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Sample records for acceptable melter feed

  1. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  2. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  3. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

    2011-10-21

    Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

  4. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

  5. Melter feed tank operating map from the FA-10.02 test data

    SciTech Connect

    Spatz, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    The operability of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) feed loops has been tested during the DWPF-FA-10.02 test. The ability to feed the melter at three distinct melter feed rates (0.20, 0.45, and 0.90 gpm), two distinct agitator speeds (65 and 130 rpm), varying liquid levels, and varying slurry rheologies was tested. This report correlates the operability of the feed loops with the above mentioned variables. The data are presented in the form of operating maps, Figs. 1 through 4, which are plots of the liquid level versus the wt% total solids (and yield stress) for two agitator speeds. The maps are divided into regions of acceptable feed loop operation and unacceptable feed loop operation. This report does not consider how closely the compositions of the MFT, the melter feed lines, and the Hydragard samples agree. The significant observations in this report are as follows: Both feed loops satisfy the operability criteria down to a liquid level below the upper impeller blade at low speed agitation (65 rpm). Under high speed agitation (130 rpm), feed loop No. 2 operates much more poorly than feed loop No. 1. The uncertainty associated with the wt% total solids of a slurry sample is larger than the current design basis range for total solids. The dilution of slurry due to pump priming is shown graphically in the chronological presentation of wt% total solids.

  6. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  7. CST Melter Feed Characterization in Support of the 1999 and 2000 Thermal Fluids Lab Hydragard Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-06-07

    The Immobilization Technology Section measured properties of the melter feed simulants used in the 1999 and 2000 Hydragard sample loop tests. These tests used simulated Sludge Batch 1B (Macrobatch 2) melter feeds. The melter feeds were characterized for wt. percent total and insoluble solids, pH, composition, particle size distribution, and rheology.

  8. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  9. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-10-21

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed becomes a continuous glass-forming melt where dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the reacting melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs during melting. We studied the melter feed viscosity during heating and correlated it with volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and gas phase. The measurements were performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min, starting at several different temperatures. The effects of undissolved quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the melter feed viscosity were determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases.

  11. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling

  12. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  13. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; HUMRICKHOUSE CJ; MOODY JA; TATE RM; TEGROTENHUIS NE; ARRIGONI BM; RODRIGUEZ CP

    2009-09-10

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  14. Effect of Melter-Feed-Makeup on Vitrification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Schweiger, M. J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2009-09-02

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  15. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Mensink, D.L.

    1991-01-16

    This invention consists of a self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion patten of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion patten to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of patten, particle size, rate, feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  16. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    DOEpatents

    Mensink, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion pattern of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion pattern to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of pattern, particle size, rate, and feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  17. HWVP NCAW melter feed rheology FY 1993 testing and analyses: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program has been established to immobilize selected Hanford nuclear wastes before shipment to a geologic repository. The HWVP program is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides waste processing and vitrification technology to assist the design effort. The focus of this letter report is melter feed rheology, Process/Product Development, which is part of the Task in the PNL HWVP Technology Development (PHTD) Project. Specifically, the melter feed must be transported to the liquid fed ceramic melter (LFCM) to ensure HWVP operability and the manufacture of an immobilized waste form. The objective of the PHTD Project slurry flow technology development is to understand and correlate dilute and concentrated waste, formatted waste, waste with recycle addition, and melter feed transport properties. The objectives of the work described in this document were to examine frit effects and several processing conditions on melter feed rheology. The investigated conditions included boiling time, pH, noble metal containing melter feed, solids loading, and aging time. The results of these experiments contribute to the understanding of melter feed rheology. This document is organized in eight sections. This section provides the introductory remarks, followed by Section 2.0 that contains conclusions and recommendations. Section 3.0 reviews the scientific principles, and Section 4.0 details the experimental methods. The results and discussion and the review of related rheology data are in Sections 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Section 7.0, an analysis of NCAW melter feed rheology data, provides an overall review of melter feed with FY 91 frit. References are included in Section 8.0. This letter report satisfies contractor milestone PHTD C93-03.02E, as described in the FY 1993 Pacific Northwest Hanford Laboratory Waste Plant Technology Development (PHTD) Project Work Plan.

  18. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  19. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  20. The Effect of Foaming and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-11-23

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed eventually becomes a continuous glass-forming melt in which dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs in the cold cap. We measured the viscosity during heating of the feed and correlated it with the independently determined volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and the gas phase. The measurement was performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min starting at several different temperatures. The effect of quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the glass-forming melt viscosity was determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases to data.

  1. Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-06-01

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

  2. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  3. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Recommendations for rheological testing and modelling of DWPF melter feed slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The melter feed in the DWPF process is a non-Newtonian slurry. In the melter feed system and the sampling system, this slurry is pumped at a wide range of flow rates through pipes of various diameters. Both laminar and turbulent flows are encountered. Good rheology models of the melter feed slurries are necessary for useful hydraulic models of the melter feed and sampling systems. A concentric cylinder viscometer is presently used to characterize the stress/strain rate behavior of the melter feed slurries, and provide the data for developing rheology models of the fluids. The slurries exhibit yield stresses, and they are therefore modelled as Bingham plastics. The ranges of strain rates covered by the viscometer tests fall far short of the entire laminar flow range, and therefore hydraulic modelling applications of the present rheology models frequently require considerable extrapolation beyond the range of the data base. Since the rheology models are empirical, this cannot be done with confidence in the validity of the results. Axial pressure drop versus flow rate measurements in a straight pipe can easily fill in the rest of the laminar flow range with stress/strain rate data. The two types of viscometer tests would be complementary, with the concentric cylinder viscometer providing accurate data at low strain rates, near the yield point if one exists, and pipe flow tests providing data at high strain rates up to and including the transition to turbulence. With data that covers the laminar flow range, useful rheological models can be developed. In the Bingham plastic model, linear behavior of the shear stress as a function of the strain rate is assumed once the yield stress is exceeded. Both shear thinning and shear thickening behavior have been observed in viscometer tests. Bingham plastic models cannot handle this non-linear behavior, but a slightly more complicated yield/power law model can.

  5. Evaluation of the mixing system for the West Valley melter feed hold tank

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes are currently stored in underground tanks at several Department of Energy facilities. The current plan for management of these wastes is to convert them to a durable borosilicate glass, then isolate the glass in a deep geologic repository. The process for converting the wastes to glass involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals, then transforming the resulting slurry into glass using a high-temperature furnace known as a slurry-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the waste slurry preparation and feed systems to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. This document reviews current technology. 11 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, C.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus is described, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials. 3 figs.

  7. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  8. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-02-25

    High level waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the cold cap. The bubbles coalesce into cavities that escape around the edges of the cold cap. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. More information is needed about the formation and behavior of the foam layer to control, limit and possibly avoid foaming, thus allowing for a higher rate of melting. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory scale assembly with a sealed silica-glass crucible. A high alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min-1. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap and foam during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the cold cap increased as the cold cap expanded. Under the cold cap, the bubbles coalesced into oblong cavities. These cavities allowed the evolved gases to escape around the edges of the cold cap through the molten glass into the melter plenum.

  9. Effect of Feed Composition on Cold-Cap Formation in Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Lee, Seung Min; Heilman-Moore, Jayven S.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2016-06-06

    The development of advanced glass formulations are a part of the plan for reducing the cost and time for treatment and vitrification of the 210,000 m3 of nuclear waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One property of interest in this development is melt viscosity, which has a decisive influence on the rate of glass production. In an electric melter, the conversion process from feed-to-glass above the melt pool occurs in the cold cap. At the final stage of conversion when the glass-forming melt becomes connected, gas evolving reactions cause foaming. The melt viscosity affects foam stability. Three glasses were formulated with viscosities of 1.5, 3.5, and 9.5 Pa s at 1150°C by varying the SiO2 content at the expense of B2O3, Li2O, and Na2O kept at constant proportions. Cold caps were produced by charging simulated high-alumina, high-level waste feeds in a laboratory-scale melter (LSM). The spread of the feed on the cold cap during charging and the cross-sectional structure of the final cold caps were compared. The amount of the foam and the size of the bubbles increased as the viscosity increased.

  10. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-03-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  11. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  12. SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-12-03

    Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME

  13. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  14. FRIT SELECTION TO SUPPORT STEKLO METALLICHESKIE KONSTRUKTSII MELTER TESTING WITH SRNL FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; James Gillam, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2007-07-26

    Four frits were developed for possible use in melter testing with V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute's Steklo Metallicheskie Konstruktsii (SMK) melter. The frits were selected using Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments of an array of frit formulations and two Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) flowsheets, one with the anticipated effect of the implementation of Al-dissolution and one without. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify that the property and performance models used to select the frits were applicable to the frit/sludge systems of interest. Each of the four frits was tested with each of the two sludges at two different waste loadings, for a total of 16 test glasses. Each glass was both quenched and subjected to the canister centerline cooled (CCC) thermal profile. Samples of each glass were examined for crystallization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and durability using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The quenched version of each glass appeared amorphous by visual observations, although XRD results indicated a small amount of crystallization in four of the quenched glasses. Visual observations identified surface crystallization on the CCC versions of all 16 glasses. Three of the 35% waste loading (WL), CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite (a spinel) by XRD, and all of the 40% WL CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite. Nepheline was not observed in any of the test glasses, which is consistent with model predictions.

  15. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  16. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Smith, H.D.; Tracy, E.M.; Myers, R.L.; sills, J.A.; Fisher, D.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-02-01

    This data package, milestone C95-02.02Y, provides a brief observation and operation report on available data for the Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) feed preparation activities. The test was conducted in two melter feed batch segments prepared from two different feed preparation flowsheets. Testing primarily addressed feed preparation alternate flowsheet options tested in the laboratory to mitigate potential safety issues related to generation of hydrogen and ammonia, to produce acceptable melter feed rheological properties, to maximize total waste oxide loading in the glass, to simplify the vitrification flowsheet, and to increase vitrification flowsheet processing rate. The two flowsheets selected for testing were (1) no reductant addition and titration with HNO{sub 3} to provide an acceptable melter feed rheology near the target oxide loading (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1), and (2) titration with glycolic acid, an alternate reductant to HCOOH (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2).

  17. Conversion of nuclear waste to molten glass: Formation of porous amorphous alumina in a high-Al melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Washton, Nancy; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition of Al phases in a simulated high-Al high-level nuclear waste melter feed heated at 5 K min-1 to 700°C was investigated with transmission electron microscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, and X-ray diffraction. At temperatures between 300 and 500°C, porous amorphous alumina formed from the dehydration of gibbsite, resulting in increased specific surface area of the feed (~8 m2 g-1). The high-surface-area amorphous alumina formed in this manner could potentially stop salt migration in the cold cap during nuclear waste vitrification.

  18. Conversion of nuclear waste to molten glass: Formation of porous amorphous alumina in a high-Al melter feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Washton, Nancy; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition of Al phases in a simulated high-Al high-level nuclear waste melter feed heated at 5 K min-1 to 700 °C was investigated with transmission electron microscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, and X-ray diffraction. At temperatures between 300 and 500 °C, porous amorphous alumina formed from the dehydration of gibbsite, resulting in increased specific surface area of the feed (∼8 m2 g-1). The high-surface-area amorphous alumina formed in this manner could potentially stop salt migration in the cold cap during nuclear waste vitrification.

  19. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W.; Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven-step DQO process

  20. NOBLE METAL CHEMISTRY AND HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D

    2008-06-25

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.

  1. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

  2. The elemental analysis of environmental waste glass and melter feed with XRF spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Resce, J.L.; Overcamp, T.J.; Jurgensen, A.R.; Bickford, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometric method for the simple, rapid, precise, and accurate elemental analysis of Certain model environmental waste glasses has been previously reported. This method has a potentially important application in vitrification process control. In this study, two surrogate environmental waste glasses, made during pilot-scale demonstration tests at Clemson University, were analyzed by both conventional wet chemical methods and by this new XRF method. The two wastestreams examined were derived from wastewater treatment process from the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation and from a nickel plating operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Four glasses were made from this waste with added flux levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 weight percent NaO{sub 2} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Components of the waste surrogates are listed. The glasses were prepared in two types of pilot-scale melters. One was a high-temperature, joule heated melter and the second was a stirred tank joule heated melter. The resulting disks were analyzed by either XRF or by conventional wet chemical methods. The accuracy of the results from the XRF method was assessed by comparison with the results from a reference method using conventional wet chemical glass dissolution techniques followed by plasma or flame spectrophotometry. Experimental results are given. Excellent agreement was found between the two methods, suggesting that XRF might be a suitable alternative to the slower and more complicated wet chemical method.

  3. EFFECTS OF QUARTZ PARTICLE SIZE AND SUCROSE ADDITION ON MELTING BEHAVIOR OF A MELTER FEED FOR HIGH-LEVEL GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    MARCIAL J; KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; SWEARINGEN KJ; TEGROTENHUIS WE; HENAGER SH

    2010-07-28

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 {micro}m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-{micro}m quartz particles; particles {ge}150 {micro}m formed clusters. Particles of 5 {micro}m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles {ge}150 {micro}m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles. Over 100 sites in the United States are currently tasked with the storage of nuclear waste. The largest is the Hanford Site located in southeastern Washington State with 177 subterranean tanks containing over fifty-million gallons of nuclear waste from plutonium production from 1944 through 1987. This waste will be vitrified at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. In the vitrification process, feed is charged into a melter and converted into glass to be ultimately stored in a permanent repository. The duration of waste-site cleanups by the vitrification process depends on the rate of melting, i.e., on the rate of the feed-to-glass conversion. Foaming associated with the melting process and the rate of dissolution of quartz particles (silica being the major glass-forming additive) are assumed to be important factors that influence the rate of melting. Previous studies on foaming of high-alumina feed demonstrated that varying the makeup of a melter feed has a significant impact on foaming. The volume of feeds that contained 5-{micro

  4. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  5. A Method for Determining Bulk Density, Material Density, and Porosity of Melter Feed During Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, Zachary; Hrma, Pavel; Vance, E.

    2015-09-24

    Abstract Glass making efficiency largely depends on heat transfer to reacting glass batch (melter feed), which in turn is influenced by the bulk density (ρb) and porosity (Φ) as functions of temperature (T). Neither b(T) nor Φ(T) functions are readily accessible to direct measurement, but they can be determined based on monitoring the profile area of heated glass batch pellets and material density of batches quenched at various stages of conversion via pycnometry. For the determination of Φb, the bulk volume must be calculated as a function of temperature. This is done via a program constructed in MATLAB which takes an image of a pellet profile at a given temperature and calculates the volume of said pellet. The quenched density measured by pycnometry must be converted to the density at heat treatment temperature. This is done by taking into account the volume change due to thermal expansion/contraction.

  6. Melter Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been utilizing vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are utilized for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life, on the order of two to three years, at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods, due to the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life span has, to date, have exceeded original life span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storage or disposal of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size reduction and/or melter refurbishment. In particular, removal of glass as a part of a refurbishment or for the purposes of reducing contamination levels (allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste) will be addressed.

  7. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  8. Melter Feed Reactions at T ≤ 700°C for Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rice, Jarrett A.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2015-07-23

    Batch reactions and phase transitions in a nuclear waste feed heated at 5 K min-1 up to 600°C were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. Quenched samples were leached in deionized water at room temperature and 80°C to extract soluble salts and early glass-forming melt, respectively. To determine the content and composition of leachable phases, the leachates were analyzed by the inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. By ~400°C, gibbsite and borax lost water and converted to amorphous and intermediate crystalline phases. Between 400°C and 600°C, the sodium borate early glass-forming melt reacted with amorphous aluminum oxide and calcium oxide to form intermediate products containing Al and Ca. At ~600°C, half Na and B converted to the early glass-forming melt, and quartz began to dissolve in the melt.

  9. Effect of cold cap chemistry on waste melter vitrification kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, G.L.; Tracey, E.M.; Peeler, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    Cold-cap chemistry affects the vitrification rates of simulated waste glass melter feeds that produce the same final glass composition. Laboratory- and engineering-scale melter experiments were conducted to evaluate the melting performance of melter feeds produced from pretreated simulated waste using glycolic acid in one instance and two nitric acid based feeds. The two nitric based melter feeds were pretreated with nitric acid in one case and nitric plus boric acid in the other. These melter feeds melt at significantly different rates (glycolic faster than nitric plus boric which is faster than nitric). Closer examination of cold cap samples indicated that silica was being digested faster in the glycolic-treated feed than in the nitric-treated feeds. Laboratory off gas testing results of the two nitric based melter feeds indicated that a lower temperature eutectic melt was produced in the nitric plus boric acid melter feed. Other reactions, such as salt melt accumulations at the base of the cold cap, occurred with all three melter feeds. It is also possible that exothermic reactions in the cold cap may play a roll in increasing the melting rate. Oxidation of glycolate (an exothermic reaction) occurred in the melter feed treated with glycolic acid.

  10. Research-scale melter test report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.F.; Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Higginson, J.J.; Mahoney, L.A.; Powell, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment (MPA) activity in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Technology Development (PHTD) effort is intended to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference HWVP melter. As a part of this activity, a parametric melter test was completed using a Research-Scale Melter (RSM). The RSM is a small, approximately 1/100-scale melter, 6-in.-diameter, that allows rapid changing of process conditions and subsequent re-establishment of a steady-state condition. The test matrix contained nine different segments that varied the melter operating parameters (glass and plenum temperatures) and feed properties (oxide concentration, redox potential, and noble metal concentrations) so that the effects of these parameters on noble metal agglomeration on the melter floor could be evaluated. The RSM operated for 48 days and consumed 1,300 L of feed, equating to 153 tank turnovers. The run produced 531 kg of glass. During the latter portion of the run, the resistance between the electrodes decreased. Upon destructive examination of the melter, a layer of noble metals was found on the bottom. This was surprising because the glass residence time in the RSM is only 10% of the HWVP plant melter. The noble metals layer impacted the melter significantly. Approximately 1/3 of one paddle electrode was melted or corroded off. The cause is assumed to be localized heating from short circuiting of the electrode to the noble metal layer. The metal layer also removed approximately 1/2 in. of the refractory on the bottom of the melter. The mechanism for this damage is not presently known.

  11. Failure Analysis of a Pilot Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K J

    2001-09-14

    Failure of the pilot-scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of the Inconel 690 jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading.

