Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable performance characteristics

  1. Trinity Acceptance Tests Performance Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring Real Applications perform well on Trinity is key to success. Four components: ASC applications, Sustained System Performance (SSP), Extra-Large MiniApplications problems, and Micro-benchmarks.

  2. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  3. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  4. The role of acceptance and job control in mental health, job satisfaction, and work performance.

    PubMed

    Bond, Frank W; Bunce, David

    2003-12-01

    Acceptance, the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and physiological sensations without having to control them or let them determine one's actions, is a major individual determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in a more recent theory of psychopathology. This 2-wave panel study examined the ability of acceptance also to explain mental health, job satisfaction, and performance in the work domain. The authors hypothesized that acceptance would predict these 3 outcomes 1 year later in a sample of customer service center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 412). Results indicated that acceptance predicted mental health and an objective measure of performance over and above job control, negative affectivity, and locus of control. These beneficial effects of having more job control were enhanced when people had higher levels of acceptance. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical relevance of this individual characteristic to occupational health and performance.

  5. How to pass a sensor acceptance test: using the gap between acceptance criteria and operational performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet

    2016-10-01

    When acquiring a new imaging system and operational task performance is a critical factor for success, it is necessary to specify minimum acceptance requirements that need to be met using a sensor performance model and/or performance tests. Currently, there exist a variety of models and test from different origin (defense, security, road safety, optometry) and they all do different predictions. This study reviews a number of frequently used methods and shows the effects that small changes in procedure or threshold criteria can have on the outcome of a test. For example, a system may meet the acceptance requirements but not satisfy the needs for the operational task, or the choice of test may determine the rank order of candidate sensors. The goal of the paper is to make people aware of the pitfalls associated with the acquisition process, by i) illustrating potential tricks to have a system accepted that is actually not suited for the operational task, and ii) providing tips to avoid this unwanted situation.

  6. Proposed Performance Evaluation Acceptance Test for Heat Recovery Incinerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1985). D 3176, Method for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke (1984). D 3180, Method for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses from As-Determined to Differ...or approval of the use of such commercial products . The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position...such as coal or oil fired boilers, no standard performance test is available to assess field performance or to use as an acceptance test for the HRI

  7. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  8. The indicator performance estimate approach to determining acceptable wilderness conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenhorst, Steven; Gardner, Lisa

    1994-11-01

    Using data from a study conducted in the Cranberry Wilderness Area of West Virginia, United States, this paper describes how a modified importance—performance approach can be used to prioritize wilderness indicators and determine how much change from the pristine is acceptable. The approach uses two key types of information: (1) indicator importance, or visitor opinion as to which wilderness indicators have the greatest influence on their experience, and (2) management performance, or the extent to which actual indicator conditions exceed or are within visitor expectations. Performance was represented by calculating indicator performance estimates (IPEs), as defined by standardized differences between actual conditions and visitor preferences for each indicator. The results for each indicator are then presented graphically on a four-quadrant matrix for objective interpretation. Each quadrant represents a management response: keep up the good work, concentrate here, low priority, or possible overkill. The technique allows managers to more systematically and effectively utilize information routinely collected during the limits of acceptable change wilderness planning process.

  9. Criteria for Identifying Radiologists with Acceptable Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance based on Multiple Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A.; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Feig, Stephen A.; Monsees, Barbara; Parikh, Jay R.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Sickles, Edward A.; Carney, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using a combination of performance measures, we updated previously proposed criteria for identifying physicians whose performance interpreting screening mammograms may indicate suboptimal interpretation skills. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, six expert breast imagers used a method based on the Angoff approach to update criteria for acceptable mammography performance on the basis of combined performance measures: (Group 1) sensitivity and specificity, for facilities with complete capture of false-negative cancers; and (Group 2) cancer detection rate (CDR), recall rate, and positive predictive value of a recall (PPV1), for facilities that cannot capture false negatives, but have reliable cancer follow-up information for positive mammograms. Decisions were informed by normative data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). Results Updated, combined ranges for acceptable sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography are: (1) sensitivity ≥80% and specificity ≥85% or (2) sensitivity 75–79% and specificity 88–97%. Updated ranges for CDR, recall rate, and PPV1 are: (1) CDR ≥6/1000, recall rate 3–20%, and any PPV1; (2) CDR 4–6/1000, recall rate 3–15%, and PPV1 ≥3%; or (3) CDR 2.5–4/1000, recall rate 5–12%, and PPV1 3–8%. Using the original criteria, 51% of BCSC radiologists had acceptable sensitivity and specificity; 40% had acceptable CDR, recall rate, and PPV1. Using the combined criteria, 69% had acceptable sensitivity and specificity and 62% had acceptable CDR, recall rate, and PPV1. Conclusion The combined criteria improve previous criteria by considering the inter-relationships of multiple performance measures and broaden the acceptable performance ranges compared to previous criteria based on individual measures. PMID:25794100

  10. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide direction for conducting performance acceptance testing for large power tower solar systems that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The recommendations have been developed under a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract and reviewed by stakeholders representing concerned organizations and interests throughout the concentrating solar power (CSP) community. An earlier NREL report provided similar guidelines for parabolic trough systems. These Guidelines recommend certain methods, instrumentation, equipment operating requirements, and calculation methods. When tests are run in accordance with these Guidelines, we expect that the test results will yield a valid indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. But these are only recommendations--to be carefully considered by the contractual parties involved in the Acceptance Tests--and we expect that modifications may be required to fit the particular characteristics of a specific project.

  11. An Empirical Examination of Individual and System Characteristics on Enhancing E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsiao, Chan; Purnomo, Sutrisno Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continued prevalence of e-learning underutilization in Indonesia's higher education context, this study empirically examines individual and system characteristics believed to influence students' acceptance of e-learning systems. The proposed research model is developed to examine the influence of five characteristics of the Technology…

  12. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  13. F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  15. Performance characteristics of STIS detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    We report quantum efficiency measurements of back-illuminated, ion-implanted, laser-annealed charge coupled devices (CCD's) in the wavelength range 13-10,000 A. The equivalent quantum efficiency (EQE = effective photons detected per incident photon) ranges from a minimum of 5 percent as 1216 A to a maximum of 87 percent at 135 A. Using a simple relationship for the charge collection efficiency of the CCD pixels as a function of depth, we present a semi-empirical model with few parameters which reproduces our measurements with a fair degree of accuracy. The advantage of this model is that is can be used to predict CCD QE performance for shallow backside implanted devices without detailed solution of a system of differential equations, as in conventional approaches, and yields a simple analytic form for the charge collection efficiency which is adequate for detector calibration purposes. Making detailed assumptions about the dopant profile, we also solve the carrier density and continuity equations in order to relate our semi-empirical model parameters to surface and bulk device properties. The latter procedure helps to better establish device processing parameters for a given level of CCD QE performance.

