 K+, 3.3 Mg2+, 2.6 PO42-, 5.6 SO42-, and 3.5 Cl− could lead to optimal PR for OHF and optimal PR for Pyrodwarf may be obtained with media containing 25.6 NO3-, 13.1 NH4+, 5.5 Ca2+, 35.7 K+, 1.5 Mg2+, 2.1 PO42-, 3.6 SO42-, and 3 Cl−. PMID:27066013

  11. Foods, macronutrients and fibre in the diet of blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur) in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Achyut; Coogan, Sean C P; Ji, Weihong; Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-09-01

    Food resources are often critical regulating factors affecting individual fitness and population densities. In the Himalayan Mountains, Bharal "blue sheep" (Pseudois nayaur) are the main food resource for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as well as being preyed upon by other predators. Blue sheep, however, may face a number of challenges including food resource competition with other wild and domestic ungulates, and hunting pressure. Here, we characterized the diet of blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal and conducted proximate nutritional analysis on a limited number of plants identified as foods. Furthermore, we investigated the macronutrient and fiber balance of these plants using nutritional geometry which is a state-space approach to modeling multidimensional and interactive nutritional aspects of foraging. A total of 19 plant species/genera were identified in blue sheep pellets using microhistological analysis. On average, across seasons and regions of the study area, the two most frequently occurring plants in pellets were graminoids: Kobressia sp. and Carex spp. The macronutrient balance of Kobresia sp. was relatively high in carbohydrate and low in protein, while other plants in the diet were generally higher in protein and lipid content. Analysis of fiber balance showed that the two most consumed plants of blue sheep (i.e., Kobresia spp. and Carex spp.) contained the highest concentration of hemicellulose, which is likely digestible by blue sheep. The hemicellulose and lignin balance of plants ranged relatively widely, yet their cellulose contents showed less variation. Foraging by blue sheep may therefore be a balance between consuming highly digestible high-carbohydrate plants and plants less-digestible but higher in protein and/or lipid. PMID:26445655

  12. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect of dietary intake of macronutrient: results from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Asmae; Rostom, Samira; Hassani, Asmae; El Badri, Dalal; Bouaadi, Ilham; Barakat, Amina; Chkirat, Bouchra; Elkari, Khalid; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering out patient with JIA. The characteristics of patients were collected. The nutritional status was assessed by a food questionnaire including data of food intake during 7 consecutive days using 24-hour dietary recall. Food intake was quantified using the software Bilnut (Bilnut version 2.01, 1991). Dietary intake of macronutrients was expressed as percentage contribution to total energy. Body composition was evaluated with DXA total-body measurements (bone mineral content BMC expressed in g, lean body mass LBM and fat mass FM expressed in kg). Results 33 patients were included. The mean age was 10.4 ± 4.3 years. The median disease duration was 2 (1-4.5) years. The median of LBM, FM and BMC were 19 kg (13.82-33.14), 5 kg (3.38-9.14) and 1044.90 g (630.40-1808.90) respectively. We found a positive correlation between LBM and dietary intake of carbohydrate (r= 0.4; p = 0.03). There were no significant association between LBM and intake of lipids, or protein. Moreover, no association was found between FM, BMC and intake of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a positive correlation between carbohydrates intake and LBM; however, dietary intake does not influence FM and BMC. Prospective studies with larger numbers of patients appear to be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26161167

  13. Nucleotides, micro- and macro-nutrients, limonoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamates composition in the phloem sap of sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Manthey, John A; Van der Merwe, Deon; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-06-01

    Currently, the global citrus production is declining due to the spread of Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB, otherwise known as citrus greening, is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllids (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. ACP transmits CLas bacterium while feeding on the citrus phloem sap. Multiplication of CLas in the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for CLas. In this study, we investigated the micro- and macro-nutrients, nucleotides, and others secondary metabolites of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. The micro- and macro-nutrients were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Nucleotides and other secondary metabolites analysis was accomplished by reversed phase HPLC coupled with UV, fluorescence detection, or negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Calcium (89 mM) was the highest element followed by potassium (38.8 mM) and phosphorous (24 mM). Magnesium and sulfur were also abundant and their concentrations were 15 and 9 mM, respectively. The rest of the elements were found in low amounts (< 2mM). The concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP were 16, 31, and 3 µ mole/Kg fwt, respectively. GTP, GMP. NAD, FMN, FAD, and riboflavin were found at concentrations below (3 µ mole/Kg fwt). The phloem was rich in nomilin 124 mM and limonin 176 µ mole/Kg fwt. Hesperidin, vicenin-2, sinensetin, and nobiletin were the most predominant flavonoids. In addition, several hydroxycinnamates were detected. The results of this study will increase our knowledge about the nature and the chemical composition of citrus phloem sap. PMID:27171979

  14. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  15. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:24095784

  16. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  17. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  18. Acceptance test report 2721-Z upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-02-03

    This test procedure provides instructions for acceptance testing of modifications to the 2721-Z diesel-generator system made by Project C-189. The modifications include (1) replacing the generator NUMA-LOGIC controller with connection to the PFP distributed control system (DCS), (2) replacing ATSI with a breaker switching scheme for 2736-ZB backup power and (3) providing a method for generator load and system testing.

  19. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate information about children’s intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the conventional approach which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The reporting-error-sensitive approach captures errors of reported foods and amounts. Objective To extend results to energy and macronutrients for a validation study concerning retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview) and accuracy for reporting school-meal intake, the conventional and reporting-error-sensitive approaches were compared. Design and participants/setting Fourth-grade children (n=374) were observed eating two school meals, and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six interview conditions from crossing two target periods (prior-24-hours; previous-day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Data were collected in one district during three school years (2004–2005; 2005–2006; 2006–2007). Main outcome measures Report rates (reported/observed), correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed), and inflation ratios (intruded/observed) were calculated for energy and macronutrients. Statistical analyses performed For each outcome measure, mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, and sex in the model; results were adjusted for school year and interviewer. Results Conventional approach — Report rates for energy and macronutrients did not differ by target period, interview time, their interaction, or sex. Reporting-error-sensitive approach — Correspondence rates for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001) and the target-period by interview-time interaction (four P-values<0.0001); inflation ratios for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P

  20. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  1. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  2. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  3. Predicting of perceived self efficacy in the amount of macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome - 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mohebi, Siamak; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hozori, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a collection of metabolic disorders, which can increase the mortality rates from 20% to 80%. One of strategies to control the disease is the attention to the dietary habits. Compliance with proper diet is one of the major challenges in the management of this syndrome. Due to this fact, that the patient is responsible for the adjustment of the daily diet, it is important to identify the factors affecting the adoption of nutritional self-care. Besides, self-efficacy is considered as an important pre-requisite for this behavior because it acts as an independent part of the basic skills. This study was carried out with the purpose of determining the predictive role of perceived self-efficacy on macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study with correlational nature in 2012, there were 329 patients with the metabolic syndrome. The patients were covered by Isfahan oil industry medical centers and selected by a systematic method. In order to gather information on perceived self-efficacy, the questionnaires constructed by the researchers were used and the validity and reliability had been confirmed by the calculation of content validity indexand content validity ratio values and the indices of internal consistency and stability of the tool. The 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was also used for 3 days in order to investigate the nutritional behavior. The obtained data from the dietary recall questionnaire were analyzed by the N4 nutritional software. In this study, AMOS software version 16 was used for the structural model fitting by using the generalized least squares method besides the SPSS statistical software version 16. Results: These averages obtained from the results: 2512.37 kcal energy intake, 70.95 g protein, 420 g carbohydrates and 61.61 g of fat per day. The mean of perceived self-efficacy score was 47.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was indicated a

  4. Predicting In vitro Culture Medium Macro-Nutrients Composition for Pear Rootstocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Network Models.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, S; Yadollahi, A; Ahmadi, H; Arab, M M; Eftekhari, M

    2016-01-01

    Two modeling techniques [artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and stepwise regression analysis] were used to predict the effect of medium macro-nutrients on in vitro performance of pear rootstocks (OHF and Pyrodwarf). The ANN-GA described associations between investigating eight macronutrients (NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text], Ca(2+), K(+), Mg(2+), PO[Formula: see text], SO[Formula: see text], and Cl(-)) and explant growth parameters [proliferation rate (PR), shoot length (SL), shoot tip necrosis (STN), chlorosis (Chl), and vitrification (Vitri)]. ANN-GA revealed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction than for regression models. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables concentrations (mM), NH[Formula: see text] (301.7), and NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text] (64), SO[Formula: see text] (54.1), K(+) (40.4), and NO[Formula: see text] (35.1) in OHF and Ca(2+) (23.7), NH[Formula: see text] (10.7), NO[Formula: see text] (9.1), NH[Formula: see text] (317.6), and NH[Formula: see text] (79.6) in Pyrodwarf had the highest values of VSR in data set, respectively, for PR, SL, STN, Chl, and Vitri. The ANN-GA showed that media containing (mM) 62.5 NO[Formula: see text], 5.7 NH[Formula: see text], 2.7 Ca(2+), 31.5 K(+), 3.3 Mg(2+), 2.6 PO[Formula: see text], 5.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3.5 Cl(-) could lead to optimal PR for OHF and optimal PR for Pyrodwarf may be obtained with media containing 25.6 NO[Formula: see text], 13.1 NH[Formula: see text], 5.5 Ca(2+), 35.7 K(+), 1.5 Mg(2+), 2.1 PO[Formula: see text], 3.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3 Cl(-). PMID:27066013

  5. Iron and macro-nutrient concentrations in sea ice and their impact on the nutritional status of surface waters in the southern Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanna, Naoya; Toyota, Takenobu; Nishioka, Jun

    2014-08-01

    To elucidate the roles of sea ice in biogeochemical cycles in the Sea of Okhotsk, the concentrations of macro-nutrients (NO3 + NO2, PO4, SiO2, and NH4) and trace elements (Fe, Al) were measured in samples of sea ice, overlying snow, and seawater. The oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) in the sea ice was used to distinguish between snow ice and seawater-origin ice. Except for NH4, the macro-nutrient concentrations were lower in sea ice than in surface water in the ice-covered area. A linear relationship between salinity and concentrations of NO3 + NO2, PO4, and SiO2 in the sea ice indicated that these macro-nutrients originated mainly from seawater. The Fe concentrations in sea ice were variable and several orders of magnitude higher than those in surface water in the ice-covered area. The Fe concentrations in the sea ice were positively correlated with Al concentrations, the suggestion being that the Fe contained in the sea ice originated mainly from lithogenic mineral particles. The annual Fe flux into the surface water from sea ice melting in the southern Sea of Okhotsk was estimated to be ∼740 μmol Fe m-2 yr-1. This flux is comparable to the reported annual atmospheric Fe flux (267-929 μmol Fe m-2 yr-1) in the western North Pacific. In spring, sea ice melting may slightly dilute macro-nutrient concentrations but increase Fe concentrations in surface water. These results suggest that sea ice may contribute to phytoplankton growth by release of Fe into the water column and have a large impact on biogeochemical cycles in the Sea of Okhotsk.