  12. Effects of Quartz Particle Size and Sucrose Addition on Melting Behavior of a Melter Feed for High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Swearingen, Kevin J; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Henager, Samuel H

    2010-08-11

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5°C/min up to 1200°C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 µm. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-μm quartz particles; particles >150 µm formed clusters. Particles of 5 µm completely dissolved by 900°C whereas particles >150 µm did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200°C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles.

  13. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  14. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability.

    PubMed

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field.

  15. Modeling of Spinel Settling in Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Nemec, Lubomir; Schill, Petr

    1999-06-01

    Each 1% increase of waste loading (W), defined as the high-level waste (HLW) mass fraction in glass, can save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over a half billion U.S. dollars for vitrification and disposal. For a majority of Hanford and Savannah River waste streams, W is limited by spinel precipitation and settling in waste glass melters. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of spinel behavior is crucial for economy and the low-risk operation of HLW vitrification. The goal of this research is to develop a basic understanding of the dynamics of spinel formation and motion in velocity, temperature, and redox fields that are characteristic for the glass-melting process. This goal is being achieved by directly studying spinel formation and settling in molten glass and by developing a mathematical tool for predicting the spinel behavior and accumulation rate in the melter. The main potential benefit of this study is achieving a lower waste-glass volume, which translates into a shorter cleanup time, a smaller processing facility, a smaller repository space, and, hence, a reduced investment of time and money to reach acceptable technical risks. Additional benefits include (1) more accurately assessing sensible limits for problem constituents (such as chromium) in the melter feed, (2) reducing the blending requirements, and (3) comparing cost and risk with other options (pretreatment, blending or diluting the waste) to determine the best path forward. The results of this study will allow alternate melter designs and operating conditions to be evaluated. The study will also address the option of removing the settled sludge from the melter.

  16. Feed Acceptance for the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.; Elder, H.H.

    1998-03-01

    after assuring the melter feed meets glass quality and processing requirements, the slurry is fed to the melter producing glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters. The canisters are sealed, blasted to remove surface contamination, and welded prior to temporary storage in the Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB). An overview of the DWPF process and its chemistry is included.The composition of the feeds is of primary importance to the DWPF. Critical factors determined by the feeds are related to safety, process design and operability, and glass quality.The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) source term, process shielding, potential for criticality, and generation of flammable gases are safety factors related to feed composition. Canister heat generation, NO{sub x} emissions, and corrosive species are process design parameters determined by feed composition. Nitrite in the washed precipitate, glass insolubles, glass liquidus (temperature of complete melting) and glass melt viscosity are operability parameters determined by composition. And glass durability is the critical quality parameter which requires knowledge and control of the feed compositions. The basis for each of these composition related factors is presented and the system for specifying feed acceptance criteria is described.The composition, and thus the durability, of the glass is determined by the mixing ratios of sludge insolubles, aqueous hydrolysis product, and frit. The frit is a purchased raw material; naturally, its composition is essentially fixed. Also, the glass components in the aqueous hydrolysis product are essentially invariant because the cesium plus potassium to boron ratio is unity, essentially all of the water is evaporated, and the sodium titanate concentration is carefully controlled in the precipitation process.Therefore, the sludge composition is the primary source of feed variability. The combination of process and tank farm history, strategic tank samples, system waste removal plans

  17. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Melter Technologies Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M. Jr.; Schumacher, R.F.; Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    The problem of controlling and disposing of surplus fissile material, in particular plutonium, is being addressed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Immobilization of plutonium by vitrification has been identified as a promising solution. The Melter Evaluation Activity of DOE`s Plutonium Immobilization Task is responsible for evaluating and selecting the preferred melter technologies for vitrification for each of three immobilization options: Greenfield Facility, Adjunct Melter Facility, and Can-In-Canister. A significant number of melter technologies are available for evaluation as a result of vitrification research and development throughout the international communities for over 20 years. This paper describes an evaluation process which will establish the specific requirements of performance against which candidate melter technologies can be carefully evaluated. Melter technologies that have been identified are also described.

  19. Earth melter

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed either by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, or by constructing a melt zone in an apparatus above grade and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  20. Evaluation of liquid-fed ceramic melter scale-up correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the parameters governing factors of scale for liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) in order to design full-scale melters using smaller-scale melter data. Results of melter experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are presented for two feed compositions and five different liquid-fed ceramic melters. The melter performance data including nominal feed rate and glass melt rate are correlated as a function of melter surface area. Comparisons are made between the actual melt rate data and melt rates predicted by a cold cap heat transfer model. The heat transfer model could be used in scale-up calculations, but insufficient data are available on the cold cap characteristics. Experiments specifically designed to determine heat transfer parameters are needed to further develop the model. 17 refs.

  1. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  2. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  3. Conventional Wet Chemistry ICP-AES Development for RPP-WTP AY-102/C-106 Melter Feed Slurry Simulants - A Statistical Review of the Results from the Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-04-30

    The River Protection Project (RPP)--Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to prepare and process High Level Waste (HLW) streams into glass waste forms that will meet HLW disposal requirements. Samples of HLW sludge and samples of this sludge mixed with glass-forming chemicals are to be taken and analyzed for process control. Glass characterization from the melter is not included in the scope. The development of viable analytical protocols to provide the required elemental analyses of these samples with rapid turnaround times (before and after addition of the glass-forming chemicals) has been defined as an RPP statement of work for the Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Wet chemistry is serving as the baseline comparison to laser ablation for method development. One of the simulants used in this study by ADS was AY-102/C-106 melter feed slurry simulant, a simulant used to represent HLW samples after the addition of glass-forming chemicals. Several different dissolution methods were used by ADS in preparing samples of this simulant for elemental analyses by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The measurements generated by this process were provided to SRNL's Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) for analysis. The measurement data generated for samples of the RPP-WTP AY-102/C-106 melter feed slurry simulant are presented in this report and the different approaches used to prepare the samples are statistically compared. Comparisons among three of the dissolution methods are highlighted in this analysis. The methods are: sodium peroxide fusion in nickel crucibles, acidification with HNO{sub 3}/HCL at room temperature, and cesium carbonate fusion in zirconium crucibles. A summary table of the measurement averages generated by the three methods is presented. The cesium carbonate fusion method yielded measurements with significantly different mean values from the other two

  4. Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    2000-08-23

    The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

  5. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyler, L. L.; Skarda, R. J.; Crowder, R. S., III; Trent, D. S.; Reid, C. R.; Lessor, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable.

  6. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F. ); Hrma, P. ); Bowan, B.W. II )

    1990-01-01

    Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, their effect on glass production rate, and the development of leach resistance. Melting rates of waste batches have been increased by the addition of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates. The rate increases are attributable in part to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. Nitrates must be balanced by adequate reducing agents to avoid the formation of persistent foam, which would destabilize the melting process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and melt rate limitations defined for waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Minimum melter residence times required to homogenize glass and assure glass quality are much smaller than those used in current practice. Thus, melter size can be reduced without adversely affecting glass quality. Physical chemistry and localized heat transfer of the waste-glass melting process are examined, to refine the available models for predicting and assuring glass production rate. It is concluded that the size of replacement melters and future waste processing facilities can be significantly decreased if minimum heat transfer requirements for effective melting are met by mechanical agitation. A new class of waste glass melters has been designed, and proof of concept tests completed on simulated High Level Radioactive Waste slurry. Melt rates have exceeded 155 kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with slurry feeds (32 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}), and 229 kg kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with dry feed (47 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}). This is about 8 times the melt rate possible in conventional waste- glass melters of the same size. 39 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  9. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Breast-feeding duration: influence on taste acceptance over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Laval, Caroline; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-03-28

    Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the same infants (n 122). Mothers recorded the DEB. Acceptance of solutions of each of the five basic tastes relative to water was evaluated in the laboratory at 6 and 12 months by the ingestion ratio (IR). Kendall correlations were calculated between the DEB and the IR. Only 16 % completed at least 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding; 79 % had begun complementary feeding by 6 months. At 6 months, infants preferred sweet, salty and umami solutions over water and were indifferent to sour and bitter solutions. The longer an infant was breast-fed, the more s/he accepted the umami solution at 6 months. At 12 months, infants preferred sweet and salty solutions over water and were indifferent to sour, bitter and umami solutions. The relationship between the DEB and acceptance of the umami solution was not observed at 12 months. No relationship was observed between the DEB and sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste acceptance at 6 or 12 months. The association between the DEB and umami taste acceptance at 6 months may relate to the higher glutamate content of human milk compared with formula milk. Beyond the acknowledged metabolic benefits of breast-feeding, this suggests that prolonged breast-feeding could also be associated with an impact on sensory preference at the beginning of complementary feeding.

  11. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; McCabe, D.

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  13. Milliwave melter monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Daniel, William E.; Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K.

    2011-08-16

    A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

  14. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, October-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying, and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1987 is discussed. Topics include melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling.

  15. Preliminary analysis of species partitioning in the DWPF melter. Sludge batch 7A

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Smith III, F. G.; McCabe, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas carryover from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream (PS) compositions and time-averaged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle.

  16. Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles.

  17. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  18. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  20. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    1993-01-01

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  1. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  2. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  3. Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational fluid dynamics model for the melter.

  4. Literature Review: Assessment of DWPF Melter and Melter Off-gas System Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2015-07-30

    Testing to date for the MOC for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melters is being reviewed with the lessons learned from DWPF in mind and with consideration to the changes in the flowsheet/feed compositions that have occurred since the original testing was performed. This information will be presented in a separate technical report that identifies any potential gaps for WTP processing.

  5. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  6. INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  9. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    DOE PAGES

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; ...

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for themore » dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.« less

  10. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Guillen, Donna P.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for the dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.

  11. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-15

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes.

  12. Application of the HWVP measurement error model and feed test algorithms to pilot scale feed testing

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the feed preparation subsystem in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is to provide, for control of the properties of the slurry that are sent to the melter. The slurry properties are adjusted so that two classes of constraints are satisfied. Processability constraints guarantee that the process conditions required by the melter can be obtained. For example, there are processability constraints associated with electrical conductivity and viscosity. Acceptability constraints guarantee that the processed glass can be safely stored in a repository. An example of an acceptability constraint is the durability of the product glass. The primary control focus for satisfying both processability and acceptability constraints is the composition of the slurry. The primary mechanism for adjusting the composition of the slurry is mixing the waste slurry with frit of known composition. Spent frit from canister decontamination is also recycled by adding it to the melter feed. A number of processes in addition to mixing are used to condition the waste slurry prior to melting, including evaporation and the addition of formic acid. These processes also have an effect on the feed composition.

  13. Preliminary Analysis of Species Partitioning in the DWPF Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.; Kesterson, M.; Johnson, F.; McCabe, D.

    2015-07-15

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas entrainment rates from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream compositions and timeaveraged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The only case considered in this study involved the SB6 pour stream sample taken while Canister #3472 was being filled over a 20-hour period on 12/20/2010, approximately three months after the bubblers were installed. The analytical results for that pour stream sample provided the necessary glass composition data for the mass balance calculations. To estimate the “matching” feed composition, which is not necessarily the same as that of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batch being fed at the time of pour stream sampling, a mixing model was developed involving three preceding MFT batches as well as the one being fed at that time based on the assumption of perfect mixing in the glass pool but with an induction period to account for the process delays involved in the calcination/fusion step in the cold cap and the melter turnover.

  14. Induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  15. Application of artificial intelligence to melter control: Realtime process advisor for the scale melter facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jr, R E

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is currently under construction and when completed will process high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform. This facility will consist of numerous batch chemical processing steps as well as the continuous operation of a joule-heated melter and its off-gas treatment system. A realtime process advisor system based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques has been developed and is currently in use at the semiworks facility, which is operating a 2/3 scale of the DWPF joule-heated melter. The melter advisor system interfaces to the existing data collection and control system and monitors current operations of this facility. The advisor then provides advice to operators and engineers when it identifies process problems. The current system is capable of identifying process problems such as feed system pluggages and thermocouple failures and providing recommended actions. The system also provides facilities normally with distributed control systems. These include the ability to display process flowsheets, monitor alarm conditions, and check the status of process interlocks. 7 figs.

  16. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  17. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford low-level waste melter tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC Subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The report contains description of the tests, observation, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. Testing consisted of melter feed preparation and three melter tests, the first of which was to fulfill the requirements of the statement of work (WHC-SD-EM-RD-044), and the second and third were to address issues identified during the first test. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas report issued as a separate document U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Melter Offgas Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-032).

  18. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  20. The effect of HWVP feed nitrate and carbonate content on glass redox adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste (HLW) as glass for geological disposal. In the HWVP formic acid will be added to the pretreated HLW prior to vitrification. The formic acid is added to adjust the feed rheology and to provide a reductant which maintains the feed in the melter within an acceptable redox range. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrate and carbonate concentrations in the pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed on the amount of formic acid required to obtain an acceptable glass redox state in the melter. The glass redox state was measured by the Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sup +3} ratio in the vitrified product.

  1. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: The first two noble metals operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D.H.; Ritter, J.A.

    1991-06-06

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas systems. The facility is the first pilot-scale melter system capable of processing mercury, and flowsheet levels of halides and noble metals. In order to characterize the processing of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru, and Ag) on a large scale, the IDMS will be operated batchstyle for at least nine feed preparation cycles. The first two of these operations are complete. The major observation to date occurred during the second run when significant amounts of hydrogen were evolved during the feed preparation cycle. The runs were conducted between June 7, 1990 and March 8, 1991. This time period included nearly six months of ``fix-up`` time when forced air purges were installed on the SRAT MFT and other feed preparation vessels to allow continued noble metals experimentation.

  2. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given.

  3. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children’s consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding. PMID:27869776

  4. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  5. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-11-16

    The governments of the United Stated of America and the Russian Federation (RF) signed an Agreement September 1, 2000 to dispose of weapons plutonium that has been designated as no longer required for defense purposes. The Agreement declares that each country will disposition 34MT of excess weapons grade plutonium from their stockpiles. The preferred disposition technology is the fabrication of mixed oxide (MOx) fuel for use or burning in pressurized water reactors to destroy the plutonium. Implementation of this Agreement will require the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide and the fabrication of MOx fuel within the Russian Federation. The MOx fuel fabrication and metal to oxide conversion processes will generate solid and liquid radioactive wastes containing trace amounts of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and uranium requiring treatment, storage, and disposal. Unique to the Russian MOx fuel fabrication facility's flow-sheet is a liquid waste stream with high concentrations ({approx}1 g/l) of {sup 241}Am and non radioactive silver. The silver is used to dissolve PuO{sub 2} feed materials to the MOx fabrication facility. Technical solutions are needed to treat and solidify this liquid waste stream. Alternative treatment technologies for this liquid waste stream are being evaluated by a Russian engineering team. The technologies being evaluated include borosilicate and phosphate vitrification alternatives. The evaluations are being performed at a conceptual design level of detail under a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) contract with the Russian organization TVEL using DOE NA-26 funding. As part of this contract, the RF team is evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the US borosilicate glass vitrification technology based on a Duratek melter to solidify this waste stream into a form acceptable for storage and geologic disposal. The composition of the glass formed from treating the waste is dictated by the concentration of silver and

  6. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  7. GLASS-CERAMICS IN A COLD-CRUCIBLE MELTER : THE OPTIMUM COMBINATION FOR GREATER WASTE PROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    DAY, R.A.; FERENCZY, J.; DRABAREK, E.; ADVOCAT, T.; FILLET, C.; LACOMBE, J.; LADIRAT, C.; VEYER, C.; QUANG, R. DO; THOMASSON, J.

    2003-02-27

    Improving the efficiency of nuclear waste immobilization is constantly desired by all nuclear waste management programs world-wide. For high-level and other waste to be vitrified in traditional ceramic Joule-heated melters operated at temperatures up to 1150 C, process flexibilities including waste loadings are often restricted by this temperature limit as well as the need to consider wasteform corrosion of refractory linings and electrodes. New melter technologies, such as the cold-crucible melter (CCM), enable processing up to significantly higher temperatures free of many of the limitations of conventional melters. Higher processing temperatures open up the way for wider composition and processing envelopes to be considered for the vitrification process, including the possibility for higher waste loadings. In many instances the presence of crystals in the final cooled wasteform is not considered desirable within presently existing glass specifications. For some feed compositions in creased waste loadings can lead to the formation of large amounts of crystals, and thus to a significant departure from the ''glass'' state. Nevertheless it is recognized that, in general, increasing the acceptable volume fractions of crystals in the glass offers the best opportunity to increase waste loading, all other factors being equal. In addition, the deliberate promotion of specific crystalline phases by design may enhance the quality of the wasteform, for example by partitioning a long-lived radionuclide into a very stable crystalline phase, or by depleting the glass in detrimental elements. In order to explore the potential improvements by harnessing the higher achievable processing temperatures and immunity to refractory corrosion available with the cold-crucible melter, and after promising indications for synroc-based matrices, it was decided to investigate the feasibility of designing and producing via melting new high temperature ''glass-ceramic'' wasteforms for high

  8. SMALL-SCALE MELTER TESTING WITH LAW SIMULANTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE MELTER OPERATIONS - Final Report, VSL-04R49801-1, Rev. 0, 2/13/03, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHL W product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The tests describes in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by Optima Chemicals

  9. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  10. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  11. Assessment of water/glass interactions in waste glass melter operation

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Chapman, C.C.; Buelt, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was made to assess the possibility of a vapor explosion in a liquid-fed glass melter and during off-standard conditions for other vitrification processes. The glass melter considered is one designed for the vitrification of high-level nuclear wastes and is comprised of a ceramic-lined cavity with electrodes for joule heating and processing equipment required to add feed and withdraw glass. Vapor explosions needed to be considered because experience in other industrial processes has shown that violent interactions can occur if a hot liquid is mixed with a cooler, vaporizable liquid. Available experimental evidence and theoretical analyses indicate that destructive glass/water interactions are low probability events, if they are possible at all. Under standard conditions, aspects of liquid-fed melter operation which work against explosive interactions include: (1) the aqueous feed is near its boiling point; (2) the feed contains high concentrations of suspended particles; (3) molten glass has high viscosity (greater than 20 poise); and (4) the glass solidifies before film boiling can collapse. While it was concluded that vapor explosions are not expected in a liquid-fed melter, available information does not allow them to be ruled out altogether. Several precautionary measures which are easily incorporated into melter operation procedures were identified and additional experiments were recommended.

