Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable manner coal

  1. DWPF COAL CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-06-21

    A paper study was completed to assess the impact on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)'s Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) acid addition and melter off-gas flammability control strategy in processing Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) to SB13 with an added Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) stream and two Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) products (Strip Effluent and Actinide Removal Stream). In all of the cases that were modeled, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted Reducing/Oxidizing (REDOX) Ratio of 0.20 Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe. There was sufficient formic acid in these combinations to reduce both the manganese and mercury present. Reduction of manganese and mercury are both necessary during Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing, however, other reducing agents such as coal and oxalate are not effective in this reduction. The next phase in this study will be experimental testing with SB10, FBSR, and both SWPF simulants to validate the assumptions in this paper study and determine whether there are any issues in processing these streams simultaneously. The paper study also evaluated a series of abnormal processing conditions to determine whether potential abnormal conditions in FBSR, SWPF or DWPF would produce melter feed that was too oxidizing or too reducing. In most of the cases that were modeled with one parameter at its extreme, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted REDOX of 0.09-0.30 (target 0.20). However, when a run was completed with both high coal and oxalate, with minimum formic acid to reduce mercury and manganese, the final REDOX was predicted to be 0.49 with sludge and FBSR product and 0.47 with sludge, FBSR product and both SWPF products which exceeds the upper REDOX limit.

  2. Tracer and air acceptance characterization of a San Juan basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, F. L.; Nuttall, H. E.; Tyner, C. E.; Jacobson, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop and assess the feasibility of underground coal gasification in New Mexico, a field study was performed to determine the natural flow characteristics of an undisturbed coal seam. Dewatering, air injection, and tracer experiments were conducted on a two-hole test pattern, spaced 30 ft apart, in a 15-ft-thick seam located about 500 ft below the surface. This was the first field experiment in coal to utilize a newly developed downhole measuring system designed and operated by Sandia National Laboratories. From the tracer flow logs and air acceptance tests it was found that the formation allows gas flow (100 SCFM at 250 psi) with low water production (50 gpd). While some vertical variation in air flow and tracer residence time through the coal seam was found, all of the coal sustained flow through a relatively low volume of active voids. Only 10 percent of the injected air was recovered and the recovery rate paralleled trends in the injection rate.

  3. Tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of liquor carbonis distillate (coal tar) solution 15% as topical therapy for plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Brouda, Irina; Edison, Brenda; Van Cott, Alicia; Green, Barbara A

    2010-04-01

    Although generally recognized as an effective therapy for psoriasis, coal tar therapy lost appeal in modern clinical practice due to poor patient acceptability of its aesthetic properties. A new liquor carbonis distillate (LCD) solution 15% (equivalent to coal tar 2.3%) that uses an evaporative and transparent vehicle, fragrance, and a dab-on applicator was developed. Cosmetic acceptability of the LCD solution was compared to calcipotriene cream 0.005% during a randomized, active-controlled, investigator-blinded clinical trial. Participants with moderate plaque psoriasis applied LCD solution or calcipotriene cream twice daily to body lesions for 12 weeks and then were followed for 6 additional weeks without treatment. Participants completed a cosmetic acceptability survey about their medications after starting therapy. Mean ratings for aesthetic and product performance attributes were high in both groups; however, more participants treated with LCD solution versus calcipotriene cream rated their product as more convenient and beneficial compared to prior psoriasis therapies. Ratings of the scent, staining, drying time, and dab-on applicator for the LCD solution were favorable. Participant experience with LCD solution in this study suggests that it is a cosmetically acceptable psoriasis treatment that is comparable to calcipotriene cream.

  4. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  5. World coal outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Calarco, V.J. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The contribution of coal to world energy needs, particularly in the western world, may appear to be an engima, given the size of known reserves and the economic, social, and political difficulties that were created by the oil events of 1973 to 74. The increased emphasis on coal brought into sharp focus the conflict between energy and environmental policies. The 1974 oil price increases overcame the inherently higher costs of transporting, storing and burning coal. This economic advantage was substantially moderated by the added costs associated with using it in a manner consistent with environmental legislation and regulations. The net effect was an erosion of the initial high interest in coal. In 1979, the renewed instability and dramatic price increases in world oil markets produced a major change in the social and economic attractiveness of coal. Society is now reexamining the trade-offs it is willing to accept between the environment and economic activity. It is more important, however, that the price increases in 1979 and expectations for continued instability in world oil markets have made the environmentally acceptable use of coal affordable. Over the long term, environmental issues aside, the cost advantage for coal is expected to widen, as oil and natural gas prices escalate at rates greater than those anticipated for coal. It is possible that the gap between coal and the alternatives will be smaller as the emphasis on further environmental improvements accelerates in response to increased coal use. The overall relative advantage is expected to remain with coal, however, thus leading to its increased replacement of oil or natural gas. Further supporting the outlook for the increased consumption of coal is the growing level of concern surrounding the nuclear option for electric power generation.

  6. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  7. High sulfur coal research at the SIUC Coal Technology Laboratory. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The research effort addressed in this cooperative agreement includes the conduct of a high-sulfur coal research program and the establishment of a research facility, the Coal Technology Laboratory at the site of the former Carbondale Mining Technology Center. The associated research program is broadly based and directed toward high-sulfur coal, the goal being expand the technology to allow for the increased use of high-sulfur coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Progress continues to be made on the research in the four areas of coal science, coal preparation, coal conversion, and coal utilization. In the Coal Science area, the maceral separation laboratory is about 90% operational. In the area of coal preparation, a mechanical auger feeder device for introducing material into an experimental hydrocyclone along its axis was constructed and incorporated. A froth flotation pilot plant has been acquired and renovated. Coal conversion studies included experiments to examine the effects of chemical pretreatment on supercritical extraction and desulfurization of coal. It was found that with pretreatment a high-sulfur coal containing predominantly organic sulfur experienced a 57% reduction in sulfur on a concentration basis. Without pretreatment, the sulfur reduction was only 40%. In the work examining the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide formation from iron sulfides, it was found that hydrogen sulfide is formed from hydrogen and iron sulfides by a Langmuir-Hinselwood mechanism. Mixtures of H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ produce (H,D)H/sub 2/S with random distributions of H and D. Preliminary studies have been conducted in a 10 cm diameter laboratory scale AFBC unit preparatory to the tests to be conducted on waste fuels.

  8. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  9. Coal to electricity - Integrated gasification combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corman, J. C.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced energy conversion system - the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) - has been identified as an efficient and economical means of converting coal to electricity for utility application. Several demonstration projects on a near-commercial scale are approaching the construction stage. A coal conversion facility has been constructed to simulate the operational features of an IGCC. This process evaluation facility (PEF-scale) performs a dual function: (1) acquiring and processing data on the performance of the individual components - coal gasifier, gas clean up, and turbine simulator - that comprise the IGCC concept and (2) simulating the total system in an operational control mode that permits evaluation of system response to imposed load variations characteristic of utility operation. The results to date indicate that an efficient, economical IGCC can be designed so that the gasification/gas clean up plant and the power generation system operate compatibly to meet utility requirements in an environmentally acceptable manner.

  10. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, George W.; Givens, Edwin N.; Skinner, Ronald W.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  11. Mind Your Manners

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a lot of talk in the media about the loss of courtesy in modern society. By many criteria, it seems that people in general have lost a degree of politeness. Reading some of the online comments after several recent articles in The Scientist would seem to indicate that biologists have also lost their manners. This lack of basic manners alarms me not only because of the obvious danger to our sense of community, but also because this type of behavior could damage society’s positive perception of scientists. Every time scientists (or anonymous bloggers posing as scientists) rant about the idiocy of someone who disagrees with them, our collective credibility erodes. Yes, there are a number of issues that we as scientists should be passionate about, but our objectives are best served by retaining an objective demeanor and respecting those to whom we happen to disagree.

  12. Of Manners and Morals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I explore the role of manners and morals. In particular, what is the connection between emotional demeanor and the inner stuff of virtue? Does the fact that we can pose faces and hide our inner sentiments, i.e., "fake it," detract from or add to our capacity for virtue? I argue, following a line from the Stoics, that it can add to…

  13. Enriched-air and oxygen gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal in a Texaco coal-gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, W.B.; Richter, G.N.; Dillingham, E.W.

    1982-02-01

    Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combined cycle electric power generation. Operability and response of the gasifier and a Selexol acid gas removal unit were demonstrated during load changes utilizing both oxygen and enriched air as oxidants (transient runs). Steady state performance data on the gasifier, Selexol unit and gas turbine combustor were obtained at a variety of oxygen to coal ratios at different production rates utilizing each oxidant (steady state runs). Essentially no effect of charge rate on the syngas quality was noted. Environmental base line data were gathered for both oxidants. Results of the environmental tests and the turbine combustor tests are reported separately.

  14. Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

  15. Coal quality trends and distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Coal in the Eastern Kentucky coalfield has been, and continues to be, a valuable energy resource, especially for the electric utility industry. However, Federal mandates in Titles III and IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have placed increasingly stringent demands on the type and grade of coal that can be burnt in an environmentally acceptable manner. Therefore, a greater understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of thickness and quality parameters, and the geologic factors that control their distribution, is critical if the Eastern Kentucky coalfield is to continue to be a major producer of high-quality coal. Information from the Kentucky Geological Survey's Coal Resource Information System database is used in this paper to document the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of important factors such as bed thickness, calorific value, ash yield and total sulfur content. The distribution of 15 elements that naturally occur in trace amounts in Kentucky coal is also discussed, as these elements may require monitoring with passage of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Coal extrusion in the plastic state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Ryason, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Continuous feeding of coal in a compressing screw extruder is described as a method of introducing coal into pressurized systems. The method utilizes the property of many bituminous coals of softening at temperatures from 350 to 425 C. Coal is then fed, much in the manner of common thermoplastics, using screw extruders. Data on the viscosity and extruder parameters for extrusion of Illinois No. 6 coal are presented.

  17. New method of feeding coal - Continuous extrusion of fully plastic coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R.; England, C.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous feeding of coal in a compressing screw extruder is described as a method of introducing coal into pressurized systems. The method utilizes the property of many bituminous coals of softening at temperatures from 350 to 400 C. Coal is then fed much in the manner of common thermoplastics, using screw extruders. Preliminary results show that coals can be extruded at rates of about 3.3 kg/MJ, similar to those for plastics.

  18. Time, Manner and Place in German: An Investigation of Adverb Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Mark

    1979-01-01

    Reports on an experiment in native speaker judgement of acceptability, designed to test the acceptability of variations on the time-manner-place order in German adverbs. Implications for teaching German are drawn. (AM)

  19. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  20. 78 FR 23242 - National Coal Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... National Coal Council AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meetings. SUMMARY: This notice announces two meetings of the National Coal Council (NCC). The Federal Advisory Committee ] Act (Pub. L. 92... John Eaves, Chairman, National Coal Council 2. Council Business a. Acceptance of the 2012 Council...

  1. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper submitted earlier on the use of (bicyclo[3.2.1]4pyrrolidino-N-methyl-octan-8-one triflate) ([sup 13]CO-123) as a [sup 13]C intensity standard was accepted for publication. Subsequently, [sup 13]CO-321 was used in this manner for quantitative [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR analysis (including spin counting) of Argonne Premium coals. The cross-polarization time constants, T[sub CH], and the rotating-frame proton spin-lattice relaxation times, T[sub 1p][sup H], were determined for each major peak of each coal via a combination of variable contact-time and variable spin-lock (T[sub 1p][sup H]) experiments. Two or three components of rotating-frame [sup 1]H relaxation decay and two or three components of T[sub CH] behavior were observed for each major [sup 13]C peak of each coal. These data were used to determine the number of carbon atoms detected in each coal; these values are in the range between 77% and 87% of the amount of carbon known to be in each coal from elemental analysis data, except for Pocahontas No. 3, for which only 50% of the carbon was detected. In an attempt to use [sup 1]H CRAMPS to elucidate chemical functionality in coal, pyridine-saturated samples of the Argonne Premium coals were examined in detail in terms of their [sup 1]H CRAMPS NMR spectra. These spectra were deconvoluted to yield relative concentrations for individual peaks.

  2. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Ying, David H. S.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  3. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  4. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  5. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  6. Proposed Performance Evaluation Acceptance Test for Heat Recovery Incinerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1985). D 3176, Method for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke (1984). D 3180, Method for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses from As-Determined to Differ...or approval of the use of such commercial products . The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position...such as coal or oil fired boilers, no standard performance test is available to assess field performance or to use as an acceptance test for the HRI

  7. Coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  8. Coal processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  9. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  10. 20 CFR 410.474 - Place and manner of submitting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Place and manner of submitting evidence. 410.474 Section 410.474 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to...

  11. 20 CFR 410.474 - Place and manner of submitting evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Place and manner of submitting evidence. 410.474 Section 410.474 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to...

  12. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  13. Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp

    DOEpatents

    Farber, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

  14. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  15. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  16. Coal grinding by roller grinding mills for pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kasseck, K.; Salewski, G.

    1995-10-01

    Roller grinding mills are increasingly being used for producing the pulverized coal required for injection into blast furnaces, an accepted technology worldwide for lowering coke consumption in blast furnaces. Coal is currently being injected into blast furnaces at the rate of 80 to 200 kg/tonne of hot metal which results in a coke savings of 72 to 180 kg/tonne of hot metal. The pulverized coal for coal injection is produced in coal grinding and drying plants currently having a capacity from 15 to 240 tonnes/hr. The grinding plant with Loesche roller grinding mills at the Ilva steelworks, Taranto, Italy, that is described, illustrates design concepts and operation.