  6. Tissue-specific expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in goldfish (Carassius auratus) is modulated by macronutrient composition of diets.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Bertucci, Juan I; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I; Unniappan, Suraj

    2016-05-01

    The macronutrient composition of diets is a very important factor in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Several lines of research in mammals have shown that macronutrients differentially regulate metabolic hormones, including ghrelin and nesfatin-1 that have opposing effects on energy balance. This study aimed to determine whether macronutrients modulate the expression of ghrelin and the nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) encoded nesfatin-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish were fed once daily on control, high-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat and very high-fat diets for 7 (short-term) or 28 (long-term) days. The expression of preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyl transferase (goat), growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1 (ghs-r1) and nucb2/nesfatin-1 mRNAs was quantified in the hypothalamus, pituitary, gut and liver. Short-term feeding with fat-enriched diets significantly increased nucb2 mRNA levels in hypothalamus and liver, preproghrelin, goat and ghs-r1 expression in pituitary, and ghs-r1 expression in gut. Fish fed on a high-protein diet exhibited a significant reduction in preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNAs in the liver. After long-term feeding, fish fed on high-carbohydrate and very high-fat diets had significantly increased preproghrelin, goat and ghs-r1 expression in pituitary. Feeding on a high-carbohydrate diet also upregulated goat and ghs-r1 transcripts in gut, while feeding on a high-fat diet elicited the same effect only for ghs-r1 in liver. Nucb2 expression increased in pituitary, while it decreased in gut after long-term feeding of a high-protein diet. Collectively, these results show for the first time in fish that macronutrients differentially regulate the expression of ghrelinergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 systems in central and peripheral tissues of goldfish. PMID:26805937

  7. Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Huybrechts, Inge; Labayen, Idoia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Palacios, Gonzalo; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnár, Dénes; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Vyncke, Krishna; Sjöström, Michael; Libuda, Lars; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-12-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44% boys) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (β = - 0.189, P< 0.001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (β = - 0.319, P< 0.001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents. PMID:25366323

  8. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yingting; Wittert, Gary; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2016-01-01

    Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years). Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG) was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38). Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%), but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so. PMID:27070639

  9. Continuous measurement of macronutrient ions in the transpiration stream of intact plants using the meadow spittlebug coupled with ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael; Herron, Michelle; Morales, M-Angeles

    2002-11-01

    A method is described for continuous, nondestructive analysis of xylem-borne mineral nutrients in intact transpiring plants. The method uses the xylem-feeding insect the meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L. [Homoptera: Cercopidae]). This insect will feed from a wide range of plant species and organs. Insect excreta can be collected at all times of the day and night, and its mineral ion content can be analyzed rapidly, and without purification, by ion chromatography. The excreta will have a mineral content virtually identical to that of xylem sap. Cages suitable for containing the insects and collecting excreta from any desired location on plants in both laboratory and greenhouse are described. Even in the greenhouse, evaporation had only a minor effect on the sample ion content. Example results are presented which illustrate dynamics, over several days, in the xylem concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), NH(4)(+), magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride (Cl(-)), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-). These data were collected from young plants growing in pots of compost in the laboratory and from fully mature pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Bellboy) plants growing in hydroponics (rockwool) in the greenhouse. This method should facilitate studies of macronutrient uptake and transport in a range of plants and environments. PMID:12428008

  10. A comparative study of the metabolic response in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia to changes in dietary macronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W; Panserat, Stéphane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Geurden, Inge

    2013-03-14

    Metabolic mechanisms underlying the divergent response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to changes in dietary macronutrient composition were assessed. Fish were fed one of four isoenergetic diets having a digestible protein-to-digestible energy (DP:DE) ratio above or below the optimal DP:DE ratio for both species. At each DP:DE ratio, fat was substituted by an isoenergetic amount of digestible starch as the non-protein energy source (NPE). Dietary DP:DE ratio did not affect growth and only slightly lowered protein gains in tilapia. In rainbow trout fed diets with low DP:DE ratios, particularly with starch as the major NPE source, growth and protein utilisation were highly reduced, underlining the importance of NPE source in this species. We also observed species-specific responses of enzymes involved in amino acid catabolism, lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis to dietary factors. Amino acid transdeamination enzyme activities were reduced by a low dietary DP:DE ratio in both species and in tilapia also by the substitution of fat by starch as the NPE source. Such decreased amino acid catabolism at high starch intakes, however, did not lead to improved protein retention. Our data further suggest that a combination of increased lipogenic and decreased gluconeogenic enzyme activities accounts for the better use of carbohydrates and to the improved glycaemia control in tilapia compared with rainbow tront fed starch-enriched diets with low DP:DE ratio. PMID:23168215

  11. Development of a standardised human in vitro digestion protocol based on macronutrient digestion using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hollebeeck, Sylvie; Borlon, Florianne; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Rogez, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Bioaccessibility studies should be taken into account when evaluating the physiological effects of ingested compounds at the intestine level. Several in vitro digestion protocols have been described, with a wide range of experimental conditions but no optimised protocol exists. In order to fill in this gap, we evaluated the influence of three continuous factors (pH, incubation time, and enzyme concentrations), in the range of values found in literature, on the digestion of standard macronutrients (starch, albumin, triolein) alone or in mixture. Three central composite designs, using response surface methodology, were employed to model the three abiotic steps of pre-colonic digestion. A validated in vitro digestion was eventually set up for the salivary step (pH 6.9, 5 min, 3.9 units α-amylase/ml), the gastric step (pH 2, 90 min, 71.2 units pepsin/ml), and the abiotic duodenal step (pH 7, 150 min, 9.2mg pancreatin and 55.2mg bile extract/ml). PMID:23411328

  12. Effects of Choline on DNA Methylation and Macronutrient Metabolic Gene Expression in In Vitro Models of Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinyin; Greenwald, Esther; Jack-Roberts, Chauntelle

    2016-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose (5 mM) and high-glucose (35 mM) conditions. Choline supplementation increased the expression of peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1), which mediates fatty acid β-oxidation, especially in the high-glucose condition. High-glucose exposure increased the transcription of the gluconeogenic gene phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), while choline supplementation mitigated such increase. Compared to HepG2 cells, the placenta-derived BeWo cells were relatively unresponsive to either high-glucose or -choline treatment. In conclusion, choline and glucose interacted to affect macronutrient metabolic genes, yet there was no indication that choline may worsen glycemic control in these in vitro human cell culture models. PMID:27081315

  13. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  14. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  15. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    PubMed

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  16. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  17. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Santos, Dayane Melo; dos Santos Pinto, Jéssica; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg- 1 for Mn to 77.3 mg kg- 1 for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES).

  18. Re-evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary fibre and implications for macronutrient bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Myriam M-L; Edwards, Cathrina H; Mackie, Alan R; Gidley, Michael J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2016-09-01

    The positive effects of dietary fibre on health are now widely recognised; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing such benefits remains unclear. There are even uncertainties about how dietary fibre in plant foods should be defined and analysed. This review attempts to clarify the confusion regarding the mechanisms of action of dietary fibre and deals with current knowledge on the wide variety of dietary fibre materials, comprising mainly of NSP that are not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These non-digestible materials range from intact cell walls of plant tissues to individual polysaccharide solutions often used in mechanistic studies. We discuss how the structure and properties of fibre are affected during food processing and how this can impact on nutrient digestibility. Dietary fibre can have multiple effects on GI function, including GI transit time and increased digesta viscosity, thereby affecting flow and mixing behaviour. Moreover, cell wall encapsulation influences macronutrient digestibility through limited access to digestive enzymes and/or substrate and product release. Moreover, encapsulation of starch can limit the extent of gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing of plant foods. Emphasis is placed on the effects of diverse forms of fibre on rates and extents of starch and lipid digestion, and how it is important that a better understanding of such interactions with respect to the physiology and biochemistry of digestion is needed. In conclusion, we point to areas of further investigation that are expected to contribute to realisation of the full potential of dietary fibre on health and well-being of humans. PMID:27385119

  19. [Macronutrients consumption and lifestyle in patients whose received transplant of kidney in The Mexican Institute for Social Security].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Pulgar, E; Ibarra-Ramírez, F; Figueroa-Núñez, B; Gómez Alonso, C; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R

    2010-01-01

    The transplant offer the best quality of life to patients whose suffer from advanced chronic renal failure. This work was undertaken to know the lifestyle and macronutrients consume patterns in patients from the Mexican Institute for Social Security whose received a transplanted kidney . Demographic and anthropometric information were obtained from 119 transplanted patients and consume patterns were obtained from them through the recall of 24 hours. The IMEVID questionnaire was used to assess the lifestyle in this population. This instrument was previously validated for its reliability, its showed a value of 0.681 for alpha of Cronbach and 0.685 for Spearman-Brown test. The 70% of the patients showed less favourable lifestyles and there were no differences between genders. There were significative differences among states of the country where the subjects lived; attending the following domains of the IMEVID questionnaire. Information, physical activity and adjustment to the treatment (p < 0.001). In those States near the american border the BMI was superior to the 25 kg/m(2), there were significatives differences attending ideal and real ingestion among States of the country, (p < 0.05). The protein consumption was higher in patients living in Michoacan to those reported from patients living in other states of the country (p < 0.05)and the lipids consumption was higher in Nuevo Leon in comparison with those reported from patients living in other states of the country (p < 0.05). It is frequent to find non favourable lifestyles in patients with transplant of the kidney, even when they practices physical exercise. The promotion of healthy lifestyles via educative strategies of high impact, in patients with transplant is necessary to avoid highly cost complications and rejection of the graft. PMID:20204264