  12. Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.A.; Goles, R.W.; Peters, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process.

  14. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  15. Use of Optical and Imaging Techniques for Inspection of Off-Line Joule-Heated Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M. J.; Jang, P-R; Long, Z.; Monts, D. L.; Philip, T.; Su, Y.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley melter has been taken out of service. Its design is the direct ancestor of the current melter design for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Over its eight years of service, the West Valley melter has endured many of the same challenges that the Hanford melter will encounter with feeds that are similar to many of the Hanford double shell tank wastes. Thus, inspection of the West Valley melter prior to its disposal could provide valuable--even crucial--information to the designers of the melters to be used at the Hanford Site, particularly if quantitative information can be obtained. The objective of Mississippi State University's Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory's (DIAL) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the West Valley melter that will (i) be remotely operable in the West Valley process cell; (ii) provide quantitative information on melter refractory wear and deposits on the refractory; and (iii) indicate areas of heterogeneity (e.g., deposits) requiring more detailed characterization. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to inspect their melter.

  16. Test plan for BWID Phase 2 electric arc melter vitrification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Turner, P.C.; Oden, L.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), Phase 2, electric arc melter, waste treatment evaluation tests to be performed at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Albany Research Center. The BWID Arc Melter Vitrification Project is being conducted to evaluate and demonstrate existing industrial arc melter technology for thermally treating mixed transuranic-contaminated wastes and soils. Phase 1 baseline tests, performed during fiscal year 1993 at the USBM, were conducted on waste feeds representing incinerated buried mixed wastes and soils. In Phase 2, surrogate feeds will be processed that represent actual as-retrieved buried wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  17. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  18. Investigation of food acceptability and feeding practices for lipid nutrient supplements and blended flours used to treat moderate malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and to identify practices associated with weight gain. Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), so...

  19. DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability Assessment for Sludge Batch 9

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.

    2016-07-11

    The slurry feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter contains several organic carbon species that decompose in the cold cap and produce flammable gases that could accumulate in the off-gas system and create potential flammability hazard. To mitigate such a hazard, DWPF has implemented a strategy to impose the Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) limits on all key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability and operate the melter within those limits using both hardwired/software interlocks and administrative controls. The operating variables that are currently being controlled include; (1) total organic carbon (TOC), (2) air purges for combustion and dilution, (3) melter vapor space temperature, and (4) feed rate. The safety basis limits for these operating variables are determined using two computer models, 4-stage cold cap and Melter Off-Gas (MOG) dynamics models, under the baseline upset scenario - a surge in off-gas flow due to the inherent cold cap instabilities in the slurry-fed melter.

  20. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of

  1. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  2. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn

  3. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  4. Melter Throughput Enhancements for High-Iron HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Gan, Hoa; Joseph, Innocent; Pegg, Ian L.; Matlack, Keith S.; Chaudhuri, Malabika; Kot, Wing

    2012-12-26

    This report describes work performed to develop and test new glass and feed formulations in order to increase glass melting rates in high waste loading glass formulations for HLW with high concentrations of iron. Testing was designed to identify glass and melter feed formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts to assess melt rate using a vertical gradient furnace system and to develop new formulations with enhanced melt rate. Testing evaluated the effects of waste loading on glass properties and the maximum waste loading that can be achieved. The results from crucible-scale testing supported subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass and feed formulations on waste processing rate and product quality. The DM100 was selected as the platform for these tests due to its extensive previous use in processing rate determination for various HLW streams and glass compositions.

  5. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027).

  6. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  7. Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions

  8. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  9. Analysis of cascade impactor and EPA method 29 data from the americium/curium pilot melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The offgas system of the Am/Cm pilot melter at TNX was characterized by measuring the particulate evolution using a cascade impactor and EPA Method 29. This sampling work was performed by John Harden of the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, under SCUREF Task SC0056. Elemental analyses were performed by the SRTC Mobile Laboratory.Operation of the Am/Cm melter with B2000 frit has resulted in deposition of PbO and boron compounds in the offgas system that has contributed to pluggage of the High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Sampling of the offgas system was performed to quantify the amount of particulate in the offgas system under several sets of conditions. Particulate concentration and particle size distribution were measured just downstream of the melter pressure control air addition port and at the HEME inlet. At both locations, the particulate was measured with and without steam to the film cooler while the melter was idled at about 1450 degrees Celsius. Additional determinations were made at the melter location during feeding and during idling at 1150 degrees Celsius rather than 1450 degrees Celsius (both with no steam to the film cooler). Deposition of particulates upstream of the melter sample point may have, and most likely did occur in each run, so the particulate concentrations measured do no necessarily reflect the total particulate emission at the melt surface. However, the data may be used in a relative sense to judge the system performance.

  10. Operating an induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A.; Richardson, John G.; Raivo, Brian D.; Soelberg, Nicholas R.

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  12. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC.

  13. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE STATUS AND DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY WG; GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; EDGE JA; GARRETT BG

    2011-01-13

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  14. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Testing at The Idaho National Laboratory for the Advanced Remediation Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Roach; Nick Soelberg; Mike Ancho; Eric Tchemitcheff; John Richardson

    2009-03-01

    AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. This paper provides preliminary results of tests using the engineering-scale CCIM test system located at the INL. The CCIM test system was operated continuously over a time period of about 58 hours. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated semi-continuously because the glass drain rate was higher than the glass feedrate. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was

  15. The Behavior and Effects of the Noble Metals in the DWPF Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Bickford, D.F.

    1997-11-30

    Governments worldwide have committed to stabilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) by vitrification to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. All of these nuclear wastes contain the fission-product noble metals: ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. SRS wastes also contain natural silver from iodine scrubbers. Closely associated with the noble metals are the fission products selenium and tellurium which are chemical analogs of sulfur and which combine with noble metals to influence their behavior and properties. Experience has shown that these melt insoluble metals and their compounds tend to settle to the floor of Joule-heated ceramic melters. In fact, almost all of the major research and production facilities have experienced some operational problem which can be associated with the presence of dense accumulations of these relatively conductive metals and/or their compounds. In most cases, these deposits have led to a loss of production capability, in some cases, to the point that melter operation could not continue. HLW nuclear waste vitrification facilities in the United States are the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the operating West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. An extensive noble metals testing program was begun in 1990. The objectives of this task were to explore the effects of the noble metals on the DWPF melter feed preparation and waste vitrification processes. This report focuses on the vitrification portion of the test program.

  16. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  17. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high-level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  18. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  19. DATA PACKET FOR THE FRIT 202-A11 SB3 GLASS SYSTEM A CANDIDATE FOR THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D; Kevin Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2007-06-13

    A demonstration of the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology is currently planned for the fall of 2007 to assess the potential for attaining higher waste throughputs as compared to joule heated melter technology. The CCIM demonstrations will be based on a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste slurry feed surrogate with a nominal operating temperature of approximately 1250 C (higher temperatures may be used). The waste slurry feed (nominally 45-50 weight percent solids) surrogate will be representative of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) in order to allow a direct comparison to the DWPF joule heated melter performance during processing of this sludge waste. This pilot scale demonstration is being conducted to evaluate performance and to identify potential processing issues with the existing CCIM technology, and it will include characterization of the resultant glass product to ensure current product performance (durability) specifications are met. The information presented in this data packet provides a technical basis from which decisions regarding the melter demonstration can be made. More specifically, the results presented in this report provide technical data on the impact of waste loading (WL) on critical properties of interest--in particular, durability, liquidus temperature, and viscosity. All of the glasses of this study, regardless of heat treatment, were acceptable when their durabilities were compared to those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. In general, as WL increases, the durabilities for the quenched versions of the glasses tend to decrease due to the changing composition of the glass. For the glasses subjected to the canister centerline cooling (ccc) regime, the durability response appears to be more non-linear as WL increases. At WLs less than 50%, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the potential for the presence of aegirine and/or nepheline crystalline phases, and when these phases are present, there is a decrease in the

  20. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs.

  1. Cylindrical Induction Melter Modicon Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.

    1998-04-01

    In the last several years an extensive R{ampersand}D program has been underway to develop a vitrification system to stabilize Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm) inventories at SRS. This report documents the Modicon control system designed for the 3 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM).

  2. GLASS FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT MELTER TESTING TO DEMONSTRATE ENHANCED HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Kevin Fox, K; Amanda Youchak, A; James Gillam, J

    2007-08-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently processing high-level waste (HLW) through a Joule-heated melter (JHM) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and plans to vitrify HLW and Low activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site. Over the past few years at the DWPF, work has concentrated on increasing waste throughput. These efforts are continuing with an emphasis on high alumina content feeds. High alumina feeds have presented specific challenges for the JHM technology regarding the ability to increase waste loading yet still maintain product quality and adequate throughput. Alternatively, vitrification technology innovations are also being investigated as a means to increase waste throughput. The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology affords the opportunity for higher vitrification process temperatures as compared to the current reference JHM technology. Higher process temperatures may allow for higher waste loading and higher melt rate. Glass formulation testing to support melter demonstration testing was recently completed. This testing was specifically aimed at high alumina concentration wastes. Glass composition property models were utilized as a guide for formulation development. Both CCIM and JHM testing will be conducted so glass formulation testing was targeted at both technologies with a goal to significantly increase waste loading without compromising product quality.

  3. Test Plan: Phase 1, Hanford LLW melter tests, GTS Duratek, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-06-14

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384215] is GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. The GTS Duratek project manager for this work is J. Ruller. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a DuraMelter{trademark} vitrification system.

  4. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  5. An Evaluation of a High-Probability Instructional Sequence to Increase Acceptance of Food and Decrease Inappropriate Behavior in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Reed, Gregory K.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Bachmeyer, Melainie H.; Layer, Stacy A.; Pabico, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of escape extinction with and without a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence on food acceptance and inappropriate behavior for children diagnosed with feeding problems. The high-p sequence consisted of three presentations of a response that was similar topographically (i.e., presentations of an empty nuk[R],…

  6. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  7. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  8. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed

  9. Durability of glasses from the Hg-doped Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-08-30

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) for the vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is designed and constructed to be a 1/9th scale prototype of the full scale Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. The IDMS facility is the first engineering scale melter system capable of processing mercury, and flowsheet levels of halides and noble metals. In order to determine the effects of mercury on the feed preparation process, the off-gas chemistry, glass melting behavior, and glass durability, a three-run mercury (Hg) campaign was conducted. The glasses produced during the Hg campaign were composed of Batch 1 sludge, simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous product (PHA) from the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF), and Frit 202. The glasses were produced using the DWPF process/product models for glass durability, viscosity, and liquidus. The durability model indicated that the glasses would all be more durable than the glass qualified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). The glass quality was verified by performing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) which was designed for glass durability testing in the DWPF.

  10. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  11. Crystallization in high level waste (HLW) glass melters: Savannah River Site operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-12

    This paper provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed for design input to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with prototype melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. A review of the crystallization observed with the prototype melters and the full-scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2) is included. Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for a waste treatment and immobilization plant.

  12. Glass melter off-gas system

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

  13. Glass melter off-gas system

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

  14. Cullet Manufacture Using the Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.

    2000-01-20

    The base process for vitrification of the Am/Cm solution stored in F-canyon uses 25SrABS cullet as the glass former. A small portion of the cullet used in the SRTC development work was purchased from Corning while the majority was made in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Task 1.01 of TTR-NMSS/SE-006, Additional Am-Cm Process Development Studies, requested that a process for the glass former (cullet) fabrication be specified. This report provides the process details for 25SrAB cullet production thereby satisfying Task 1.01.

  15. Great spotted cuckoo fledglings often receive feedings from other magpie adults than their foster parents: which magpies accept to feed foreign cuckoo fledglings?

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Roncalli, Gianluca; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; de Neve, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. However, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius)--magpie (Pica pica) system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. In a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed to survive. This implies that obtaining food from foreign magpies is a frequent and efficient strategy used by great spotted cuckoo fledglings. A second experiment, in which we presented a stuffed-cuckoo fledgling in magpie territories, showed that adult magpies caring for magpie fledglings responded aggressively in most of the trials and never tried to feed the stuffed cuckoo, whereas magpies that were caring for cuckoo fledglings reacted rarely with aggressive behavior and were sometimes disposed to feed the stuffed cuckoo. In a third experiment we observed feedings to post-fledgling cuckoos by marked adult magpies belonging to four different possibilities with respect to breeding status (i.e. composition of the brood: only cuckoos, only magpies, mixed, or failed breeding attempt). All non-parental feeding events to cuckoos were provided by magpies that were caring only for cuckoo fledglings. These results strongly support the conclusion that cuckoo fledglings that abandon their foster parents get fed by other adult magpies that are currently caring for other cuckoo fledglings. These findings are crucial to understand the co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts because they show that the presence of the host's own nestlings for comparison is likely a key clue to favour the evolution of fledgling discrimination and provide new insights on several relevant points such as learning mechanisms and multiparasitism.

  16. Great Spotted Cuckoo Fledglings Often Receive Feedings from Other Magpie Adults than Their Foster Parents: Which Magpies Accept to Feed Foreign Cuckoo Fledglings?

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Roncalli, Gianluca; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; de Neve, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. However, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) – magpie (Pica pica) system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. In a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed to survive. This implies that obtaining food from foreign magpies is a frequent and efficient strategy used by great spotted cuckoo fledglings. A second experiment, in which we presented a stuffed-cuckoo fledgling in magpie territories, showed that adult magpies caring for magpie fledglings responded aggressively in most of the trials and never tried to feed the stuffed cuckoo, whereas magpies that were caring for cuckoo fledglings reacted rarely with aggressive behavior and were sometimes disposed to feed the stuffed cuckoo. In a third experiment we observed feedings to post-fledgling cuckoos by marked adult magpies belonging to four different possibilities with respect to breeding status (i.e. composition of the brood: only cuckoos, only magpies, mixed, or failed breeding attempt). All non-parental feeding events to cuckoos were provided by magpies that were caring only for cuckoo fledglings. These results strongly support the conclusion that cuckoo fledglings that abandon their foster parents get fed by other adult magpies that are currently caring for other cuckoo fledglings. These findings are crucial to understand the co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts because they show that the presence of the host's own nestlings for comparison is likely a key clue to favour the evolution of fledgling discrimination and provide new insights on several relevant points such as learning mechanisms and multiparasitism. PMID:25272009

  17. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  18. Rheological Properties of Defense Waste processing Facility Melter Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, F.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-10-20

    In the present investigation, viscosity measurements have been carried out for two types of simulated Defense waste slurries, a Savannah River slurry and a Hanford slurry. The measurements were conducted in two experimental options. A rotational viscometer was used to measure viscosity under well-defined temperature and pH value operating conditions. The solids concentration used for this option was lower than 15 wt.%. Both the slurries have been investigated using this experimental option. The Savannah River slurry has also been investigated in a pipeline flow system, which measured the pressure drop as the slurry flowed through the pipe. The slurry's viscosity can be extracted from the pressure drop information. These investigations have been performed in relatively wide parameter ranges. The solids concentration of the slurry tested in the pipeline system was as high as 25 wt.%.The slurry pH in both experimental options covered a range of 4 to 13.5. The highest operating temperature was 66 C for the rotational viscometer and 55 C for the pipeline system. In FY97, the experiments for the Hanford slurry in the pipeline system will be performed.

  19. Examination of DWPF Melter Materials After 8 Years of Service

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.

    2003-04-29

    The first Defense Waste Processing Facility high level radioactive waste glass melter was successfully operated for eight years. Recent failure of melter heaters and decrease in glass production necessitated its removal. Prior to removing the melter from the facility, a remote in situ visual inspection of the refractory and Inconel(TM) 690 components was performed. The vapor space and glass contact refractory blocks were in excellent condition, showing little evidence of spalling or corrosion. Inconel 690 top head components and lid heaters in the vapor space were also in good condition, considering the service. Upper electrodes experienced significant deflection, which probably resulted from extended operation in excess of 1150 degrees C. Condition of the melter components examined during the remote visual inspection is summarized in this paper.

  20. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  1. IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

    2009-03-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of

  2. The positive impact of the early-feeding of a plant-based diet on its future acceptance and utilisation in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Inge; Borchert, Peter; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Schrama, Johan W; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P<0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P>0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms.

  3. Acceptance and digestibility of some selected browse feeds with varying tannin content as supplements in sheep nutrition in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Aschfalk, A; Steingass, H; Müller, W; Drochner, W

    2000-11-01

    In 1994 and 1995 leaves from 10 selected West African trees and shrubs with varying tannin content were tested to determine their suitability as an alternative and supplementary browse feed for West African dwarf sheep to improve productivity in small-scale holdings in Benin. Dry matter intake per kg metabolic body weight (DM g/kg W0.75) varied between the different browse feeds and between the different trials and ranged from zero (Leucaena leucocephala) up to 26.7 DM g/kg W0.75 (Margaritaria discoidea). The digestibility of the organic matter varied between 58.9% (L. leucocephala) and 68.2% (Mallotus oppositifolius). Agelaea obliqua showed the highest levels of total phenols (10.2%), tannin phenols (8.8%) and extractable condensed tannins (8.0%). Leaves from various browse feeds are a good and protein-rich supplementary fodder in addition to the grass Panicum maximum. However, feeding of A. obliqua and Cnestis ferruginea should be avoided due to toxic components.

  4. 2. VIEW OF THE MICROWAVE MELTER DEVELOPED BY THE RESEARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE MICROWAVE MELTER DEVELOPED BY THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GROUP LOCATED IN BUILDING 701. THE MICROWAVE MELTER TRANSFORMED WASTE INTO A VITREOUS GLASS-LIKE SUBSTANCE, IMMOBILIZING THE WASTE, SO THAT IT COULD BE SHIPPED OFF SITE FOR DISPOSAL. (1/31/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Design Laboratory, Northwest quadrant of Plant, between buildings 776-777 & 771, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1996-05-02

    Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

  6. Modeling a Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes

    2003-06-01

    FIDAP has been used to simulate melting of radioactive waste glass in a cold crucible induction heated melter. A model has been created that couples the magnetic vector potential (real and imaginary) to a transient startup of the melting process. This magnetic field is coupled to the mass, momentum, and energy equations that vary with time and position as the melt grows. The coupling occurs with the electrical conductivity of the glass as it rises above the melt temperature of the glass and heat is generated. Natural convection within the molten glass helps determine the shape of the melt as it progresses in time. An electromagnetic force is also implemented that is dependent on the electrical properties and frequency of the coil. This study shows the progression of the melt shape with time along with temperatures, power input, velocities, and magnetic vector potential. A power controller is implemented that controls the primary coil current and power.