  16. Perceived proposer personality characteristics and gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers.

    PubMed

    Conley, Terri D

    2011-02-01

    In a highly influential paper, Clark and Hatfield (1989) demonstrated that, whereas men were quite likely to accept a casual sexual offer from a confederate research assistant, women never did so. The current research provides a more in-depth explanation of gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers via 4 (quasi-) experiments. First, using a person-perception paradigm, I assessed people's impressions of women and men who proposed a casual sexual encounter in the same manner that confederates in Clark and Hatfield did. Women and men agreed that female proposers were more intelligent, successful, and sexually skilled than men who made the same proposals. Second, I demonstrated that the large gender differences from the original Clark and Hatfield study could be eliminated by asking participants to imagine proposals from (attractive and unattractive) famous individuals, friends, and same-gender individuals. Next, I assessed factors associated with likelihood of agreeing to the casual sex proposal. The extent to which women and men believed that the proposer would be sexually skilled predicted how likely they would be to engage in casual sex with this individual. Finally, I examined these factors in the context of actual encounters from the participants' previous experiences, and the results were replicated in this context. Overall findings suggest that the large gender differences Clark and Hatfield observed in acceptance of the casual sex offer may have more to do with perceived personality characteristics of the female versus male proposers than with gender differences among Clark and Hatfield's participants and that sexual pleasure figures largely in women's and men's decision making about casual sex.

  17. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  18. Prelaunch self-discharge and charge-acceptance characteristics of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, John R., Jr.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Tests performed at NASA/MSFC on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen batteries (flight spare module and flight spare battery) were used to determine self-discharge and charge-acceptance characteristics when the batteries were exposed to charged wet-stand conditions, pulse charging on the launch pad, and battery capacity at solar array deployment. An equation is presented which was used to predict the capacity that would be available in the HST NiH2 batteries after an extended stand time on the launch pad plus up to 2 days on orbit prior to solar array deployment (either ground power or orbiter power were used to supply HST loads until shortly before the solar arrays were deployed). It is shown that a fairly accurate estimate of the available capacity was made.

  19. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.

    PubMed

    Jung, D W; Hong, J H; Kim, K O

    2010-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were examined by descriptive analysis. Principle component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the beef soup samples and the attributes. In consumer testing, separate groups of consumers evaluated overall liking as well as the flavor intensities of beef, seasoning, and MSG. Partial least square regression was conducted to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer data. The samples containing GSH had stronger "beef flavor,"garlic flavor," and "green onion flavor" while the samples containing MSG had stronger "salty taste,"sweet taste,"MSG taste," and "potato flavor." The consumers preferred samples containing both GSH and MSG, which had higher perceived flavor intensities of beef, seasonings, MSG. This study indicates that GSH has potential as a flavor enhancer, but more tests in different food systems with additions of GSH at varying levels are required to elucidate its effectiveness as a flavor enhancer more clearly.

  20. Restrictions on TWT Helix Voltage Ripple for Acceptable Notch Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hyslop, B.

    1984-12-01

    An ac ripple on the helix voltage of the 1-2 GHz TWT's creates FM sidebands that cause amplitude and phase modulation of the microwave TWT output signal. A limit of 16 volts peak-to-peak is required for acceptable superconducting notch filter performance.

  1. Accountability Policies and Teachers' Acceptance and Usage of School Performance Feedback--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This paper implemented a comparative approach to investigate the relationships between test-based school accountability policies in 2 German states and teachers' acceptance and usage of feedback information. Thuringia implemented mandatory tests for secondary schools based on competency modeling and performance data controlled for socioeconomic…

  2. Anthropometric, muscle strength, and spinal mobility characteristics as predictors in the rating of acceptable loads in parcel sorting.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, H R; Louhevaara, V

    1992-09-01

    The rating of acceptable load (RAL) attained with a standard test (RALSt) and a wrk-simulating test (RALW) for postal parcel sorting was related to anthropometric, muscle strength, and spinal mobility characteristics of 18 male sorters. The subjects comprised a subsample of 103 experienced male sorters who carried out the RAL tests at postal sorting centres. The dynamic hand-grip endurance correlated significantly (p = 0.036) to the RALSt results. Correspondingly, there was a significant correlation (p = 0.044) between the ratio of maximal isometric strength of trunk extension to body weight and the RALW. The dynamic hand-grip endurance predicted 26% of the variation in the RALSt; in the RALW the maximal isometric strength of trunk flexion to body weight ratio predicted 24%. The subjects who rated heavier weights for RALSt tended to have a better trunk mobility. The dynamic endurance of hand-grip muscles, trunk strength, and spinal flexibility seemed to be the most powerful predictors for the psychophysically assessed 'acceptable loads' in experienced workers performing manual materials handling tasks.

  3. Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Teper, Rimma; Inzlicht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the positive effects of mindfulness meditation on executive control. What has been lacking, however, is an understanding of the mechanism underlying this effect. Some theorists have described mindfulness as embodying two facets-present moment awareness and emotional acceptance. Here, we examine how the effect of meditation practice on executive control manifests in the brain, suggesting that emotional acceptance and performance monitoring play important roles. We investigated the effect of meditation practice on executive control and measured the neural correlates of performance monitoring, specifically, the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological response that occurs within 100 ms of error commission. Meditators and controls completed a Stroop task, during which we recorded ERN amplitudes with electroencephalography. Meditators showed greater executive control (i.e. fewer errors), a higher ERN and more emotional acceptance than controls. Finally, mediation pathway models further revealed that meditation practice relates to greater executive control and that this effect can be accounted for by heightened emotional acceptance, and to a lesser extent, increased brain-based performance monitoring.

  4. Thermic diode performance characteristics and design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, D. E.; Buckley, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thermic diode solar panels are a passive method of space and hot water heating using the thermosyphon principle. Simplified methods of sizing and performing economic analyses of solar heating systems had until now been limited to passive systems. A mathematical model of the thermic diode including its high level of stratification has been constructed allowing its performance characteristics to be studied. Further analysis resulted in a thermic diode design manual based on the f-chart method.

  5. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  6. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    PubMed

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  7. Understanding Learner Acceptance of Learning Objects: The Roles of Learning Object Characteristics and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Many organisations and institutions have integrated learning objects into their e-learning systems to make the instructional resources more efficient. Like any other information systems, this trend has made user acceptance of learning objects an increasingly critical issue as a high level of learner satisfaction and acceptance reflects that the…

  8. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  9. Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute at Altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 Thousand Feet Obtained by In-Flight Photography. The performance characteristics of a pre-formed elliptical parachute at altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 feet were obtained by means of in-flight photography. The tests demonstrate that this type of parachute will open at altitudes of about 200,000 feet if conditions such as twisting of the suspension lines or draping of the suspension lines over the canopy do not occur. Drag-coefficient values between 0.6 and 0.8 were found to be reasonable for this type of parachute system in the altitude range between 200,000 and 100,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030980. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability of Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.