  20. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Brianna L.; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J. D.; Baum, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05) TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05) fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001) of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial) glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response. PMID:27517958

  1. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Brianna L; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J D; Baum, Jamie I

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05) TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05) fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001) of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial) glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response. PMID:27517958

  2. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    PubMed

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:24668685

  3. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cecily M.; Cain, Steven L.; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  4. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    PubMed

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%. PMID:26024723

  5. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  6. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  7. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  8. Spatial Distribution and Temporal Variability of Ammonium-Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in a Rice Field in Corrientes, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Luis Alberto; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Proper and effective management of soil nutrients requires assessment of their variability at the field scale. We compare the effects of lime amendment rate on the spatial variability of three macronutrient forms (NH4+-N, Olsen P, and Mehlich-1 K) in a paddy soil at three different dates during the growth period of a rice crop. The field work was carried out near Corrientes, Argentina. Lime treatments were 0, 625, and 1250 kg ha−1 dolomite, and each liming dose was applied to a 1.7 ha field. Ninety-three soil samples per treatment were first collected in aerobic conditions and then two more times after flooding, at bunch formation and flowering. Soil NH4+-N increased along time, whereas P was highest at bunch formation and K steadily decreased along the rice growth period. Dolomite addition increased macronutrient availability at the first and second samplings, but its effects at the third sampling depended on the element. The three soil nutrients analyzed displayed strong patterns of spatial dependence for the three lime treatments and at the three periods studied. The areas with relative high or low macronutrient concentrations within each field were not stable throughout the rice growth period. Seasonality in the spatial distribution of macronutrients may be of agronomic value for site specific management. PMID:25610893

  9. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of ammonium-nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in a rice field in Corrientes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morales, Luis Alberto; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Proper and effective management of soil nutrients requires assessment of their variability at the field scale. We compare the effects of lime amendment rate on the spatial variability of three macronutrient forms (NH4 (+)-N, Olsen P, and Mehlich-1 K) in a paddy soil at three different dates during the growth period of a rice crop. The field work was carried out near Corrientes, Argentina. Lime treatments were 0, 625, and 1250 kg ha(-1) dolomite, and each liming dose was applied to a 1.7 ha field. Ninety-three soil samples per treatment were first collected in aerobic conditions and then two more times after flooding, at bunch formation and flowering. Soil NH4 (+)-N increased along time, whereas P was highest at bunch formation and K steadily decreased along the rice growth period. Dolomite addition increased macronutrient availability at the first and second samplings, but its effects at the third sampling depended on the element. The three soil nutrients analyzed displayed strong patterns of spatial dependence for the three lime treatments and at the three periods studied. The areas with relative high or low macronutrient concentrations within each field were not stable throughout the rice growth period. Seasonality in the spatial distribution of macronutrients may be of agronomic value for site specific management. PMID:25610893

  10. The Postprandial Rise in Plasma Cortisol in Men Is Mediated by Macronutrient-Specific Stimulation of Adrenal and Extra-Adrenal Cortisol Production

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jennifer L.; Andrew, Ruth; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Circadian variation is a fundamental characteristic of plasma glucocorticoids, with a postprandial rise in cortisol an important feature. The diurnal rhythm is presumed to reflect alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity; however, cortisol is produced not only by the adrenal glands but also by regeneration from cortisone by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, mainly in liver and adipose tissue. Objective We tested the contribution of peripheral cortisol regeneration to macronutrient-induced circadian variation of plasma cortisol in humans. Design This was a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Setting The study was conducted at a hospital research facility. Participants Eight normal-weight healthy men participated in the study. Interventions Subjects were given isocaloric energy isodense flavor-matched liquid meals composed of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or low-calorie placebo during infusion of the stable isotope tracer 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol. Outcome Measures and Results Plasma cortisol increased similarly after all macronutrient meals (by ~90 nmol/L) compared with placebo. Carbohydrate stimulated adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol to a similar degree. Protein and fat meals stimulated adrenal cortisol secretion to a greater degree than extra-adrenal cortisol regeneration. The increase in cortisol production by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was in proportion to the increase in insulin. The postprandial cortisol rise was not accounted for by decreased cortisol clearance. Conclusions Food-induced circadian variation in plasma cortisol is mediated by adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol. Given that the latter has the more potent effect on tissue cortisol concentrations and that effects on adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production are macronutrient specific, this novel mechanism may contribute to the physiological interplay between insulin and

  11. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  12. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  13. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  14. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  15. Body fat mass and macronutrient intake in relation to circulating soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Blüher, Susann; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-04-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormones leptin [which circulates in a free form and bound to a soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R)], adiponectin, and resistin play a key role in regulating energy homeostasis and metabolism. We assessed the association between body composition, total energy, and macronutrient intake and serum leptin, sOB-R, free leptin index, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations in 61 female and 53 male consecutively enrolled healthy Greek students. In this cross-sectional study, total energy and macronutrient intake were determined using 3-d food records. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis; fasting blood samples were taken for the measurement of total leptin, sOB-R, adiponectin, and resistin; and the ratio leptin/sOB-R was used as an index of free leptin. Serum sOB-R concentrations were lower in the female subjects compared with the males (27.24 +/- 29.06 vs. 50.14 +/- 39.74 ng/ml, P < 0.001), whereas leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations were significantly higher in females (leptin: 9.93 +/- 6.01 vs. 3.27 +/- 2.54 ng/ml, P < 0.001; adiponectin: 11.40 +/- 6.73 micro g/ml vs. 4.90 +/- 2.79 micro g/ml; P < 0.001; resistin: 16.86 +/- 5.39 ng/ml in females vs. 14.00 +/- 7.16 ng/ml in males, P < 0.02). Simple regression analysis showed that, in both genders, leptin, free leptin index, adiponectin, and resistin correlated positively with body fat mass and negatively with waist to hip ratio. sOB-R correlated negatively with body fat mass and positively with waist to hip ratio. Multiple regression analysis models controlling for gender, body fat, and total energy intake demonstrated that sOB-R is positively associated with energy intake from carbohydrates and negatively with energy intake from dietary fat, whereas free leptin index is negatively associated with energy intake from carbohydrates and positively with energy intake from dietary fat. No statistically significant correlations were observed between serum

  16. Understanding in-stream temporal coupling of macronutrients based on high-frequency monitoring in groundwater dominated rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, M. Z.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2012-04-01

    Developments in high-frequency water quality measurements enable capturing of fine structure of temporal variations in river biogeochemistry. Understanding of the temporal variation in the nutrient source and in-stream processes is critical in restoration of the good ecological and chemical status of river ecosystems. However, to date the in-stream temporal variability of macronutrients captured by high-frequency sampling is poorly understood (Scholefield et al., 2005; Milne et al., 2009; Harris and Heathwaite, 2011). Typically, river water quality monitoring is based on coarse sampling or storm event targeting strategies that miss the low flow water quality dynamics when in-stream processes and chemical-biological interactions may be of the greatest importance. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics and interdependencies between multiple high-frequency (hourly) nutrient and water quality time series collated for the River Leith, a tributary of the River Eden (Cumbria, UK). In-stream nutrients (total phosphorus TP, soluble reactive phosphorus SRP, nitrate nitrogen NO3N) and water quality parameters (turbidity, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential) were measured by an automated remote mobile lab. A 54 km2 catchment of the River Leith is of mixed geology with Carboniferous limestone overlain by Penrith Sandstone and glacial till deposits. Permeable riverbed deposits create an active groundwater-surface water interface with hyporheic processes potentially exerting control over nutrient cycling. The temporal variation in in-stream nutrients and water quality variables was analysed. Diurnal patterns were observed during low flow conditions for both nutrients and water quality time series. Possible physical and biogeochemical controls on nutrients short-term dynamics were discussed. Antecedent and contemporaneous interdependencies between nutrients, water quality and hydrometric time series were explored in more detail using

  17. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  18. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  19. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  20. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  1. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  2. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  4. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3... Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance officer shall, within 15 days, complete and send the contractor a DD Form 1637, Notice of Acceptance...

  5. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  6. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  8. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  9. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Nazanin; Ehsani, Behnaz; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hojjat, Parvane; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ΔVAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ΔVAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ΔVAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ΔVAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ΔVAI and risk of VAD. PMID:26516906

  10. Macronutrient Supplementation for Malnourished HIV-infected Adults: A Review of the Evidence in Resource-Adequate and Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Megazzini, Karen M.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection has expanded rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but malnutrition and food insecurity have emerged as major barriers to program success. Protein-calorie malnutrition (a common form in the region) hastens HIV disease progression, and food insecurity is a barrier to medication adherence. Analyses of patient outcomes have identified a low body mass index (BMI) at ART initiation as an independent predictor of early mortality, but the causes of low BMI are multi-factorial may represent normal anthropometric variation, chronic inadequate food intake, or wasting associated with HIV and other infections. While there is much experience population-level humanitarian food assistance, few data exist to measure the effectiveness of macronutrient supplementation or to identify individuals most likely to benefit. In this report, we review the current evidence supporting macronutrient supplementation for HIV-infected adults; clinical trials in resource-adequate and resource-constrained settings; and highlight priority areas for future research. PMID:19624276

  11. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Jose R.; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, H. Javier

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  12. Sexual Education In Malaysia: Accepted Or Rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Mohamed, Ruzianisra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Introduction to sexual education in schools was suggested by the Malaysian government as one of the effort taken in the aim to reduce the sexual-related social problems among Malaysian teenagers nowadays. This study was proposed in the aim to determine the rate of acceptance among adolescents on the implementation of sexual education in schools. Methods: This study was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 152 pre-degree students in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Results: Almost half (49.3%) of the respondents agreed that sexual education might help to overcome the social illness among school teenagers. Besides, a large number (77.6%) of respondents also agreed that this module should be incorporated with other core subjects compare to the feedback received on the implementation of this module on its own (28.9%). Conclusion: These results have provided some insight towards the perception of sexual education among the teenagers. Since most of the respondents agreed with this idea, so it might be a sign that the implementation of sexual education is almost accepted by the adolescents. PMID:23113207

  13. Site acceptance test, W-030 MICON system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-10

    Monitoring and control of the W-030 ventilation upgrade is provided by a distributed control system (DCS) furnished by MICON Corporation. After shipment to the Hanford Site, the site acceptance test (SAT) for this system was conducted in a laboratory environment over a six month period, involving four distinct phases and numerous hardware and software modifications required to correct test exceptions. The final results is a system which is not fully compliant with procurement specifications but is determined to meet minimum Project W-030 safety and functional requirements. A negotiated settlement was reached with the supplier to establish a `path forward` for system implementation. This report documents the `as-run` status of the SAT. The SAT was completed in August of 1995. It was later followed by comprehensive acceptance testing of the W-030 control-logic configuration software; results are documented in WHC-SD-W030-ATR-011. Further testing is reported as part of process system startup operational testing, performed after the MICON installation.