  7. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J.

    2011-11-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a

  9. An evaluation of a high-probability instructional sequence to increase acceptance of food and decrease inappropriate behavior in children with pediatric feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meeta R; Reed, Gregory K; Piazza, Cathleen C; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Layer, Stacy A; Pabico, Ryan S

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of escape extinction with and without a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence on food acceptance and inappropriate behavior for children diagnosed with feeding problems. The high-p sequence consisted of three presentations of a response that was similar topographically (i.e., presentations of an empty nuk, liquid on a spoon, and a preferred liquid on a spoon) to the low-p response (i.e., presentation of a nuk with food, liquid from a cup, and presentation of a nonpreferred food). Acceptance of food increased in the presence and not the absence of the high-p sequence during initial withdrawals for two of the three children. In addition, the high-p sequence plus escape extinction was associated with reduced levels of inappropriate behavior relative to escape extinction alone for two children. Data are discussed in relation to behavioral momentum, motivating operations, and the relative contributions of the high-p instructional sequence and escape extinction in the treatment of feeding problems.

  10. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  11. Acceptability of exclusive breast-feeding with early cessation to prevent HIV transmission through breast milk, ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Toure, Hassan; Castetbon, Katia; Coulibaly, Nacoumba; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Bequet, Laurence; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2005-01-01

    Objective We assessed the uptake of a nutritional intervention promoting exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation between three and four months of age to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Design Between March 2001 and March 2003, HIV infected pregnant women who had received a perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis were systematically offered prenatally two infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breastfeeding during three months then early cessation of breastfeeding. Mother-infant pairs were closely followed for a period of two years, with continuous nutritional counseling and detailed collection of feeding practices. Results Among the 557 mothers enrolled, 262 (47%) initiated breastfeeding. Of these women, the probability of practicing exclusive breastfeeding from birth was 18% and 10% at one and three months of age, respectively. Complete cessation of breastfeeding was obtained in 45% and 63% by four and six months of age, respectively. Environmental factors such as living with partner’s family were associated with failure to initiate early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding was low in this urban population. However, shortening the duration of breastfeeding appeared to be feasible. Further investigations are ongoing to fully evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this intervention in reducing breastmilk HIV transmission. PMID:16284538

  12. Minimum Acceptable Diet at 9 Months but Not Exclusive Breastfeeding at 3 Months or Timely Complementary Feeding Initiation Is Predictive of Infant Growth in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Aatekah; Schwartz, Benjamin; Kleinbaum, David G.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Das, Sumon K.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2016-01-01

    The association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering is well-established. However, most of this evidence comes from cross-sectional studies. To prospectively assess the association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering, we interviewed pregnant women at 28–32 weeks’ gestation and followed-up their offspring at postnatal months 3, 9, 16 and 24 months in rural Bangladesh. Using maternal recall over the past 24 hours, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 3 months, age at complementary feeding (CF) initiation, and receipt of minimum acceptable diet (MAD; as defined by WHO) at 9 months were assessed. Infant length and weight measurements were used to produce length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length (WLZ) z-scores at each follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations of LAZ and WLZ with infant feeding practices. All models were adjusted for baseline SES, infant sex, maternal height, age, literacy and parity. Follow-up was completed by 2189, 2074, 1969 and 1885 mother-child dyads at 3, 9, 16 and 24 months, respectively. Stunting prevalence increased from 28% to 57% between infant age 3 and 24 months. EBF at 3 months and age at CF initiation were not associated with linear infant growth, but receipt of MAD at 9 months was. By age 24 months, infants receiving MAD had attained a higher LAZ compared to infants who did not receive MAD (adjusted β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.13–0.37). Although prevalence of stunting was already high at age 3 months, ensuring infants receive a diverse, high quality diet from 6 months onwards may reduce rates of stunting in the second year of life. PMID:27776161

  13. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  14. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) processing characteristics of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.; Andersen, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    An experimental-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter was used in a series of tests to evaluate the processing characteristics of mercury in simulated defense waste under various melter operating conditions. This solidification technology had no detectable capacity for incorporating mercury into its borosilicate, vitreous, product, and essentially all the mercury fed to the melter was lost to the off-gas system as gaseous effluent. An ejector venturi scrubber condensed and collected 97% of the mercury evolved from the melter. Chemically the condensed mercury effluent was composed entirely of chlorides, and except in a low-temperature test, mercury chlorides (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) was the primary chloride formed. As a result, combined mercury accounted for most of the insoluble mass collected by the process quench scrubber. Although macroscopic quantities of elemental mercury were never observed in process secondary waste streams, finely divided and dispersed mercury that blackened all condensed Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} residues was capable of saturating the quenched process exhaust with mercury vapor. However, the vapor pressure of mercury in the quenched melter exhaust was easily and predictably controlled with an off-gas stream chiller. 5 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  16. Characterization of Ceramic Material Produced From a Cold Crucible Induction Melter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2015-04-30

    This report summarizes the results from characterization of samples from a melt processed surrogate ceramic waste form. Completed in October of 2014, the first scaled proof of principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test was conducted to process a Fe-hollandite-rich titanate ceramic for treatment of high level nuclear waste. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the CCIM material produced. Core samples at various radial locations from the center of the CCIM were taken. These samples were also sectioned and analyzed vertically. Together, the various samples were intended to provide an indication of the homogeneity throughout the CCIM with respect to phase assemblage, chemical composition, and chemical durability. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Hollandite and zirconolite were identified in addition to possible highly-substituted pyrochlore and perovskite. Minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs were also identified. Remarkably only minor differences were observed vertically or radially in the CCIM material with respect to chemical composition, phase assemblage, and durability. This recent CCIM test and the resulting characterization in conjunction with demonstrated compositional improvements support continuation of CCIM testing with an improved feed composition and improved melter system.

  17. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  18. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  19. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  20. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  1. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good.

  2. Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-10-05

    This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bubbling in a Viscous Fluid for Validation of Waste Glass Melter Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Abboud, Alexander William; Guillen, Donna Post

    2016-01-01

    At the Hanford site, radioactive waste stored in underground tanks is slated for vitrification for final disposal. A comprehensive knowledge of the glass batch melting process will be useful in optimizing the process, which could potentially reduce the cost and duration of this multi-billion dollar cleanup effort. We are developing a high-fidelity heat transfer model of a Joule-heated ceramic lined melter to improve the understanding of the complex, inter-related processes occurring with the melter. The glass conversion rates in the cold cap layer are dependent on promoting efficient heat transfer. In practice, heat transfer is augmented by inserting air bubblers into the molten glass. However, the computational simulations must be validated to provide confidence in the solutions. As part of a larger validation procedure, it is beneficial to split the physics of the melter into smaller systems to validate individually. The substitution of molten glass for a simulant liquid with similar density and viscosity at room temperature provides a way to study mixing through bubbling as an isolated effect without considering the heat transfer dynamics. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by the Vitreous State Laboratory at the Catholic University of America using bubblers placed within a large acrylic tank that is similar in scale to a pilot glass waste melter. Comparisons are made for surface area of the rising air bubbles between experiments and CFD simulations for a variety of air flow rates and bubble injection depths. Also, computed bubble rise velocity is compared to a well-accepted expression for bubble terminal velocity.

  4. Extending Fuzzy System Concepts for Control of a Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Sorgel, W.; Garrison, A.; Schalkoff, R.J.

    1995-08-16

    Fuzzy systems provide a mathematical framework to capture uncertainty. The complete description of real, complex systems or situations often requires far more detail and information than could ever be obtained (or understood). Fuzzy approaches are an alternative technology for both system control and information processing and management. In this paper, we present the design of a fuzzy control system for a melter used in the vitrification of hazardous waste. Design issues, especially those related to melter shutdown and obtaining smooth control surfaces, are addressed. Several extensions to commonly-applied fuzzy techniques, notably adaptive defuzzification and modified rule structures are developed.

  5. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  6. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters: Part 3, Glass electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Propst, R C; Plodinec, M J

    1988-01-01

    Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated a tendency for noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Changes in melter geometry are being considered in Japan, Germany, and the United States to permit draining of the noble metals to reduce their effects. Physical modeling of melter electrical patterns, electrode/waste-glass electrochemistry, and non-linear electrical behavior have been evaluated for typical waste-glass. Major melter design changes should not be necessary for the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Top electrodes will not be significantly affected. Minor alterations in melter design, monitoring of electrical characteristics, and adjustment of bottom electrode currents can provide protection from shorting if noble metals accumulate. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  8. Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters - 12240

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E.; Brow, Richard K.; Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Vienna, John D.; Sevigny, Gary; Peeler, David; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Hansen, Eric K.; Soelberg, Nick; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

    2012-07-01

    composition produces a homogeneous glass with a density of 2.80 ± 0.04 g/cm{sup 3} after melting between 1000 and 1050 deg. C for 3 to 5 h. (2) This is the first time that an iron phosphate glass was melted in the JHM continuously for 10 days achieving a specific melting rate of 1010 kg/m2/day and in the CCIM for 70 hrs with a melting rate of 664 kg/m{sup 2}/day. (3) The analyzed (ICP-AES) compositions for all the glasses prepared under several melting conditions are in excellent agreement with the target composition. The variation of melting conditions include: (i) use of small scale/short melting time to large scale/long melting time (300 g to 80 kg, 4 h to 10 days) operations including melting in the JHM and CCIM, (ii) use of dry or wet (slurry) melter feed, (iii) addition of reductant (sugar) in the batch, and (iv) bubbling the melt with air. (4) The chemical durability as measured by PCT and VHT for the quenched and CCC-treated waste forms prepared from laboratory, JHM or CCIM melting exceeds the DOE requirements for LAW. (5) Depending upon the melting time (4 h to 10 days), the average concentration of SO{sub 3} in the MS26AZ102F-2 iron phosphate glass waste form varies from about 1.78 (RSM) to 3.74 (laboratory melt) wt% which corresponds to an SO{sub 3} retention of 41 to 86% when melted between 1030 at 1050 deg. C in air. (6) The retention of SO{sub 3} in the glass was reduced when a reductant (sugar) was added to the slurry. (7) The retention of other problem components like Cesium and Rhenium/Tc-99 is also high; from 92 to 100% for Cs{sub 2}O under different melting conditions, and from 66 to 33% for Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} for melts processed from 3 to 5 hours and up to 10 days. (8) Corrosion tests on Inconel 693 and K-3 refractory at temperatures between 1000 and 1050 deg. C indicate that both materials should be suitable for melting iron phosphate glasses. (9) The viscosity and electrical conductivity of the MS26AZ102F-2 melt are within the acceptable limits for RSM

  9. DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and

  10. FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the

  11. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various

  12. Cold crucible induction melter test for crystalline ceramic waste form fabrication: A feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Jake W.; Marra, James; Dandeneau, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Kyle; Xu, Yun; Tang, Ming; Maio, Vince; Webb, Samuel M.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2017-04-01

    The first scaled proof-of-principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test to process a multiphase ceramic waste form from a simulated combined (Cs/Sr, lanthanide and transition metal fission products) commercial used nuclear fuel waste stream was recently conducted in the United States. X-ray diffraction, 2-D X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the fabricated CCIM material. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with a desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Primary hollandite, pyrochlore/zirconolite, and perovskite phases were identified in addition to minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs. The material produced in the CCIM was chemically homogeneous and displayed a uniform phase assemblage with acceptable aqueous chemical durability.

  13. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Fowley, M.; Miller, D.

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  14. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  15. Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.; Larson, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant.

  16. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Technology: Results of Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, Dirk; Richardson, John Grant

    2001-09-01

    This report provides a review of cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology and presents summaries of alternatives and design issues associated with major system components. The objective in this report is to provide background systems level information relating to development and application of cold crucible induction-heated melter technology for radiological waste processing. Included is a detailed description of the bench-top melter system at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute currently being used for characterization testing

  17. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tankwaste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-05-03

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission.

  18. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. E.; Newell, J. D.; Johnson, F. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  19. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  20. Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E.; Brow, R. K.; Ray, C. S.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Reis, Signo T.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Johnson, Fabienne; Hansen, E. K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

    2012-01-05

    An iron phosphate composition for vitrifying a high sulfate (~17 wt%) and high alkali (~80 wt%) low activity Hanford waste, known as AZ102 LAW, has been developed for processing in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) or a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). This composition produced a glass waste form, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, with a waste loading of 26 wt% of the AZ102 which corresponded to a total alkali and sulfate (SO3) content of 21 and 4.2 wt%, respectively. A slurry (7M Na) of MS26AZ102F-2 simulant was melted continuously at temperatures between 1030 and 1090°C for 10 days in a small JHM at PNNL and for 7 days in a CCIM at INL. The as-cast glasses produced in both melters and in trial laboratory experiments along with their CCC-treated counterparts met the DOE LAW requirements for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). These glass waste forms retained up to 77 % of the SO3 (3.3 wt%), 100% of the Cesium, and 33 to 44% of the rhenium, surrogate for Tc-99, all of which either exceeded or were comparable to the retention limit for these species in borosilicate glass nuclear waste form. Analyses of commercial K-3 refractory lining and the Inconel 693 metal electrodes used in JHM indicated only minimum corrosion of these components by the iron phosphate glass. This is the first time that an iron phosphate composition (slurry feed) was melted continuously in the JHM and CCIM, thereby, demonstrating that iron phosphate glasses can be used as alternative hosts for vitrifying nuclear waste.

  1. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  2. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  3. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki; Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao; Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  4. Preliminary low-level waste feed definition guidance - LLW pretreatment interface

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.; Connor, J.M.; Hendrickson, D.W.; Powell, W.J.; Watrous, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The document describes limits for key constituents in the LLW feed, and the bases for these limits. The potential variability in the stream is then estimated and compared to the limits. Approaches for accomodating uncertainty in feed inventory, processing strategies, and process design (melter and disposal system) are discussed. Finally, regulatory constraints are briefly addressed.

  5. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF REDOX EFFECTS USING HLW AZ-101 AND C-106/AY-102 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-1 REV 0 5/6/

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; BIZOT PM; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and

  6. Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Richardson, J.; Aloy, A.; Day, D.

    2002-02-26

    The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIM design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering

  7. Volatility and entrainment of feed components and product glass characteristics during pilot-scale vitrification of simulated Hanford site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1996-05-03

    Commercially available melter technologies were tested for application to vitrification of Hanford site low-level waste (LLW). Testing was conducted at vendor facilities using a non-radioactive LLW simulant. Technologies tested included four Joule-heated melter types, a carbon electrode melter, a cyclone combustion melter, and a plasma torch-fired melter. A variety of samples were collected during the vendor tests and analyzed to provide data to support evaluation of the technologies. This paper describes the evaluation of melter feed component volatility and entrainment losses and product glass samples produced during the vendor tests. All vendors produced glasses that met minimum leach criteria established for the test glass formulations, although in many cases the waste oxide loading was less than intended. Entrainment was much lower in Joule-heated systems than in the combustion or plasma torch-fired systems. Volatility of alkali metals, halogens, B, Mo, and P were severe for non-Joule-heated systems. While losses of sulfur were significant for all systems, the volatility of other components was greatly reduced for some configurations of Joule-heated melters. Data on approaches to reduce NO{sub x} generation, resulting from high nitrate and nitrite content in the double-shell slurry feed, are also presented.

  8. Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-05-04

    This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

  9. FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of

  10. PNL vitrification technology development project high-waste loaded high-level waste glasses for high-temperature melter: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-02-01

    For vitrification of high-level wastes (HLW) at the Hanford Site, a Joule-heated overflow type melter with bottom draining capability and capable of operating at temperatures up to 1500{degrees}C is being developed. The original proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter used a 1150{degrees}C processing temperature and was tested using glasses with up to 28 wt% waste oxide loading for NCAW (Neutralized Current Acid Waste). The goal of the high-temperature melter (HTM) is the volume reduction of the final product and increase of the waste processing rate by processing high-waste loaded glasses at higher temperatures. This would dramatically decrease waste disposal and processing costs. The aim of glass development for the HTM is to determine compositions and melting temperatures for processible and acceptable glasses with a high waste loading. Glass property/composition models for viscosity and liquidus temperature developed in the Glass Envelope Definition (GED) study were used. The results of glass formulation and experimental testing are presented for NCAW and DST/SST (Double-Shell Tank/Single-Shell Tank) Blend waste. Although the purpose of this report was to summarize the glass development study with Blend waste only, the results with NCAW were needed because glass development with Blend waste was based on the results from the glass development study with NCAW.

  11. GLASS FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER (CCIM) ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - 9208

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Amanda Billings, A; David Peeler, D; Michael Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T

    2008-08-27

    Over the past few years, Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) demonstrations have been completed using SRS sludge batches 2, 3 and 4 (SB2, SB3 and SB4) simulant compositions. These campaigns demonstrated the ability of the CCIM to effectively produce quality glasses at high waste loadings. The current Advanced Remediation Technology (ART) Phase II-A Project is aimed at demonstrating the CCIM technology under representative DWPF flowsheet conditions and to demonstrate extended operations of the melter. A glass composition development effort was completed to identify and recommend a frit composition and sludge batch 4 (SB4) simulant waste loading target for subsequent ART-Phase II-A CCIM demonstration testing. Based on the results of the glass formulation testing, it was recommended that the Frit 503-R6 composition (B{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 14 wt %; Li{sub 2}O = 9 wt %; Na{sub 2}O = 3 wt %; and SiO{sub 2} = 74 wt %) be utilized for the demonstration. Furthermore, a waste loading of 46 wt % was recommended. The recommended frit and waste loading would produce a glass with acceptable durability with a liquidus temperature adequately below the 1250 C nominal CCIM operating temperature. This frit composition and waste loading was found to result in a glass that met CCIM processing requirements for viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity. The recommended frit and waste loading level should also provide a buffer for sludge product compositional variation to support the Phase II-A CCIM demonstration.

  12. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Kim, D.S.

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  13. Methodology for physical modeling of melter electrode power plug

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.