  11. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  12. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuzbǎian, Sorin G.; Hague, Coryn F.; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sacchi, Maurizio; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Mariot, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 - 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm2 focal spot source with full polarization control.

  13. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S

    2009-11-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

  14. Acceptance Plan and Performance Measurement Methodology for the ITER Cryoline System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgujar, S.; Bonneton, M.; Shah, N.; Chalifour, M.; Chang, H.-S.; Fauve, E.; Forgeas, A.; Navion-Maillot, N.; Sarkar, B.

    The cryoline (CL) systemof ITER consists of a complex network of vacuum insulated multi and single process pipe lines distributed over three different areas with a total length of about 5 km. The thermal performance of the CL system will be measured during the final acceptance tests using the ITER cryoplant and cryo-distribution (CD) infrastructure. The method proposed is based on temperature measurementsof a small calibrated cryogenic helium flow through lines. Thecryoplant will be set to establish constant pressure and temperature whereas dedicated heater and valves in the CD will be used to generate stable mass flow rate.

  15. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    PubMed

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  16. Performance characteristics of pulse tube refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. J.; Tzeng, T. M.

    In the present study experiments were carried out to investigate the performance characteristics of pulse tube refrigerators. It was found that the cool-down time tc during the transient or start-up period is dominated by the time constant of the pulse tube wall τpt and that the dynamics of a basic pulse tube (BPT) refrigerator approaches that of a first-order system. For steady state operation, the cold-end temperature TL was found to vary with τpt, and the cooling load QL increases monotonically with increasing τpt. This indicates that heat pumped by the gas from the cold to the hot end increases with decreasing hpt (i.e. less energy exchange between the gas and wall). The process of heat storage or release of the pulse tube wall is thus shown to have a negative effect on the performance of a BPT refrigerator. It was thus found experimentally that the gas compression/expansion process inside the pulse tube, which is similar to a Brayton cycle but lies between isothermal and adiabatic, can explain the performance of BPT refrigerators. The present experiment also shows that the performance of a pulse tube refrigerator at transient and steady states is mainly dominated by the time constant of the pulse tube wall τpt.

  17. Characteristics of patients with diabetes who accept referrals for care management services

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Bree; Annis, Ann M; Morrish, Wendy; Davis Burns, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75%) accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities. PMID:26835018

  18. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoyer, Eric; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

  19. Performance characteristics of pitching flexible foil propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, Cody; Egan, Brendan; Murray, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Performance characteristics of flexible foil propulsors are studied experimentally. The project investigates the dependence of thrust and efficiency on foil elasticity, Strouhal number, and flow velocity. The experiments took place in a large recirculating water channel, using full span flexible propulsor models to approximate a 2D geometry. The propulsor pitched about a fixed axis at its quarter chord, with a six-axis load cell measuring the forces and torques on the shaft. Propulsive efficiency is found to peak at an optimum Strouhal number for each foil tested. Varying elasticity did not produce a similar local maximum over the sampled parameter space. The ensemble data will facilitate the engineering of fish-like propulsion systems for future application of this technology.

  20. Cassini RTG Acceptance Test Results and RTG Performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kelly, C. E.; Klee, P. M.

    1997-06-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F 2, F 6, and F 7. F 5 is tile back up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  1. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-12-31

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, mass properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents the thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is the backup RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at the Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on these tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also shown. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over 5% are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  2. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-06-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is tile back-up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  3. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  4. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  5. Utility-Scale Parabolic Trough Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines, April 2009 - December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.

    2011-05-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The Guidelines contained here are specifically written for parabolic trough collector systems with a heat-transport system using a high-temperature synthetic oil, but the basic principles are relevant to other CSP systems.

  6. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  7. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  8. Characteristics of High-Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera N.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study inquired about characteristics of districts which influence changes in student achievement and how those characteristics are developed. Staff in 49 Ontario districts were surveyed to estimate the status of nine district characteristics on changes in provincial tests of math and language achievement over five years. A…

  9. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake.

  10. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  11. Popularity, Social Acceptance, and Aggression in Adolescent Peer Groups: Links with Academic Performance and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination …

  12. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    PubMed

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    food acceptance and preference behaviours in cats. For instance, while the sense of taste in cats appears generally similar to that of other mammals, they lack a sweet taste receptor (Li et al., 2006), which may limit the applicability of sweetness ratings obtained from humans. Modification of existing techniques used with human food research, such as external preference mapping (Naes and Risvik, 1996) may be useful. Ultimately, this may facilitate more economical and efficient methods for optimizing cat food flavour and texture and predicting the effects of composition and processing changes on cat feeding behaviour. This will require collaboration between pet food manufacturers and nutritionists, animal behaviourists and human sensory scientists. The results of this preliminary study should assist in this process.

  13. Key Characteristics of Middle School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Nyman, Terri R.

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined student performance in middle schools with a grade configuration of six through eight. Schools were categorized into two groups: high-performing middle schools--middle schools making adequate yearly progress for two consecutive school years, and low-performing middle schools--middle schools not making adequate yearly…

  14. Athletic Performance and Social Behavior as Predictors of Peer Acceptance in Children Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Seymour, Karen E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Pelham, William E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-three children between ages 6 and 12 who were enrolled in a summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a study designed to measure the relationship between social behaviors, athletic performance, and peer acceptance. Children were assessed on sport-specific skills of three major…

  15. The Factor Structure of Test Task Characteristics and Examinee Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Nathan T.

    2006-01-01

    The present study focuses on the task characteristics of reading passages and key sentences in a test of second language reading. Using a new methodological approach to describe variation in test task characteristics and explore how differences in these characteristics might relate to examinee performance, it posed the two following research…

  16. An extraction/enzymatic procedure for serum cholesterol measurement: evaluation of performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Franzini, C; Luraschi, P

    1990-12-01

    The performance characteristics of an extraction/enzymatic procedure for serum cholesterol measurement were evaluated. The procedure is substantially derived from the accepted reference method as standardized by the Centers for Disease Control, substituting the enzymatic reaction for the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Imprecision (CV) was consistently less than 1.5%, and accuracy was comparable to that of the definitive isotope dilution mass spectrometry method and the accepted reference method. Direct comparison of the enzymatic with the Liebermann-Burchard reaction, using a set of 50 human sera, revealed about -0.05 mmol/l constant bias of the former versus the latter, this being possibly due to higher specificity of the enzymatic reaction. As compared with the accepted reference method, the method described is characterized by higher practicability, the reagent being easier to prepare and to handle, and generating a more stable, chemically defined end-product.