  14. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  15. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  16. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  17. Effect of dietary macronutrient proportion on intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparative study.

    PubMed

    Furné, M; García-Gallego, M; Hidalgo, M C; Sanz, A

    2016-08-01

    Three isoenergetic diets varying the proportion of dietary energy supplied by each of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) were delivered, to farmed sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to test the possible effects on the intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in liver, white muscle, and heart. In trout, there is an adaptive metabolic response to an increase in lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. However, this does not happen in the sturgeon. These differences may be due to different dietary habits of both species. In terms of oxidative status, only the liver displayed oxidative stress in both species, showing an increase in the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities after feeding with the high-lipid and high-protein diet. PMID:26970754

  18. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 966.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary within ten days after being notified...

  19. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  20. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  1. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.25 Acceptance. Any person prior... written acceptance of willingness to serve on the committee....

  2. 7 CFR 993.31 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 993.31 Section 993.31 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.31 Acceptance. Each person selected as a... with the Secretary a written acceptance within 15 days after receiving notice of his selection....

  3. 7 CFR 1215.23 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1215.23 Section 1215.23 Agriculture... Acceptance. Each individual nominated for membership of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary at the time of nomination....

  4. 7 CFR 906.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 906.25 Section 906.25 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.25 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the...

  5. 7 CFR 946.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 946.26 Section 946.26 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.26 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a committee member or as an alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  6. 7 CFR 959.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 959.29 Section 959.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance within ten days after being notified of such selection....

  7. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank Export... bankers' acceptances (“BAs”) that may be created by an individual member bank from 50 per cent (or 100...

  8. 24 CFR 3282.355 - Submission acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submission acceptance. 3282.355... § 3282.355 Submission acceptance. (a) A party whose submission is determined by the Department to be adequate shall be granted provisional acceptance until December 15, 1976, or for a six month period...

  9. 7 CFR 906.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 906.25 Section 906.25 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.25 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the...

  10. 24 CFR 3282.355 - Submission acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission acceptance. 3282.355... § 3282.355 Submission acceptance. (a) A party whose submission is determined by the Department to be adequate shall be granted provisional acceptance until December 15, 1976, or for a six month period...

  11. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.330 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1250.330 Section 1250.330 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.330 Acceptance. Any person appointed by the Secretary as a member, or as an alternate member, of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  13. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.25 Acceptance. Any person prior... written acceptance of willingness to serve on the committee....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  15. 7 CFR 953.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 953.21 Section 953.21 Agriculture... STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.21 Acceptance. Any person selected by the... acceptance with the Secretary within the time specified by the Secretary....

  16. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank Export... bankers' acceptances (“BAs”) that may be created by an individual member bank from 50 per cent (or 100...

  17. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 966.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary within ten days after being notified...

  18. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  19. 7 CFR 1215.23 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1215.23 Section 1215.23 Agriculture... Acceptance. Each individual nominated for membership of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary at the time of nomination....

  20. 7 CFR 946.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 946.26 Section 946.26 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.26 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a committee member or as an alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  2. 7 CFR 953.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 953.21 Section 953.21 Agriculture... STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.21 Acceptance. Any person selected by the... acceptance with the Secretary within the time specified by the Secretary....

  3. 7 CFR 1250.330 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1250.330 Section 1250.330 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.330 Acceptance. Any person appointed by the Secretary as a member, or as an alternate member, of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  4. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  5. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1210.323 Section 1210.323 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.323 Acceptance. Each person nominated for membership on the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  7. 7 CFR 959.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 959.29 Section 959.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance within ten days after being notified of such selection....

  8. 7 CFR 993.31 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 993.31 Section 993.31 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.31 Acceptance. Each person selected as a... with the Secretary a written acceptance within 15 days after receiving notice of his selection....

  9. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 915.25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1210.323 Section 1210.323 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.323 Acceptance. Each person nominated for membership on the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  11. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  12. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  13. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  14. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) 41 U.S...) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an agency under current...

  15. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  16. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  17. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2911.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  18. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  19. The Relationship between Treatment Acceptability and Familism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have examined the acceptability of treatments for children with disruptive behaviors. However, few studies to date have tested the effects of home environment variables such as family support on treatment acceptability. In the current study, parents' level of familism was used to predict their willingness to accept several behavioral…

  20. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  1. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-03-04

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system.

  2. Macronutrient composition of the diet affects the feeding-mediated down regulation of autophagy in muscle of rainbow trout (O. mykiss).

    PubMed

    Belghit, Ikram; Panserat, Stéphane; Sadoul, Bastien; Dias, Karine; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Seiliez, Iban

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy functions as an important catabolic mechanism by mediating the turnover of intracellular organelles and protein complexes through a lysosome dependent degradative pathway. Although the induction of autophagy by starvation has been extensively studied, we still know very little about how autophagy is regulated under normal nutritional conditions. The purpose of the present study was to characterize both in vivo and in vitro the response of the autophagy-lysosomal degradative pathway to nutrient (amino acids and carbohydrates) availability in the muscle of the carnivorous rainbow trout. We report that meal feeding is accompanied by a rapid activation of Akt, FoxO1 and the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathways and a concomitant decrease of autophagosome formation. We also show that this effect occurs only when the proportion of dietary proteins increases at the expense of carbohydrates. Concurrently, our in vitro study on primary culture of trout muscle cells demonstrates an opposite effect of amino acids and glucose on the regulation of autophagy-lysosomal pathways. More specifically, the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect. The effect of amino acids was accompanied by an activation of TOR, considered as an important regulator of autophagosomal formation. However, the mechanisms involved in the effect of glucose were independent of Akt, TOR and AMPK and remain to be determined. Together, these results demonstrated the specific role of macronutrients as well as that of their interactions in the regulation of autophagy and highlight the interest to consider the macronutrient composition of the diets in the control of this degradative pathway. PMID:24069294

  3. Macronutrient-induced differences in food intake relate with hepatic oxidative metabolism and hypothalamic regulatory neuropeptides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Geurden, Inge

    2012-06-25

    This study examines how dietary macronutrient-induced changes in voluntary food intake (FI) relate to changes in markers of hepatic oxidative metabolism and in the expression of FI regulatory neuropeptides in a teleost model, the rainbow trout. Rainbow trout were fed for 6weeks with one of four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design), containing either a high (HP, ~500 g·kg(-1) DM) or a low (LP, ~250 g·kg(-1) DM) protein level (PL) with, at each PL, fat (diets HP-F and LP-F) being substituted by an iso-energetic amount of gelatinized corn starch (diets HP-St and LP-St) as non-protein energy source (ES). Irrespective of the dietary PL, FI (g·kg(-0.8)·d(-1)) and digestible energy intake (DEI, kJ·kg(-0.8)·d(-1)) were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by the iso-energetic replacement of fat by starch as non-protein ES. Interestingly, trout fed these St-diets had higher gene expression of markers of hepatic oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), i.e., ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 2 (UCR2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 (COX4) and of aerobic oxidative capacity (CS, citrate synthase), which paralleled glucokinase (GK) transcription. This positive relation suggests that glucose phosphorylation and markers of mitochondrial OxPhos are linked at the hepatic level and possibly triggered the observed reduction in FI. Moreover, trout displaying the reduced FI had higher cocaine amphetamine regulator transcript (CART) mRNA in hypothalamus, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA did not follow the macronutrient-induced changes in FI. Further studies are needed to unravel the mechanisms by which diet-induced changes in hepatic metabolism inform central feeding centers involved in the regulation of FI in fish. PMID:22484564

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Diane E.; Daniels, Lynne; Davies, Peter S. W.; Barrett, Paula; Blumfield, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents. Design A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children’s hospital. Methods Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female) completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term ‘structured modified carbohydrate’ (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37) or a ‘structured low fat’ (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36) or a wait listed control group (n = 14). Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models. Results After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91%) participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07), P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09), P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04), P = 0.83. Conclusions Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy. Trial Registration International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757 PMID:27022913

  5. Macronutrient Composition of the Diet Affects the Feeding-Mediated Down Regulation of Autophagy in Muscle of Rainbow Trout (O. mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Belghit, Ikram; Panserat, Stéphane; Sadoul, Bastien; Dias, Karine; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Seiliez, Iban

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy functions as an important catabolic mechanism by mediating the turnover of intracellular organelles and protein complexes through a lysosome dependent degradative pathway. Although the induction of autophagy by starvation has been extensively studied, we still know very little about how autophagy is regulated under normal nutritional conditions. The purpose of the present study was to characterize both in vivo and in vitro the response of the autophagy-lysosomal degradative pathway to nutrient (amino acids and carbohydrates) availability in the muscle of the carnivorous rainbow trout. We report that meal feeding is accompanied by a rapid activation of Akt, FoxO1 and the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathways and a concomitant decrease of autophagosome formation. We also show that this effect occurs only when the proportion of dietary proteins increases at the expense of carbohydrates. Concurrently, our in vitro study on primary culture of trout muscle cells demonstrates an opposite effect of amino acids and glucose on the regulation of autophagy-lysosomal pathways. More specifically, the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect. The effect of amino acids was accompanied by an activation of TOR, considered as an important regulator of autophagosomal formation. However, the mechanisms involved in the effect of glucose were independent of Akt, TOR and AMPK and remain to be determined. Together, these results demonstrated the specific role of macronutrients as well as that of their interactions in the regulation of autophagy and highlight the interest to consider the macronutrient composition of the diets in the control of this degradative pathway. PMID:24069294

  6. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  7. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  8. Probabilistic simulation for flaw acceptance by dye-penetrant inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. A.; Keremes, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the problems encountered in assessing the reliability of dye-penetrant nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques in preventing failures due to undetected surface flaws, as well as from flaw acceptance (Fitness-For-Purpose). A Monte Carlo simulation procedure which includes the major variables of the problem is presented as a means of quantifying reliability. Some issues associated with distribution selection are examined. A methodology for selecting the penetrant type and flaw acceptance size for the specific components analyzed using the simulation is proposed. Current methodology limitations are discussed along with possible future effort. Penetrant selection and acceptable sizes of detected flaws are based on a probabilistic assessment of the effect of component and dye-penetrant system variables on structural reliability.