    1984-09-01

    A method is presented for building and testing a one-third scale model of an electrode power plug used to supply up to 3000 amperes to a liquid fed ceramic melter. The method describes how a one-third scale model can be used to verify the ampacity of the power plug, the effectiveness of the power plug cooling system and the effect of the high amperage current on eddy current heating of rebar in the cell wall. Scale-up of the test data, including cooling air flow rate and pressure drop, temperature profiles, melter water jacket heat duty and electrical resistance is covered. The materials required to build the scale model are specified as well as scale surface finish and dimensions. The method for designing and testing a model power plug involves developing a way to recreate the thermal conditions including heat sources, sinks and boundary temperatures on a scale basis. The major heat sources are the molten glass in contact with the electrode, joule heat generation within the power plug, and eddy current heating of the wall rebar. The melting cavity heat source is modelled using a plate heater to provide radiant heat transfer to a geometrically similar, one-third scale electrode housed in a scale model of a melting cavity having a thermally and geometrically similar wall and floor. The joule heat generation within the power plug is simulated by passing electricity through the model power plug with geometrically similar rebar positioned to simulate the eddy heating phenomenon. The proposed model also features two forced air cooling circuits similar to those on the full design. The interaction of convective, natural and radiant heat transfer in the wall cooling circuit are considered. The cell environment and a melter water jacket, along with the air cooling circuits, constitute the heat sinks and are also simulated.

  14. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  15. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-08-15

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture.

  16. Expanding Ring for the DWPF Melter Pour Spout

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    2002-09-23

    The Materials Technology Section was requested to develop a novel concept, namely that of an expanding ring, to restore the upper knife edge in the DWPF melter pour spout. The expanding ring is a unit that, when deployed in the DPWF pour spout, will self-expand against the inner diameter of the 3-inch section of the pour spout providing a seal against glass leakage and a new knife edge that will mate with a Type 3A insert. This report provides a summary of the final design features of the expanding ring and an overview of its development.

  17. WSRC Am/Cm Stabilization Program - Cylindrical Induction Melter Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.A.

    1999-02-17

    1.1.1 Kilogram quantities of Americium and Curium isotopes (Am/Cm) have been produced at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. These highly radioactive isotopes have both government and commercial value and are currently stored as a nitric acid solution at the Savannah River Site. The material represents the largest source term in the F canyon at SRS. It is proposed that the Am/Cm material be vitrified to stabilize the material for long term, recoverable storage. This paper reviews the progress made during the process development phase of this program using the Cylindrical Induction Melter.

  18. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  19. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 8118

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2007-11-15

    through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and increase heat transfer to the slurry fed High Level Waste (HLW) sludge, the CCIM may be equipped with bubblers and/or water cooled mechanical agitators. The DWPF could benefit from use of CCIM technology, especially in light of our latest projections of waste volume to be vitrified. Increased waste loading and increased throughput could result in substantial life cycle cost reduction. In order to significantly surpass the waste throughput capability of the currently installed Joule Heated Melter, it may be necessary to install two 950 mm CCIMs in the DWPF Melt Cell. A cursory evaluation of system design requirements and modifications to the facility that may be required to support installation and operation of two 950 mm CCIMs was performed. Based on this evaluation, it appears technically feasible to position two CCIMs in the Melt Cell of the DWPF within the existing footprint of the current melter. Interfaces with support systems and controls including Melter Feed, Power, Melter Cooling Water, Melter Off-gas, and Canister Operations must be designed to support dual CCIM operations.

  20. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved

  1. Evaluation Pilot-Scale Melter Systems for the Direct Vitrification Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cray, Casey William; Thomson, Troy David

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation conducted to identify a joule-heated melter system that could be installed in the Idaho Falls area in support of the Direct Vitrification Development Program. The relocation was to be completed by January 1, 2002, within a total budget of one million dollars. Coordination with the Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area identified five melters or melter systems that could potentially support the Direct Vitrification Development Program. Each unit was inspected and evaluated based on qualitative criteria such as availability, completeness of the system, contamination, scalability, materials of construction, facility requirements, and any unique features.

  2. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Connecting section and associated systems concept for the spray calciner/in-can melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, L.L.; Gorton, P.S.; Blair, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    For a number of years, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been developing processes and equipment for converting high-level liquid wastes to solid forms. One of these processes is the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system. To immobilize high-level liquid wastes, this system must be operated remotely, and the calcine must be reliably conveyed from the calciner to the melting furnace. A concept for such a remote conveyance system was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and equipment was tested under full-scale, nonradioactive conditions. This concept and the design of demonstration equipment are described, and the results of equipment operation during experimental runs of 7 d are presented. The design includes a connecting section and its associated systems - a canister sypport and alignment concept and a weight-monitoring system for the melting furnace. Overall, the runs demonstrated that the concept design is an acceptable method of connecting the two pieces of process equipment together. Although the connecting section has not been optimized in all areas of concern, it provides a first-generation design of a production-oriented system.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of PSCM and BIPP melter design and operating conditions using physical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skarda, R.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Fort, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    The Glass Melter Physical Modeling investigation was initiated to support Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Program. Specifically, results discussed herein are those of the modeled B-Plant Immobilization Pilot Plant (BIPP) and Pilot Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) designs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various melter design features using laboratory scale models. Hydrodynamic, thermal, and electrical similarity between the modeling fluid and the molten glass were primary objectives. Stroboscopic velocity measurements (flow visualization), temperature measurements, and electrical potential measurements were used to investigate the molten glass behavior. Results from this effort are to provide input to melter design and proposed operation in addition to providing a data base for verifying numerical models. 13 refs., 48 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. NETEC COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEMONSTRATION FOR SRNL WITH SIMULATED SLUDGE BATCH 4 DWPF WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M; Allan Barnes, A; Alexander Choi, A; James Marra, J

    2008-07-28

    Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) Technology is being considered as a possible next generation melter for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Initial and baseline demonstrations that vitrified a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant at a waste loading of 50 weight percent (versus about 38 weight percent in the current DWPF Melter) were performed by the Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea via a subcontract from the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC). This higher waste loading was achieved by using a CCIM which can run at higher glass processing temperatures (1250 C and higher) than the current DWPF Melter (1150 C). Higher waste loadings would result in less canisters being filled and faster waste throughput at the DWPF. The main demonstration objectives were to determine the maximum melt rate/waste throughput for the NETEC CCIM with a Sludge Batch 4 simulant as well as determine the viability of this technology for use in the DWPF.

  6. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective.

  7. Settling of Spinel in a High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schill, Pert; Nemec, Lubomir

    2002-01-18

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150?C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel (a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occur in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters.

  8. Settling of Spinel in A High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors call melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 degree C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel ( a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occurred in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters.

  9. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A.; Darwen, N.J.

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance

  10. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowitz, Howard; Brandys, Marek; Cecil, Richard; D'Angelo, Nicholas; Matlack, Keith S.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  11. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  12. Operation of Bubblers in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter - 12166

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Brandon C.; Iverson, Daniel C.; Diener, Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC acquired the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. In order to achieve the main goal of the contract, closing of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks, it was necessary to process more waste throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would need to increase its production rate of radioactive waste glass filled canisters as a part of the plan to achieve this commitment. To attain the increased production rate, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in September 2010 to agitate the DWPF Melter glass pool. The four bubblers were designed to be installed in existing nozzles on the top-head of the DWPF Melter. The design and fabrication of the four (4) bubblers was accomplished through SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions LLC. In addition to the existing bubbler design, a new design concept has been approved and is in the process of fabrication. The new design will allow for the lower end (inside melter) of the bubbler to be replaced while the upper end (outside melter) of the bubbler is reused to minimize cost and waste at the DWPF. The bubblers have been operating in the DWPF Melter for approximately 1 year. The originally installed bubbler set was replaced in January 2011. The bubblers were visually examined once removed from the melter and showed minimal signs of wear. Material testing of the Inconel 690 is being performed to determine if the bubblers operational life can be extended. The use of the bubblers has changed the dynamics within the melter glass pool. This is shown through indications that the bubblers have increased the glass pool circulation. Overall, performance of the bubblers has been encouraging and the DWPF Melter has seen a significant improvement in its ability to process waste since the bubbler installation. The installation of the bubblers accomplished the goal of increasing the glass production capability of DWPF

  13. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  14. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  15. HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A A.; Joseph, Innocent; Matlack, Keith S.; Callow, Richard A.; Abramowitz, Howard; Pegg, Ian L.; Brandys, Marek; Kot, Wing K.

    2012-11-13

    Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150°C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

  16. Feasibility Evaluation and Retrofit Plan for Cold Crucible Induction Melter Deployment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A.B.; Iverson, D.C.; Adkins, B.J.; Tchemitcheff, E.

    2008-07-01

    distribution and increase heat transfer to the slurry fed High Level Waste (HLW) sludge, the CCIM may be equipped with bubblers and/or water cooled mechanical agitators. The DWPF could benefit from use of CCIM technology, especially in light of our latest projections of waste volume to be vitrified. Increased waste loading and increased throughput could result in substantial life cycle cost reduction. In order to significantly surpass the waste throughput capability of the currently installed JHM, it may be necessary to install two 950 mm CCIMs in the DWPF Melt Cell. A cursory evaluation of system design requirements and modifications to the facility that may be required to support installation and operation of two 950 mm CCIMs was performed. Based on this evaluation, it appears technically feasible to position two CCIMs in the Melt Cell of the DWPF within the existing footprint of the current melter. Interfaces with support systems and controls including Melter Feed, Power, Melter Cooling Water, Melter Off-gas, and Canister Operations must be designed to support dual CCIM operations. This paper describes the CCIM technology and identifies technical challenges that must be addressed in order to implement CCIMs in the DWPF. (authors)

  17. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2008-02-06

    increase heat transfer to the slurry fed High Level Waste (HLW) sludge, the CCIM may be equipped with bubblers and/or water cooled mechanical agitators. The DWPF could benefit from use of CCIM technology, especially in light of our latest projections of waste volume to be vitrified. Increased waste loading and increased throughput could result in substantial life cycle cost reduction. In order to significantly surpass the waste throughput capability of the currently installed JHM, it may be necessary to install two 950 mm CCIMs in the DWPF Melt Cell. A cursory evaluation of system design requirements and modifications to the facility that may be required to support installation and operation of two 950 mm CCIMs was performed. Based on this evaluation, it appears technically feasible to position two CCIMs in the Melt Cell of the DWPF within the existing footprint of the current melter. Interfaces with support systems and controls including Melter Feed, Power, Melter Cooling Water, Melter Off-gas, and Canister Operations must be designed to support dual CCIM operations. This paper describes the CCIM technology and identifies technical challenges that must be addressed in order to implement CCIMs in the DWPF.

  18. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  19. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  20. THE RESULTS OF TESTING TO EVALUATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND SETTLING IN THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2009-06-30

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology offers the potential to increase waste loading for High Level Waste (HLW) glasses leading to significant improvements in waste throughput rates compared to the reference Joule Heated Melter (JHM). Prior to implementation of a CCIM in a production facility it is necessary to better understand processing constraints associated with the CCIM. The glass liquidus temperature requirement for processing in the CCIM is an open issue. Testing was conducted to evaluate crystal formation and crystal settling during processing in the CCIM to gain insight into the effects on processing. A high aluminum/high iron content glass composition with known crystal formation tendencies was selected for testing. A continuous melter test was conducted for approximately 51 hours. To evaluate crystal formation, glass samples were obtained from pours and from glass receipt canisters where the glass melt had varying residence time in the melter. Additionally, upon conclusion of the testing, glass samples from the bottom of the melter were obtained to assess the degree of crystal settling. Glass samples were characterized in an attempt to determine quantitative fractions of crystals in the glass matrix. Crystal identity and relative composition were determined using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Select samples were also analyzed by digesting the glass and determining the composition using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). There was evidence of crystal formation (primarily spinels) in the melt and during cooling of the collected glass. There was evidence of crystal settling in the melt over the duration of the melter campaign.

  1. Experimental Plan for Crystal Accumulation Studies in the WTP Melter Riser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Fowley, M.

    2015-04-28

    This experimental plan defines crystal settling experiments to be in support of the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of River Protection crystal tolerant glass program. The road map for development of crystal-tolerant high level waste glasses recommends that fluid dynamic modeling be used to better understand the accumulation of crystals in the melter riser and mechanisms of removal. A full-scale version of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter riser constructed with transparent material will be used to provide data in support of model development. The system will also provide a platform to demonstrate mitigation or recovery strategies in off-normal events where crystal accumulation impedes melter operation. Test conditions and material properties will be chosen to provide results over a variety of parameters, which can be used to guide validation experiments with the Research Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and that will ultimately lead to the development of a process control strategy for the full scale WTP melter. The experiments described in this plan are divided into two phases. Bench scale tests will be used in Phase 1 (using the appropriate solid and fluid simulants to represent molten glass and spinel crystals) to verify the detection methods and analytical measurements prior to their use in a larger scale system. In Phase 2, a full scale, room temperature mockup of the WTP melter riser will be fabricated. The mockup will provide dynamic measurements of flow conditions, including resistance to pouring, as well as allow visual observation of crystal accumulation behavior.

  2. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  3. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  4. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Nash, Charles A.

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  5. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  6. Noble Metals and Spinel Settling in High Level Waste Glass Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, S. K.; Perez, Joseph M.

    2000-09-30

    In the continuing effort to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the noble metals issue is addressed. There is an additional concern about the amount of noble metals expected to be present in the future batches that will be considered for vitrification in the DWPF. Several laboratory, as well as melter-scale, studies have been completed by various organizations (mainly PNNL, SRTC, and WVDP in the USA). This letter report statuses the noble metals issue and focuses at the settling of noble metals in melters.

  7. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David; Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report

  8. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    DOEpatents

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  9. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  10. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  11. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D`Amico, N.

    1994-10-20

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D`Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace.

  12. A summary report on feed preparation offgas and glass redox data for Hanford waste vitrification plant: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.

    1996-03-01

    Tests to evaluate feed processing options for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) were conducted by a number of investigators, and considerable data were acquired for tests of different scale, including recent full-scale tests. In this report, a comparison was made of the characteristics of feed preparation observed in tests of scale ranging from 57 ml to full-scale of 28,000 liters. These tests included Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) laboratory-scale tests, Kernforschungszentrums Karlsruhe (KfK) melter feed preparation, Research Scale Melter (RSM) feed preparation, Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) feed preparation, Slurry Integrated Performance Testing (SIPT) feed preparation, and formic acid addition to Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) care samples.` The data presented herein were drawn mainly from draft reports and include system characteristics such as slurry volume and depth, sweep gas flow rate, headspace, and heating and stirring characteristics. Operating conditions such as acid feed rate, temperature, starting pH, final pH, quantities and type of frit, nitrite, nitrate, and carbonate concentrations, noble metal content, and waste oxide loading were tabulated. Offgas data for CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} were tabulated on a common basis. Observation and non-observation of other species were also noted.

  13. Multi-discipline Waste Acceptance Process at the Nevada National Security Site - 13573

    SciTech Connect

    Carilli, Jhon T.; Krenzien, Susan K.

    2013-07-01

    The Nevada National Security Site low-level radioactive waste disposal facility acceptance process requires multiple disciplines to ensure the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. These disciplines, which include waste acceptance, nuclear criticality, safety, permitting, operations, and performance assessment, combine into the overall waste acceptance process to assess low-level radioactive waste streams for disposal at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Four waste streams recently highlighted the integration of these disciplines: the Oak Ridge Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project material, West Valley Melter, and classified waste. (authors)

  14. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  15. Electromagnetic and Thermal-flow Modeling of a Cold-Wall Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, James A.; Garnich, Mark R.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.

    2005-02-01

    An approach for modeling cold-wall crucible induction melters is described. Materials in the melt and melter are non-ferromagnetic. In contrast to other modeling works reported in the literature, the numerical models utilize commercial codes. The ANSYS finite element code is employed for electromagnetic field simulations and the STAR-CD finite volume code for thermal-flow calculations. Results from the electromagnetic calculations in the form of local Joule heat and Lorentz force distributions are included as loads in the thermal-flow analysis. This loosely-coupled approach is made possible by the small variation in temperature and, consequently, small variation in electrical properties across the melt as well as the quasi-steady state nature of the thermal flow calculations. A three dimensional finite element grid for electromagnetic calculations is adapted to a similar axisymmetric finite volume grid for data transfer to the thermal-flow model. Results from the electromagnetic model compare well with operational data from a 175 mm diameter melter. Results from the thermal-flow simulation provide insight toward molten metal circulation patterns, temperature variations, and velocity magnitudes. Initial results are included for a model that simulates the formation of a solid (skull) layer on the crucible base and wall. Overall, the modeling approach is shown to produce useful results relating operational parameters to the physics of steady state melter operation.

  16. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Matyas, Josef; Owen, Antoinette T.

    2012-08-28

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  17. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  18. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  19. Determination of halogen content in glass for assessment of melter decontamination factors

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Melter decontamination factor (DF) values for the halogens (fluorine, chlorine, and iodine) are important to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) process because of the potential influence of DF on secondary-waste recycle strategies (fluorine and chlorine) as well as its impact on off-gas emissions (iodine). This study directly establishes the concentrations of halides-in HWVP simulated reference glasses rather than relying on indirect off-gas data. For fluorine and chlorine, pyrohydrolysis coupled with halide (ion chromatographic) detection has proven to be a useful analytical approach suitable for glass matrices, sensitive enough for the range of halogens encountered, and compatible with remote process support applications. Results obtained from pyrohydrolytic analysis of pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) -22 and -23 glasses indicate that the processing behavior of fluorine and chlorine is quite variable even under similar processing conditions. Specifically, PSCM-23 glass exhibited a {approximately}90% halogen (F and Cl) retention efficiency, while only 20% was incorporated in PSCM-22 glass. These two sets of very dissimilar test results clearly do not form a sufficient basis for establishing design DF values for fluorine and chlorine. Because the present data do not provide any new halogen volatility information, but instead reconfirm the validity of previously obtained offgas derived values, melter DF values of 4, 2, and 1 for fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, respectively, are recommended for adoption; these values were conservatively established by a team of responsible engineers at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on the basis of average behavior for many comparable melter tests. In the absence of further HWVP process data, these average melter DFs are the best values currently available.

  20. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-10-20

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  1. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200

  2. Redox Control For Hanford HLW Feeds VSL-12R2530-1, REV 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Matlack, Keith S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Kot, Wing K.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-13

    The principal objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of processing simulated Hanford HLW at the estimated maximum concentrations of nitrates and oxalates and to identify strategies to mitigate any processing issues resulting from high concentrations of nitrates and oxalates. This report provides results for a series of tests that were performed on the DM10 melter system with simulated C-106/AY-102 HLW. The tests employed simulated HLW feeds containing variable amounts of nitrates and waste organic compounds corresponding to maximum concentrations proj ected for Hanford HLW streams in order to determine their effects on glass production rate, processing characteristics, glass redox conditions, melt pool foaming, and the tendency to form secondary phases. Such melter tests provide information on key process factors such as feed processing behavior, dynamic effects during processing, processing rates, off-gas amounts and compositions, foaming control, etc., that cannot be reliably obtained from crucible melts.