  17. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  18. Preclinical Curriculum Characteristics and Institutional Performance on NBME Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between characteristics of the preclinical curriculum and institutional performance on the Part I examination of the National Board of Medical Examiners at U.S. medical schools was analyzed. Total scheduled hours per week was the single curriculum characteristic having a positive and significant relationship with performance.…

  19. A real time approach for revising generation unit performance characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Viviani, G.L.; Lin, C.E.; Webb, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    This paper presents a unique method for representing the performance characteristics of generation units of electric utilities. The approach utilizes digitally sampled information in an on-line enviroment. The resulting accuracy is superior to conventional approaches, as the true time varying nature of performance characteristics is taken into account.

  20. Performance characteristics of a laser initiated microdetonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of 320 units of a laser initiated microdetonator are summarized. The commercially fabricated units used a lead styphnate/lead azide/HMX (1 mg/13.5 mg) explosive train design contained in a miniature aluminum can that was capped with a glass-metal seal window. The test parameters were the laser energy, temperature, laser pulse duration, laser wavelength and nuclear radiation (5,000,000 rad of 1 MeV gamma rays). The performance parameters were the laser energy for ignition and the actuation response time.

  1. Novel Estimation of Pilot Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    Two mechanisms internal to the pilot that affect performance during a tracking task are: 1) Pilot equalization (i.e. lead/lag); and 2) Pilot gain (i.e. sensitivity to the error signal). For some applications McRuer's Crossover Model can be used to anticipate what equalization will be employed to control a vehicle's dynamics. McRuer also established approximate time delays associated with different types of equalization - the more cognitive processing that is required due to equalization difficulty, the larger the time delay. However, the Crossover Model does not predict what the pilot gain will be. A nonlinear pilot control technique, observed and coined by the authors as 'amplitude clipping', is shown to improve stability, performance, and reduce workload when employed with vehicle dynamics that require high lead compensation by the pilot. Combining linear and nonlinear methods a novel approach is used to measure the pilot control parameters when amplitude clipping is present, allowing precise measurement in real time of key pilot control parameters. Based on the results of an experiment which was designed to probe workload primary drivers, a method is developed that estimates pilot spare capacity from readily observable measures and is tested for generality using multi-axis flight data. This paper documents the initial steps to developing a novel, simple objective metric for assessing pilot workload and its variation over time across a wide variety of tasks. Additionally, it offers a tangible, easily implementable methodology for anticipating a pilot's operating parameters and workload, and an effective design tool. The model shows promise in being able to precisely predict the actual pilot settings and workload, and observed tolerance of pilot parameter variation over the course of operation. Finally, an approach is proposed for generating Cooper-Harper ratings based on the workload and parameter estimation methodology.

  2. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  3. Sensor Technology Performance Characteristics- Field and Laboratory Observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed Intangible Performance Characteristics RH and temperature impacts may be significant for some devices Internal battery lifetimes range from 4 to 24 hoursSensor packaging can interfere with accurate measurements (reactivity)Wireless communication protocols are not foolpr...

  4. Effectiveness and acceptance of web-based learning compared to traditional face-to-face learning for performance nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Grediagin, Ann; Koenig, Chad; Sanders, LesLee F

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptance of Web-based (WB) versus face-to-face (FF) lecturing. There were 48 soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, NC who completed the study, participating in either a Web-based or face-to-face lecture on nutrition for performance. The lecture was 30 minutes long. Participants completed a prequiz and survey before the lecture and a postquiz and survey at its conclusion. Results showed there was no difference in the effectiveness of the two mediums on the basis of postquiz scores (Web-based group = 75.68; face-to-face group = 73.27; p = 0.436). Change in scores from pre to post also showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.375). Assessing the acceptance of the two teaching mediums, there was no significant difference reported, except for the instructor's ability to answer questions (p = 0.05). The conclusion of this study is that Web-based learning can be an effective and acceptable tool for registered dietitians to educate soldiers on nutrition for performance.

  5. Relationships of physician characteristics to performance quality and improvement.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, B C; Lyons, T F; Neuhaus, E

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ambulatory medical care provided by 1,135 physicians in five separate practice settings in the Midwest was measured using predetermined process criteria. Specialists performed better in their own areas of specialized training than did family/general practitioners or specialists performing outside their specialty areas. Physicians with fewer years of practice performed somewhat better than physicians with more years since medical school graduation. Board certification was not consistently related to performance. Performances of the physicians improved following quality assurance interventions in these sites. Differences in the rates of change in performance quality were not consistently related to any of the physician characteristics studied. PMID:6746295

  6. Covariance of engineering management characteristics with engineering employee performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesketh, Andrew Arthur

    1998-12-01

    As business in the 1990's grapples with the impact of continuous improvement and quality to meet market demands, there is an increased need to improve the leadership capabilities of our managers. Engineers have indicated desire for certain managerial characteristics in their leadership but there have been no studies completed that approached the problem of determining what managerial characteristics were best at improving employee performance. This study addressed the idea of identifying certain managerial characteristics that enhance employee performance. In the early 1990's, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace in St. Louis used a forced distribution system and allocated 35% of its employees into a "exceeds expectations" category and 60% into a "meets expectations" category. A twenty-question 5 point Likert scale survey on managerial capabilities was administered to a sample engineering population that also obtained their "expectations" category. A single factor ANOVA on the survey results determined a statistical difference between the "exceeds" and "meets" employees with four of the managerial capability questions. The "exceeds expectations" employee indicated that supervision did a better job of supporting subordinate development, clearly communicating performance expectations, and providing timely performance feedback when compared to the "meets expectations" employee. The "meets expectations" employee felt that their opinions, when different from their supervisor's, were more often ignored when compared to the "exceeds expectations" employee. These four questions relate to two specific managerial characteristics, "gaining (informal) authority and support" or "control" characteristic and "providing assistance and guidance" or "command" characteristic, that can be emphasized in managerial training programs.

  7. The Impact of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty on Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Joey S.; Bienert, Nancy; Gomez, Ashley; Hunt, Sarah; Kraut, Joshua; Martin, Lynne; Morey, Susan; Green, Steven M.; Prevot, Thomas; Wu, Minghong G.

    2013-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop air traffic control simulation investigated the impact of uncertainties in trajectory predictions on NextGen Trajectory-Based Operations concepts, seeking to understand when the automation would become unacceptable to controllers or when performance targets could no longer be met. Retired air traffic controllers staffed two en route transition sectors, delivering arrival traffic to the northwest corner-post of Atlanta approach control under time-based metering operations. Using trajectory-based decision-support tools, the participants worked the traffic under varying levels of wind forecast error and aircraft performance model error, impacting the ground automations ability to make accurate predictions. Results suggest that the controllers were able to maintain high levels of performance, despite even the highest levels of trajectory prediction errors.