  17. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. [Quarterly] report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-12-31

    The paper submitted earlier on the use of (bicyclo[3.2.1]4pyrrolidino-N-methyl-octan-8-one triflate) ({sup 13}CO-123) as a {sup 13}C intensity standard was accepted for publication. Subsequently, {sup 13}CO-321 was used in this manner for quantitative {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR analysis (including spin counting) of Argonne Premium coals. The cross-polarization time constants, T{sub CH}, and the rotating-frame proton spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1p}{sup H}, were determined for each major peak of each coal via a combination of variable contact-time and variable spin-lock (T{sub 1p}{sup H}) experiments. Two or three components of rotating-frame {sup 1}H relaxation decay and two or three components of T{sub CH} behavior were observed for each major {sup 13}C peak of each coal. These data were used to determine the number of carbon atoms detected in each coal; these values are in the range between 77% and 87% of the amount of carbon known to be in each coal from elemental analysis data, except for Pocahontas No. 3, for which only 50% of the carbon was detected. In an attempt to use {sup 1}H CRAMPS to elucidate chemical functionality in coal, pyridine-saturated samples of the Argonne Premium coals were examined in detail in terms of their {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR spectra. These spectra were deconvoluted to yield relative concentrations for individual peaks.

  18. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  20. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  1. Colver Power Project: CFB operates at 2400 psig, with reheat, firing waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ansell, J.; Hall, J.; Streblow, B.

    1996-12-31

    The Colver Power Project (CPP) is located approximately 100 miles east of Pittsburgh, PA, near Colver, a former mining town. The town was the location of the Ebensburg Coal Co`s Colver Mine and the Blacklick and Yellow Creek Railroad. The mine and railroad produced and transported over 40-million tons of coking and steam coal until they closed in 1978. The 103.5-MW facility has a 25-yr power sales agreement with Pennsylvania Electric Co. (Penelec). Typical of many coal mining regions, the Colver area has stockpiles of bituminous coal waste or gob, a low-Btu, high-ash byproduct of mining activities. These gob stockpiles became an eyesore and a regional environmental hazard. Use of gob as a fuel for circulating-fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers is a proven method for managing this material is an environmentally acceptable manner. Alkaline ash from the combustion process can in turn be used to condition the soil in the gob-pile areas. Using CFB technology creates a win-win situation for all parties involved. The project owners can use the gob as fuel to make and sell power, the local residents get a better environment, and the state avoids having to use tax revenue to clean up the gob piles.

  2. Medical Examiners and Manner of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, George K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Experimental study of medical examiners produced manner of death determinations from simulated cases to examine interexaminer variation in certification judgments. Found that experience, residence, and religious background of examiner were related to judgments as were victim characteristics of gender, medical cause of death, and the presence of…

  3. Respiratory disability in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.K.C.; Lapp, N.L.; Seaton, D.

    1980-06-20

    It has been suggested that the assessment of ventilatory capacity alone is inadequate for the determination of disabling occupational respiratory impairment in coal miners. The Department of Labor has accepted this view and now routinely requests blood gas analyses in those claimants not meeting the ventilatory criteria. We tested the validity of this contention by selecting two groups of coal miners claiming total disability. The first consisted of 150 claimants who were referred for spirometry, while the second consisted of 50 claimants who had been referred for blood gas studies. Of those in group 1, eight met the extant criteria for disability, while only two of those in group 2 satisfied the criteria, and, in both, cardiac disease was responsible. We conclude that blood gas analyses are unnecessary in the determination of pulmonary disability in coal miners.

  4. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  5. Conversion of packaged boiler to micronized coal cuts operating cost

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1984-05-01

    The use of micronised coal can be an alternative to the purchase of new coal-fired boilers, since, in many cases, this fuel can be burned in existing oil- and gas-fired boilers with acceptable derating. The experience is quoted of Idaho Supreme, a potato processing company, where a packaged boiler designed to operate on oil and wood has been successfully run on micronised coal.

  6. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  7. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  9. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  11. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  12. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  13. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  14. Low severity conversion of activated coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  15. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  16. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  17. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  19. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  20. Near-neutral oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.K.

    1995-12-31

    In this research project are determining the rate of oxidation of pyrite associated with coaly particles (coal slurry solid) when the pH of the surrounding environment is held at approximately 7.8. Coaly particles that contain pyrite are generated during the preparation of Illinois Basin coal for market. These particles are discharged to an impoundment, which eventually must be reclaimed. The purpose for reclamation is either to prevent the generation of acidic solution as the pyrite in the coal slurry solid reacts with air, or to prevent the migration of the acidic solution to a groundwater aquifer. The reclamation is usually accomplished by covering the impoundment with a four-foot-thick layer of topsoil. One possible alternative method for reclamation of a coal slurry impoundment is to mix in alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. This codisposal would slow the production of acid and would also neutralize any acid produced. If the codisposal method is found to be environmentally acceptable, it will save the coal mining companies part of their cost of reclamation, and also provide a safe and useful disposal outlet for a portion of the residue that is generated by the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. Pyrite oxidation experiments were conducted during the quarter in the following manner. Air, free of carbon dioxide, is bubbled through water in a covered beaker. The pH is adjusted to 7.8 and the solution is circulated by a peristaltic pump through the coal slurry sample contained in a cellulose thimble in a Soxhlet tube mounted above the beaker. The pH of the solution is continuously statted to 7.8 by addition of NaOH solution. Samples are pipetted from the reaction solution for sulfate determination. The rate of oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids sample CSS-2a was calculated from the rate of production of sulfate ion to be 1.71 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {micro}mole pyrite per minute per {micro}mole of pyrite present.

  1. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  2. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  3. The slurriability model of Chinese coals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Rongzeng; Sun Zongyue; Zhu Shuquan

    1998-12-31

    It is well known that the extent of difficulties in slurry preparation is considerably different with the varied types of coal. It is consistently accepted that: the lower the coal rank, the higher the internal moisture, the higher the ratio of O/C, the more the hydrophilic groups, the more opulent the pores, the smaller the HGI, the more the soluble ions from coal, the CWM is more difficult to be prepared. These conclusions have been proved by the research. The author firstly selected the factors, which are easily got conventionally from great numbers of analysis data, established the slurriability model, and put forward a comprehensive criterion of slurriability. He uses multivariate non-linear stepwise regression analysis method to conduct a statistic analysis with eight factors for twenty groups of Chinese coals.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  6. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  7. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  8. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a simplified provisional correlation chart that was compiled from both published and unpublished data in order to fill a need to visualize the currently accepted stratigraphic relations between Appalachian basin formations, coal beds and coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions of Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Appalachian basin coal beds and coal zones were deposited in a variety of geologic settings throughout the Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian and Pennsylvanian formations were defined on the presence or absence of economic coal beds and coarse-grained sandstones that often are local or regionally discontinuous. The correlation chart illustrates how stratigraphic units (especially coal beds and coal zones) and their boundaries can differ between States and regions.

  9. Coal gasifier cogeneration powerplant project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. I.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Industrial cogeneration and utility pr systems were analyzed and a conceptual design study was conducted to evaluate the economic feasibility of a coal gasifier power plant for NASA Lewis Research Center. Site location, plant size, and electric power demand were considered in criteria developed for screening and selecting candidates that could use a wide variety of coals, including that from Ohio. A fluidized bed gasifier concept was chosen as the baseline design and key components of the powerplant were technically assessed. No barriers to environmental acceptability are foreseen. If funded, the powerplant will not only meet the needs of the research center, but will reduce the commercial risk for utilities and industries by fully verifying and demonstrating the technology, thus accelerating commercialization.

  10. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  11. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  12. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  13. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  14. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  15. Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P.; Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

  16. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  17. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.

  18. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  20. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  1. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  2. Catagenesis of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Stanov, V.V.

    1981-09-01

    On the basis of the equations of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics a general equation is derived for the metamorphosis of coals. This equation is used to investigate the conditions for catagenic processes in several coal deposits and oil-bearing structures. It is shown that the catagenesis of coal ceases when the temperature falls in connection with uplift and denudation of the strata surrounding the coal. If there is a very rapid burial of the coal-bearing rocks and thus rapid heating, the catagenesis lags somewhat behind coals and anthracites. Catagenesis of lignites is governed by the pressure and rate of burial.

  3. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  4. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  5. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  6. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  7. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  11. Characterization and Recovery of Rare Earths from Coal and By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, Evan J.; Roth, Elliot; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2016-03-25

    Coal is a precious resource, both in the United States and around the world. The United States has a 250-year supply of coal, and generates between 30 - 40% of its electricity through coal combustion. Approximately 1 Gt of coal has been mined annually in the US, although the 2015 total will likely be closer to 900 Mt (http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/). Most of the coal is burned for power generation, but substantial quantities are also employed in the manufacture of steel, chemicals, and activated carbons. Coal has a positive impact upon many industries, including mining, power, rail transportation, manufacturing, chemical, steel, activated carbon, and fuels. Everything that is in the earth’s crust is also present within coal to some extent, and the challenge is always to utilize abundant domestic coal in clean and environmentally friendly manners. In the case of the rare earths, these valuable and extraordinarily useful elements are present within the abundant coal and coal by-products produced domestically and world-wide. These materials include the coals, as well as the combustion by-products such as ashes, coal preparation wastes, gasification slags, and mining by-products. All of these materials can be viewed as potential sources of rare earth elements. Most of the common inorganic lanthanide compounds, such as the phosphates found in coal, have very high melting, boiling, and thermal decomposition temperatures, allowing them to concentrate in combustion and gasification by-products. Furthermore, rare earths have been found in interesting concentrations in the strata above and below certain coal seams. Much of the recent research on coal utilization in the United States has focused upon the capture of pollutants such as acid gases, particulates, and mercury, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The possible recovery of rare earth and other critical elements from abundant coal and by-products is an exciting new research area, representing a

  12. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  13. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  14. Modeling of coal stockpiles using a finite elements method

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    In the case of coal stockpiles finding suitable environmental conditions, spontaneous combustion phenomenon will be unavoidable. In this study, an industrial-sized stockpile having a shape of triangle prism was constituted in a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC), Turkey. The parameters of time, humidity and temperature of air, atmospheric pressure, velocity and direction of wind values that are effective on coal stockpile were measured in a continuous manner. These experimental works were transferred into a computer media in order to obtain similar outcomes by carrying out 2-dimensional analysis of the stockpile with Finite Elements Method (FEM). The performed experimental studies and obtained results were then compared.

  15. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOEpatents

    Gall, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  16. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  17. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  18. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  19. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues.

  20. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  1. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  2. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  3. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  4. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  5. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  6. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  7. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  9. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  10. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  11. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Annual Coal Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  13. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  14. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  15. Coal production and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen papers covering a wide variety of topics relevant to today's coal industry and a panel discussion on railroad deregulation and coal unit train rates were presented at the Seventh Annual PLM Coal Conference on Coal Production and Transportation. This volume contains all of these papers, which cover the topics ranging from acid rain to project financing, from slurry pipelines to barge and railroad transportation, as well as the panel discussion. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  16. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  17. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOEpatents

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  18. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  19. Development of pulse neutron coal analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Shi-wie; Gu, De-shan; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Yu-ren; Liu, Lin-mao; Shi-wei, Jing

    2005-04-01

    This article introduced the development of pulsed neutron coal analyzer by pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis technology in the Radiation Technology Institute of Northeast Normal University. The 14MeV pulse neutron generator and bismuth germanate detector and 4096 multichannel analyzer were applied in this system. The multiple linear regression method employed to process data solved the interferential problem of multiple elements. The prototype (model MZ-MKFY) had been applied in Changshan and Jilin power plant for about a year. The results of measuring the main parameters of coal such as low caloric power, whole total water, ash content, volatile content, and sulfur content, with precision acceptable to the coal industry, are presented.

  20. What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases?

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon-Lang, H.J.; Dimichele, W.A.

    2010-09-15

    Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata suggests that glacial-interglacial fluctuations at high latitudes drove cyclic changes in tropical biomes. A literature review of plant assemblages in this paleoclimatic context suggests that coal forests dominated during humid interglacial phases, but were replaced by seasonally dry vegetation during glacial phases. After each glacial event, coal forests reassembled with largely the same species composition. This remarkable stasis implies that coal-forest refugia existed across the equatorial landscape during glacial phases, expanding to repopulate lowlands during and following deglaciation. One possibility is that refugia comprised small pockets of wetland forest strung out along valleys at some sites, but data are currently insufficient to test this hypothesis. The model presented here, if accepted, dramatically alters our understanding of the coal forests and helps explain aspects of their dynamics.

  1. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  3. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  4. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  5. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  6. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  7. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  8. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  9. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  10. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  11. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  12. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T.

    1998-04-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

  13. Method for in situ biological conversion of coal to methane

    DOEpatents

    Volkwein, Jon C.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the in situ biological conversion of coal to methane comprising culturing on a coal-containing substrate a consortium of microorganisms capable of degrading the coal into methane under suitable conditions. This consortium of microorganisms can be obtained from an underground cavity such as an abandoned mine which underwent a change from being supplied with sewage to where no sewage was present, since these conditions have favored the development of microorganisms capable of using coal as a carbon source and converting coal to methane. The consortium of microorganisms obtained from such abandoned coal mines can be isolated and introduced to hard-to-reach coal-containing substrates which lack such microorganisms and which would otherwise remain unrecoverable. The present invention comprises a significant advantage in that useable energy can be obtained from a number of abandoned mine sites or other areas wherein coal is no longer being recovered, and such energy can be obtained in a safe, efficient, and inexpensive manner.