  3. Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter

    SciTech Connect

    May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility that houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS), was

  4. Vitrification Demonstration with Argentine Ion Exchange Material in the Stir-Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-06-28

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is investigating the viability of vitrification treatment of Argentine ion exchange material as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Science and Technology Development Task Plan. Bench-scale studies were performed by the SRTC to define the necessary vitrification process for this material. However, the process had to be demonstrated in a melter system before vitrification could be considered a viable treatment option.

  5. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  6. Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-03-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) where the glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Experimental glass melters used to develop the vitrification process for immobilization of the waste have experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. Off-gas deposits from the DWPF 1/2 Scale Glass Melter (SGM) and the 1/10th scale Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel, and frit particles. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cement the entrained particulates causing off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggage indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. Scale glass melter operating experience indicates that a velocity of >50 fps is necessary in order to transport the volatile species to the quencher to prevent having condensation occur in the off-gas line. Hotter off-gas line temperatures would retain the alkali compounds as vapors so that they would remain volatile until they reach the quencher. However, hotter off-gas temperatures can only be achieved by using less air/steam flow at the off-gas entrance, e.g. at the off-gas film cooler (OGFC). This would result in lower off-gas velocities. Maintaining a high velocity is, therefore, considered to be a more important criterion for controlling off-gas pluggage than temperature control. 40 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Preliminary Dynamic Modeling of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Melter Offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-09-21

    This report documents preliminary versions of the models that include the components of the offgas systems from the melters through the exhaust stacks and the vessel ventilation systems. The models consider only the two major chemical species in the offgas stream: air and steam or water vapor. Model mass and energy balance calculations are designed to show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure and flow throughout the offgas systems in response to transient driving forces.

  8. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  9. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

  10. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  11. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Since the early 1980`s, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  12. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  13. Thermal stress analysis of an Am/Cm stabilization bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. The vitrification process in the Platinum-Rhodium alloy vessel generates a wide spectrum of temperature distributions. The melter is partially supported by a suspension system and confined by the flexible insulation. The combination of the fluctuation of temperature distribution and variable boundary conditions, induces stresses and strains in the melter. The thermal stress analysis is carried out with the finite element code ABAQUS. This analysis is closely associated with the design, manufacture and testing of the melter. The results were compared with the test data.

  14. Design and performance of feed delivery systems for simulated radioactive waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    Processes for vitrifying simulated high-level radioactive waste have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last several years. Paralleling this effort, several feed systems used to deliver the simulated waste slurry to the melter have been tested. Because there had been little industrial experience in delivering abrasive slurries at feed rates of less than 10 L/min, early experience helped direct the design of more-dependable systems. Also, as feed delivery requirements changed, the feed system was modified to meet these new requirements. The various feed systems discussed in this document are part of this evolutionary process, so they have not been ranked against each other. The four slurry feed systems discussed are: (1) vertical-cantilevered centrifugal pump system; (2) airlift feed systems; (3) pressurized-loop systems; and (4) positive-displacement pump system. 20 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Arc melter vitrification of organic and chloride containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The different feed mixtures included up to (a) 80 weight % combustibles, (b) 60% chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons, (c) 27% metals, (d) 2% nitrates, and (e) 3 % metal hydroxides. Cerium was added as a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium, a TRU element. Over 9,200 kg (20,200 lb) of the feed mixtures were vitrified at feedrates of up to 500 kg/hr (1,100 lb/hr). The furnace products including the glass, metal, offgas, and offgas solids have been analyzed to determine the fate and partitioning of metals, organics, and the TRU surrogate. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled using an air pollution control system that included a thermal oxidizer, water-spray and air dilution cooling, cyclone and baghouse particulate removal, packed bed acid gas scrubbing, charcoal absorption, and High Efficiency Particulate-Air (HEPA) filtration.

  16. Final Report - Testing of Optimized Bubbler Configuration for HLW Melter VSL-13R2950-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to determine the glass production rate increase and ancillary effects of adding more bubbler outlets to the current WTP HLW melter baseline. This was accomplished through testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) at VSL. The DM1200 unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with several HLW waste streams including the four tank wastes proposed for initial processing at Hanford. This melter system was also used for the development and optimization of the present baseline WTP HLW bubbler configuration for the WTP HLW melter, as well as for MACT testing for both HLW and LAW. Specific objectives of these tests were to: Conduct DM1200 melter testing with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Conduct DM1200 melter testing to differentiate the effects of total bubbler air flow and bubbler distribution on glass production rate and cold cap formation. Collect melter operating data including processing rate, temperatures at a variety of locations within the melter plenum space, melt pool temperature, glass melt density, and melter pressure with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Collect melter exhaust samples to compare particulate carryover for different bubbler configurations. Analyze all collected data to determine the effects of adding more bubblers to the WTP HLW melter to inform decisions regarding future lid re-designs. The work used a high aluminum HLW stream composition defined by ORP, for which an appropriate simulant and high waste loading glass formulation were developed and have been previously processed on the DM1200.

  17. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  18. Design and performance of a 100-kg/h, direct calcine-fed electric-melter system for nuclear-waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes the physical characteristics of a ceramic-lined, joule-heated glass melter that is directly connected to the discharge of a spray calciner and is currently being used to study the vitrification of simulated nuclear-waste slurries. Melter performance characteristics and subsequent design improvements are described. The melter contains 0.24 m/sup 3/ of glass with a glass surface area of 0.76 m/sup 2/, and is heated by the flow of an alternating current (ranging from 600 to 1200 amps) between two Inconel-690 slab-type electrodes immersed in the glass at either end of the melter tank. The melter was maintained at operating temperature (900 to 1260/sup 0/C) for 15 months, and produced 62,000 kg of glass. The maximum sustained operating period was 122 h, during which glass was produced at the rate of 70 kg/h.

  19. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  20. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES: SRNL GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-01-23

    The Department of Energy has authorized a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America to develop a systematic approach to increase high level waste melter throughput (by increasing waste loading with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). This task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. Four specific tasks have been proposed to meet these objectives (for details, see WSRC-STI-2007-00483): (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. Task 2, Crystal Accumulation Modeling/Higher Waste Loading Glasses is the focus of this report. The objective of this study is to provide supplemental data to support the possible use of alternative melter technologies and/or implementation of alternative process control models or strategies to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--ultimately leading to higher waste throughputs and a reduced mission life. The glass selection strategy discussed in this report was developed to gain insight into specific technical issues that could limit or compromise the ability of glass formulation efforts to target higher WLs for future sludge batches at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These technical issues include Al-dissolution, higher TiO{sub 2} limits and homogeneity issues for coupled-operations, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, and nepheline formation. To address these technical issues, a test matrix of 28 glass compositions has been developed based on 5 different sludge projections for future processing. The glasses will be fabricated and characterized based on

  3. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  4. Performance of a large-scale melter off-gas system utilizing simulated SRP DWPF waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J L; Randall, C T

    1984-03-01

    The Department of Energy and the DuPont Company have begun construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility to immobilize radioactive waste now stored as liquids at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The immobilization process solidifies waste sludge by vitrification into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. Development of the process has been the responsibility of the Savannah River Laboratory. As part of the development, two large-scale glass melter systems have been designed and operated with simulated waste. Experimental data from these operations show that process requirements will be met. 6 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

  5. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  6. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used.

  7. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  8. The Development of an Innovative Vertical Floatation Melter and Scrap Dryer for Use in the Aluminum Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Saro

    2004-08-24

    The project aimed at the development of a Vertical Floatation melter, for application to the aluminum industry. This is intended to improve both the energy efficiency and environmental performance of aluminum melting furnaces. Phase I of this project dealt primarily with the initial research effort. Phase II, dealt with pilot-scale testing.

  9. Design and performance of a 100-kg/h, direct calcine-fed electric-melter system for nuclear-waste vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierks, R. D.

    1980-11-01

    Physical characteristics of a ceramic-lined, joule-heated glass melter that is directly connected to the discharge of a spray calciner are described. The vitrification of simulated nuclear-waste slurries is discussed as well. Melter performance characteristics and subsequent design improvements are described. The melter was maintained at operating temperature (900 to 1260 C) for 15 months, and produced 62.000 kg of glass. The maximum sustained operating period was 122 h, during which glass was produced at the rate of 70 kg/h.

  10. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-12-17

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  11. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  12. DWPF COAL CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-06-21

    A paper study was completed to assess the impact on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)'s Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) acid addition and melter off-gas flammability control strategy in processing Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) to SB13 with an added Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) stream and two Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) products (Strip Effluent and Actinide Removal Stream). In all of the cases that were modeled, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted Reducing/Oxidizing (REDOX) Ratio of 0.20 Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe. There was sufficient formic acid in these combinations to reduce both the manganese and mercury present. Reduction of manganese and mercury are both necessary during Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing, however, other reducing agents such as coal and oxalate are not effective in this reduction. The next phase in this study will be experimental testing with SB10, FBSR, and both SWPF simulants to validate the assumptions in this paper study and determine whether there are any issues in processing these streams simultaneously. The paper study also evaluated a series of abnormal processing conditions to determine whether potential abnormal conditions in FBSR, SWPF or DWPF would produce melter feed that was too oxidizing or too reducing. In most of the cases that were modeled with one parameter at its extreme, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted REDOX of 0.09-0.30 (target 0.20). However, when a run was completed with both high coal and oxalate, with minimum formic acid to reduce mercury and manganese, the final REDOX was predicted to be 0.49 with sludge and FBSR product and 0.47 with sludge, FBSR product and both SWPF products which exceeds the upper REDOX limit.

  13. Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W. E.

    2013-02-13

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  14. Does phloem-based resistance to aphid feeding affect host-plant acceptance for reproduction? Parturition of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, on two near-isogenic lines of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Nam, K Jung; Powell, G; Hardie, J

    2013-12-01

    Probing behaviour (prior to parturition) and parturition of two clones (PS01 and N116) of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum on two genotypes (near-isogenic lines (NILs)) (Q174_5.13 and Q174_9.10) of Medicago truncatula were investigated using electrical penetration graph (EPG) coupled with simultaneous visual monitoring for parturition. Line Q174_5.13 has been reported to show a phloem-based resistance to feeding in the clone PS01 but to be susceptible to the clone N116, whereas Q174_9.10 has shown to be susceptible to both aphid clones. The time taken to first parturition by clone PS01 was similar on Q174_5.13 and Q174_9.10. Prior to parturition, no aphids on Q174_5.13 contacted phloem, but 5% of the aphids on Q174_9.10 showed phloem salivation (recognized by EPG pattern E1). No phloem contact was observed with aphid clone N116 on either NILs of Medicago before first parturition occurred, and the time taken to first larviposition was similar on Q174_5.13 and Q174_9.10. The results indicate that the initiation of parturition of the clone PS01 and N116 on both NILs does not require the phloem contact and seems unchanged by a phloem-based resistance mechanism to feeding on Medicago. This finding suggests that host recognition and decisions about parturition occur before phloem contact or ingestion, and act independently on R-gene-mediated resistance.

  15. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  16. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.; Nash, C.; Mcclane, D.; McCabe, D.

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  17. Continuous ice core melter system with discrete sampling for major ion, trace element and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Erich C; Handley, Michael J; Sneed, Sharon B; Mayewski, Paul A; Kreutz, Karl J

    2006-05-15

    We present a novel ice/firn core melter system that uses fraction collectors to collect discrete, high-resolution (<1 cm/sample possible), continuous, coregistered meltwater samples for analysis of eight major ions by ion chromatography (IC), >32 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma sectorfield mass spectrometry (ICP-SMS), and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The new continuous melting with discrete sampling (CMDS) system preserves an archive of each sample, reduces the problem of incomplete particle dissolution in ICP-SMS samples, and provides more precise trace element data than previous ice melter models by using longer ICP-SMS scan times and washing the instrument between samples. CMDS detection limits are similar to or lower than those published for ice melter systems coupled directly to analytical instruments and are suitable for analyses of polar and mid-low-latitude ice cores. Analysis of total calcium and sulfur by ICP-SMS and calcium ion, sulfate, and methanesulfonate by IC from the Mt. Logan Prospector-Russell Col ice core confirms data accuracy and coregistration of the split fractions from each sample. The reproducibility of all data acquired by the CMDS system is confirmed by replicate analyses of parallel sections of the GISP2 D ice core.

  18. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  19. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  20. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    SciTech Connect

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.

  1. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  2. Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

  3. Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

  4. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-11-12

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  5. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  6. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  7. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  8. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  9. FINAL REPORT DURAMELTER 100 HLW SIMULANT VALIDATION TESTS WITH C-106/AY-102 FEEDS VSL-05R5710-1 REV 0 6/2/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objectives of the DM100 tests were to determine the processing characteristics of several C-106/AY102 feeds derived from simulants prepared by different methods, which result in different physical characteristics of the feed. The VSL simulant used in a previous test was prepared by the direct hydroxide method, which was the method used for feed preparation in the bulk of previous VSL melter testing. The NOAH Technologies Corporation modified-rheology simulant was prepared to the same composition as the VSL simulant using a method that resulted in rheological properties closer to those of certain actual waste samples. The SIPP simulant was produced by processing a co-precipitated waste simulant through a non-radioactive pilot scale semi-integrated pretreatment facility. The general intent of these tests was to provide a basis for determining whether the variations in rheology or other feed physical characteristics arising from the different methods of simulant preparation have significant effects on the processing characteristics of the feed in the melter. Completion of the test objectives is detailed in a table.

  10. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  11. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  12. High speed, high resolution, and continuous chemical analysis of ice cores using a melter and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Budner, Drew M; Ferris, Dave G

    2006-11-01

    Measurement of trace chemical impurities in ice cores contributes to the reconstruction of records of the atmospheric environment and of the climate system. Ion chromatography (IC) is an effective analytical technique for ionic species in ice cores but has been used on discretely prepared ice samples, resulting in extensive and slow sample preparation and potential for contamination. A new technique has been developed that utilizes IC as the online detection technique in a melter-based continuous flow system for quantitative determination of major ionic chemical impurities. The system, called CFA-IC for continuous flow analysis with ion chromatography detection, consists of an ice core melter, several ion chromatographs, and an interface that distributes meltwater to the IC instruments. The CFA-IC technique combines the accuracy, precision, and ease of use of IC measurement with the enhanced speed and depth resolution of continuous melting systems and is capable of virtually continuous, high-speed and high-resolution chemical analysis of long ice cores. The new technique and operating procedures have been tested and validated with the analysis of over 100 m of ice cores from Antarctica. The current CFA-IC system provides an all-major-ion analysis speed of up to 8 m a day at a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm.

  13. IMPACT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND AGGLOMERATION ON SETTLING OF SOLIDS IN CONTINUOUS MELTERS PROCESSING RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    HRMA PR

    2008-12-18

    The major factor limiting waste loading for many waste compositions in continuous waste glass melters is the settling of crystalline materials. The currently used constraints, i.e., the minimum liquidus temperature or the maximum fraction of equilibrium crystallinity at a given temperature, are based on thennodynamic equilibria. Because of the rapid circular convection in the melter, these constraints are probably irrelevant and cannot prevent large crystals from settling. The main factor that detennines the rate of settling ofindividual crystals, such as those ofspinel, is their size. The tiny crystals of RU02 are too small to settle, but they readily fonn large agglomerates that accelerate their rate ofsettling by severalorders ofmagnitude. The RU02 agglomerates originate early in the melting process and then grow by the shear-flocculation mechanism. It is estimated that these agglomerates must either be ofhundreds micrometers in size or have an elongated shape to match the observed rates ofthe sludge-layer fonnation. PACS: 47.57.ef, 81.05.Kj, 81.10.Fg

  14. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-10

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess)).

  15. Feed Preparation for Source of Alkali Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. E.; Lambert, D. P.

    2005-02-26

    The purpose of the Source of Alkali testing was to prepare feed for melt rate testing in order to determine the maximum melt-rate for a series of batches where the alkali was increased from 0% Na{sub 2}O in the frit (low washed sludge) to 16% Na{sub 2}O in the frit (highly washed sludge). This document summarizes the feed preparation for the Source of Alkali melt rate testing. The Source of Alkali melt rate results will be issued in a separate report. Five batches of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product and four batches of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product were produced to support Source of Alkali (SOA) melt rate testing. Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and frit 418 were used as targets for the 8% Na{sub 2}O baseline run. For the other four cases (0% Na{sub 2}O, 4% Na{sub 2}O, 12% Na{sub 2}O, and 16% Na{sub 2}O in frit), special sludge and frit preparations were necessary. The sludge preparations mimicked washing of the SB3 baseline composition, while frit adjustments consisted of increasing or decreasing Na and then re-normalizing the remaining frit components. For all batches, the target glass compositions were identical. The five SRAT products were prepared for testing in the dry fed melt-rate furnace and the four SME products were prepared for the Slurry-fed Melt-Rate Furnace (SMRF). At the same time, the impacts of washing on a baseline composition from a Chemical Process Cell (CPC) perspective could also be investigated. Five process simulations (0% Na{sub 2}O in frit, 4% Na{sub 2}O in frit, 8% Na{sub 2}O in frit or baseline, 12% Na{sub 2}O in frit, and 16% Na{sub 2}O in frit) were completed in three identical 4-L apparatus to produce the five SRAT products. The SRAT products were later dried and combined with the complementary frits to produce identical glass compositions. All five batches were produced with identical processing steps, including off-gas measurement using online gas chromatographs. Two slurry-fed melter feed batches, a 4% Na

  16. Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    James A. King; Vince Maio

    2011-09-01

    To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could crack

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  18. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  19. Effect of Feed Melting, Temperature History and Minor Component Addition on Spinel Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Izak, Pavel; Hrma, Pavel R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Plaisted, Trevor J.