  8. The Development of Accepted Performance Items to Demonstrate Competence in Literary Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sandra; D'Andrea, Frances Mary; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This research attempted to establish the content validity of several performance statements that are associated with basic knowledge, production, and reading of braille by beginning teachers. Methods: University instructors (n = 21) and new teachers of students with visual impairments (n = 20) who had taught at least 2 braille…

  9. Post-Graduate Performance, an Academic Comparison Evaluating Situating Learning and Law School Acceptance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traverse, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Research on post-graduate performance, pertaining to law school graduates, indicates that success in the legal profession is attributable to more than the theoretical content or cognitive knowledge obtained through educational curricula. Research suggests that the combination of creative and analytic thinking skills contributes to a higher rate of…

  10. Characteristics and performance of the ESTEC large space simulator cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amlinger, H.; Bosma, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The final concept and performance characteristics of the Large Space Simulator (LSS) at ESTEC, The Netherlands are discussed. The LSS cryogenics system has proven its operational capabilities under simulated heat load conditions and provides sufficient margin for future elevated requirements. The acceptance test proved that nominal operating pressures can be lower than the design parameters, providing increased system safety and reliability. The ease of access for repair and the incorporated redundancy will limit system downtime. Finally, the system design resulted in a low consumption of LN sub 2, which is an important factor in keeping the operational costs at a low level.

  11. Finding an environmentally acceptable replacement for Halon 2402 that meets Minuteman LITVC performance criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, Vaughn; Marlow, Mike; Nimitz, Jon

    1992-07-01

    Halon 2402 (Freon 114B2) is injected into the hot gas exhaust stream of the Minuteman second-stage solid propellant rocket motor nozzle to provide thrust vector control. In response to environmental concerns, specifically ozone depletion, the U.S. Air Force has established a program to find and qualify a replacement for Halon 2402. Because of anticipated schedule constraints, two parallel paths consisting of a 'drop-in' replacement, and a complete thrust vector control system redesign will be pursued during the first phase of the program. Tasks within the first phase support a series of candidate down selections. These tasks include review of various data bases for possible candidates and then evaluating the candidates in terms of environmental effects, cost, storability, compatibility, packaging, and performance. The culmination of the first phase will be two static motor firings in which two drop-in injectant candidates and two redesign system candidates will be tested to determine actual performance. The results of the firings will dictate which path (drop-in or redesign) and which injectant to pursue for formal qualification. Presently, Phase I is approximately 50 percent complete with the many candidates being reduced to three for each path.

  12. Certain Organizational Characteristics Affect ACO Preventive Care Quality Performance.

    PubMed

    Ticse, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Key findings. (1) ACOs at provider workforce extremes--few primary care providers or many specialists--performed worse on measures of preventive care quality relative to those with more PCPs and fewer specialists. (2) Upfront investment in ACO formation is associated with higher performance in preventive care quality. (3) ACOs with a higher proportion of minority beneficiaries performed worse on disease prevention measures than did ACOs with a lower proportion of minority beneficiaries. (4) ACOs facing barriers to quality performance may benefit from organizational characteristics such as electronic health record capabilities and hospital inclusion in the ACO.

  13. Transactive memory system links work team characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Hempel, Paul S; Han, Yu-Lan; Tjosvold, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams from a variety of organizational settings in China and examined the relationships between team characteristics, TMS, and team performance. The results suggest that task interdependence, cooperative goal interdependence, and support for innovation are positively related to work teams' TMS and that TMS is related to team performance; moreover, structural equation analysis indicates that TMS mediates the team characteristics-performance links. Findings have implications both for team leaders to manage their work teams effectively and for team members to improve their team performance.

  14. Effect of salmon type and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Ramamoorthi, L; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-08-01

    Salmon-based infant food (puree) and toddler food (puree plus chunks) were manufactured from pink salmon, with and without bone, and from Sockeye salmon, with and without bone, to contain 45% salmon, 55% water, and 5% starch. Products were retort processed at 118 to 121 degrees C for 55 min in a steam-jacketed still retort. A trained descriptive panel (n = 7) evaluated infant and toddler foods separately. Instrumental color, pH, and water activity were also determined. Infant and toddler foods were also evaluated by a consumer panel (n = 104) of parents for product acceptability. During the manufacturing process (cooking, homogenization, retort processing), salmon infant food from pink salmon lost much of its characteristic pink color while that from sockeye salmon retained a greater amount. Bitterness was more evident in samples with bones. In the toddler food formulation containing chunks, the odor and flavor characteristics were influenced primarily by the type of salmon. The presence of bone affected visual pink color and lightness, and salmon odor only. Consumers scored products made with sockeye salmon as more acceptable despite the fact that they had more off-flavor than products from pink salmon. The appearance and thickness of the pureed infant food was more acceptable than the toddler food with chunks despite the chunky toddler product having more acceptable salmon flavor. This indicates that the color and appearance of the prototypes were the main drivers for liking. Of the total number of parents surveyed, 73% would feed this salmon product to their children.

  15. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  16. Performance characteristics of proximity focused ultraviolet image converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. T.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Bendix type BX 8025-4522 proximity focused image tubes for ultraviolet to visible light conversion are presented. Quantum efficiency, resolution, background, geometric distortion, and environmental test results are discussed. The converters use magnesium fluoride input windows with Cs - Te photocathodes, and P-11 phosphors on fiber optic output windows.

  17. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  18. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  19. Flight Crew Workload, Acceptability, and Performance When Using Data Comm in a High-Density Terminal Area Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. Michael; Baxley, Brian T.; Adams, Cathy A.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a collaborative FAA/NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Data Comm to issue messages during busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage: Voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, and Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route. Each condition was used in an arrival and a departure scenario at Boston Logan Airport. Of particular interest was the flight crew response to D-TAXI, the use of Data Comm by Air Traffic Control (ATC) to send taxi instructions. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time, flight technical error, operational errors, and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload, situation awareness, and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. Results showed that 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute and 97% of the messages within two minutes. However, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Flight crews reported that Expected D-TAXI messages were useful, and employment of these messages acceptable at all altitude bands evaluated during arrival scenarios. Results also indicate that the use of Data Comm for all evaluated message types in the terminal area was acceptable during surface operations, and during arrivals at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix, in terms of response time, workload, situation awareness, and flight technical performance. The flight crew reported the use of Data Comm as implemented in this experiment as unacceptable in two instances: in clearances to cross an active runway, and D-TAXI messages between the Final Approach Fix and 80 knots during landing roll. Critical cockpit tasks and the urgency of out-the window scan made the

  20. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  1. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.; Brück, E.