  9. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  10. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  11. Determinants of debit cards acceptance: An empirical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Shafinar; Adnan, Azimah; Azizi, Amsyar; Bakri, Mohamed Hariri; Zulkepli, Jafri

    2014-12-04

    These days, most of the Malaysians realize that the consumption of debit card will help them to reduce the household debt. Thus, it is important to analyse the acceptance of debit cards for further enhancement and expanding its market share in Malaysia. In addition, there is lacked of research being conducted on the determinants affecting the acceptance of debit cards among Malaysians. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the acceptance of debit cards. This study focuses on payment methods, consumer attitude, and safety of debit card in acceptance of debit cards. Questionnaires were distributed to the 300 respondents. The sampling procedure adopted was stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS 20.0 which involves scale reliability, descriptive and regression analysis. The result indicates that payment methods, consumer attitude and safety are the determinants of debit cards acceptance. Safety is the best predictor as most of the customers are confidents to use debit cards because of the security being developed around these debit card transactions. The analyses presented in this study can be used by policymakers and managers as a guide to promote banking products and services. The findings achieved in this study will be of interest for practitioners and academics concerned with developments of the Malaysian banking industry.

  12. Determinants of debit cards acceptance: An empirical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Shafinar; Bakri, Mohamed Hariri; Zulkepli, Jafri; Adnan, Azimah; Azizi, Amsyar

    2014-12-01

    These days, most of the Malaysians realize that the consumption of debit card will help them to reduce the household debt. Thus, it is important to analyse the acceptance of debit cards for further enhancement and expanding its market share in Malaysia. In addition, there is lacked of research being conducted on the determinants affecting the acceptance of debit cards among Malaysians. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the acceptance of debit cards. This study focuses on payment methods, consumer attitude, and safety of debit card in acceptance of debit cards. Questionnaires were distributed to the 300 respondents. The sampling procedure adopted was stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS 20.0 which involves scale reliability, descriptive and regression analysis. The result indicates that payment methods, consumer attitude and safety are the determinants of debit cards acceptance. Safety is the best predictor as most of the customers are confidents to use debit cards because of the security being developed around these debit card transactions. The analyses presented in this study can be used by policymakers and managers as a guide to promote banking products and services. The findings achieved in this study will be of interest for practitioners and academics concerned with developments of the Malaysian banking industry.

  13. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  14. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  15. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  16. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecking, B. A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barbosa, F. J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S. B.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R. C.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G. E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W. S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M. M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R. A.; Major, W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S. K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mestayer, M. D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L. Y.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; O'Brien, J. T.; Opper, A. K.; O'Meara, J. E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S. A.; Polli, E.; Price, J. W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D. I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W. M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L.; Tung, T. Y.; Tuzel, W.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Weinstein, L. B.; Welsh, R. E.; Weygand, D. P.; Wilkin, G. R.; Witkowski, M.; Wolin, E.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yergin, P.; Yun, J.

    2003-05-01

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10 34 nucleon cm -2 s-1. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  17. A new approach to family planning acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shukla, M

    1979-01-01

    The integrated approach to MCH/FP service delivery in the India Population Project is based on the assumption that positive results on family planning acceptance depend upon better health of children already born and a decline in the mortality rate. The Auxiliary Nurse and Midwife (ANM) performs all the family planning activities, distributes a nutritional supplement ("Balahar") to pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children between 6 months and 2 years, and keeps a record of births and deaths in order to convince the village population of the advantages of family planning. In 1975 a house to house inquiry was conducted in one of the affected villages to gather demographic and nutritional information. Analysis revealed that 77 of 82 eligible children were receiving "Balahar". The village birth rate was calculated at 50.3 per thousand and the death rate at 18.5 per thousand. Only 4 out of 233 family planning target couples were current users, and only 11 target couples were favorably disposed to family planning, while 94 were neutral and 128 were hostile. None of the 3 eligible women were receiving prenatal care, and only 1 of the 20 eligible women was receiving postnatal care. PMID:12261422

  18. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  19. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  20. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  6. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. PMID:23278470

  7. "I Have Remained Strong Because of That Food": Acceptability and Use of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Among Pregnant HIV-Infected Ugandan Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Young, Sera; Natamba, Barnabas; Luwedde, Flavia; Nyafwono, Dorcas; Okia, Ben; Osterbauer, Beth; Natureeba, Paul; Johnson, Lynn; Michel, Chloe; Zheng, Amy; Robine, Marion; Achan, Jane; Charlebois, Edwin; Cohan, Deb; Havlir, Diane

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the acceptability and use of macronutrient supplementation among HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women receiving antiretroviral therapy in a clinical study (NCT 00993031). We first conducted formative research among 56 pregnant and lactating women to select a supplement regimen. Acceptability and use of the supplementation regimen (35 sachets of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and 4 or 6 kg of instant soy porridge for the household provided monthly) were evaluated among 87 pregnant women. Organoleptic assessments of LNS were favorable. Participants reported consuming LNS a mean of 6.1 days per week, and adherence to recommended consumption behaviors (e.g. frequency, quantity, not sharing) was >80 %. Few women reported negative social consequences of supplementation. The majority of participants also consumed most of the porridge intended for the household. In sum, LNS was acceptable and used regularly. Larger studies to evaluate physical and psychosocial consequences of LNS during pregnancy among HIV-infected women are warranted. PMID:25416075

  8. Verification of LHS distributions.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton

    2006-04-01

    This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.

  9. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  10. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 930.26 Acceptance. Each person to be appointed by the Secretary as a member or as...

  11. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. Pursuant to FAR 11.103, the HCA or designee at a level not lower than the BPC has the...

  12. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. The designee authorized as the head of the agency is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  13. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance. 251.62 Section 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become...

  14. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  15. 48 CFR 1011.103 - Market Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market Acceptance. 1011.103 Section 1011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMPETITION AND... Acceptance. (a) BCPOs can act on behalf of the head of the agency in this subpart only. BCPOs,...

  16. 7 CFR 916.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 916.25 Section 916.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 916.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as...

  17. 43 CFR 3452.1-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 3452.1-3 Section 3452.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., Cancellation, and Termination § 3452.1-3 Acceptance. The effective date of the lease relinquishment shall,...

  18. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. The designee authorized as the head of the agency is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  19. 7 CFR 916.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 916.25 Section 916.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 916.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as...

  20. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 920.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as a member or as...

  1. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 930.26 Acceptance. Each person to be appointed by the Secretary as a member or as...

  2. 7 CFR 945.27 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 945.27 Section 945.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.27 Acceptance. Any person nominated to serve on the committee as a member or as an alternate...

  3. 19 CFR 114.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance. 114.21 Section 114.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.21 Acceptance. A carnet executed in accordance with § 114.3 shall...

  4. 19 CFR 114.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance. 114.21 Section 114.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.21 Acceptance. A carnet executed in accordance with § 114.3 shall...

  5. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 920.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as a member or as...

  6. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 932.32 Section 932.32 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written...

  7. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103 Section 411.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate,...

  8. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.32 Acceptance. Each person to...

  9. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 932.32 Section 932.32 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written...

  10. 7 CFR 945.27 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 945.27 Section 945.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.27 Acceptance. Any person nominated to serve on the committee as a member or as an alternate...

  11. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103 Section 411.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate,...

  12. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance. 251.62 Section 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  15. Why Do Women Accept the Rape Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabone, Christopher; And Others

    The rape myth, defined as prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, is accepted by individuals from varied walks of life, including women. It has been suggested that rape myth acceptance (RMA) among women serves a protective function by enabling women to dissociate themselves from a rape victim's experience.…

  16. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  17. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  18. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  19. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  20. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf of the head...

  1. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  2. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  3. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  4. Four therapeutic diets: adherence and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Susan E; Barnard, Neal; Eckart, Jill; Katcher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Many health conditions are treated, at least in part, by therapeutic diets. Although the success of any intervention depends on its acceptability to the patient, the acceptability of therapeutic diets and factors that influence it have been largely neglected in nutrition research. A working definition of acceptability is proposed and an examination and summary are provided of available data on the acceptability of common diet regimens used for medical conditions. The goal is to suggest ways to improve the success of therapeutic diets. The proposed working definition of "acceptability" refers to the user's judgment of the advantages and disadvantages of a therapeutic diet-in relation to palatability, costs, and effects on eating behaviour and health-that influence the likelihood of adherence. Very low-calorie, reduced-fat omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan, and low-carbohydrate diets all achieve acceptability among the majority of users in studies of up to one year, in terms of attrition and adherence rates and results of questionnaires assessing eating behaviours. Longer studies are fewer, but they suggest that vegetarian, vegan, and reduced-fat diets are acceptable, as indicated by sustained changes in nutrient intake. Few studies of this length have been published for very low-calorie or low-carbohydrate diets. Long-term studies of adherence and acceptability of these and other therapeutic diets are warranted. PMID:21144137

  5. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  6. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  7. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  8. 34 CFR 668.57 - Acceptable documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable documentation. 668.57 Section 668.57... Application Information § 668.57 Acceptable documentation. (a) Adjusted Gross Income (AGI), income earned from... applicant, the documentation set forth in paragraph (a)(4) of this section if the individual for the...