  14. Controlling coal mine bumps

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, C.A.; Campoli, A.A.; Zona, A.

    1984-10-01

    A coal bump or burst is defined as the instantaneous violent failure of a coal pillar(s) from overstress. The causes of coal bumps are not well understood, even though minor disturbances are a daily occurrence in bump prone seams. Lack of knowledge about coal bumps coupled with questionable mining practices can create disastrous consequences. Much of the early work on bumps was documented by US Bureau of Mines (BOM) researchers and operators of mines prone to bumps. In 1954 the BOM published Bulletin 535, This study compares recent events with those findings and suggests measures that can be taken to minimize the potential occurrence and severity of coal bumps.

  15. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Coal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  17. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  18. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, David M.; Liu, Yin-An

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  19. Characterization of biodegraded coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial degradation of coals to materials that are soluble in water has been a topic of intensive research for the last few years. The potential for economical recovery of low-grade coals, coupled with possibilities for further upgrading by microbial desulfurization or methanation has spurred intensive research at a number of laboratories. Until very recently, coal biodegradation has been accomplished using low-grade, naturally oxidized coals such as leonardiate, or coals subjected to pretreatment with oxidizing chemicals. The authors have been able to accomplish the biodegradation of bituminous Illinois 6 coal after a pretreatment consisting of air oxidation, using a culture of the fungus Penicillium sp. They report in this paper results of chemical and spectrometric analyses of the starting materials and products from Illinois 6 coal biodegradation, and compare the results with those previously reported from the biodegradation of leonardite.

  20. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  1. Whole-coal versus ash basis in coal geochemistry: a mathematical approach to consistent interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Hower, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Several standard methods require coal to be ashed prior to geochemical analysis. Researchers, however, are commonly interested in the compositional nature of the whole-coal, not its ash. Coal geochemical data for any given sample can, therefore, be reported in the ash basis on which it is analyzed or the whole-coal basis to which the ash basis data are back calculated. Basic univariate (mean, variance, distribution, etc.) and bivariate (correlation coefficients, etc.) measures of the same suite of samples can be very different depending which reporting basis the researcher uses. These differences are not real, but an artifact resulting from the compositional nature of most geochemical data. The technical term for this artifact is subcompositional incoherence. Since compositional data are forced to a constant sum, such as 100% or 1,000,000 ppm, they possess curvilinear properties which make the Euclidean principles on which most statistical tests rely inappropriate, leading to erroneous results. Applying the isometric logratio (ilr) transformation to compositional data allows them to be represented in Euclidean space and evaluated using traditional tests without fear of producing mathematically inconsistent results. When applied to coal geochemical data, the issues related to differences between the two reporting bases are resolved as demonstrated in this paper using major oxide and trace metal data from the Pennsylvanian-age Pond Creek coal of eastern Kentucky, USA. Following ilr transformation, univariate statistics, such as mean and variance, still differ between the ash basis and whole-coal basis, but in predictable and calculated manners. Further, the stability between two different components, a bivariate measure, is identical, regardless of the reporting basis. The application of ilr transformations addresses both the erroneous results of Euclidean-based measurements on compositional data as well as the inconsistencies observed on coal geochemical data

  2. Mind your manners. Part II: General results from the National Association of Medical Examiners Manner of Death Questionnaire, 1995.

    PubMed

    Goodin, J; Hanzlick, R

    1997-09-01

    More than 700 physician medical examiner/coroners (ME/Cs) were surveyed to assess differences in manner of death classifications for typical but often controversial death scenarios: 198 physicians participated by choosing the manner of death (homicide, suicide, accident, natural, undetermined) for 23 such scenarios. Sixteen questions related to death certificate training, work location, and manner of death issues were also asked. The classification of manner of death by ME/Cs was highly variable. For some challenging death scenarios, majority agreement was lacking. Agreement was > or = 80% for only 11 of the 23 scenarios and was 100% for only 1. Manner of death classification method was not influenced by forensic pathology board certification status, by whether or not the physician actually completed death certificates, or by previous threats of lawsuits over manner of death classification. However, there were some differences by state. No textbook or individual was widely recognized as authoritative on manner of death issues. Few ME/Cs had formal death certification training in medical school or residency. The data lend credence to the practice of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of classifying manner of death for statistical purposes by using coding and classification rules and selection criteria rather than solely on the basis of the classification of manner chosen by ME/Cs. The data also indicate that caution is in order when one compares manner of death statistics of one ME/C with those of another Published guidelines and more uniform training are needed so that ME/Cs may become more consistent in their manner of death classifications. Further information is presented in Part I (history of manner of death classification) and in Part III (individual death scenarios and their analysis) companion articles in this issue of the Journal.

  3. Cytogenetic monitoring of coal workers and patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Ulker, O.C.; Ustundag, A.; Duydu, Y.; Yucesoy, B.; Karakaya, A.

    2008-04-15

    Occupational exposure to coal dust causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), which is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic lung disease. Recently, chronic inflammation has been accepted as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of neoplasia. The chronic inflammation provides dynamic setting for oxidative stress and formation of free radicals. Interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with DNA augments the likelihood of DNA structural and transcriptional errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotoxic risk in pneumoconiotic patients and in those with occupational exposure to coal dust. Therefore, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed in Turkish CWP patients, coal workers, and an unexposed control group. Both SCE and MN frequencies in CWP patients were found significantly higher than in coal worker and unexposed groups. There were no differences between SCE and MN frequencies of coal worker and unexposed groups. On the other hand, no correlation between SCE frequency, duration of exposure, and age was observed in all three groups. There was also no effect of smoking on the frequencies of SCE and MN in the groups. Based on these results, it might be suggested that development of CWP leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of CWP patients. This is the first report on CWP patients with elevated cytogenetic endpoints. Further, a larger follow-up study is warranted.

  4. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  5. Geology and coal resources of Zonguldak basin (Northwest Turkey) as a potential source for coal bed methane

    SciTech Connect

    Yalcin, M.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The Carboniferous clastic sequence of Zonguldak basin contains several coal seams that have been mined since 1848 by underground methods. Coal seams are located in a Namurian to Westfalian D progradational delta and fluid plain sequence that is approximately 3,500 m thick. These units are affected by Hercynian orogenic movements. Related tectonism and uplift led to a widespread erosion. Consequently, younger units, mainly Cretaceous shallow-marine carbonates, rest unconformably on different sections of the Carboniferous strata. There exist up to 8 coal seams in Namurian, 20 to 26 in Westfalian A, and up to 8 coal seams in Westfalian B, C, and D. The average combined thickness values are 8 m, 34 m, and 7 m, respectively. However, due to the lateral changes in seam thickness and due to the erosion, both the number and combined thickness of coal seams may change remarkably. Majority of the coals in the exploitation area are of highly volatile C to A bituminous rank. Vitrinite reflectance values range from 0.6 to 1.2% (R{sub 0} mean). Methane content of some coal seams is determined by desorption data which indicate a methane content of 5 to 16 m{sup 3} per ton of coal. In addition to classical methods, data from some deep wells have been used to determine the thermal history by the method of basin modeling. Amount of gas generated in coals is then computed with the help of a kinetic approach. Furthermore, timing of gas generation has also been determined, which enabled consideration of migrational and diffusional gas losses. Data from coal geology, geochemistry, and modeling are combined to evaluate the coal bed methane potential of the basin in an integrated and quantitative manner.

  6. 25 CFR 227.15 - Manner of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manner of payment. 227.15 Section 227.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.15 Manner of payment....

  7. 25 CFR 227.15 - Manner of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of payment. 227.15 Section 227.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.15 Manner of...

  8. 25 CFR 227.15 - Manner of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of payment. 227.15 Section 227.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.15 Manner of...

  9. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  10. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  11. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  12. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  13. 31 CFR 128.2 - Manner of reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner of reporting. 128.2 Section 128.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REPORTING OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL AND FOREIGN-CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS AND POSITIONS General Information § 128.2 Manner of...

  14. 25 CFR 225.31 - Manner of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of payments. 225.31 Section 225.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.31 Manner of payments. Unless specified otherwise in...

  15. 25 CFR 225.31 - Manner of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manner of payments. 225.31 Section 225.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.31 Manner of payments. Unless specified otherwise in...

  16. 25 CFR 225.31 - Manner of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of payments. 225.31 Section 225.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.31 Manner of payments. Unless specified otherwise in...

  17. 25 CFR 225.31 - Manner of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of payments. 225.31 Section 225.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.31 Manner of payments. Unless specified otherwise in...

  18. 25 CFR 225.31 - Manner of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of payments. 225.31 Section 225.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.31 Manner of payments. Unless specified otherwise in...

  19. 25 CFR 227.15 - Manner of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of payment. 227.15 Section 227.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.15 Manner of...

  20. 25 CFR 227.15 - Manner of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of payment. 227.15 Section 227.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties § 227.15 Manner of...

  1. 24 CFR 888.202 - Manner of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of publication. 888.202 Section 888.202 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors § 888.202 Manner of publication....

  2. 24 CFR 888.202 - Manner of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of publication. 888.202 Section 888.202 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors § 888.202 Manner of publication....

  3. 49 CFR 1116.2 - Manner of presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manner of presentation. 1116.2 Section 1116.2... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL ARGUMENT BEFORE THE BOARD § 1116.2 Manner of presentation... usually be heard for each of the opposing interests, unless additional presentations are...

  4. 14 CFR 137.37 - Manner of dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manner of dispensing. 137.37 Section 137.37 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... aircraft, any material or substance in a manner that creates a hazard to persons or property on the surface....

  5. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  6. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  7. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to

  8. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  9. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  12. 34. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR AND TURNAROUND TRACK FOR COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR AND TURN-AROUND TRACK FOR COAL CARS (NOTE: COAL CAR No. 6 IN FAR BACK GROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  13. 39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) (NOTE: COAL CARS No. 9 & 5 IN BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  14. 35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL TOWER No. 2 (NOTE: SKYLIGHT ABOVE; COAL CARS IN FAR BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  15. Looking southeast at coal conveyor leading from the coal unloading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at coal conveyor leading from the coal unloading station to the coal elevator. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  16. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  17. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  18. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  19. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  20. Testing of pyrite flotation techniques on selected Ohio coals: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Torak, E.R.

    1989-05-01

    The project was conceived to demonstrate the combining of conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies in a cost-effective manner. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that conventional coal cleaning followed by advanced coal cleaning of a crushed mid-gravity portion of the run-of-mine coal would produce a clean coal, suitable for use as a thermal coal, having a lower ash content and a lower sulfur dioxide emission potential than a coal cleaned only be current conventional cleaning technologies. As part of this program a number of advanced flotation techniques were tested to determine the feasibility of including them in the design of their Advanced Coal Preparation Facility. The program consisted of testing the Pittsburgh seam, the Middle Kittanning seam, and the Meigs Creek seam coals in the pilot flotation circuit at EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) in Homer City, Pennsylvania. This report contains all the data from OCDO's pilot flotation test program at the CQDC and the test data from the Middle Kittanning and Meigs Creek reverse flotation tests. 13 figs., 40 tabs.

  1. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  2. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  3. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  4. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  5. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  6. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  7. Coal-Sizing Auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aft end of auger, like forward, face-piercing end, equipped with hard cutting bits such as diamonds. As auger breaks face, pulls broken coal lumps into jaws and forces them into hardened throat section. There, cutting bits chew up lumps: Clearance between throat and auger shaft sets maximum size for coal particles that pass through. Auger motion pushes coal particles into mixing chamber, where paddles combine them with water.

  8. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  9. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  10. Reclamation technology development for western Arkansas coal refuse waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Coal mining has been an important industry in the Arkansas River Valley Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) of western Arkansas for more than 100 yr., most of it with little regard for environmental concerns. Almost 3,640 ha. of land affected by surface coal mines cover the seven-county area, with less than 1,200 ha. currently in various stages of operation or reclamation. Since only the active mining sites must now be reclaimed by law, the remaining 2,440 ha. of abandoned land remains at the mercy of natural forces. Little topsoil exists on these sites and the coal wastes are generally acidic with a pH in the 4.0-5.5 range. Revegetation attempts under these conditions generally require continued maintenance and retreatment until an acceptable cover is achieved. If and when an acceptable vegetative cover is established, the cost frequently approaches $7,400/ha. ($3,000/acre). In an effort to resolve these issues and provide some direction for stabilizing coal waste lands, the US Department of Agriculture through its Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center at Boonville, Arkansas, received a Congressional Pass through administered by the US Bureau of Mines, to support a 5-yr. revegetation study on the coal mine spoils of western Arkansas. This paper reports the results through the spring of 1994 on that portion of the study dealing with the establishment of blackberries as a cash crop on coal mine spoils.

  11. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  12. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  13. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  14. The Manners of Liberalism: A Question of Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William B.