    2004-02-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performance characteristics of the ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle are investigated and the effects of some key irreversibilities on the performance of the cycle are revealed. By using the optimal-control theory, the optimal relation between the coefficient of performance and the cooling rate is derived and some important performance bounds, e.g., the maximum cooling rate, the maximum coefficient of performance, are determined. Moreover, the optimal operating regions for cooling rate, coefficient of performance and the optimal operating temperatures of a cyclic working substance in the two heat-transfer processes are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of magnetization and magnetic field on the performance characteristics of the cycle are discussed. The results obtained here have general significance and can be deduced to the related ones of the Stirling refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic salt as a cyclic working substance.

  2. Computational studies on small wind turbine performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Suthakar, T.

    2016-10-01

    To optimize the selection of suitable airfoils for small wind turbine applications, computational investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of low Re airfoils MID321a, MID321d, SG6040, SG6041, SG6042 and SG6043 are carried out for the Reynolds number range of (0.5- 2)×105. The BEM method is used to determine the power coefficient of the rotor from the airfoil characteristics; in addition, the blade parameters like chord and twist are also determined. The newly designed MID321a airfoil shows better aerodynamic performance and maximum power coefficient as compared with other investigated airfoils for wider operating ranges.

  3. Auditory virtual environment with dynamic room characteristics for music performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel Dhaham

    A room-adaptive system was designed to simulate an electro-acoustic space that changes room characteristics in real-time according to the content of sound. In this specific case, the focus of the sound components is on the different styles and genres of music. This system is composed of real-time music recognition algorithms that analyze the different elements of music, determine the desired room characteristics, and output the acoustical parameters via multi-channel room simulation mechanisms. The system modifies the acoustic properties of a space and enables it to "improvise" its acoustical parameters based on the sounds of the music performances.

  4. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  5. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  6. Performance Characteristics of Absorption Hybrid Cycle Introduced Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Kotani, Yuji; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle which introduced the compressor in the absorption cycle were proposed. As basic cycle of absorption refrigerating machine, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and two kinds of double effect absorption refrigerating machine. As a working medium-absorbent system, NH3-H2O system, C2H5NH2-H2O system and C2H5NH2-H2O-LiBr system were adopted. Using these three kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  7. Performance characteristics of 1977 Ford 300 Cid engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 Ford 300 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  8. Performance characteristics of 1977 Chrysler 318 Cid engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 Chrysler 318 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  9. Performance and acceptability of a combined device for insulin infusion and glucose sensing in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Shin, John; Welsh, John B; Gjessing, Hans

    2015-03-01

    The use of sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) therapy is increasing. Currently, glucose sensors and insulin infusion cannulas are inserted separately. A new device, MiniMed Duo, combines sensing and infusion capabilities on the same platform and is intended to simplify device insertion and site management. We evaluated the device's performance with respect to insulin delivery and glucose sensing, and its acceptability with patients. Forty-five patients (mean ± SD age, 45.5 ± 10.9 years, 48% female) with type 1 diabetes and previous use of SAP participated. Each subject was to wear 5 devices connected to insulin pumps over 15 days (3 days/device) and test capillary blood glucose (SMBG) 7 times/day. The primary endpoint was the percentage of sensor-SMBG paired values within 20% of one another. Subject experiences were assessed via questionnaires. Overall, 74.8% of sensor-SMBG paired values were within 20%, meeting the primary accuracy endpoint, and the mean absolute relative difference was 15.5 ± 17.1%. Consensus error grid analysis showed that >95% of points were within the A+B zones, exceeding the threshold for adequate clinical accuracy. Insulin dosage and SMBG values did not change significantly compared to prestudy values. The functional survival of the device entering day 3 was 90.5%. There were no serious adverse events. Mean questionnaire results indicated overall satisfaction with the device. Duo provided insulin infusion and glucose sensing capabilities in a single device, which provided accurate glucose readings during routine use, was safe to wear, and was acceptable to most patients. It may improve satisfaction and convenience for patients using sensor-augmented insulin pumps.

  10. The effect of child characteristics on teachers' acceptability of classroom-based behavioral strategies and psychostimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Huzinec, C; Curtis, D

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effect of student characteristics on teachers' ratings of treatment acceptability for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 159) included experienced elementary school teachers who read 1 of 6 vignettes describing a child with symptoms representative of ADHD. Vignettes varied by sex and symptom-subtype classification. However, the number and specific type of symptoms described in the vignettes were consistent across all conditions. Next, teachers read a description of a daily report card (DRC), response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication and rated their levels of agreement to the items of the Behavioral Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS). Teachers preferred the DRC to all other forms of treatment. However, there was a significant interaction between the type of treatment and sex of the student on the 3 factors (Treatment Acceptability, Treatment Effectiveness, and Timeliness) of the BIRS.

  11. Summary and analysis of performance and stability characteristics of the refan JT8D-109 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanberg, K. G.; Mogielnicki, R. M.; Davis, J. C.; Scaramella, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The refan JT8D-109 performance and stability characteristics are reported as determined from sea level testing, altitude testing, and DC-9 flight testing. The test results are summarized as follows: (1) TSFC at SLS achieved design goal of 12.66 percent reduction. (2) TSFC at altitude average cruise power 0.5 percent higher than design goal, (3) TSFC at altitude maximum cruise power 1.7-3.7 percent higher than design goal, (4) ground starting consistent with JT8D-9 base engine, (5) successful flight starts without starter assist, (6) transient surge margin equivalent to JT8D-9, (7) stable engine operation with inlet distortion, and (8) stable engine operation during snap acceleration and deceleration. A flight idle setting is required for acceptable aborted-landing go-around acceleration time due to increase in low-rotor moment of inertia, and a performance improvement program should be conducted as part of any future certification program.

  12. Internal performance characteristics of short convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles designed by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, H George; Beale, William T

    1956-01-01

    Internal performance data on a short exhaust nozzle designed by the method of characteristics were obtained over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 22. The peak thrust coefficient was not affected by a shortened divergent section, but it occurred at lower pressure ratios due to reduction in expansion ratio. This nozzle contour based on characteristics solution gave higher thrust coefficients than a conical convergent-divergent nozzle of equivalent length. Abrupt-inlet sections permitted a reduction in nozzle length without a thrust-coefficient reduction.