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to help design mathematical models for high-level waste (HLW) glass melter that simulate spinel behavior in molten glass. Spinel, (Fe,Ni,Mn) (Fe,Cr)2O4, is the primary solid phase that precipitates from HLW glasses containing Fe and Ni in sufficient concentrations. Spinel crystallization affects the anticipated cost and risk of HLW vitrification. To study melting reactions, we used simulated HLW feed, prepared with co-precipitated Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn hydroxides. Feed samples were heated up at a temperature-increase rate (4C/min) close to that which the feed experiences in the HLW glass melter. The decomposition, melting, and dissolution of feed components (such as nitrates, carbonates, and silica) and the formation of intermediate crystalline phases (spinel, sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6(NO2)2], and Zr-containing minerals) were characterized using evolved gas analysis, volume-expansion measurement, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Nitrates and quartz, the major feed components, converted to a glass-forming melt by 880C. A chromium-free spinel formed in the nitrate melt starting from 520C and Sodalite, a transient product of corundum dissolution, appeared above 600C and eventually dissolved in glass. To investigate the effects of temperature history and minor components (Ru,Ag, and Cu) on the dissolution and growth of spinel crystals, samples were heated up to temperatures above liquidus temperature (TL), then subjected to different temperature histories, and analyzed. The results show that spinel mass fraction, crystals composition, and crystal size depend on the chemical and physical makeup of the feed and temperature history.

  20. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing

  1. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L.

    1995-11-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system.

  2. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  3. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  4. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (<1-2 cm ice/sample), continuous and coregistered sampling of ice cores, most notably the 2001 Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND APPLICABILITY AS FOOD AND FEED OF MASS-CULTURED UNICELLULAR ALGAE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ALGAE, * LACTOBACILLUS , CULTURE MEDIA, FOOD, FEED PELLETS, ACCEPTABILITY, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), HYDROCHLORIC ACID, PEPTONES, CHLOROPHYLLS, SOLVENT EXTRACTION, CELLS(BIOLOGY), COLORS, NUTRITION, SWINE, VITAMINS

  6. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  7. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  8. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  9. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  10. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  11. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  12. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  13. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  14. MELTER: A model of the thermal response of cargos transported in the Safe-Secure Trailer subject to fire environments for risk assessment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    MELTER is an analysis of cargo responses inside a fire-threatened Safe-Secure Trailer (SST) developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA). Many simplifying assumptions are required to make the subject problem tractable. MELTER incorporates modeling which balances the competing requirements of execution speed, generality, completeness of essential physics, and robustness. Input parameters affecting the analysis include those defining the fire scenario, those defining the cargo loaded in the SST, and those defining properties of the SST. For a specified fire, SST, and cargo geometry MELTER predicts the critical fire duration that will lead to a failure. The principal features of the analysis include: (a) Geometric considerations to interpret fire-scenario descriptors in terms of a thermal radiation boundary condition, (b) a simple model of the SST`s wall combining the diffusion model for radiation through optically-thick media with an endothermic reaction front to describe the charring of dimensional, rigid foam in the SST wall, (c) a transient radiation enclosure model, (d) a one-dimensional, spherical idealization of the shipped cargos providing modularity so that cargos of interest can be inserted into the model, and (e) associated numerical methods to integrate coupled, differential equations and find roots.

  15. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  16. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  17. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  18. Octopamine: a new feeding modulator in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Vehovszky, Á.

    1998-01-01

    The role of octopamine (OA) in the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, was studied by applying behavioural tests on intact animals, and a combination of electrophysiological analysis and morphological labelling in the isolated central nervous system. OA antagonists phentolamine, demethylchlordimeform (DCDM) and 2-chloro-4-methyl-2-(phenylimino)-imidazolidine (NC-7) were injected into intact snails and the sucrose-induced feeding response of animals was monitored. Snails that received 25 to 50 mg kg-1 phentolamine did not start feeding in sucrose, and the same dose of NC-7 reduced the number of feeding animals by 80 to 90% 1 to 3 hours after injection. DCDM treatment reduced feeding by 20 to 60%. In addition, both phentolamine and NC-7 significantly decreased the feeding rate of those animals that still accepted food after 1 to 6 hours of injection. In the central nervous system a pair of buccal neurons was identified by electrophysiological and morphological criteria. After double labelling (intracellular staining with Lucifer yellow followed by OA-immunocytochemistry) these neurons were shown to be OA immunoreactive, and electrophysiological experiments confirmed that they are members of the buccal feeding system. Therefore the newly identified buccal neurons were called OC neurons (putative octopamine containing neurons or octopaminergic cells). Synchronous intracellular recordings demonstrated that the OC neurons share a common rhythm with feeding neurons either appearing spontaneously or evoked by intracellularly stimulated feeding interneurons. OC neurons also have synaptic connections with identified members of the feeding network: electrical coupling was demonstrated between OC neurons and members of the B4 cluster motoneurons, furthermore, chemically transmitted synaptic responses were recorded both on feeding motoneurons (B1, B2 cells) and the SO modulatory interneuron after the stimulation of OC neurons. However, elementary synaptic

  19. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Fowley, M. D.; Miller, D. H.

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  20. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants.

  1. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  2. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  3. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  4. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  5. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  6. Hydrogen generation during melter feed preparation of Tank 42 sludge and salt washed loaded CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    1999-12-08

    The main objective of these scoping tests was to measure the rate of hydrogen generation in a series of experiments designed to duplicate the expected SRAT and SME processing conditions in laboratory scale vessels. This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, loaded CST [crystalline silicotitanate], and frit.

  7. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  8. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOEpatents

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  9. MATRIX 1 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). It has been proposed that a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America develop a systematic approach to increase HLW throughput (by increasing WL with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). Programmatically, this task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. The following four specific tasks have been proposed to meet this programmatic objective: (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. The details of these tasks can be found in the associated task plan WSRC-STI-2007-00483. The current study is focused on Task 2 (crystal accumulation modeling and higher waste loading glasses) and involves glass formulation and physical property testing by both PNNL and SRNL (as defined in the PNNL and SRNL test plans). The intent of this report is to document the chemical composition and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results and statistical analysis of PNNL's Test Matrix 1 glasses. Note that this document is only a compilation of the data collected by SRNL for PNNL's glasses in support of this task and no conclusions will be drawn.

  10. Effect of Sulfate on Rhenium Partitioning during Melting of Low-Activity Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tongan; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    The volatile loss of technetium-99 (99Tc) is a major concern of the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification at Hanford. We investigated the incorporation and volatile loss of Re (a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc) during batch-to-glass conversion up to 1100°C. The AN-102 feed, which is one of the representative Hanford LAW feeds, containing 0.59 wt% of SO3 (in glass if 100% retained) was used. The modified sulfate-free AN-102_0S feed was also tested to investigate the effect of sulfate on Re partitioning and retention during melting. After heating of the dried melter feed (mixture of LAW simulant and glass forming/modifying additives) to different temperatures, the heat-treated samples were quenched. For each heat-treated sample, the salts (soluble components in room temperature leaching), early glass forming melt (soluble components in 80°C leaching), and insoluble solids were separated by a two-step leaching and the chemical compositions of each phase were quantitatively analyzed. The final retention ratio of AN-102 and AN-102_0S in glass (insoluble solids) are 32% and 63% respectively. The presence of sulfate in the salt phase between 600 and 800°C leads to a significantly higher Re loss via volatilization from the salt layer. At ≥800°C, for both samples, there is no more incorporation of Re into the insoluble phase because: for AN-102_0S there is no salt left i.e., the split into the insoluble and gas phases is complete by 800°C and for AN-102 all the Re contained in the remaining salt phase is lost through volatilization. The present results on the effect of sulfate, although not directly applicable to LAW vitrification in the melter, will be used to understand the mechanism of Re incorporation into glass to eventually develop the methods that can increase the 99Tc retention during LAW vitrification at Hanford.

  11. Acceptance of tinnitus: validation of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acceptance as mediating link between sound perception (i.e. subjective loudness of tinnitus) and tinnitus distress. In total, 424 patients with chronic tinnitus completed the TAQ and validated measures of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression online. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to a good fit of the data to the hypothesised bifactor model (root-mean-square-error of approximation = .065; Comparative Fit Index = .974; Tucker-Lewis Index = .958; standardised root mean square residual = .032). In addition, mediation analysis, using a non-parametric joint coefficient approach, revealed that tinnitus-specific acceptance partially mediated the relation between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress (path ab = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.69). In a multiple mediator model, tinnitus acceptance had a significantly stronger indirect effect than anxiety. The results confirm the factorial structure of the TAQ and suggest the importance of a general acceptance factor that contributes important unique variance beyond that of the first-order factors activity engagement and tinnitus suppression. Tinnitus acceptance as measured with the TAQ is proposed to be a key construct in tinnitus research and should be further implemented into treatment concepts to reduce tinnitus distress.

  12. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  13. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  14. Fiber Optic Feed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-06

    Naval Research Laboratory IIK Washington, DC,20375 5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6741 0 N Fiber Optic Feed DENZIL STILWELL, MARK PARENT AND LEw GOLDBERG...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Fiber Optic Feed 53-0611-A0 6. AUTHOR(S) P. D. Stilwell, M. G. Parent, L. Goldberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report details a Fiber Optic Feeding

  15. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  16. FEED FORWARD EQUATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and feed forward stabilization) have been implemented. An on-mount gyro system consists of gyroscopes mounted on the radar antenna which sense...antenna motion and send compensating signals back to the antenna servo mechanism. Feed forward stabilization consists of determining antenna angular rates...caused by ships attitude changes, as measured by a stable platform (such as SINS), and feeding compensating signals back to the antenna servo

  17. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  18. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  19. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  20. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  1. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  2. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  3. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  4. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  5. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  6. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  7. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  8. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic influences on children's acceptance of new foods.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Fogel, Anna

    2013-09-10

    The foods that tend to be rejected by children include those which may have greatest importance for later health. This paper reviews some of the intrinsic and extrinsic influences on preschool children's eating behavior, with particular reference to their acceptance of new foods into their diet. Factors conceptualized as intrinsic to the child in this review include sensory processing, taste perception, neophobia, and temperament. The important extrinsic determinants of children's food acceptance which are reviewed include parental and peer modeling, the family food environment, infant feeding practices including breastfeeding and age at weaning, concurrent feeding practices including restriction, pressure to eat, prompting and reward, and the taste & energy content of foods. Children's willingness to accept new foods is influenced by a wide range of factors that likely have individual and also interactive effects on children's willingness to taste, and then continue to eat, new foods. The literature lacks longitudinal and experimental studies, which will be particularly important in determining interventions most likely to be effective in facilitating children's acceptance of healthy foods.

  10. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  11. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  12. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  13. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  14. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  15. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  16. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    PubMed

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    < 0.05) and 22-h (60% of total intake; P < 0.10) tests, respectively. In conclusion, feed supplementation with the FA1, FA2, and FA3 from weaning did not induce beneficial effects on feed intake and growth performance during the early postweaning period. The FA2 increased palatability and acceptance of the unfamiliar starter diet the day of feed transition, while the FA1 and FA3 increased palatability of the starter diet only after a few days of exposure, most likely through long-term familiarization processes.

  17. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  18. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000803.htm Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding To use the sharing features ... best for you and your family. Benefits of Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is a wonderful way to bond with ...

  19. Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.

  20. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  1. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  2. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  3. Phenolic plant metabolites as bioactive food and feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional additives in food and animal feed formulations are gaining acceptance as consumers and producers recognize the health benefits associated with certain natural plant products. Phenolic compounds in particular have emerged as a class of compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifun...

  4. Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Report Detailing Data Collection In Support Of Potential FY13 Pilot Scale Melter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K. S.; Amoroso, J.; Marra, J. C.; Fox, K. M.

    2012-09-21

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to summarize the data collection in support of future melter demonstration testing for crystalline ceramic waste forms. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. The principal difficulties encountered during processing of the ?reference ceramic? waste form by a melt and crystallization process were the incomplete incorporation of Cs into the hollandite phase and the presence of secondary Cs-Mo non-durable phases. In the single phase hollandite system, these issues were addressed in this study by refining the compositions to include Cr as a transition metal element and the use of Ti/TiO{sub 2} buffer to maintain reducing conditions. Initial viscosity studies of ceramic waste

  5. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  6. Spoon-Feeding: Or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Mess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Holly

    2008-01-01

    The author, a programme leader for a Post Graduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (PGCLTHE), hears a complaint from her colleagues that undergraduate students require "spoon-feeding". Accepting structuralism's argument that language does things, not just describe them, the author examines "spoon-feeding" in more depth.…

  7. Glass fabrication and analysis literature review and method selection for WTP waste feed qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D. K.

    2013-06-01

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) safety basis, technical basis, and design by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed Campaign prior to transfer from the Hanford Tank Farm to the WTP.

  8. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  10. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  11. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  12. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  13. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  14. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  15. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  16. Commutating Feed Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD-AOBS 567 ITT GILFILLAN VAN NUYS CA F/6 17/9 CONF4UTATING FEED ASSEMBLY. 1W DEC 79 R WOL.FSON F19628-79-C-OOSS UNCLASSIFIED RADC -TR79303 NI. 1i.ll...INTRODUCTION 9 2 COMMUTATING FEED ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS 10 . 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEMS 11 1: 3.1 System Design 12 3.1.1 Radius of Circular Array 12 3.1.2 Design...Support Structure 16 3.3 Annular Rotary Coupler 16 3.4 Stripline Feed Network 17 w V.3.4.1 Range of Coupling Values vs. Percent Power into Load 17 3.4.2

  17. Infant HIV infection: acceptability of preventive strategies in central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jean

    2004-10-01

    Safe, cost-effective interventions are being developed to reduce HIV transmission to children, suitable for lower income countries such as Tanzania. The interventions include Nevirapine treatment, replacement feeding, exclusive breast-feeding and heat-treating breast milk. This article reports on research to explore factors, which may influence the acceptability of these interventions. Data collection methods used were qualitative in-depth interviews with 12 health workers and focus group discussions with five community groups. Findings are presented with reference to the theory of diffusion of innovation, which seeks to explain how new ideas and products are disseminated through a community. Respondents describe the factors that may help and hinder this process. They propose ways to maximize this diffusion, such as integrating HIV and antenatal services, encouraging male participation, community-wide education, offering free HIV testing, and training health workers as change agents.

  18. FINAL REPORT START-UP AND COMMISSIONING TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-01R0100-2 REV 0 1/20/03

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BRANDYS M; WILSON CN; SCHATZ TR; GONG W; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from commissioning tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM 1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part BI [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plan. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Report. The DM1200 system will be used for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. This will include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The results presented in this report are from the initial series of short-duration tests that were conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system prior to conducting the main body of development tests that have been planned for this system. These tests were directed primarily at system 'debugging,' operator training, and procedure refinement. The AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing was selected for these tests.

  19. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  20. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  1. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  2. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  3. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  4. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  5. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  6. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  7. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5 cm) offered at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration

  8. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-10-11

    Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable.

  9. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  10. Supporting oral feeding in fragile infants: an evidence-based method for quality bottle-feedings of preterm, ill, and fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Ross, Erin Sundseth; Philbin, M Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Successful oral feeding of preterm and other ill and fragile infants is an interactive process that requires (1) sensitive, ongoing assessment of an infant's physiology and behavior, (2) knowledgeable decisions that support immediate and long-term enjoyment of food, and (3) competent skill in feeding. Caregivers can support feeding success by using the infant's biological and behavioral channels of communication to inform their feeding decisions and actions. The Supporting Oral Feeding in Fragile Infants (SOFFI) Method is described here with text, algorithms, and reference guides. Two of the algorithms and the reference guides are published separately as Philbin, Ross. SOFFI Reference Guides: Text, Algorithms, and Appendices (in review). The information in all of these materials is drawn from sound research findings and, rarely, when such findings are not available, from expert, commonly accepted clinical practice. If the quality of a feeding takes priority over the quantity ingested, feeding skill develops pleasurably and at the infant's own pace. Once physiologic organization and behavioral skills are established, an affinity for feeding and the ingestion of sufficient quantity occur naturally, often rapidly, and at approximately the same postmenstrual age as volume-focused feedings. Nurses, therapists, and parents alike can use the SOFFI Method to increase the likelihood of feeding success in the population of infants at risk for feeding problems that emerge in infancy and extend into the preschool years.

  11. Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1992-05-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to [le] 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5 6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

  12. Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1992-05-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to {le} 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5&6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

  13. An Evaluation of Liquidus Temperature as a Function of Waste Loading for a Tank 42 "Sludge Only"/Frit 200 Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-05-10

    'The waste glass produced in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Faiclity (DWPF) process must comply with Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) and process control requirements by demonstrating, to a high degree of confidence, that melter feed will produce glass satisfying all quality and processing requirements.'

  14. Feeding rate as valuable information in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naofumi

    2009-04-01

    In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal feeding: (1) optimal food patch choice, (2) optimal time allocation to different patches, and (3) optimal food choice. In order to gain a better understanding of these three aspects, the feeding rate itself or its relevance indices (e.g., rates of calorie and protein intake) could be appropriate measures to assess the quality of food and food patches. Moreover, the feeding rate plays an essential role in estimation of total food intake, because it varies greatly for different food items and the feeding time is not a precise measure. The feeding rate could also vary across individuals who simultaneously feed on the same food items in the same food patch. Body size-dependent and rank-dependent differences in the feeding rate sometimes cause individuals to take strategic behavioral options. In the closing remarks, I discuss the usefulness of even limited data on feeding rate obtained under adverse observational conditions in understanding primate feeding ecology.

  15. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  16. Islam and infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Ahmed, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Few physicians in the United States receive formal education related to principles of infant care in Islamic families. Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam and it is recommended that the mother suckle her offspring for 2 years if possible. Weaning from the breast before that period is allowed if mutually decided on by both parents. The infant's father has an obligation to support his wife through any circumstances that may affect breastfeeding and, in case of divorce, provide shelter and financial support to the mother-infant dyad for as long as breastfeeding continues. By showing understanding and respect of Islamic beliefs related to infant feeding, clinicians can help support healthy early feeding of Muslim infants.

  17. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    PubMed

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources.