    1982-01-01

    The argument that liberal education leads people to substitute intellectual tolerance or ambiguity for righteous indignation is criticized, with reference to Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrayal of Thomas Jefferson, his liberalism, and democratic manners. (MSE)

  15. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-06-12

    Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

  16. Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

  17. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  18. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-06-05

    The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x)=0.94e(-26.58/RT)(-0.56 x(2) -0.51 x+1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x)=11.96e(-45.03/RT)(-0.53 x(2) -0.56 x+1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  19. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  20. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  1. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  2. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    . Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

  3. Coal briquetting in Pakistan: A market and business assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.

    1988-04-01

    Our objectives are to evaluate the potential financial success of an unsubsidized, private sector coal briquetting venture in Pakistan, based on financial competitiveness in market niches, market size, and consumer acceptance; to examine private sector interest and potential business arrangements; to examine potential effects of government policies on such an undertaking; and to make recommendations to the private sector, USAID, and the Government of Pakistan on further work. Our results show that coal briquettes potentially can compete against firewood in some markets, particularly in certain urban areas of Punjab and most urban markets of the NWFP. Salt Range or Makerwal coal would be used for these briquettes. Coal briquettes will also compete against charcoal and kerosene in many areas of Pakistan. The most promising briquette is a coal/biomass mixture not requiring carbonization. A limited opportunity may also exist for a carbonized briquette using Makerwal coal. Smoky briquettes for space heating also are competitive in certain areas, but market size is limiting. The total penetrable residential market for coal briquettes in the Punjab and NWFP of 440,000 to 545,000 tonnes of briquettes per year replacing firewood is sufficiently large to support one or more plants of 50,000 tonnes per year. Charcoal, kerosene, and commercial uses of briquettes could add to this market. 9 refs., 20 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. New Coal Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, John

    1979-01-01

    Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

  5. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  6. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  8. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  9. COAL USE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  10. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  11. Paper coal in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guennel, G.K.; Neavel, R.C.

    1959-01-01

    The foliated, papery texture of the upper third of an 18-inch coal seam in a strip mine near Rockville, Indiana, is attributable to matted plant cuticle. The cuticles of pinnules, pinnae, and rachides resemble Sphenopteris bradfordii Arnold and thus differ from the lycopsid stem cuticles of the Russian paper coal.

  12. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  13. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  14. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  15. Resinous binders for coal and chars

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Binder development and application to the briquetting or pelleting of coal fines has been extensive. The search for low-cost, effective binders for making strong and durable briquettes or pellets continues unabated. Strong, durable compacts are required, not only for handling, transport, and storage of the product but also to withstand the rigors of application such as flue gas treatment sorbents and catalytic supports. Many kinds of binders, organic and inorganic, have been used to gain the desired strength. Synthetic polymers have been investigated because they promote good strength and water insolubility, but these features are generally outweighed by the polymer cost. Promising earlier developments of biomass-derived binders have received slow market acceptance, mainly because of the cost resulting from the high concentrations required. However, recent advances in processing lignocellulosic materials have generated potentially low-cost polymeric binding agents for making coal briquettes. Phenol novolaks were previously used with lignites to make activated carbons. Recently, binders were prepared from mixtures of phenol, lignin, and formaldehyde and used for wood flour molding and friction materials. The goal of our work was to investigate the characteristics of resinous binders from lignocellulosic as well as coal-derived materials when used with dried or beneficiated coals and chars.

  16. Reducing float coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Patts, J.R.; Colinet, J.F.; Janisko, S.J.; Barone, T.L.; Patts, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber. PMID:28018004

  17. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  19. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  20. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect

    Minchener, A.J.

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. (Coal utilization in India)

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  2. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  3. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies to be carried out in this project include: (1) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (2) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of PAHs and PAH derivatives (especially nitro-PAHs) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (3) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with PAHs and PAH derivatives; (4) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of surface roughness'' of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of PAHs sorbed on coal ash particles; (5) Identification of the major products of chemical transformation of PAHs on coal ash particles, and examination of any effects that may exist of the nature of the coal ash surface on the identities of PAH transformation products; and (6) Studies of the influence of other sorbed species on the chemical behavior of PAHs and PAH derivatives on fly ash surfaces. PAHs are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which PAHs are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  4. 43 CFR 3420.1-8 - Identification of lands as acceptable for further consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... the adoption of a comprehensive land use plan or land use analysis. Any lands identified as acceptable... with a regional coal team meeting to review market analyses and land-use planning summaries. The...

  5. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  7. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and…

  8. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  9. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  10. Structure and thermoplasticity of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T.

    2004-07-01

    Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

  11. Acceptance of tinnitus: validation of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acceptance as mediating link between sound perception (i.e. subjective loudness of tinnitus) and tinnitus distress. In total, 424 patients with chronic tinnitus completed the TAQ and validated measures of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression online. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to a good fit of the data to the hypothesised bifactor model (root-mean-square-error of approximation = .065; Comparative Fit Index = .974; Tucker-Lewis Index = .958; standardised root mean square residual = .032). In addition, mediation analysis, using a non-parametric joint coefficient approach, revealed that tinnitus-specific acceptance partially mediated the relation between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress (path ab = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.69). In a multiple mediator model, tinnitus acceptance had a significantly stronger indirect effect than anxiety. The results confirm the factorial structure of the TAQ and suggest the importance of a general acceptance factor that contributes important unique variance beyond that of the first-order factors activity engagement and tinnitus suppression. Tinnitus acceptance as measured with the TAQ is proposed to be a key construct in tinnitus research and should be further implemented into treatment concepts to reduce tinnitus distress.

  12. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  13. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  14. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  15. Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion - Phase I Coal Selection and Chaacterization

    SciTech Connect

    A. Kolker; A. Sarofim; C.A. Palmer; C.L. Senior; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; I. Olmez; N. Shah; R. Finkelman; S. Crowley; T. Zeng

    1998-07-16

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. Over the past decade, a large database identifying the partitioning and emitted concentrations of several toxic metals on the list of HAPs has been developed. Laboratory data have also been generated to help define the general behavior of several elements in combustion systems. These data have been used to develop empirical and probabalistic models to predict emissions of trace metals from coal-fired power plants. While useful for providing average emissions of toxic species, these empirically based models fail when extrapolated beyond their supporting database. This represents a critical gap; over the coming decades, new fuels and combustion systems will play an increasing role in our nation's power generation system. For example, new fuels, such as coal blends or beneficiated fuels, new operating conditions, such as low-NO burners or staged combustion, or new power x systems, for example, those being developed under the DoE sponsored Combustion 2000 programs and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, are all expected to play a role in power generation in the next century. The need for new predictive tools is not limited to new combustion systems, however. Existing combustion systems may have to employ controls for HAPs, should regulations be imposed. Testing of new control methods, at pilot and full scale, is expensive. A sound under-standing of the chemical transformations of both organic and inorganic HAPs will promote the development of new control methods in a cost-effective manner. To ensure that coal-fired power generation proceeds in an environmentally benign fashion, methods for the prediction and

  16. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  17. 49 CFR 579.29 - Manner of reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manner of reporting. 579.29 Section 579.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REPORTING OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS...

  18. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... practitioner may sign a paper prescription in the same manner as he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall be written with ink or indelible pencil, typewriter, or printed on a computer printer and shall be...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... certificate of the Federal Communications Commission required by § 1.1071-1 should be filed with the...

  20. 29 CFR 1905.21 - Manner of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner of service. 1905.21 Section 1905.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE FOR VARIANCES, LIMITATIONS, VARIATIONS, TOLERANCES, AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE...

  1. 7 CFR 160.31 - Time and manner of sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.31 Time and manner of...

  2. 29 CFR 1955.15 - Manner of service and filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner of service and filing. 1955.15 Section 1955.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... originals or certified copies need be filed....

  3. 45 CFR 1611.7 - Manner of determining financial eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forms and procedures to obtain information from applicants and groups to determine financial eligibility in a manner that promotes the development of trust between attorney and client. The forms shall be... recipient has determined that a client is financially eligible for service in a particular case or...

  4. Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

  5. 42 CFR 35.51 - Manner of delivery; costs, receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manner of delivery; costs, receipts. 35.51 Section 35.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND... of delivery; costs, receipts. (a) If a person entitled under this subpart to receive the money...

  6. 26 CFR 1.9200-2 - Manner of taking deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....9200-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Reform Act of 1969 § 1.9200-2 Manner of taking deduction. (a) In general. The... statement containing the required information) attach a statement to the next income tax return of...

  7. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... engineering practice, be provided no less than the same quality of signal processing and carriage provided for... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.62 Manner of carriage. (a) Cable... pursuant to a valid retransmission consent agreement for the entire signal or any portion thereof...

  8. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... engineering practice, be provided no less than the same quality of signal processing and carriage provided for... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.62 Manner of carriage. (a) Cable... pursuant to a valid retransmission consent agreement for the entire signal or any portion thereof...

  9. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... engineering practice, be provided no less than the same quality of signal processing and carriage provided for... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.62 Manner of carriage. (a) Cable... pursuant to a valid retransmission consent agreement for the entire signal or any portion thereof...

  10. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engineering practice, be provided no less than the same quality of signal processing and carriage provided for... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.62 Manner of carriage. (a) Cable... pursuant to a valid retransmission consent agreement for the entire signal or any portion thereof...

  11. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engineering practice, be provided no less than the same quality of signal processing and carriage provided for... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.62 Manner of carriage. (a) Cable... pursuant to a valid retransmission consent agreement for the entire signal or any portion thereof...

  12. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853... making election. (a) General rule. To make an election under section 853 for a taxable year, a regulated investment company must file a statement of election as part of its Federal income tax return for the...

  13. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their... 2002 (No FEAR Act), Pub. L. 107-174,” and a hyperlink to the data, entitled “No FEAR Act Data” will...

  14. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their... 2002 (No FEAR Act), Pub. L. 107-174,” and a hyperlink to the data, entitled “No FEAR Act Data” will...

  15. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their... 2002 (No FEAR Act), Pub. L. 107-174,” and a hyperlink to the data, entitled “No FEAR Act Data” will...

  16. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their... 2002 (No FEAR Act), Pub. L. 107-174,” and a hyperlink to the data, entitled “No FEAR Act Data” will...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their... 2002 (No FEAR Act), Pub. L. 107-174,” and a hyperlink to the data, entitled “No FEAR Act Data” will...

  18. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  19. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  20. Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

  1. Farewell, king coal!

    PubMed

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies.

  2. A commitment to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Q.

    2006-07-15

    Quin Shea explores the need for power generated with coal and the advanced technologies that will generate that power more efficiently and cleanly in the future. The article considers the air and waste challenges of using coal, including progress toward reducing emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, and mercury; efforts to address CO{sub 2}, including voluntary programs like the Climate Challenge, Power Partners, and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate; and the regulation and beneficial use of coal-combustion byproducts (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash, flue gas desulfurization materials, boiler slag). 17 refs.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  4. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  6. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals. Final technical report for Phase II, July 1, 1977-February 29, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P. D.; Wolff, E. N.

    1980-10-01

    This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Alaska, with its large coal resources, could supply the nation with environmentally acceptable low-ash, low-sulfur coals. Washability characteristics were determined for eleven coal samples, from the Northern Alaska, Broad Pass, Little Tonzona, Tramway Bar, Beluga, Yentna, Kenai and Nenana coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities. Detailed results of the testing are given.

  8. Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia`s coal energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC`s fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts.

  9. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    transmission line. In the G+CC+CCS plant, coal is gasified into syngas and CO{sub 2} (which is captured). The syngas is burned in the combined cycle plant to produce electricity. The ACWH facility is operated in such a way that the transmission line is always utilized at its full capacity by backing down the combined cycle (CC) power generation units to accommodate wind generation. Operating the ACWH facility in this manner results in a constant power delivery of 3,000 MW to the load centers, in effect firming-up the wind generation at the project site.

  10. Maps showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Maps are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.

  11. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  12. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  13. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  14. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  15. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  17. Sulfur removal from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Lompa-Krzymien, L.

    1985-01-01

    Coal is treated to remove both pyritic and organic sulfur by contacting with an aqueous solution comprising cupric ions at temperatures of about 140/sup 0/ C.-200/sup 0/ C. under autogenic pressure, until substantial amounts of the sulfur are solubilized, separating the coal solids, and washing the solids with water to remove soluble forms of sulfur, iron and copper therefrom. The copper can be recovered and recycled as a cupric salt.

  18. Characterization of biodegraded coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.C.; Linehan, J.C.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.

    1988-04-01

    We have been able to accomplish the biodegradation of bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal after a pretreatment consisting of air oxidation, using a culture of the fungus Penicillium sp. We report in this paper results of chemical and spectrometric analyses of the starting materials and products from Illinois No. 6 coal biodegradation, and compare the results with those previously reported from the biodegradation of leonardite. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Coal coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.E.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for coating coal particles including: (a) mixing at least two molar equivalents of a fatty acid and one molar equivalent of alkali reactive with the fatty acid to saponify a portion of the fatty acid to form a first mixture; (b) diluting the first mixture with water to form a second solution; (c) applying the second solution to the surface of the coal particles.

  20. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  1. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  2. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P. Ochodek, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently, necessary steps in making coal utilization more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fueled by pulverized coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper than coal) do not result in an increased efficiency of the standing equipment by applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalization of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in the near future.