  13. Performance and Characteristics of Heat Pump Clothes Drier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambarita, H.; Nasution, D. M.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a study of clothes drying using a heat pump drier has been carried out. The objective is to examine the performance and drying characteristics of the heat pump clothes dryer. The result of performances and drying characteristics were compared with waste heat drying system of split-type residential air conditioner (RAC). A drying chamber with volume 1 m3 integrated with heat pump component had been designed and fabricated. The heat pump operated by vapor compression cycle with power input of 800W and refrigerant R22 as a working fluid. The clothes dried made of pure cotton with initial weight varied from 3.00 kg, 5.25 kg, and 6.38 kg, respectively. The results shown that the drying time and drying rate of heat pump drier are faster than waste heat drying system. The average total performance of heat pump clothes drier is 6.56. On the other hand, SMER which is obtained 1.492 kg/kWh. These values are lower than the SMER of waste heat drying system which shown the average value of 2.492 kg/kWh. In the case of drying clothes, waste heat drying of RAC shows a better performance in comparison with heat pump drying system.

  14. An evaluation of the performance and acceptability of three LED fluorescent microscopes in Zambia: lessons learnt for scale-up.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Eleanor R; Kaunda, Kaunda; Harris, Jennifer B; Kapata, Nathan; Muvwimi, Mweemba W; Kruuner, Annika; Henostroza, German; Reid, Stewart E

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the roll-out of light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescent microscopes (FM) as an alternative to light microscopes in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the acceptability and performance of three LED FMs after a short orientation among laboratory technicians from government health centers in Zambia. Sixteen technicians with varied light microscopy experience were oriented to FMs and divided into groups; each group read a different set of 40 slides on each LED FM (Primo Star iLED™, Lumin™, FluoLED™) and on a reference mercury-vapor FM (Olympus BX41TF). Slide reading times were recorded. An experienced FM technician examined each slide on the Olympus BX41TF. Sensitivity and specificity compared to TB culture were calculated. Misclassification compared to the experienced technician and inter-rater reliability between trainees was assessed. Trainees rated microscopes on technical aspects. Primo Star iLED™, FluoLED™ and Olympus BX41TF had comparable sensitivities (67%, 65% and 65% respectively), with the Lumin™ significantly worse (56%; p<0.05). Specificity was low for trainees on all microscopes (75.9%) compared to the experienced technician on Olympus BX41TF (100%). Primo Star iLED™ had significantly less misclassification (21.1% p<0.05) than FluoLED™ (26.5%) and Lumin™ (26.8%) and significantly higher inter-rater reliability (0.611; p<0.05), compared to FluoLED™ (0.523) and Lumin™ (0.492). Slide reading times for LED FMs were slower than the reference, but not significantly different from each other. Primo Star iLED™ rated highest in acceptability measures, followed by FluoLED™ then Lumin™. Primo Star iLED™ was consistently better than FluoLED™ and Lumin™, and performed comparably to the Olympus BX41TF in all analyses, except reading times. The Lumin™ compared least favorably and was thought unacceptable for use. Specificity and inter-rater reliability were low for all microscopes

  15. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hao, He; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  16. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  17. Performance characteristics of CdTe drift ring detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alruhaili, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Lohstroh, A.; Veeramani, P.; Kazemi, S.; Veale, M. C.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Kachkanov, V.

    2014-03-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe material is an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high energy X-ray spectroscopic detectors due to their good quantum efficiency and room temperature operation. The main material limitation is associated with the poor charge transport properties of holes. The motivation of this work is to investigate the performance characteristics of a detector fabricated with a drift ring geometry that is insensitive to the transport of holes. The performance of a prototype Ohmic CdTe drift ring detector fabricated by Acrorad with 3 drift rings is reported; measurements include room temperature current voltage characteristics (IV) and spectroscopic performance. The data shows that the energy resolution of the detector is limited by leakage current which is a combination of bulk and surface leakage currents. The energy resolution was studied as a function of incident X-ray position with an X-ray microbeam at the Diamond Light Source. Different ring biasing schemes were investigated and the results show that by increasing the lateral field (i.e. the bias gradient across the rings) the active area, evaluated by the detected count rate, increased significantly.

  18. Performance Characteristic Mems-Based IMUs for UAVs Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, H. A.; Hansen, J. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D reconstruction has become essential for non-traditional mapping applications such as urban planning, mining industry, environmental monitoring, navigation, surveillance, pipeline inspection, infrastructure monitoring, landslide hazard analysis, indoor localization, and military simulation. The needs of these applications cannot be satisfied by traditional mapping, which is based on dedicated data acquisition systems designed for mapping purposes. Recent advances in hardware and software development have made it possible to conduct accurate 3D mapping without using costly and high-end data acquisition systems. Low-cost digital cameras, laser scanners, and navigation systems can provide accurate mapping if they are properly integrated at the hardware and software levels. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a mobile mapping platform that can provide additional economical and practical advantages. However, such economical and practical requirements need navigation systems that can provide uninterrupted navigation solution. Hence, testing the performance characteristics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or low cost navigation sensors for various UAV applications is important research. This work focuses on studying the performance characteristics under different manoeuvres using inertial measurements integrated with single point positioning, Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK), and additional navigational aiding sensors. Furthermore, the performance of the inertial sensors is tested during Global Positioning System (GPS) signal outage.

  19. Performance characteristics of gas analysis systems: what we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Davison, R C R; Nevill, A M

    2005-02-01

    It is important that sources of variation in gas analysis measurements are identified and described in an accurate and informative manner. In this paper, we discussed the potential sources of error, which should be considered in any measurement study on gas analysis systems. We then covered how errors in various terms associated with gas laws propagate to outcome measurements of gas exchange to help quantify the relative importance of sources of error. Finally, we performed a literature survey to explore the statistical methods researchers have employed to arrive at conclusions on the performance characteristics of gas analysis methods. We found examples of excellent practice in the literature, but there were also gaps in the knowledge of error in gas analysis systems. Consequently, we supplied guidelines for future method comparison studies. These guidelines included (i) a sample size of at least 40 participants and the citation of confidence intervals, (ii) a description of the relationships between systematic and random errors and the size of measured value, (iii) the parallel examination of test-retest error within a method comparison study, and (iv) an a priori-made judgement on how much systematic and random error between methods is acceptable for practical applications. We stressed that this judgement should be based on expert-agreed position statements about acceptable error, which unfortunately have yet to be formulated for gas analysis systems.

  20. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G J; Atefi, B; Yang, J W; Galperin, A; Segev, M

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low.

  1. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610

  2. Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1995-01-01

    A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

  3. Characteristics and Applications of a High Performance, Miniaturized, Infrasound Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, J. L.; Marriott, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Infrasound Sensors have been used for many years to monitor a large number of geophysical phenomena and manmade sources. Due to their large size and power consumption these sensors have typically been deployed in fixed arrays, portable arrays have required trucks to transport the sensors and support equipment. A high performance, miniaturized, infrasound microphone has been developed to enable mobile infrasound measurements that would otherwise be impractical. The new device is slightly larger than a hockey puck, weighs 200g, and consumes less than 150mW. The sensitivity is 0.4V/Pa and self noise at 1Hz is less than 0.63μPa²/Hz. The characteristics were verified using a calibrator tracable to the Los Alamos calibration chamber. Field tests have demonstrated the performance is comparable to a Chaparral model 25. Applications include man portable arrays, mobile installations, and UAV based measurements.