  9. The acceptability of ending a patient's life

    PubMed Central

    Guedj, M; Gibert, M; Maudet, A; Munoz, S; Mullet, E; Sorum, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify how lay people and health professionals judge the acceptability of ending the life of a terminally ill patient. Design: Participants judged this acceptability in a set of 16 scenarios that combined four factors: the identity of the actor (patient or physician), the patient's statement or not of a desire to have his life ended, the nature of the action as relatively active (injecting a toxin) or passive (disconnecting life support), and the type of suffering (intractable physical pain, complete dependence, or severe psychiatric illness). Participants: 115 lay people and 72 health professionals (22 nurse's aides, 44 nurses, six physicians) in Toulouse, France. Main measurements: Mean acceptability ratings for each scenario for each group. Results: Life ending interventions are more acceptable to lay people than to the health professionals. For both, acceptability is highest for intractable physical suffering; is higher when patients end their own lives than when physicians do so; and, when physicians are the actors, is higher when patients have expressed a desire to die (voluntary euthanasia) than when they have not (involuntary euthanasia). In contrast, when patients perform the action, acceptability for the lay people and nurse's aides does not depend on whether the patient has expressed a desire to die, while for the nurses and physicians unassisted suicide is more acceptable than physician assisted suicide. Conclusions: Lay participants judge the acceptability of life ending actions in largely the same way as do healthcare professionals. PMID:15923476

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  11. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  12. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  13. The ethical and practical aspects of acceptance and universal patient acceptance.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Bruce V; Patthoff, Donald E

    2006-11-01

    "Acceptance" is an often presupposed, hidden core value and ethic focused on how dental and other health practitioners first accept people as possible patients. The three basic styles of patient acceptance are random, selective, and universal. Reduced public access to care results from the practice of random and selective acceptance. Only universal acceptance creates a potential pathway for improved access to care. The notion of Universal Patient Acceptance (UPA) is discussed here as one kind of applied ethical tool or clinical practice that allows for the ethic of acceptance to be more effectively pursued in daily practice. We suggest that health providers falsely surmise that they already understand and practice Universal Patient Acceptance. That myth and perspective are partly what keeps Acceptance hidden as an ethic and overlooked as a potential way to foster dialogue and indirectly promote better access to care. Without Universal Patient Acceptance, dental and health providers will continue to silently engage in practice patterns that adversely affect public access to care. The actual benefits of Universal Patient Acceptance are the subject of ongoing review and debate. Whatever those benefits might be will not likely be realized until Acceptance and Universal Patient Acceptance are included as part of dental and other health professional codes of ethics and training curricula. That is what we argue for here. PMID:17106034

  14. Sodium instead of potassium and chloride is an important macronutrient to improve leaf succulence and shoot development for halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Haiyan; Han, Bing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Anping; Zheng, Dong; Liu, Chongjing; Chang, Lili; Peng, Ming; Wang, Xuchu

    2012-02-01

    Soil salinity is contributed largely by NaCl but some halophytes such as Sesuvium portulacastrum have evolved to adapt salinity environment and demonstrate optimal development under moderate salinity. To elucidate the detail mechanisms of the great salt tolerance and determine the respective contributions of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) on the development of S. portulacastrum, morphological and physiological analysis were performed using plants supplied with 200 mM of different ions including cations (Na(+), K(+), Li(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), Ac(-)) respectively. The results revealed that the salt-treated plants accumulated large amounts of sodium in both leaf and stem. There was a greater shoot growth in presence of external Na(+) compared to K(+) and Cl(-). Na(+) was found more effective than K(+) and Cl(-) in cell expansion, leaf succulence, and shoot development. Flame emission and X-Ray microanalysis revealed the relative Na(+) content was much higher than K(+) and Cl(-) in both leaf and stem of well developed S. portulacastrum, leading to a higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio. The effects of different ions on the development of S. portulacastrum were listed as the following: Na(+) > NO(3)(-) > CK > Cl(-) > K(+) > Ac(-) > Li(+). These results demonstrated NaCl toxicity is attributable largely to the effect of Cl(-) but rarely to Na(+), and thus sodium is concluded as a more important macronutrient than potassium and chloride for improving leaf succulence and shoot development of halophyte S. portulacastrum. PMID:22153240

  15. Continuous Measurement of Macronutrient Ions in the Transpiration Stream of Intact Plants Using the Meadow Spittlebug Coupled with Ion Chromatography1

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Michael; Herron, Michelle; Morales, M.-Angeles

    2002-01-01

    A method is described for continuous, nondestructive analysis of xylem-borne mineral nutrients in intact transpiring plants. The method uses the xylem-feeding insect the meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L. [Homoptera: Cercopidae]). This insect will feed from a wide range of plant species and organs. Insect excreta can be collected at all times of the day and night, and its mineral ion content can be analyzed rapidly, and without purification, by ion chromatography. The excreta will have a mineral content virtually identical to that of xylem sap. Cages suitable for containing the insects and collecting excreta from any desired location on plants in both laboratory and greenhouse are described. Even in the greenhouse, evaporation had only a minor effect on the sample ion content. Example results are presented which illustrate dynamics, over several days, in the xylem concentrations of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), NH4+, magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), chloride (Cl−), NO3−, PO43−, and SO42−. These data were collected from young plants growing in pots of compost in the laboratory and from fully mature pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Bellboy) plants growing in hydroponics (rockwool) in the greenhouse. This method should facilitate studies of macronutrient uptake and transport in a range of plants and environments. PMID:12428008

  16. A pilot study to determine whether using a lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves dietary assessment accuracy and offers information on macronutrients and eating rate.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Claire; Liu, Jindong; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Preston, Thomas; Frost, Gary

    2016-01-14

    A major limitation in nutritional science is the lack of understanding of the nutritional intake of free-living people. There is an inverse relationship between accuracy of reporting of energy intake by all current nutritional methodologies and body weight. In this pilot study we aim to explore whether using a novel lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves the accuracy of dietary intake assessment. Doubly labelled water (DLW) was used to estimate energy expenditure and intake over a 14-d period, over which time participants (n 6) completed a food diary and wore a micro-camera on 2 of the days. Comparisons were made between the estimated energy intake from the reported food diary alone and together with the images from the micro-camera recordings. There was an average daily deficit of 3912 kJ using food diaries to estimate energy intake compared with estimated energy expenditure from DLW (P=0·0118), representing an under-reporting rate of 34 %. Analysis of food diaries alone showed a significant deficit in estimated daily energy intake compared with estimated intake from food diary analysis with images from the micro-camera recordings (405 kJ). Use of the micro-camera images in conjunction with food diaries improves the accuracy of dietary assessment and provides valuable information on macronutrient intake and eating rate. There is a need to develop this recording technique to remove user and assessor bias. PMID:26537614

  17. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  18. User Acceptance of Internet Banking Service in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenyuen, Yee; Yeow, P. H. P.

    The study is the first research in Malaysia that investigates user acceptance of Internet banking service (IBS) based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis, 2003). Two hundred and eighty questionnaires were distributed and collected from two major cities, Kuala Lumpur and Melaka. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The results show that Malaysians have intentions of using IBS (mean rating of close to 4.00). Moreover, Malaysians recognize the benefits of IBS by giving a high mean rating (close to 4.00) to performance expectancy. However, they give relative low mean ratings (close to 3.00) on other indicators of Behavioural Intention to Use IBS such as effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and perceived credibility. Recommendations were given to promote a safe, efficient and conducive environment for user adoption of Internet banking.

  19. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  1. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  2. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-03-28

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  3. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  5. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.32 Acceptance. Each person to...

  6. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.32 Acceptance. Each person to...

  7. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  8. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-02-27

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  9. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  10. What Are Acceptable Limits of Radiation?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brad Gersey, lead research scientist at the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, describes the legal and acceptable limits ...

  11. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  12. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  13. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  14. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  15. The Multi-Scale Response of Water Quality, Biodiversity and Carbon Sequestration to Coupled Macronutrient Cycling from Source to Sea: TURF2SURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew; Emmett, Bridget; Jago, Colin; Stutter, Marc; Biggs, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Turf2Surf is a large, multi-disciplinary project that aims to test the hypothesis that the spatial and temporal patterns of water quality, C sequestration and biodiversity are better explained through the large-scale coupling of C, N and P cycles than by single cycle, single system approaches. To achieve this, a catchment-scale study of the River Conwy (349 km2) in Wales is being done with emphasis on determining when, where and how coupled macronutrient (C, N, P) cycling occurs in the biogeochemical hot-spots of the soils, the riparian zone, instream and in the river-estuarine transition zone. A major integrated measurement programme is now largely complete. New data are being analysed to understand which soil properties have greatest influence on above and below-ground productivity including plant traits and how microbial processing is controlled by stoichiometry and nutrient priming. Within the stream network, new understanding is being produced on the in-river algal and whole ecosystem (metabolic) response to CNP additions and the factors affecting the fate and cycling of organic matter. In the estuary, initial results indicate a subsurface jet is causing stratification and a velocity anomaly has been observed. Both are important in terms of suspended matter transport and floc break-up. An integrated model is being built to describe the soil-atmosphere-vegetation processes which is linked, firstly, to flow and water quality models that describe the CNP flux transport and transformations from the headwaters to the estuary and, secondly, to biodiversity models. The purpose of the integrated model is to quantify how coupled CNP cycles may respond to environmental change and thereby affect C sequestration, water quality and biodiversity in the future. The team are now in the major phase of data synthesis and model development and are interested in linking with similar studies involving coupled CNP cycles across the atmospheric

  16. The Multi-Scale Response of Water Quality, Biodiversity and Carbon Sequestration to Coupled Macronutrient Cycling from Source to Sea: TURF2SURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosby, B. J., Jr.; Wade, A. J.; Reinsch, S.; Robins, P. E.; Emmett, B.; Jago, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    Turf2Surf is a large, multi-disciplinary project that aims to test the hypothesis that the spatial and temporal patterns of water quality, C sequestration and biodiversity are better explained through the large-scale coupling of C, N and P cycles than by single cycle, single system approaches. To achieve this, a catchment-scale study of the River Conwy (349 km2) in Wales is being done with emphasis on determining when, where and how coupled macronutrient (C, N, P) cycling occurs in the biogeochemical hot-spots of the soils, the riparian zone, instream and in the river-estuarine transition zone. A major integrated measurement programme is now largely complete. New data are being analysed to understand which soil properties have greatest influence on above and below-ground productivity including plant traits and how microbial processing is controlled by stoichiometry and nutrient priming. Within the stream network, new understanding is being produced on the in-river algal and whole ecosystem (metabolic) response to CNP additions and the factors affecting the fate and cycling of organic matter. In the estuary, initial results indicate a subsurface jet is causing stratification and a velocity anomaly has been observed. Both are important in terms of suspended matter transport and floc break-up. An integrated model is being built to describe the soil-atmosphere-vegetation processes which is linked, firstly, to flow and water quality models that describe the CNP flux transport and transformations from the headwaters to the estuary and, secondly, to biodiversity models. The purpose of the integrated model is to quantify how coupled CNP cycles may respond to environmental change and thereby affect C sequestration, water quality and biodiversity in the future. The team are now in the major phase of data synthesis and model development and are interested in linking with similar studies involving coupled CNP cycles across the atmospheric

  17. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn withinmore » the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  18. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  19. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  20. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  1. 48 CFR 1346.503 - Place of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of acceptance. 1346... QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 1346.503 Place of acceptance. Insert a clause substantially similar to 1352.246-70, Place of Acceptance, in contracts and solicitations to indicate where the acceptance...