  3. Possible environmental effects of increased coal use in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    If coal is to be utilized in California it must be made compatible with the state's drive toward restoring environmental quality. The impacts resulting from coal's mining and transportation, or from water consumption, water quality degradation and electric transmission line routing can probably be adequately mitigated through strong and early planning efforts, the use of improved control and process technologies, and sincere utility commitment. The socioeconomic impacts may prove somewhat more difficult to satisfactorily mitigate. Of greatest concern is adequate control of generated air pollutants and disposal of solid and liquid wastes since acceptable technologies or handling techniques have yet to be conclusively demonstrated.

  4. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  5. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal.

  6. From Movement to Metaphor with Manner-of-Movement Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstromberg, Seth; Boers, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns three two-stage experiments the aim of which was to find out whether enactment- and mime-based (E&M) instruction--a key element both of the method known as Total Physical Response and of some less codified instruction at primary level--can be employed in order to help learners: (1) better acquire English manner-of-movement…

  7. Additive for coal water slurry made from weak slurryability coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zi-xiu Zang; Lin Zhang; Xino-an Fu; Long Jiang

    1993-12-31

    Surface treatment of weak slurryability coal and preparation of highly concentrated coal water slurry (CWS) have been investigated using wettability and rheology measurements. By adding 0.5{approximately}10 wt.% (based on coal) pitch during dry milling coal surface became more hydrophobic and the coal could be easily prepared for CWS which had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the untreated coal. The reasons of this result is high degree of hydrophobic surface of coal particles made surfactant adsorption easier compared with high degree of hydrophilic surface of coal particles. Another important reason in hydrophobic surface impeded the penetration of water into the inner pores of coal particles which resulted in decreasing swelling ability of coal and enhancing the fluidity of CWS. Four different additives have been investigated including three nonionic ethoxylated surfactants and one mixture of anionic surfactants (sodium humate derivative and naphthalenesulfonic acid-HCHO condensate). Both rheological and thixotropic properties showed that nonionic surfactant G2 was the most efficient additive for preparation of highly concentrated CWS. The results of dynamic experiment illustrated that the slurry had good dynamic stability, in other words, the viscosity of the slurry decreased very slowly at constant stir. The pitch treated coal powders were beneficiated coal had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the unbeneficiated coal.

  8. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  9. Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.

    2008-07-01

    During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

  10. Reading the composition of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    A new apparatus, (CONAC), is being developed to handle a large quantity (up to 50 tons per hour) of coal at a high speed and give an accurate and continuous nuclear analysis without affecting the coal or preventing retesting. CONAC will increase the efficiency of coal resources by identifying the coal which meets boiler-performance and emission-standard specifications. Coal varies in heating value, moisture content, sulfur and nitrogen percentages, and ash content, all of which affect the cost-effectiveness of power plant operation. Relying on neutron activation of coal by a radioactive californium, the CONAC apparatus provides more-reliable information than conventional analytical tests. (DCK)

  11. Coal quality databases: Practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelman, R.B.; Gross, P.M.K.

    1999-07-01

    Domestic and worldwide coal use will be influenced by concerns about the effects of coal combustion on the local, regional and global environment. Reliable coal quality data can help decision-makers to better assess risks and determine impacts of coal constituents on technological behavior, economic byproduct recovery, and environmental and human health issues. The US Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an existing coal quality database (COALQUAL) that contains analyses of approximately 14,000 col samples from every major coal-producing basin in the US. For each sample, the database contains results of proximate and ultimate analyses; sulfur form data; and major, minor, and trace element concentrations for approximately 70 elements

  12. A study of leakage rates through mine seals in underground coal mines

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Krog, Robert B.; Mazzella, Andrew; Hollerich, Cynthia; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study on leakage rates through underground coal mine seals. Leakage rates of coal bed gas into active workings have not been well established. New seal construction standards have exacerbated the knowledge gap in our understanding of how well these seals isolate active workings near a seal line. At a western US underground coal mine, we determined seal leakage rates ranged from about 0 to 0.036 m3/s for seven 340 kPa seals. The seal leakage rate varied in essentially a linear manner with variations in head pressure at the mine seals. PMID:26322119

  13. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  14. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  15. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    McCunney, R.J.; Morfeld, P.; Payne, S.

    2009-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal-before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  16. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  17. From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in

  18. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  19. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or received by midnight Eastern Standard Time...

  20. Washability of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the theoretical beneficiation potential of US coals when pulverized down to 44 microns, (2) to determine the effects of fine grinding on the liberation of ash, pyritic sulfur, and other impurities, and (3) to assess the impact of their removal on oil and gas replacement, environmental regulations, and specification feedstocks for emerging coal utilization technologies. With the emphasis on fine coal cleaning, we have developed a centrifugal float-sink technique for coals crushed down to 44 microns. Employing this technique will provide a complete fine coal gravimetric evaluation of US coals crushed down to 44 microns. Parallel research is being conducted through in-house studies by PETC, and contracts with the University of Alaska, the University of North Dakota, and Commercial Testing and Engineering, Inc. Results thus far have been encouraging for selected Northern Appalachian Region Coals (NAR), which have shown pyritic sulfur, SO/sub 2/ emission, and ash reductions of 94, 60, and 82%, respectively, for the float 1.30 specific gravity product. However, the data evaluated for several samples indicate a possible problem in the yield/ash relationship for the float 1.30 specific gravity products for samples crushed to 75 and 44 microns top size. Thus, testing was begun to try to resolve these anomalies in the data. Test results using surface active agents, a reverse order of float-sink, and sample pre-heat techniques have been promising. These modifications to the standard technique resulted in an increase in weight recovery of float 1.30 specific gravity material and a decrease in ash content for each of the other specific gravity fractions, thus showing an improvement in the yield/ash relationship.

  1. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  2. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  3. China's post-coal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  4. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  5. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  6. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  7. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  8. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  9. Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

    1993-01-07

    The optimal conditions found for both the median size and specific energy for a particular system differ from one another. The fact that the surfaces from which these conditions are estimated are saddle or minimax further complicate the issue as these are characterized by a range of optimum conditions. However, there is no doubt that the conditions which are suitable for optimizing the product particle size may not necessarily be good for the specific energy. Depending on the objective, either the product size or the specific energy may be optimized. Besides, it seems that when the product particle size is optimized, the specific energy is simultaneously constrained. In this manner, a better estimate of the required energy consumption can be obtained for scale-up purposes. When the results in Table 3 are compared with those of the other three coals given in quarterly report numbers 3 and 4, a trend/pattern is observed. For the four coals involved in this work, the degree of fineness of the product particle size depicted by either the median size or d[sub 90] after wet stirred milling, correlates with the hardness or HGI. In other words, the higher the Hardgrove Index, the finer the product particle size. The specific energy in contrast, does not tend to correlate with the hardness or HGI of the coal. Rather, the softer coal, depending on the properties of the associated impurities appears to consume more power. While this may initially appear to be a great surprise, the reasons for it are rather easy to grasp. In order to do this, one needs to look into such things as the properties/characteristics of the respective coal/impurities, the grinding environment, the mechanism of particle breakage in the mill, and how the grinding force is transmitted to the media.

  10. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, C.D Jr.

    1983-08-08

    The invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  11. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  12. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  13. Hybrid coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.

    2007-01-15

    Retrofitting gas, oil and coal-fired boilers can reduce operating costs and meet EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rules (CAIR) when firing most Eastern and Midwest bituminous coals. The trademarked Clean Combustion System (CCS) concept, conceived at Rockwell International, evolved from a confluence of advanced combustion modelling know-how, experience in coal gasification and wet-bottom boiler operation and design. The CCS is a high temperature air-feed entrained flow gasifier that replaces a boiler's existing burners. It fires pulverized coal with some limestone added to provide calcium to capture sulfur and provide a clean hot fuel-rich gas to the boiler furnace. Subsequent over-fire air (OFA) staging completes the combustion. A 'sulfur bearing glass' waste product results from the coal ash and the calcium sulfide. The CCS process prevents formation of NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen. The initial commercialisation of CCS is the update and retrofit an industrial stoker design boiler. Steps for the retrofit are described in the article. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  14. Clean power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Basu, P.

    2007-09-15

    The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  16. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  17. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    SciTech Connect

    Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-10-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky, is next analyzed, using both the new baseline mine concept and traditional geologic investigative approach. The baseline mine concept presented is intended as a framework, providing a consistent basis for further analyses to be subsequently conducted in other geographic regions. The baseline mine concept is intended as a tool to give system designers a more realistic feel of the mine environment and will hopefully lead to acceptable alternatives for advanced coal extraction system.

  18. INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

  19. Premium carbon products from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinko, F. Jr.; Morrison, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The face of the US coal industry and its markets are changing. Environmental concerns over global warming and plant emissions are two factors that will continue to gain national attention and consequently will challenge the use of coal in the US within its traditional markets. The decline of coke production in the US has lead to high quality metallurgical-grade coal being used to generate electricity. One could argue this is a waste of a limited valuable resource. The debate over global warming and the generation of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, will undoubtedly negatively impact the use of coal in newly constructed power plants. What is the future of the US coal industry and the industries that benefit from coal? This paper will review the use of coal and coal-derived materials in new, non-fuel markets. It will review a new industrial consortium that has recently been formed to stimulate the use of coal in value-added carbon markets. One of the questions the reader should ask when reading this paper is: Is coal more valuable for its carbon content or its BTU content? Carbon materials such as carbon fibers, carbon-carbon composites, specialty and mechanical graphite, activated carbon, carbon black, and carbon foams may provide new markets for the coal industry. These markets are expanding and some of these markets are in their infancy. These new material applications offer an exciting, but little recognized, opportunity for the expanded use of coal.

  20. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  1. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  2. Service Modules for Coal Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Service train follows group of mining machines, paying out utility lines as machines progress into coal face. Service train for four mining machines removes gases and coal and provides water and electricity. Flexible, coiling armored carriers protect cables and hoses. High coal production attained by arraying row of machines across face, working side by side.

  3. Production of low ash coal by high efficiency coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The washability of South African coals is described and the problems encountered in washing at low densities, to make premium products, are enumerated. The measures taken to overcome those problems, when low density separations became a commercial necessity, are described in detail. The descriptions of processes are with specific reference to the three sizes commonly treated separately in coal preparation namely coarse coal, small coal, and fine coal. Some information is given on the performance characteristics of the plants erected to meet market requirements.

  4. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  5. Coarse coal hydraulic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Petry, E.F.

    1982-10-01

    Discusses the development of coarse coal pipeline technology requiring a minimum of product size reduction. Initial concentration on continuous face haulage and later on mainline haulage areas led eventually to the system in operation at Loveridge mine in West Virginia. Key features of the hydraulic transport system (as shown in diagram) include the pump house, vertical hoisting, overland slurry lines, a preparation/ dewatering plant, a continuous miner, a coal crusher/injection vehicle, a flexible hose hauler, a rigid slurry line, a longwall injection station, and a slurry storage/reclaim system. Explains that the system was built primarily to serve a longwall face, but it also handles coal from 2 continuous miners on longwall development work.

  6. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  7. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  8. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  9. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  10. Fluorine in coal and coal by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

  11. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  12. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  13. Micronized coal burner facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

  14. Mechanoemission and mechanochemistry of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Khrustalev, Yu.A.; Khrenkova, T.M.; Lebedev, V.V.; Toporov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The article provides experimental data on high-energy electron emission during the fine dispersion of coal in vacuo under the influence of an electrostatic field, and shows the mechano-chemical transformation which occurs in the crushed samples. Electron flow is dependent on coal rank and is a maximum in medium rank coals. Long-flame, gas, fat and coking coal show a higher emission value than fusain. Electron flow depends on chemical constitution as well as physical properties (friability, conductivity) of the coal.

  15. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  16. Hepatocytes release ceramide-enriched pro-inflammatory extracellular vesicles in an IRE1α-dependent manner[S

    PubMed Central

    Kakazu, Eiji; Mauer, Amy S.; Yin, Meng; Malhi, Harmeet

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a lipotoxic disease wherein activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and macrophage-mediated hepatic inflammation are key pathogenic features. However, the lipid mediators linking these two observations remain elusive. We postulated that ER stress-regulated release of pro-inflammatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) from lipotoxic hepatocytes may be this link. EVs were isolated from cell culture supernatants of hepatocytes treated with palmitate (PA) to induce lipotoxic ER stress, characterized by immunofluorescence, Western blotting, electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Sphingolipids were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. EVs were employed in macrophage chemotaxis assays. PA induced significant EV release. Because PA activates ER stress, we used KO hepatocytes to demonstrate that PA-induced EV release was mediated by inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)/X-box binding protein-1. PA-induced EVs were enriched in C16:0 ceramide in an IRE1α-dependent manner, and activated macrophage chemotaxis via formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) from C16:0 ceramide. This chemotaxis was blocked by sphingosine kinase inhibitors and S1P receptor inhibitors. Lastly, elevated circulating EVs in experimental and human NASH demonstrated increased C16:0 ceramide. PA induces C16:0 ceramide-enriched EV release in an IRE1α-dependent manner. The ceramide metabolite, S1P, activates macrophage chemotaxis, a potential mechanism for the recruitment of macrophages to the liver under lipotoxic conditions. PMID:26621917

  17. Nanoparticles modulate autophagic effect in a dispersity-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dengtong; Zhou, Hualu; Gao, Jinhao

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in human health and disease, especially in cancer and neurodegeneration. Many autophagy regulators are developed for therapy. Diverse nanomaterials have been reported to induce autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms and universal rules remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we show a reliable and general mechanism by which nanoparticles induce autophagy and then successfully modulate autophagy via tuning their dispersity. Various well-designed univariate experiments demonstrate that nanomaterials induce autophagy in a dispersity-dependent manner. Aggregated nanoparticles induce significant autophagic effect in comparison with well-dispersed nanoparticles. As the highly stable nanoparticles may block autophagic degradation in autolysosomes, endocytosis and intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles can be responsible for this interesting phenomenon. Our results suggest dispersity-dependent autophagic effect as a common cellular response to nanoparticles, reveal the relationship between properties of nanoparticles and autophagy, and offer a new alternative way to modulate autophagy.