  18. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  19. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Christine E.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan H.; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy. PMID:21700574

  20. Materials disposition plutonium acceptance specifications for the immobilization project

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B; Edmunds, T A; Gray, L; Riley, D C; Vankonynenburg, R A

    1998-06-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has declared approximately 38.2 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium to be excess to the needs of national security, 14.3 tonnes of fuel- and reactor-grade plutonium excess to DOE needs, and anticipates an additional 7 tonnes to be declared excess to national security needs. Of this 59.5 tonnes, DOE anticipates that ~ 7.5 tonnes will be dispositioned as spent fuel at the Geologic Repository and ~ 2 tonnes will be declared below the safeguards termination limit and be discarded as TRU waste at WIPP. The remaining 50 tonnes of excess plutonium exists in many forms and locations around the country, and is under the control of several DOE Offices. The Materials Disposition Program (MD) will be receiving materials packaged by these other Programs to disposition in a manor that meets the "spent fuel standard." For disposition by immobilization, the planned facilities will have only limited capabilities to remove impurities prior to blending the plutonium feedstocks to prepare feed for the plutonium immobilization ceramic formation process, Technical specifications are described here that allow potential feedstocks to be categorized as either acceptable for transfer into the MD Immobilization Process, or unacceptable without additional processing prior to transfer to MD. Understanding the requirements should allow cost benefit analyses to be performed to determine if a specific material should be processed sufficiently shipment to WIPP. Preliminary analyses suggest that about 45 tonnes of this material have impurity concentrations much lower than the immobilization acceptance specifications. In addition, approximately another 3 tonnes can easily be blended with the higher purity feeds to meet the immobilization specifications. Another 1 tonne or so can be processed in the immobilization plutonium conversion area to yield materials that can be blended to provide acceptable feed for immobilization. The remaining 3 tonnes must be excluded in their

  1. Studying Student Teachers' Acceptance of Role Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)

  2. [Subjective well-being and self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Makino, Y; Tagami, F

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and self acceptance, and to design a happiness self-writing program to increase self acceptance and subjective well-being of adolescents. In study 1, we examined the relationship between social interaction and self acceptance. In study 2, we created a happiness self-writing program in cognitive behavioral approach, and examined whether the program promoted self acceptance and subjective well-being. Results indicated that acceptance of self-openness, an aspect of self acceptance, was related to subjective well-being. The happiness self-writing program increased subjective well-being, but it was not found to have increased self acceptance. It was discussed why the program could promote subjective well-being, but not self acceptance.

  3. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  4. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Human feeding of wildlife is a world-wide phenomenon with very diverse effects on conservation, animal welfare and public safety. From a review of the motivations, types and consequences of wildlife feeding, an evaluative framework is presented to assist policy-makers, educators and managers to make ethical- and biologically-based decisions about the appropriateness of feeding wildlife in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and recreation. Abstract Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable. PMID:26479747

  5. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  6. Feeding value of pastures for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, G C; Clark, D A

    2004-12-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the primary forage component of ruminant diets in New Zealand. It is persistent and palatable, and immature ryegrass has a high nutritive value (NV). However, seedhead development substantially lowers its feeding value (FV) as fibre concentration increases, the rate and extent of digestibility decreases, and voluntary intake declines. Ryegrass pastures are susceptible to accumulation of endophytic and saprophytic fungi in dead material at the base of the sward, especially when mature and laxly grazed. Feeding forage legumes to ruminants grazing grass-dominant pastures will improve animal performance and lessen the reliance on a single species to meet all nutritional requirements. The FV of forage is a function of intake and NV, measured by chemical analyses and animal feeding trials. Performance of individual animals grazing forages is usually limited by energy intake because structural fibre can slow digestion and clearance from the rumen and because of competition between individuals for available feed. The use of metabolisable energy (ME) content of forage to signify FV can give a reasonable indication of animal performance, but it should be used in conjunction with chemical analyses to improve the accuracy of predictions. The relationship between FV, pasture production, animal performance and profitability is complex. The importance of skilled management to maintain pasture quality and optimise animal performance under inconsistent climatic conditions should not be underestimated. Acceptable animal performance with minimal veterinary intervention requires good nutrition, but the genetic potential of livestock in New Zealand cannot be met solely by grazing pasture, especially when a high utilisation of pasture is required to maintain quality and profitability. Producers are responding to industry demands to reduce the seasonality in supply of milk and meat by changing lambing and calving dates, and extending lactation length in dairy cows

  7. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  8. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  9. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  10. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  11. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  12. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  13. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  14. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  15. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  16. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer...

  17. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  18. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) 41 U.S...) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an agency under current...

  19. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2911.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  20. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  1. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  2. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  3. The relation between remembered parental acceptance in childhood and self-acceptance among young Turkish adults.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Behire; Rohner, Ronald P

    2016-05-11

    This study examined the relation between young adults' age and remembrances of parental acceptance in childhood, and their current self-acceptance. The study was based on a sample of 236 young adults in Turkey (139 women and 97 men). The adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire for mothers and fathers along with the Self-Acceptance subscale of the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and the Personal Information Form were used as measures. Results showed that both men and women tended to remember having been accepted in childhood by both their mothers and fathers. Women, however, reported more maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood than did men. Similarly, the level of self-acceptance was high among both men and women. However, women's self-acceptance was higher than men's. Correlational analyses showed that self-acceptance was positively related to remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance among both women and men. Results indicated that age and remembered paternal acceptance significantly predicted women's self-acceptance. Age and remembered maternal acceptance made significant and independent contributions to men's self-acceptance. Men's remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood did not make significant contribution to their self-acceptance. Finally, the relation between women's age and self-acceptance was significantly moderated by remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood.

  4. Feeding the feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylchek, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Too often the equipment used to move difficult to handle powdery material from a hopper to process creates a complex of devices whose end result falls short on good performance...simply because equipment design, in many cases, has not kept up with advanced technological concepts in fine powder handling. The Feeder, being the key to an efficient feed system, must be assured a continuous flow from the storage tank...without bridging, arching, spasmodic flow or uncontrolled flushing. The causes and effects of flow problems are discussed and also solutions are offered based on the combination of theoretical and practical experience.

  5. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  6. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T

  7. Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal year 1993: Effect of noble metals concentration on offgas generation and ammonia formation

    SciTech Connect

    Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.; Bell, R.D.; Smith, H.D.; Williford, R.E.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    The High-Level Waste Vitrification Program is developing technology for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting laboratory-scale melter feed preparation studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry, Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW). A FY 1993 laboratory-scale study focused on the effects of noble metals (Pd, Rh, and Ru) on feed preparation offgas generation and NH{sub 3} production. The noble metals catalyze H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} production, which leads to safety concerns. The information gained from this study is intended to be used for technology development in pilot scale testing and design of the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility. Six laboratory-scale feed preparation tests were performed as part of the FY 1993 testing activities using nonradioactive NCAW simulant. Tests were performed with 10%, 25%, 50% of nominal noble metals content. Also tested were 25% of the nominal Rh and a repeat of 25% nominal noble metals. The results of the test activities are described. 6 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions.

  9. Thoroughbred blood serum inorganic phosphate concentrations in relation to feeding regime and racing performance.

    PubMed

    Denny, J E

    1987-06-01

    Horses receiving a pelleted or cubed dietary supplementation with roughage, have serum inorganic phosphate (SIP) concentrations consistently below an accepted mean of 1,032 mmol l-1 or 3, 1 mg dl-1. Further, it has been reported that the best eight, two-year-old Irish Thoroughbred track performers of 51 horses tested over a 10 month period, had significantly lower SIP concentrations than the worst eight track performers. In an endeavour to assess any nutritive effect on SIP concentrations and also to assess any effect of SIP concentrations on track performance, metabolic blood profiles from 303 horses in training at the Summerveld Training centre in Natal, were evaluated for various blood parameters over a two year period. Of these 303 profiles, 264 were analysed for SIP concentrations. These horses were on three known feeding regimes viz. Feed 1--cube feeding plus hay; Feed 2--oats, wheaten bran and greens plus hay; Feed 3--Mixed feeding regime of feeds 1 and 2; Feed 4--unknown regime. Dry matter intake varied between 2 and 2.5% of estimated bodymass and in the Feed 1 regime, the proportion of cubed supplement in the diet was increased from 30 to 70% as the training programme progressed. Statistical analysis of SIP concentrations showed that horses on the Feed 1 regime had significantly lower SIP concentrations than horses on the other feed regimes. Of the 303 profiles, 224 could be identified with actual races.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  11. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  12. Surplus plutonium immobilization feed materials requirements and blending strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Edmunds, T.; Gray, L.; Riley, D.; Rising, T.L.

    1998-02-13

    The Excess Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s Record of Decision (ROD) published in January 1997 by DOE/MD describes three potential pathways for the disposition of excess fissile materials: burning as MOX fuel rods, and two can-in-canister immobilization candidates: glass and ceramics. In addition, the ROD introduced processing schedules for MD disposition program. Prior to the ROD, the only acceptance specification that AMD had for incoming materials was DOE- STD-3013. However, STD-3013 is a specification aimed at maintaining safety for long term storage (approximately 100 years) and was never intended to act as an acceptance specification. An effort has begun to examine all of the technical issues associated with the processing and transfer of materials from EM to MD. Since that time, several related initiatives have begun to deal with the many issues, including the EM Material Stewardship program, the latest EM-66 sponsored trade studies, and a new storage standard. A draft of feed material requirements for the ceramic Immobilization Facility that will be used for the disposition of surplus plutonium has been developed for discussion. It established impurity limits for feed materials to the immobilization process, identifies impurities in feed materials that may have an adverse effect on the immobilization process, and indicates how these materials can be further processed and blended at the Immobilization Facility to ensure manufacture of an acceptable product.

  13. Breast-feeding problems after epidural analgesia for labour: a retrospective cohort study of pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Volmanen, P; Valanne, J; Alahuhta, S

    2004-01-01

    Various clinical practices have been found to be associated with breast-feeding problems. However, little is known about the effect of pain, obstetrical procedures and analgesia on breast-feeding behaviour. We designed a retrospective study with a questionnaire concerning pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices mailed to 164 primiparae in Lapland. Altogether 99 mothers (60%) returned completed questionnaires that could be included in the analysis, which was carried out in two steps. Firstly, all accepted questionnaires were grouped according to the success or failure to breast-feed fully during the first 12 weeks of life. Secondly, an ad hoc cohort study was performed on the sub-sample of 64 mothers delivered vaginally. As many as 44% of the 99 mothers reported partial breast feeding or formula feeding during the first 12 weeks. Older age of the mother, use of epidural analgesia and the problem of "not having enough milk" were associated with the failure to breast-feed fully. Caesarean section, other methods of labour analgesia and other breast-feeding problems were not associated with partial breast feeding or formula feeding. In the sub-sample, 67% of the mothers who had laboured with epidural analgesia and 29% of the mothers who laboured without epidural analgesia reported partial breast feeding or formula feeding (P = 0.003). The problem of "not having enough milk" was more often reported by those who had had epidural analgesia. Further studies conducted prospectively are needed to establish whether a causal relationship exists between epidural analgesia and breast-feeding problems.

  14. An assessment of food acceptance in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, W H; Castine, T; Nault, K; Green, G

    2001-10-01

    Some children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) have been reported to have atypical feeding behavior, such as sensitivity to food texture and selective preferences for particular foods. No systematic studies of feeding behavior in this population have been published. Munk and Repp (1994) developed methods for assessing feeding problems in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities that allow categorization of individual feeding patterns based on responses to repeated presentations of food. In this study, we systematically replicated the Munk and Repp procedures with children with autism and PDD-NOS. Thirty children, ages 3 to 14 years, were exposed to 12 food items across 6 sessions. Food acceptance, food expulsion, and disruptive behavior were recorded on a trial-by-trial basis. Approximately half of the participants exhibited patterns of food acceptance, indicating selectivity by food category or food texture. Others consistently accepted or rejected items across food categories. Whether these patterns of food acceptance are atypical remains to be determined by comparison with the feeding patterns of typically developing children and other children with developmental delays.

  15. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  16. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD acceptance of such change or modification, except that changes mandated by other applicable laws... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan acceptability and acceptance... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.202 Plan acceptability and...

  17. Monitoring of ractopamine concentration in the mixture of this feed additive with vitamin mineral complex and with swine feed by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2013-01-01

    Ractopamine (RAC) analysis at all stages in the feed chain until its final mixing into swine feed is necessary to ensure the safety of all meat consumers and to decrease waste and the cost of supplementation of feed. Two suitable HPLC methods were developed and validated for RAC determination in vitamin mineral complex (VMC) and in swine feed. Both methods employed reverse-phase (C18 column at 40°C) and isocratic elution, but with some modifications to the methods. Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, trueness and robustness, were shown to be within the acceptable range. Therefore, the developed methods can be successfully applied for the monitoring of RAC concentrations in samples of VMC and swine feed ensuring economy to producers and security to consumers of swine meat.

  18. Nutritional Criteria for Military Rations and Effects of Prolonged Feeding on Acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnakenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    Broad nutritional policies for operational rations are designed to insure that the nutritional content of the rations served will sustain combat effectiveness. Concern exists that these rations, although nutritionally complete, would become monotonous because of limited variety causing nutrient intake to decrease and body weight losses to occur with adverse effects on morale and combat effectiveness. Whenever possible, troops are now fed one or two hot meals per day containing fresh foods and a much greater variety of foods than are available in packaged rations. A laboratory test was conducted with student volunteers and the results are discussed.

  19. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  20. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  1. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  2. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  3. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost.

  4. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  5. Experimental Assessment of the Reciprocating Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David E.; Blackmon, James B.; Morton, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to design, construct, and test a full scale, high pressure simulated propellant feed system test bed that could evaluate the ability of the Reciprocating Feed System (RFS) to provide essentially constant flow rates and pressures to a rocket engine. The two key issues addressed were the effects of the transition of the drain cycle from tank to tank and the benefits of other hardware such as accumulators to provide a constant pressure flow rate out of the RFS. The test bed provided 500 psi flow at rates of the order of those required for engines in the 20,000 lbf thrust class (e.g., 20 to 40 lb/sec). A control system was developed in conjunction with the test article and automated system operation was achieved. Pre-test planning and acceptance activities such as a documented procedure and hazard analysis were conducted and the operation of the test article was approved by, and conducted in coordination with, appropriate NASA Marshall Space Flight Center personnel under a Space Act Agreement. Tests demonstrated successful control of flow rates and pressures.

  6. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  10. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  11. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  12. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  13. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  14. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  15. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  16. Acceptance Criteria for Aerospace Structural Adhesives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ADHESIVES, *AIRFRAMES, PRIMERS, STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION , DATA ACQUISITION , PARTICLE SIZE, ACCEPTANCE TESTS, ELASTOMERS, BONDING, QUALITY CONTROL, .

  17. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  18. Xenon Feed System Progress (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    development, assembly and test of an electric propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments...pressure transducer feedback, the PFCV has successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed

  19. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed.

  20. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  1. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  2. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures.

  3. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  4. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  5. Breast feeding and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Golding, J; Emmett, P M; Rogers, I S

    1997-10-29

    The evidence linking bottle feeding to infant and early childhood mortality has been reviewed. Ecological studies of national time trends in infant mortality do not parallel breast feeding trends in those countries, and indicate that falling death rates are more likely to be related to better health care facilities and social conditions. Direct studies of deaths provide some contradictory findings; meta-analyses are not informative because of the many differences in statistical and sample methodology. The methodology exhibited in most studies is more likely to have over- rather than under-estimated a relationship between bottle feeding and infant mortality. Retrospective analyses must take account of changes in feeding pattern due to early signs of illness. Prospective population studies able to account for large numbers of potential confounders provide the best estimates, especially if proportional hazards models are used. Two such studies have been carried out--both showed protective effects of breast feeding.

  6. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  7. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  8. Characterization of tapered slot antenna feeds and feed arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Sik; Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid

    1990-01-01

    A class of feed antennas and feed antenna arrays used in the focal plane of paraboloid reflectors and exhibiting higher than normal levels of cross-polarized radiation in the diagonal planes is addressed. A model which allows prediction of element gain and aperture efficiency of the feed/reflector system is presented. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Tapered slot antenna (TSA) elements are used an example of an element of this type. It is shown that TSA arrays used in multibeam systems with small beam spacings are competitive in terms of aperture efficiency with other, more standard types of arrays incorporating waveguide type elements.

  9. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: effects of feeding.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Hawthorne, Steven; Miller, David J; Grabanski, Carol B

    2015-05-01

    Standard sediment-bioaccumulation test methods specify that Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure. This lack of feeding can lead to decreases in L. variegatus weight and lipid content during the 28-day exposure period. Differences in intrinsic nutritional content of sediments could lead to additional variability in organism performance and/or contaminant uptake. To evaluate the potential benefits of feeding, sediment-bioaccumulation tests were performed comparing treatments with and without supplemental feeding with tropical fish food and also comparing performance food introduced as blended slurry versus fine flakes. The ration of food provided had to be limited to 6 mg/300-mL beaker with 250 mg of L. variegatus (ww) receiving three feedings per week to maintain acceptable dissolved oxygen (DO) in the test chambers. Relative weight change during exposure varied across sediments in the absence of food from very little change to as much as a 40 % decrease from starting weight. Feeding slurry and flake foods increased the total weight of recovered organisms by 32 and 48 %, respectively, but they did not decrease variability in weight changes across sediments. Lipid contents of the organisms decreased similarly across all feeding treatments during the test. At test termination, lipid contents of L. variegatus across unfed, slurry-fed, and flake-fed treatments were not significantly different per Tukey's honest significant difference test with 95 % family-wise confidence. Feeding resulted in polychlorinated biphenyl residues in L. variegatus being generally slightly less (median 78 %) and slightly greater (median 135 %) than the unfed treatments with slurry and flake formulated foods, respectively.

  10. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  11. Hanford Site liquid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-09-11

    This document provides the waste acceptance criteria for liquid waste managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). These waste acceptance criteria address the various requirements to operate a facility in compliance with applicable environmental, safety, and operational requirements. This document also addresses the sitewide miscellaneous streams program.

  12. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  13. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  14. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  15. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  16. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  17. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  18. Genres Across Cultures: Types of Acceptability Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Philip; Gillaerts, Paul; Jacobs, Everett; Palermo, Ofelia; Shinohara, Midori; Verckens, J. Piet

    2004-01-01

    One can ask four questions about genre validity across cultures. Does a certain form or configuration occur in the culture in question? Is it acceptable? If acceptable, is it in practice preferred? Is it recommended by prescriptive authorities? This paper reports the results of an attempt to answer these questions empirically by testing the…

  19. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... may, under appropriate circumstances, require offerors to demonstrate that the items offered— (1)...

  20. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2811.103... Planning DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103 Market acceptance... offerors to demonstrate that the items offered meet the criteria set forth in FAR 11.103(a)....