  2. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance of... to a cognizant contract administration office or to another agency (see 42.202(g)), acceptance...

  3. 5 CFR 2601.204 - Conditions for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for acceptance. 2601.204... IMPLEMENTATION OF OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS STATUTORY GIFT ACCEPTANCE AUTHORITY Guidelines for Solicitation and Acceptance of Gifts § 2601.204 Conditions for acceptance. (a) No gift may be accepted that: (1)...

  4. 48 CFR 570.111 - Inspection and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and acceptance... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.111 Inspection and acceptance... acceptance document must contain the square footage accepted and the acceptance date. Include the...

  5. 5 CFR 2601.204 - Conditions for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for acceptance. 2601.204... IMPLEMENTATION OF OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS STATUTORY GIFT ACCEPTANCE AUTHORITY Guidelines for Solicitation and Acceptance of Gifts § 2601.204 Conditions for acceptance. (a) No gift may be accepted that: (1)...

  6. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance of... to a cognizant contract administration office or to another agency (see 42.202(g)), acceptance...

  7. Conditions for the acceptance of deontic conditionals.

    PubMed

    Over, D E; Manktelow, K I; Hadjichristidis, C

    2004-06-01

    Recent psychological research has investigated how people assess the probability of an indicative conditional. Most people give the conditional probability of q given p as the probability of if p then q. Asking about the probability of an indicative conditional, one is in effect asking about its acceptability. But on what basis are deontic conditionals judged to be acceptable or unacceptable? Using a decision theoretic analysis, we argue that a deontic conditional, of the form if p then must q or if p then may q, will be judged acceptable to the extent that the p & q possibility is preferred to the p & not-q possibility. Two experiments are reported in which this prediction was upheld. There was also evidence that the pragmatic suitability of permission rules is partly determined by evaluations of the not-p & q possibility. Implications of these results for theories of deontic reasoning are discussed. PMID:15285599

  8. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  9. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  10. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Christina B. Behr-Andres

    2001-04-01

    The Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is intended to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) consists of three tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, and Technology Verification. As currently conceived, the ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. This report covers activities during the first 6 months of the 3-year ETA program.

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  12. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p<0.05), negative experiences with health care providers (p<0.05) and anticipated difficulties procuring insurance (p<0.01). Men were concerned that the vaccine would weaken the immune system (p<0.005) or would affect their HIV test results (p<0.05). Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p<0.10) and support from their spouse/significant other for being vaccinated (p<0.10). Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p<0.05) and social influence from friends to get vaccinated (p<0.005). Family support for HIV immunization was a motivator for both men and women (p<0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears

  13. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302

  14. Technology Acceptance in an Academic Context: Faculty Acceptance of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Shanan G.; Harris, Michael L.; Colaric, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors surveyed faculty from a college of business and a college of education regarding their attitudes toward online education. Results of the survey were examined to determine the degree to which the technology acceptance model was able to adequately explain faculty acceptance of online education. Results indicate that perceived usefulness…

  15. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  16. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  17. Evolving an acceptable nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1986-10-01

    The following issues are examined: long-term safe nuclear power plant operation; acceptable nuclear waste management and, mainly, high-level waste management; and provision for long-term fissile fuel supply in a long-term nuclear fission economy. (LM)

  18. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  19. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  20. 78 FR 8189 - Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Concurrent Jurisdiction. SUMMARY: On behalf of the United States, the National Park Service...

  1. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103 Market...

  2. 78 FR 41078 - Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Concurrent Jurisdiction. SUMMARY: On behalf of the United States, the National Park Service...

  3. Generator acceptance test and inspection report

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1997-07-24

    This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing.

  4. Acceptance of School Integration: 1965-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Jon P.; Knapp, Melvin J.

    1971-01-01

    This national study reports on the changing attitudes of white adults having school age children toward school integration during the period 1965-1969. Stresses the importance of regional and educational variables. With the exception of farmers, most non-Southern respondents accepted some form of school integration. (DM)

  5. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  6. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  7. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  10. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  13. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  14. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  15. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  16. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  17. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  18. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  19. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  20. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  1. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  2. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  3. 7 CFR 925.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 925.25 Section 925.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  4. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  5. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  6. Retained gas sampler system acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    Acceptance test results for the Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) obtained in the 306E laboratory are reported. The RGSS will be utilized to retrieve and analyze samples from the Hanford flammable gas watch-list tanks to determine the quantity and chemistry of gases confined within the waste.

  7. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  8. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  9. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  10. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual children…

  11. 37 CFR 1.803 - Acceptable depository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable depository. 1.803 Section 1.803 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  12. Workaholism, Health, and Self-Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Christine M.; Zhang, Naijian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between workaholism, perceived parental workaholism, self-acceptance, psychological well-being, and physical symptoms among 347 college students. Statistically significant relationships were found between college students' perceived parental workaholism and their own workaholism. Also, relationships between…

  13. 75 FR 44046 - Noise Exposure Map Acceptance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Acceptance ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the... on the noise exposure maps is June 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward S. Gabsewics,...

  14. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1788.50 - Acceptable sureties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Acceptable sureties. 1788.50 Section 1788.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS...

  17. 7 CFR 1788.50 - Acceptable sureties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable sureties. 1788.50 Section 1788.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS...

  18. 7 CFR 1788.50 - Acceptable sureties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable sureties. 1788.50 Section 1788.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS...

  19. 7 CFR 1788.50 - Acceptable sureties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable sureties. 1788.50 Section 1788.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS...

  20. 7 CFR 1788.50 - Acceptable sureties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable sureties. 1788.50 Section 1788.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS...

  1. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown. Results A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86%) agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients). Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2%) was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%). The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556) to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427). Conclusion The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. PMID:26316719

  2. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103...

  3. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  4. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.103...

  5. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 1311.103...

  6. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103...

  7. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  8. 48 CFR 611.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 611.103 Section 611.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 611.103 Market...

  9. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.103...

  10. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103...

  11. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 1311.103...

  12. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 1311.103...

  13. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.103...

  14. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1994-09-15

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

  15. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 955.24 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 955.24 Section 955.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  19. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  20. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  1. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  2. 7 CFR 929.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 929.25 Section 929.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  3. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  4. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  5. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  6. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  7. 7 CFR 922.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 922.25 Section 922.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  8. Attachment, Temperament, and Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Margaret; Bost, Kelly K.; Wainwright, Ada B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between preschool children's attachment security, temperament, and peer acceptance. Ninety-eight preschool children and their mothers were recruited through childcare centers in the southeast. Mothers and their children participated in two two-hour home observations. Attachment security was assessed using the…

  9. Treatment Acceptability among Mexican American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.

    2007-01-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…

  10. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Douglas

    2005-05-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.

  11. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  12. Peer Acceptance and Friendship: An Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Julia A.; Inderbitzen, Heidi M.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated how peer acceptance and friendship were related to self-esteem in adolescents. Ninth-grade students (n=542) were classified by sociometric group and presence or absence of reciprocal friendships. Results indicate no significant difference in self-esteem scores across sociometric groups. Subjects with one friend had higher self-esteem…

  13. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  14. Perceived Parental Acceptance and Female Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Steven E.

    1988-01-01

    Studied adolescent females at a state training school and at a high school, measuring perceived parental acceptance. Demonstrated that incarcerated females viewed their mothers and fathers more negatively than did nonincarcerated females. Indicated more ambivalent results in the mother-daughter than the father-daughter relationship. Discusses…

  15. Review of Recent Treatment Acceptability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2007-01-01

    With recent increases in the use of positive approaches to treatment for individuals with developmental disabilities, it seems appropriate to review the variables that have been found to influence the acceptability of various treatments. Programmatic treatments for problematic behaviors that incorporate primarily positive (reinforcement)…

  16. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

  17. FBC: Gaining acceptance. [Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    This article addresses the growing acceptance of fluidized bed combustion as a technology appropriate for use in dual-purpose power plants. The article reviews projects for cogeneration in California, a demonstration plant sponsored by the US Department of Energy in Ohio (this plant also incorporates combined cycle operation), and an electric power/greenhouse project in Pennsylvania.

  18. W-087 Acceptance test procedure. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, A.W.

    1997-06-10

    This Acceptance Test Procedure/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation and Mechanical systems function as required by project criteria and to verify proper operation of the integrated system including the interlocks.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.29 - Acceptable certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acceptable certifications. (a) Pressure vessels. Current and valid certification by an insurance company or... be in compliance with the requirements of this part when evidence of current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection,...

  20. Accepted Peer Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Comp.

    For the purpose of raising the level of safety, encouraging educational institutions and training programs to develop leaders, providing information for programs, establishing a base for communication with land use agencies, and providing information for school and agency custodians of potential students, the manual outlines "Accepted Peer…

  1. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-26

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control.