  18. Manners of killing and rituals in Apulian mafia murders.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Rossi, Anna Paola; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Introna, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    The Apulian (South of Italy) territory saw the birth of a criminal organization called Sacra Corona Unita (SCU, United Holy Crown) which transformed the rules of traditional mafia organizations. This work examined 83 victims of the SCU between 1980 and 2000. The bodies were mainly of SCU members and in some cases, of police and law enforcement officers and other citizens caught in the crossfire. Some of these were discovered; thanks to the collaboration of "repented" SCU members who became police informers. The condition of the bodies varied in relation to the date and manner of killing. In some cases anthropometric research methods were necessary. In 73% of the cases, lesions of the head were the only marks left on the body. In conclusion, the existence of some social aspects connected with the symbolisms and membership rites that characterized the origin, evolution, and decline of the SCU is stressed.

  19. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  20. Coal cleaning: Progress and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented in this paper. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning and moderate cleaning of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model.

  1. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  2. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  3. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  4. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  5. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  6. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  7. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  8. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  9. Secondary co-processing of coal and petroleum naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.A.; Jones, M.A.; Lohring, R.

    1993-12-31

    Straight-run distillate derived from North Sea (Brent) crude oil and coal-derived distillate obtained from the 200 tpd coal liquefaction pilot plant at Bottrop, Essen (Germany) have been used to prepare light distillate refining feedstocks. Coal-derived naphtha was hydrotreated along and as a 50% blend with petroleum naphtha to reduce its nitrogen and sulphur content to levels acceptable for catalytic reformer feedstocks. The hydrotreating conditions required were similar to those used in the conventional oil refining industry. The hydrotreated coal-derived naphthas were catalytically reformed alone and as blends with petroleum naphtha. The coal-derived naphthas reformed very readily to high octane blendstocks at conditions markedly less severe than those necessary for the petroleum naphtha. As would be expected, the conditions required to reform blends were intermediate between those of the end members. However, the results indicate potential yield advantages when co-reforming blends as compared with reforming the end members separately and blending the products.

  10. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Whipple, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is presented for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. Coal reserve data and the cost of operating a mine are used to obtain the minimum acceptable selling price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production. Based on this information, market supply curves can be generated. Demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. The results show a growth in the size of the markets for compliance and low sulphur coal regions. A significant rise in the real price of coal is not expected even by the year 2000. The model predicts heavy reliance on mines with thick seams, larger block size and deep overburden.

  11. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  12. Apparatus for granulating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, E.; Harada, K.; Yoshii, N.

    1983-08-30

    A granulating apparatus is disclosed comprising a stirring tank or a duct for containing a slurry particulate to granular coal having a binder incorporated therein, a rotary shaft disposed in the tank or duct and at least one agitating blade made of metal netting and attached to the rotary shaft.

  13. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  14. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  15. Methanol from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Economic feasibility of methanol or methyl fuel produced from coal using existing technology is discussed. Other factors considered include environmental, safety, toxicity, transportation, so storage, ease of burning, and retrofitting of present boilers. Demonstrations of its uses as a boiler fuel and as a turbine fuel are cited.

  16. Primer on coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The term coal is applied to a very wide range of substances. All are carboniferous solids formed over geological periods by the metamorphosis of vegetable matter under heat and pressure. Coal displays on every scale - atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic - an intrinsic heterogeneity which reflects both the natural biological variability of vegetation and the diversity of geologic histories resulting in coalification. The starting matter is chemically and physically heterogeneous - containing wood, bark, leaves, needles, pitch, spores, algae, etc., and all their diverse chemical constituents such as resins, waxes, lignins, hemi-cellulose, cellulose, etc. Over periods ranging from 60 to 200 million years, moreover, the various coals have experienced an extremely wide range of differing geologic histories. Processes of coalification are complex and poorly understood. The transition from biological processes (e.g. decomposition mediated by microbes) to purely physical processes cannot be unambiguously reconstructed. At present, it is not possible to discuss the sructure of coals in terms of known transformations of known precursors. The carbonaceous (organic) material is composed of several distinguishable substances called macerals which are disposed in irregularly shaped domains. The nearest possible thing to a classical (pure substances) approach is to study the properties of segregated macerals, one variety at a time. The need to do this imparts some importance to the development of efficient techniques for separating and sorting macerals.

  17. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  18. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  19. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Sunder, Swaminathan

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  2. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  3. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  4. Coal availability: issues in assessing US coal reserves and resources

    SciTech Connect

    Newcombe, R J

    1981-05-01

    There are a number of important uncertainties about the economic significance of US coal resources. These uncertainties can be categorized as affecting: the physical size and location of coal resources and reserves; the regional and local variation in coal quality; and the legal and economic availability of coal resources. A more precise understanding of coal availability is important. Richard Schmidt has suggested that consumer undertainty about reserve magnitude and availability may be exploited by producers in setting contract prices, and it has been suggested that errors in assessing the geological and legal recoverability of coal resources may affect coal prices more significantly than variability in estimates of production and distribution costs. Further, misconceptions about coal availability are more likely to cause underestimates then overestimates of future prices. The objectives of this paper are: to discuss some methods used in modeling the nation's coal reserves; and to identify some of the problems involved. The issue of coal availability is addressed in an effort to suggest the need for a systematic approach to the problem.

  5. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  6. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoshi; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (<2 nm) in ductile deformed coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m2/g, with pore sizes <5 nm in ductile deformed coal. The nanopore structure (<100 nm) and its distribution could be affected by macromolecular structure in two ways. Interconversion will occur among the different size nanopores especially in ductile deformed coal. PMID:25126601

  7. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  8. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  9. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  10. Energy Crunch is Stimulant for Coal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Presents views of the first International Coal Research Conference, involving problems facing reconversion to a coal-based energy economy, organization and funding of coal research units, development of new techniques for mining and using coal; and transportation of coal products to users. (CC)

  11. Desulfurizing Coal By Chlorinolysis and Hydrogenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1983-01-01

    85 percent of organic and pyritic sulfur in coal removed by combination of chlorinolysis and hydrogeneration. Coal is fed to hydrogenator after chlorination. Coal flows against hydrogen current increasing mixing and reducing hydrogen consumption. Excess hydrogen is recovered from gaseous reaction products. Product coal contained 62.5 percent less total sulfur than same coal after chlorination.

  12. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  13. Quality of Selected Hungarian Coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a program conducted jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Hungarian Geological Survey under the auspices of the United States-Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for analysis. The mine areas sampled represent most of the coal mined recently in Hungary. Almost all the coal is used to generate electricity. Coals from the five mines (four underground, one surface) reflect differences in age, depositional setting, organic and inorganic components of the original sediments, and deformational history. Classified according to the ranking system of the American Society for Testing and Materials, the coals range in rank from lignite B (Pliocene[?] coals) to high volatile A bituminous (Jurassic coals). With respect to grade classification, based on seam-weighted averages of moisture, ash, and sulfur contents: (1) all contain high moisture (more than 10 percent), (2) all except the Eocene coals are high (more than 15 percent) in ash yield, and (3) two (Jurassic and Eocene coals) are high in sulfur (more than 3 percent) and three (Cretaceous, Miocene, and Pliocene coals) have medium sulfur contents (1 to 3 percent). Average heat values range from 4,000 to 8,650 British thermal units per pound.

  14. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOEpatents

    Nowak, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  15. Performance and mechanism on a high durable silica alumina based cementitious material composed of coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan

    Coal refuse and combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. Recycling is one practical solution to utilize this huge amount of solid waste through activation as substitute for ordinary Portland cement. The central goal of this dissertation is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economy benefit for construction and building materials. The results show that thermal activation temperature ranging from 20°C to 950°C significantly increases the workability and pozzolanic property of the coal refuse. The optimal activation condition is between 700°C to 800°C within a period of 30 to 60 minutes. Microanalysis illustrates that the improved pozzolanic reactivity contributes to the generated amorphous materials from parts of inert aluminosilicate minerals by destroying the crystallize structure during the thermal activation. In the coal refuse, kaolinite begins to transfer into metakaol in at 550°C, the chlorite minerals disappear at 750°C, and muscovite 2M1 gradually dehydroxylates to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this research examines the environmental

  16. Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.E.; Riaz, Khan M.; Ahmed, Khan S.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightlydifferent techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small

  17. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  18. Hippocampal amnesia impairs all manner of relational memory.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Alex; Warren, David E; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel N; Cohen, Neal J

    2008-01-01

    Relational memory theory holds that the hippocampus supports, and amnesia following hippocampal damage impairs, memory for all manner of relations. Unfortunately, many studies of hippocampal-dependent memory have either examined only a single type of relational memory or conflated multiple kinds of relations. The experiments reported here employed a procedure in which each of several kinds of relational memory (spatial, associative, and sequential) could be tested separately using the same materials. In Experiment 1, performance of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage was assessed on memory for the three types of relations as well as for items. Compared to the performance of matched comparison participants, amnesic patients were impaired on all three relational tasks. But for those patients whose MTL damage was limited to the hippocampus, performance was relatively preserved on item memory as compared to relational memory, although still lower than that of comparison participants. In Experiment 2, study exposure was reduced for comparison participants, matching their item memory to the amnesic patients in Experiment 1. Relational memory performance of comparison subjects was well above amnesic patient levels, showing the disproportionate dependence of all three relational memory performances on the integrity of the hippocampus. Correlational analyses of the various task performances of comparison participants and of college-age participants showed that our measures of item memory were not influenced significantly by memory for associations among the items.

  19. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  20. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  1. Fine coal washability of Alaskan coals

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1984-01-25

    Technical problems involving sample pulverization and dispersion of solids during centrifugal float sink process have been solved. Work has been completed on seven samples. The seven represent five coal fields ranging in rank from subbituminous C to high volatile B bituminous. We are confident the system developed will work for all 50 samples needed to be processed under the grant. Results presented in the attached tables show washability analysis of samples crushed to 65 mesh, 200 mesh and 325 mesh sizes. Proximate and Ultimate analysis of 1.6 Float and Sink products of samples crushed to 325 mesh are also presented. With the exception of major oxide analysis of 1.6 float and sink products work on the seven samples is complete. We are awaiting installation of our newly purchased Spectraspan V ICP/DCP system for completion of this phase of the program. 11 tables.

  2. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOEpatents

    Beeson, Justin L.

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  3. Granuflow and Mulled coal: Alternative processes for fine coal recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.

    1999-07-01

    Granuflow and Mulled Coal were developed in parallel to enhance the ability to recover and process wet coal fines. There are some similarities in the processes; however, the end products are quite different. This paper will compare the properties of the two products prepared from the same coal and identify the unique properties of each. Criteria for selecting between the two processes, including cost, will be discussed.

  4. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  5. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    2001-11-01

    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid

  6. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  7. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United Stat

    1991-05-15

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. Research topics covered during this quarter include the characterization of the base coals, various flotation studies on optimization and pyrite rejection, and a detailed flotation kinetic study. The effect of hexanol, butanol, dodecane, and polyethylene glycol on flotation is described. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying weathered degrees, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals if weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 35 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical analyses in the World Coal Quality Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Belkin, Harvey E.; SanFilipo, John R.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Palmer, Curtis A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Park, Andy J.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI) was to collect and analyze a global set of samples of mined coal during a time period from about 1995 to 2006 (Finkelman and Lovern, 2001). Coal samples were collected by foreign collaborators and submitted to country specialists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Program. However, samples from certain countries, such as Afghanistan, India, and Kyrgyzstan, were collected collaboratively in the field with USGS personnel. Samples were subsequently analyzed at two laboratories: the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory located in Denver, CO and a commercial laboratory (Geochemical Testing, Inc.) located in Somerset, PA. Thus the dataset, which is in Excel (2003) format and includes 1,580 samples from 57 countries, does not have the inter-laboratory variability that is present in many compilations. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses from the USGS laboratory, calculated to a consistent analytical basis (dry, whole-coal) and presented with available sample identification information, are sorted alphabetically by country name. About 70 percent of the samples also have data from the commercial laboratory, which are presented on an as-received analytical basis. The USGS initiated a laboratory review of quality assurance in 2008, covering quality control and methodology used in inorganic chemical analyses of coal, coal power plant ash, water, and sediment samples. This quality control review found that data generated by the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory from 1996 through 2006 were characterized by quality practices that did not meet USGS requirements commonly in use at the time. The most serious shortcomings were (1) the adjustment of raw sample data to standards when the instrument values for those standards exceeded acceptable limits or (2) the insufficient use of multiple standards to provide adequate quality assurance. In general, adjustment of raw data to account for instrument

  10. Coal trade means shipbuilders' goldmine

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgeway, J.

    1980-03-01

    Nowhere is the advent of a new international trade in coal more important than in the shipping industry. Since the middle of the last decade the world shipping industry has been in the doldrums. As the world switches slowly away from oil, the trade in coal probably will increase dramatically. As it does, the structure of the trade will change. Much of the coal will be shipped by water. During the past decade, US influence declined as the energy crisis changed the nature of the trade away from metallurgical coals to thermal coals. Shipping experts predict the dry bulk carriers that are used for coal, grain, and iron ore (a commodity whose trade is expected to increase) will replace the oil tankers as the most-important class of ships on the high seas by the year 2000.

  11. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  12. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  13. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  14. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  15. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  16. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan-Fang; Xing, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ze-Zhou; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yang, Dan; Yuen, Dave A; Sandy, Edward H; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Li, Xiao-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Mining activities are among the major culprits of the wide occurrences of soil and water pollution by PAHs in coal district, which have resulted in ecological fragilities and health risk for local residents. Sixteen PAHs in multimedia environment from the Heshan coal district of Guangxi, South China, were measured, aiming to investigate the contamination level, distribution and possible sources and to estimate the potential health risks of PAHs. The average concentrations of 16 PAHs in the coal, coal gangue, soil, surface water and groundwater were 5114.56, 4551.10, 1280.12 ng g(-1), 426.98 and 381.20 ng L(-1), respectively. Additionally, higher soil and water PAH concentrations were detected in the vicinities of coal or coal gangue dump. Composition analysis, isomeric ratio, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed to diagnose the potential sources of PAHs in different environmental matrices, suggesting the dominant inputs of PAHs from coal/coal combustion and coal gangue in the soil and water. Soil and water guidelines and the incremental lifetime risk (ICLR) were used to assess the health risk, showing that soil and water were heavily contaminated by PAHs, and mean ICLRcoal/coal-gangue and mean ICLRsoil were both significantly higher than the acceptable levels (1 × 10(-4)), posing high potential carcinogenic risk to residents, especially coal workers. This study highlights the environmental pollution problems and public health concerns of coal mining, particularly the potential occupational health hazards of coal miners exposed in Heshan.

  18. Capitalizing on coal

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, F.

    2005-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts that the equivalent of 44 baseload coal fired power plants will be needed to keep pace with US electricity demand by 2025. Potential builders are looking for greater certainty on a number of energy, environmental and regulatory issues before they invest. The work of the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) in advocating solutions to create this certainty is reported in this article. It is asking Congress to put transmission assets on a par with other major assets and reduce their depreciable lives from 20 to 15 years, and calling for repeal legislation that limits investment in the regulated energy industry. EEI is advocating federal environmental legislation similar to the Clean Skies Act that would lower emissions faster, with greater certainty, and with greater cost savings. EEI is encouraging FERC to work with states to increase certainty of builders recovering their investment in coal plants. 2 photos.

  19. Coal cleaning: progress and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented here. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe, are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning (Level 4) and moderate cleaning (Level 3) of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model. For deep cleaning, percentage reductions in sulfur content ranged from zero to 52%, with a mean value of 29% and costs ranged from a low of 364/ton SO/sub 2/ removed to over $2000/ton SO/sub 2/ removed. Because coal suppliers to these power plants employ some voluntary coal cleaning, the anticipated emissions reduction from current levels if deep cleaning were used should be near 20%. These emissions reductions were projected using conventional coal cleaning circuit designs. The basic elements of typical commercial PCC designs are briefly described and current research and development activities in physical, chemical, and biological desulfurization of coal are reviewed. Possible governmental actions to either encourage or mandate coal cleaning are identified and evaluated. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Emissions by Uncontrolled Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terschure, A. F.; Engle, M.; Heffern, E.; Hower, J.; Kolker, A.; Prakash, A.; Radke, L.

    2010-12-01

    Thousands of self-ignited coal fires, naturally occurring coal fires, and coal fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and un-mined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world and pose multiple threats to the global environment due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CO, CH4, and other toxic substances such as mercury (Hg). Estimates of the amount of coal that is involved globally range between 20 and 600 Mt sing simple calculations, the only published peer-reviewed estimate of CO2 and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the United States (U.S.) are between 14 to 290 Mt/yr and 0.1 to 11.5 t/yr, respectively. In comparison, the U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet -the largest known anthropogenic source of CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere in the U.S.- emits ~2.4 Gt, and ~45 t annually, respectively. This paper builds on these results and will present result of a first-of-a-kind U.S.-based field campaign combining airborne remote sensing using thermal infrared technique and ground based measurements as a first step to constraining and scaling-up the emission factors, nature and extent of coal-fire emissions of CO2 and Hg to a global scale, which will allow for these emission sources to be better accounted for in global atmospheric models.

  1. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  2. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  3. Status of DOE efforts to renew acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Head, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the efforts being made by the Department of Energy to renew acceptance of spent nuclear fuel shipments from foreign research reactors. The author reviews the actions undertaken in this process in a fairly chronological manner, through the present time, as well as the development of an environmental impact statement to support the proposed actions.

  4. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Staccy S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…

  5. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  6. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  8. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  9. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-06-16

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes as well as commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  10. Using coal inside California for electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    In a detailed analysis performed at Southern California Edison on a wide variety of technologies, the direct combustion of coal and medium BTU gas from coal were ranked just below nuclear power for future nonpetroleum based electric power generation. As a result, engineering studies were performed for demonstration projects for the direct combustion of coal and medium BTU gas from coal. Graphs are presented for power demand, and power cost. Direct coal combustion and coal gasification processes are presented.

  11. (Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

  12. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  13. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lindquist; K. B. Tennal; M. K. Mazumder

    1998-10-29

    It was suggested in the proposal that small particles, due to low inertia, may not impact on the surfaces of the tribocharger. They would, thus, not receive charge and would not be beneficiated in the electrostatic separation. A milling process was proposed in which the small particles are stirred together with larger carrier beads producing the desired contact charge exchange. A force is necessary for removing the coal particles from the carrier beads. In copying machines electrostatic force is used to pull toner particles away horn iron carrier particles which are held back by magnetic force. Aerodynamic force is used in test instruments for measuring the charge to mass ratio on toners. A similar system of milling and removal is desired for use with the small coal particles. The carrier beads need to be made of copper rather than iron. This complicates the separation process since copper is non-magnetic. We are working on coating of iron beads with a layer of copper. Dr. Robert Engleken of Arkansas State University has supplied us with several test batches of copper-coated iron in the size range of -40 +70 mesh. ` We are currently testing whether the milling process used with the copper coated iron beads produces the desired charge on the coal particles.

  14. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    During this quarter, progress has been made in two areas: (1) preparation of the calibration curve for gel permeation chromatography analysis of coal asphaltene; (2) preliminary measurements of the effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions. A calibration curve was prepared with standard compounds including polystyrenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and tetraphenylporphine in GPC analysis. A correlation equation was obtained from the calibration curve to estimate the molecular weights of coal asphaltene fractions. Based on this GPC analysis, effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions were measured.

  16. New cleaning technologies advance coal

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.

    1984-05-01

    Alternative options are discussed for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning utility and industrial sources. Test results indicate that it may be most advantageous to use the AED Process after coal preparation or on coals that do not need much ash removal. However, the developer claims that research efforts after 1981 have led to process improvements for producing clean coals containing 1.5% to 3% ash. This paper describes the test facility where a full-scale test of the AED Process is underway.

  17. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  18. Colombian coal ahead of schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The north block zone of the Cerrejon mine is estimated to contain from 16 to 40 billion metric tons of coal in the 94,000 acres under development. The Cerrejon project is so rich, potentially, that it warranted Exxon and the Colombian government to construct a 90-mile railroad to haul the coal to the coast, and to expand the harbor to accommodate coal carriers up to 150,000 deadweight tons. This paper briefly discusses to the potential effect of Cerrejon coal on the world market and marketing plans of the company.

  19. Fieldston coal transportation manual, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on coal production and movements contains up-to-day statistics and analysis of the coal transportation industry. It contains railroad rates and tonnages hauled, along with the contracting point. Rail systems and mine origin maps for traffic analysis are also included. The book also covers coal transfer points on inland waterways, transfer capabilities, coal hauling barge lines in 1988, 1989, and 1990, spot barge rates and key contacts. Details of US and Canadian ports, Great Lakes docks and foreign ocean docks are listed. Port loading statistics, ocean shipping rates, port authorities and listings are given along with regional maps of rail lines and schematic drawings of loading facilities.

  20. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  1. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash. Technical progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Specific investigations directed toward this overall objective include: (a) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (b) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of PAHs and PAH derivatives (especially nitro-PAHs) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (c) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with PAHs and PAH derivatives; (d) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of {open_quotes}surface roughness{close_quotes} of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of PAHs sorbed on coal ash particles. PAHs are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which PAHs are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  2. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  3. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  4. Coal resources of Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  5. Zero Emission Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziock, H.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lackner, K. S.; Harrison, D. P.; Johnson, A. A.

    2002-05-01

    Unless the economic development of the majority of the world's population is prohibited, thereby forcing thereby forcing them to remain in poverty, world energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission rates could easily increase by an order of magnitude during this century. Given that we have already increased global atmospheric concentrations by 30% compared to their pre-industrial age level, without massive intervention, we will completely overwhelm Nature's ability to cope. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels, while allowing desired world economic development, the future allowable US per capita CO2 emissions are only 3 % of today's value. This is effectively zero, and thus what is required is the development of technologies that aim for emission of zero CO2 as well as other pollutants. If we continue to rely on our lowest cost, readily available, and dominant energy source, this will involve both a separation of the energy from the fossil fuel carbon followed by a permanent disposal of the CO2. To set the scale, today's yearly global emissions are approaching 25 cubic kilometers of CO2 at liquid densities, and these could grow by an order of magnitude by the end of the century. We describe a zero emission coal technology that would be able to deal with both the scope of the problem and the emission goal. The energy production process is a chemical conversion of coal to electricity or hydrogen, which involves no combustion and thus no smoke stack. The process provides a pure stream of CO2 for disposal while simultaneously achieving fuel to electricity conversion efficiencies that are two times better than today's value. This high efficiency by itself extends cuts pollutant production by a factor of two while also extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel reserves by a factor of two to many hundreds of years. By concentrating on coal, we also lay the groundwork for energy security and complete independence for the US, given the

  6. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 1--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  7. Efficient, large scale separation of coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Dyrkacz, G.R.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors believe that the separation of macerals by continuous flow centrifugation offers a simple technique for the large scale separation of macerals. With relatively little cost (/approximately/ $10K), it provides an opportunity for obtaining quite pure maceral fractions. Although they have not completely worked out all the nuances of this separation system, they believe that the problems they have indicated can be minimized to pose only minor inconvenience. It cannot be said that this system completely bypasses the disagreeable tedium or time involved in separating macerals, nor will it by itself overcome the mental inertia required to make maceral separation an accepted necessary fact in fundamental coal science. However, they find their particular brand of continuous flow centrifugation is considerably faster than sink/float separation, can provide a good quality product with even one separation cycle, and permits the handling of more material than a conventional sink/float centrifuge separation.

  8. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Coal and Coal/Biomass-Based Power Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta's book, Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Coal is a key, growing component in power generation globally. It generates 50% of U.S. electricity, and criteria emissions from coal-based power generation are being reduced. However, CO2 emissions m...

  10. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  11. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  12. Health effects of respirable coal mine dust: coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, J.P.

    1981-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is discussed. The nature of the disease is described; it is classified as either simple coal worker's pneumoconiosis or progressive, massive fibrosis (PMF). Simple coal worker's pneumoconiosis is not considered to cause clinical illness. Widespread scarring of the lungs, resulting shortness of breath, pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure may be caused by PMF. Chronic exposure to respirable dust from coal mines is the most significant variable associated with the development of coal worker's pneumoconiosis. Exposure-response models are described, and factors affecting exposure to various types of dust are identified. Data for the prevalence of the disease in USA are presented, and the incidence among US mineworkers is discussed. (38 refs.)

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G.

    1996-08-01

    A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

  15. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned

  16. Formation and distribution of coal measure-derived hydrocarbon accumulation in NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Wenxhi Zhao; Yan Zhang; Dafeng Xu; Changyi Zhao

    1996-12-31

    This study recognizes that the following conditions are necessary for the Jurassic coal measure-derived oil and gas fields in NW China: (1) The Jurassic original basins, which were dominated by lacustrine to low-positional swamp environments, should exist to accept coal-measure related sediments, (2) the original depositional settings were characterized by low and gentle depressions and humid climate where oil-prone organic materials accumulated, (3) the development of the subsequent basins and successive sedimentation should occur on the Jurassic original basins, which are necessary to keep the coal measure source rocks progressively maturing, and, (4) a certain degree of tectonic compression took place soon after the maturation of source rocks, which provided the driving force for the effective expulsion of oil and gas from coal measures. Most of the coal measure-derived oil & gas fields in NW China are horizontally distributed along the inner side of lake strandlines. They occur vertically above or below the threshold of maturation. Owing to the sharp variations of lithology and facies in coal measures, the lithologies and hydrocarbon compositions of oil and gas reservoirs play a significant role in the oil and gas accumulations of the coal measures sequences.