  2. Risk comparisons, conflict, and risk acceptability claims.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2004-02-01

    Despite many claims for and against the use of risk comparisons in risk communication, few empirical studies have explored their effect. Even fewer have examined the public's relative preferences among different kinds of risk comparisons. Two studies, published in this journal in 1990 and 2003, used seven measures of "acceptability" to examine public reaction to 14 examples of risk comparisons, as used by a hypothetical factory manager to explain risks of his ethylene oxide plant. This study examined the effect on preferences of scenarios involving low or high conflict between the factory manager and residents of the hypothetical town (as had the 2003 study), and inclusion of a claim that the comparison demonstrated the risks' acceptability. It also tested the Finucane et al. (2000) affect hypothesis that information emphasizing low risks-as in these risk comparisons-would raise benefits estimates without changing risk estimates. Using similar but revised scenarios, risk comparison examples (10 instead of 14), and evaluation measures, an opportunity sample of 303 New Jersey residents rated the comparisons, and the risks and benefits of the factory. On average, all comparisons received positive ratings on all evaluation measures in all conditions. Direct and indirect measures showed that the conflict manipulation worked; overall, No-Conflict and Conflict scenarios evoked scores that were not significantly different. The attachment to each risk comparison of a risk acceptability claim ("So our factory's risks should be acceptable to you.") did not worsen ratings relative to conditions lacking this claim. Readers who did or did not see this claim were equally likely to infer an attempt to persuade them to accept the risk from the comparison. As in the 2003 article, there was great individual variability in inferred rankings of the risk comparisons. However, exposure to the risk comparisons did not reduce risk estimates significantly (while raising benefit estimates

  3. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  4. USER ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMPOST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study involved visits to several composting and composting distribution operations, extensive literature review, and interviews with users in several metropolitan areas. Existing and past compost and sludge product distribution operations were analyzed to determine the chara...

  5. A trial of reduced carbohydrate diet to improve metabolic outcomes and decrease adiposity in obese peripubertal African American girls: does macronutrient profile matter?

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Krista; Cardel, Michelle; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.; Newton, Anna L.; Wallace, Stephenie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Obesity prevalence among African American (AA) girls is higher than that of other groups. As typical calorie-restriction obesity treatment strategies have had limited success, alterations in macronutrient composition might effectively improve metabolic outcomes in this population and impact future body composition trajectories. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a moderately restricted carbohydrate (CHO) versus a standard CHO diet on weight/fat loss and metabolic parameters in overweight/obese AA girls aged 9–14 years. Methods A total of 26 AA girls (ranging from 92nd BMI percentile and above) were assigned to either a reduced- (SPEC: 42% calories from CHO, n=12) or a standard- (STAN: 55% of calories from CHO, n=14) CHO diet (protein held constant) for 16-weeks. All meals were provided and clinically tailored to meet the estimated energy requirements (REE × 1.2 in eucaloric phase and REE × 1.2 – 1000kcal in energy deficit phase). The first five-weeks encompassed a eucaloric phase evaluating metabolic changes in the absence of weight change. The subsequent 11-weeks were hypocaloric (1000kcal/d deficit) in effort to promote weight/fat loss. Meal tests were performed during the eucaloric phase for metabolic analyses. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate body composition. Results Both groups had reductions in weight/adiposity but the difference did not reach significance. The solid meal test indicated improved glucose/insulin homeostasis on the SPEC diet up to three hours post-ingestion. In addition, significantly lower triglycerides (p<0.001) were observed on the SPEC diet. Conclusions Dietary CHO reduction favorably influences metabolic parameters but did not result in greater weight/fat loss relative to a standard diet in obese AA girls. Future research is needed to determine long-term effectiveness of a reduced CHO diet on glucose and insulin homeostasis and how it may apply to weight maintenance/fat loss during

  6. The effects of light, macronutrients, trace metals and CO 2 on the production of calcium carbonate and organic carbon in coccolithophores—A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondervan, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The ratio of calcium carbonate to organic carbon (C) production in the surface ocean is thought to be one of the key marine biotic climate variables, through its effect on ocean C cycling. This ratio is significantly affected by calcification and photosynthetic C fixation in coccolithophores. The abundance of coccolithophores and their rates of calcification and organic C fixation are in turn affected by climate-related changes in the ocean. However, there still exists disagreement on the strength of this feedback mechanism, which is due to the complexity of interactions of the factors regulating phytoplankton growth and ecosystem functioning. This review gives a qualitative overview on experimental and field data of coccolithophores, mainly Emiliania huxleyi, that are most relevant to actual oceanographic conditions and are likely to change in the foreseeable future under a changing climate. The focus is on the bottom-up control factors light, macronutrients, trace metals and carbon dioxide (CO 2), which can be of use in modelling studies. Several trends have been identified that should be considered when attempting to simulate E. huxleyi growth. Light seems to be the central factor determining the occurrence of blooms. At low irradiance the calcite to organic C production ratio increases, but appears to decrease again when irradiance becomes severely limiting. Phosphate and nitrate limitation lead to an increase in the ratio of calcite to particulate organic carbon (POC), which is also shown for zinc but not for iron. This is mainly due to the fact that coccolith formation is generally less dependant on nutrient concentration than is cell replication. Finally, CO 2-related effects in E. huxleyi and the other bloom-forming coccolithophore species Gephyrocapsa oceanica have been observed. Under high light conditions, calcification decreases with increasing CO 2 concentration. Depending on the nutrient status of the cells, the production of POC strongly increases

  7. Audio distribution and Monitoring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Versatile circuit accepts and distributes TV audio signals. Three-meter audio distribution and monitoring circuit provides flexibility in monitoring, mixing, and distributing audio inputs and outputs at various signal and impedance levels. Program material is simultaneously monitored on three channels, or single-channel version built to monitor transmitted or received signal levels, drive speakers, interface to building communications, and drive long-line circuits.

  8. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  9. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  10. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  11. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  12. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  13. Lighting industry acceptance of solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydecker, Stephen H.; Leadford, Kevin F.; Ooyen, Carla A.

    2004-01-01

    HBLEDs promise a new paradigm in lighting. Lighting industry acceptance of this exciting new source will be based on the ability of LED lamp and luminaire manufacturers to work together and in conjunction with technical societies to propose and adopt new standards, solve technical challenges, and develop effective luminaires. Once these luminaires are able to deliver superior value, industry adoption promises to be rapid based on the implementation of similar technologies in recent history.

  14. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller`s location.

  15. Induction graphitizing furnace acceptance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The induction furnace was designed to provide the controlled temperature and environment required for the post-cure, carbonization and graphitization processes for the fabrication of a fibrous graphite NERVA nozzle extension. The acceptance testing required six tests and a total operating time of 298 hrs. Low temperature mode operations, 120 to 850 C, were completed in one test run. High temperature mode operations, 120 to 2750 C, were completed during five tests.

  16. Accepted Common Interest Community (CIC) Proposals.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 18 accepted proposals for the three Common Interest Community (CIC) sessions at IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), June 5-8, 2014, in Austin, Texas and published in the Final Program Guide and CIC Works for SYTAR 2014. The sessions were CIC#1 Rehab Professionals: Bridging the Past with the Future and CIC#2a & CIC#2b Mental, Emotional and Spiritual Health. PMID:25645135

  17. Phosphorus as a critical macronutrient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is required for plant growth and development but its availability is frequently limiting. Plants have evolved numerous adaptive mechanisms for acclimation to P-deficiency. These mechanisms involve activation of metabolic, molecular, developmental, and regulatory processes which modify...

  18. Wild carnivore acceptance of baits for delivery of liquid rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, P; Bramwell, R N; Fraser, S J; Gilmore, D A; Johnston, D H; Lawson, K F; MacInnes, C D; Matejka, F O; Miles, H E; Pedde, M A

    1990-10-01

    A series of experiments are described on the acceptance, by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other species, of two types of vaccine-baits intended to deliver liquid rabies vaccine. The baits consisted of a cube of sponge coated in a mixture of tallow and wax, or a plastic blister-pack embedded in tallow. All baits contained tetracycline as a biological marking agent: examination of thin sections of carnivore canines under an ultraviolet microscope revealed a fluorescent line of tetracycline if an individual had eaten baits. Baits were dropped from fixed-wing aircraft flying about 100 m above ground at approximately 130 km/h. Flight lines followed the edges of woodlots midway between parallel roads. Baits were dropped at one/sec, resulting in one bait/36 m on the ground, or 17 to 25 baits per km2. Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) removed many baits, but did not appear to lower the percent of the fox population which took bait. Dropping baits only into corn and woodland to conceal baits, to reduce depredation by crows, reduced acceptance by foxes. Acceptance by foxes ranged between 37 and 68%. Meat added as an attractant did not raise acceptance. Presence, absence, color and perforations of plastic bags did not alter bait acceptance. Dispersal by juvenile foxes probably lowered the estimates of bait acceptance. It took 7 to 17 days for 80% (n = 330) of foxes to eat their first bait. The rapidity with which foxes picked up their first bait appeared more affected by unknown characteristics of years or study areas than by experimental variables. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) also ate these baits, but acceptance was lower. Small mammals contacted baits, but rarely contacted the vaccine, which had the potential for vaccine-induced rabies in some species. Aerial distribution of baits was more cost-effective than ground distribution as practiced in Europe. This system has potential for field control of rabies, although higher acceptance will be desirable

  19. Acceptable regret in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Djulbegovic, B; Hozo, I; Schwartz, A; McMasters, K M

    1999-09-01

    When faced with medical decisions involving uncertain outcomes, the principles of decision theory hold that we should select the option with the highest expected utility to maximize health over time. Whether a decision proves right or wrong can be learned only in retrospect, when it may become apparent that another course of action would have been preferable. This realization may bring a sense of loss, or regret. When anticipated regret is compelling, a decision maker may choose to violate expected utility theory to avoid regret. We formulate a concept of acceptable regret in medical decision making that explicitly introduces the patient's attitude toward loss of health due to a mistaken decision into decision making. In most cases, minimizing expected regret results in the same decision as maximizing expected utility. However, when acceptable regret is taken into consideration, the threshold probability below which we can comfortably withhold treatment is a function only of the net benefit of the treatment, and the threshold probability above which we can comfortably administer the treatment depends only on the magnitude of the risks associated with the therapy. By considering acceptable regret, we develop new conceptual relations that can help decide whether treatment should be withheld or administered, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain. This may be particularly beneficial in deciding what constitutes futile medical care. PMID:10580533

  20. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537