  17. Formation and distribution of coal measure-derived hydrocarbon accumulation in NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Wenxhi Zhao; Yan Zhang; Dafeng Xu; Changyi Zhao )

    1996-01-01

    This study recognizes that the following conditions are necessary for the Jurassic coal measure-derived oil and gas fields in NW China: (1) The Jurassic original basins, which were dominated by lacustrine to low-positional swamp environments, should exist to accept coal-measure related sediments, (2) the original depositional settings were characterized by low and gentle depressions and humid climate where oil-prone organic materials accumulated, (3) the development of the subsequent basins and successive sedimentation should occur on the Jurassic original basins, which are necessary to keep the coal measure source rocks progressively maturing, and, (4) a certain degree of tectonic compression took place soon after the maturation of source rocks, which provided the driving force for the effective expulsion of oil and gas from coal measures. Most of the coal measure-derived oil gas fields in NW China are horizontally distributed along the inner side of lake strandlines. They occur vertically above or below the threshold of maturation. Owing to the sharp variations of lithology and facies in coal measures, the lithologies and hydrocarbon compositions of oil and gas reservoirs play a significant role in the oil and gas accumulations of the coal measures sequences.

  18. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  19. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  20. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  1. 2007 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 86 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 24th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 30 April - 3 May 2007, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  2. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  3. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  4. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  5. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  6. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  7. Why Schools Should Consider Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusey, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Coal has great potential for use in many school systems. Domestic supplies are abundant with relatively stable prices. Equipment is available for clean and efficient combustion of coal with little or no impact on environmental quality. Cost estimates are provided. (Author/MLF)

  8. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  9. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  10. Catalyzing the Combustion of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Dokko, W.

    1982-01-01

    Reaction rate of coal in air can be increased by contacting or coating coal with compound such as calcium acetate. The enhanced reaction rate generates more heat, reducing furnace size. Increase in combustion rate is about 26 percent, and internal pollutants in powerplant are reduced.

  11. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  12. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.

    1995-12-31

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent deashing (Rose{sup {reg_sign}} process from Kerr-McGee) and filtration (U.S. Filter leaf filter as used by British Coal). These methods produce ash reject streams containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. Consequently, CeraMem proposed the use of low cost, ceramic crossflow membranes for the filtration of coal liquids bottoms to remove mineral matter and subsequent diafiltration (analogous to cake washing in dead-ended filtration) for the removal of coal liquid from the solids stream. The use of these ceramic crossflow membranes overcomes the limitations of traditional polymeric crossflow membranes by having the ability to operate at elevated temperature and to withstand prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon and solvent media. In addition, CeraMem`s membrane filters are significantly less expensive than competitive ceramic membranes due to their unique construction. With these ceramic membrane filters, it may be possible to reduce the product losses associated with traditional deashing processes at an economically attractive cost. The performance of these ceramic membrane microfilters is discussed.

  13. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  14. Process for recovering fine coal particles from slurry of finely divided coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Ogino, E.; Yoshii, N.

    1982-08-24

    Fine coal particles are recovered from a slurry of finely divided coal by mixing coarsely divided coal and a binder together to cause the binder to adhere to the surfaces of the coarsely divided coal pieces, mixing the slurry with the coal pieces having the binder adhered thereto to cause fine coal particles to adhere to the binder over the surfaces of the coal pieces serving as nuclei and thereby form agglomerates, and separating the agglomerates from the remaining slurry portion to recover the fine coal particles along with the coarsely divided coal and the binder.

  15. Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B.

    2008-07-01

    Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

  16. In Brief: Coal mining regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) announced on 18 November measures to strengthen the oversight of state surface coal mining programs and to promulgate federal regulations to protect streams affected by surface coal mining operations. DOI's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is publishing an advance notice of a proposed rule about protecting streams from adverse impacts of surface coal mining operations. A rule issued by the Bush administration in December 2008 allows coal mine operators to place excess excavated materials into streams if they can show it is not reasonably possible to avoid doing so. “We are moving as quickly as possible under the law to gather public input for a new rule, based on sound science, that will govern how companies handle fill removed from mountaintop coal seams,” according to Wilma Lewis, assistant secretary for Land and Minerals Management at DOI.

  17. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  18. Studying Student Teachers' Acceptance of Role Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)

  19. [Subjective well-being and self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Makino, Y; Tagami, F

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and self acceptance, and to design a happiness self-writing program to increase self acceptance and subjective well-being of adolescents. In study 1, we examined the relationship between social interaction and self acceptance. In study 2, we created a happiness self-writing program in cognitive behavioral approach, and examined whether the program promoted self acceptance and subjective well-being. Results indicated that acceptance of self-openness, an aspect of self acceptance, was related to subjective well-being. The happiness self-writing program increased subjective well-being, but it was not found to have increased self acceptance. It was discussed why the program could promote subjective well-being, but not self acceptance.

  20. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  1. Coal resources, production, and quality in the Eastern kentucky coal field: Perspectives on the future of steam coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Hiett, J.K.; Wild, G.D.; Eble, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field, along with adjacent portions of Virginia and southern West Virginia, is part of the greatest production concentration of high-heating-value, low-sulfur coal in the United States, accounting for over 27% of the 1993 U.S. production of coal of all ranks. Eastern Kentucky's production is spread among many coal beds but is particularly concentrated in a limited number of highquality coals, notably the Pond Creek coal bed and its correlatives, and the Fire Clay coal bed and its correlatives. Both coals are relatively low ash and low sulfur through the areas of the heaviest concentration of mining activity. We discuss production trends, resources, and the quality of in-place and clean coal for those and other major coals in the region. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  2. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 4th Quarterly report for 1994, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Wilson, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Several factors involved in coal log fabrication, storage and handling, such as curing time, aspect ratio and particle size distribution, were evaluated during the fourth quarter of 1994. When Orimulsion is used for coal log fabrication, a certain period of time is required to build up the strength of coal log. From the test results obtained, the longer the curing period the greater the wear resistance of the coal log. From previous studies, the coal log length to diameter ratio (aspect) was found to be an important factor affecting coal log performance during the pipeline degradation test. From the 2 inches pipeline degradation test results, coal logs with aspect ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 traveled in a more stable manner, and had lower weight loss than coal logs with aspect ratios less than 1.6. The influence of particle size on the performance of a coal log was evaluated to determine the optimum particle size for coal log fabrication, based on practical and economical considerations.

  3. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  4. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  5. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  6. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  7. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  8. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  9. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  10. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  11. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  12. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer...

  13. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  14. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) 41 U.S...) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an agency under current...

  15. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2911.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  16. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  17. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  18. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  19. The relation between remembered parental acceptance in childhood and self-acceptance among young Turkish adults.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Behire; Rohner, Ronald P

    2016-05-11

    This study examined the relation between young adults' age and remembrances of parental acceptance in childhood, and their current self-acceptance. The study was based on a sample of 236 young adults in Turkey (139 women and 97 men). The adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire for mothers and fathers along with the Self-Acceptance subscale of the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and the Personal Information Form were used as measures. Results showed that both men and women tended to remember having been accepted in childhood by both their mothers and fathers. Women, however, reported more maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood than did men. Similarly, the level of self-acceptance was high among both men and women. However, women's self-acceptance was higher than men's. Correlational analyses showed that self-acceptance was positively related to remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance among both women and men. Results indicated that age and remembered paternal acceptance significantly predicted women's self-acceptance. Age and remembered maternal acceptance made significant and independent contributions to men's self-acceptance. Men's remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood did not make significant contribution to their self-acceptance. Finally, the relation between women's age and self-acceptance was significantly moderated by remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Patterns of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Appalachian former coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.C. Jr.; Rachal, R.E.; Carr, P.G.; Press, H.C. )

    1992-01-01

    To aid in diagnostic chest film interpretation of coal workers' pneumoconiosis, a composite profile of common radiologic patterns was developed in 98 Appalachian former coal miners who were diagnosed as having coal miner's pneumoconiosis and who applied for black lung benefits. The mean age was 61 years, with a lifetime coal mine dust exposure of 18.7 years. Results showed that chest radiographs of coal workers' simple pneumoconiosis contained small irregular linear opacities more frequently (47%) than small rounded opacities. Sparse profusion of all small opacities was the rule. Small opacities involved two out of six lung zones simultaneously 39% of the time while other combinations occurred less frequently. Lower zones were involved more frequently than upper ones. Thickened pleura occurred in 18% of radiographs. Other frequent radiographic abnormalities were parenchymal calcifications (19%), marked emphysema (12%), and inactive tuberculosis (12%). Calcification of the aortic knob, a degenerative process reflecting age, occurred in 9%. Only one instance of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (progressive massive fibrosis) was encountered (0.7%). Many of the descriptive features of coal workers' pneumoconiosis noted in the literature were not observed in this study. Only one instance of complicated pneumoconiosis was encountered.43 references.

  2. Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

  3. 15. VIEW OF COAL TRESTLE LOOKING NORTHEAST. COAL DUMPED FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF COAL TRESTLE LOOKING NORTHEAST. COAL DUMPED FROM HOPPER CARS COULD BE CRUSHED AND LOADED ON A CONVEYOR THAT PARALLELED THE TRACK TO THE EAST (LEFT) AND CARRIED IT TO A 1000 TON BUNKER LOCATED ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST BOILER ROOM. COAL COULD ALSO GO THROUGH THE CRUSHER AND BE DIVERTED TO THE CONVEYOR SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. COAL PILES FORMED UNDER THE CONVEYOR WOULD BE MOVED AND SHAPED BY BULLDOZER. A GROUND LEVEL HOPPER WAS LOCATED TO THE RIGHT OF THE SLOPING HOUSING WHICH EXTENDS FROM THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE COAL TRESTLE. THIS HOPPER FED A CONVEYOR LOCATED WITHIN THE SLOPING HOUSING. COAL DROPPED INTO THE HOPPER WOULD BE CONVEYED INTO THE CRUSHER UNDER THE TRESTLE AND THEN DIVERTED TO THE CONVEYOR WHICH LOADED THE 1000 TON BUNKER. THE COAL HANDLING SYSTEM WAS DESIGNED BY GIBBS AND HILL IN 1947. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. Coal mining with a liquid solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Miller, C. G.

    1979-01-01

    Study suggests carbonated water can dissolve or suspend coal and carry it to surface. Mixture of carbon dioxide and water may be coal solvent that will make unmanned mining reality. When used with proposed process monitoring coal solubility with conventional strain gage, solvent is basis for rapid cost effective extraction of coal from underground seams.

  5. Approach of high density coal preparation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Density difference of aged anthracite coal of high density and discard is less than that of general coal and discard; conventional separation methods are difficult to be used. For the special coal, coal dry beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed has obvious superiority over other separation methods.

  6. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  7. Oxy Coal Combustion at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing, and potentially a strategically key technology intended to accommodate direct CO2 recovery and sequestration. Oxy-coal combustion is also intended for retrofit application to existing power plants. During oxy-coal comb...

  8. Geochemistry of vanadium (V) in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Guijian; Qu, Qinyuan; Qi, Cuicui; Sun, Ruoyu; Liu, Houqi

    2016-10-11

    Vanadium in coals may have potential environmental and economic impacts. However, comprehensive knowledge of the geochemistry of V in coals is lacking. In this study, abundances, distribution and modes of occurrence of V are reviewed by compiling >2900 reported Chinese coal samples. With coal reserves in individual provinces as the weighting factors, V in Chinese coals is estimated to have an average abundance of 35.81 μg/g. Large variation of V concentration is observed in Chinese coals of different regions, coal-forming periods, and maturation ranks. According to the concentration coefficient of V in coals from individual provinces, three regions are divided across Chinese coal deposits. Vanadium in Chinese coals is probably influenced by sediment source and sedimentary environment, supplemented by late-stage hydrothermal fluids. Specifically, hydrothermal fluids have relatively more significant effect on the enrichment of V in local coal seams. Vanadium in coals is commonly associated with aluminosilicate minerals and organic matter, and the modes of V occurrence in coal depend on coal-forming environment and coal rank. The Chinese V emission inventory during coal combustion is estimated to be 4906 mt in 2014, accounting for 50.55 % of global emission. Vanadium emissions by electric power plants are the largest contributor.

  9. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  10. 43 CFR 9239.5-3 - Coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coal. 9239.5-3 Section 9239.5-3 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-3 Coal. (a) Determination of payment in coal trespass. For coal trespass in a State where there is no State law...

  11. 43 CFR 9239.5-3 - Coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coal. 9239.5-3 Section 9239.5-3 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-3 Coal. (a) Determination of payment in coal trespass. For coal trespass in a State where there is no State law...

  12. 43 CFR 9239.5-3 - Coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coal. 9239.5-3 Section 9239.5-3 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-3 Coal. (a) Determination of payment in coal trespass. For coal trespass in a State where there is no State law...

  13. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  14. 43 CFR 9239.5-3 - Coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coal. 9239.5-3 Section 9239.5-3 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-3 Coal. (a) Determination of payment in coal trespass. For coal trespass in a State where there is no State law...

  15. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  16. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  17. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  18. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  19. 30 CFR 750.15 - Coal exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal exploration. 750.15 Section 750.15 Mineral... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.15 Coal exploration. Coal exploration operations on Indian lands shall be conducted in accordance with 25 CFR part...

  20. A Course in Coal Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    This course introduces graduate students and advanced undergraduates to coal science and technology. Topics include: (1) the nature and occurrence of coal, (2) its chemical and physical characteristics, (3) methods of cleaning and preparing coal, and (4) processes for converting coal into clean solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, as well as coke.…