  4. The performance characteristics of a piezoelectric ultrasonic dental scaler.

    PubMed

    Pecheva, E; Sammons, R L; Walmsley, A D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the performance characteristics of a piezoelectric ultrasonic dental scaler using scanning laser vibrometry. The vibration characteristics of three standard piezoelectric tips were assessed with scanning laser vibrometry under various conditions: unconstrained, under a stream of flowing water, in a water tank, as well as subjected to loads to simulate clinical conditions. Subsequently, the tips were used to disrupt an in-vitro biofilm model of dental plaque, developed using a non-pathogenic Gram-negative species of Serratia (NCIMB40259). The laser vibrometry data showed that the oscillation pattern of the ultrasonic tip depends primarily on its shape and design, as well as on the generator power. Thin tips and high power settings induce the highest vibrations. Water irrigation of the tip and loads influence the tip performance by diminishing its vibration, while water volume increases it. Serratia biofilm was disrupted by the cavitation bubbles occurring around the scaler tip. The most effective biofilm removal occurred with the thinner tip. Understanding how the ultrasonic tip oscillates when in use and how it removes dental plaque is essential for gaining more knowledge regarding the cleaning mechanisms of the ultrasonic system. Cavitation may be used to remove plaque and calculus without a mechanical contact between the dental tip and the teeth. Better knowledge would enable dental specialists to understand and improve their techniques during routine cleaning of teeth. It will also lead to improving tip design and to the production of more effective instruments for clinical use.

  5. Numerical investigation of the variable nozzle effect on the mixed flow turbine performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziri, B.; Hamel, M.; Hireche, O.; Hamidou, K.

    2016-09-01

    There are various matching ways between turbocharger and engine, the variable nozzle turbine is the most significant method. The turbine design must be economic with high efficiency and large capacity over a wide range of operational conditions. These design intents are used in order to decrease thermal load and improve thermal efficiency of the engine. This paper presents an original design method of a variable nozzle vane for mixed flow turbines developed from previous experimental and numerical studies. The new device is evaluated with a numerical simulation over a wide range of rotational speeds, pressure ratios, and different vane angles. The compressible turbulent steady flow is solved using the ANSYS CFX software. The numerical results agree well with experimental data in the nozzleless configuration. In the variable nozzle case, the results show that the turbine performance characteristics are well accepted in different open positions and improved significantly in low speed regime and at low pressure ratio.

  6. Material characteristics for an analytic hypervelocity impact performance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joshua; Ryan, Shannon

    2015-06-01

    A performance model has recently been developed to describe the evolution of a hypervelocity impact of a threat with a dual-wall, Whipple shield. The Whipple shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate threat fragmentation and melt before the debris expands over a void and is subsequently arrested by the second wall in front of a critical component. As such, understanding the initial interaction of the threat particle and the sacrificial wall is crucial to modeling the overall shield performance. Among the key material parameters that must be defined for the threat particle and sacrificial wall are the equilibrium shock wave states and tensile response to vacuum exposure. This paper documents the work performed to obtain the necessary material characteristics and a description of the fragmentation of the threat needed for the performance model. The results from the use of these quantities within the model are compared here with hydrodynamic simulations and available experimental records that have sought to characterize these parameters.

  7. A descriptive-comparative study of performance characteristics in futsal players of different levels.

    PubMed

    Naser, Naser; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of futsal, there is little information on performance characteristics of players. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of a futsal shooting test and to evaluate and compare performance characteristics of three futsal playing levels. Twenty-four males (n = 8 elite, n = 8 semi-elite, n = 8 social) completed two trials to examine the reliability of the Massey Futsal Shooting Test (MFST) and to compare various fitness characteristics between groups. MFST time taken (P = 0.010), shot speed (P < 0.001) and points scored per shot (P < 0.001) were better for elite relative to social players. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for all groups, but it was most repeatable in elite players. Loughborough Soccer Passing Test performance was better in elite relative to social players (P = 0.004). There were no differences in countermovement-jump height between groups. Elite players ran faster over 5 m than both semi-elite (P = 0.043) and social (P = 0.002) and faster than the social players through 10 m (P = 0.028) and 20 m (P = 0.026). Distance covered in the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test was higher in elite relative to semi-elite (P = 0.005) and social (P < 0.001) groups. The MFST is a valid and reliable protocol to assess futsal shooting-skill performance; elite players have superior shooting and passing skill and have greater sprinting and intermittent-running ability.

  8. Feasibility, performance, and acceptability of the Wisebag™ for potential monitoring of daily gel applicator use in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Straten, Ariane; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Pillay, Diantha; Cheng, Helen; Naidoo, Anushka; Cele, Zakhele; Naidoo, Kalendri; Hartmann, Miriam; Piper, Jeanna; Nair, Gonasagrie

    2013-02-01

    The Wisebag™, a lunchbag-style container with an electronic events-monitoring system, was designed as a real-time indirect objective measure of microbicide gel use. Due to cost, alternative functionalities (i.e. use of offline and dummy versions) were explored. We conducted a three-arm, double-blinded pilot study among 50 HIV-negative women in Durban, South Africa to assess participant adherence and Wisebag acceptability and performance. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to Wisebag with online (events transmitted via cellular signal in real-time), offline (events stored in device memory) or inactive "dummy" devices. Participants were instructed to open the Wisebag daily for 2 weeks, retrieve a study sticker and affix it on a diary card. All participants completed the study. At exit, 94 % did not know which device they had received, nor could they differentiate the Wisebag types when presented with the three options. Five offline devices failed (no data recorded). Per Wisebag events, 26 % of women were perfectly adherent compared to 48 % by self-report and 46 % per diary card. Of reported non-adherence, 92 % did not open the Wisebag (travelling or forgot) and 22 % opened Wisebag >1×/day (curiosity). Participants liked and were comfortable carrying Wisebag. Successful blinding will allow inclusion of offline and/or dummy Wisebags in future study designs. Perfect adherence by opening events was significantly lower than by self-report, highlighting the importance of objective measures of adherence in clinical trials. Additional studies to validate Wisebag data with actual products, with and without SMS and online functionality, in different populations and settings, and in comparison to biomarkers are warranted.

  9. Morphological characteristics and performance variables of women soccer players.

    PubMed

    Can, Filiz; Yilmaz, Ilker; Erden, Zafer

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe certain morphological characteristics of women soccer players and to examine aspects of training and performance. Twenty-two anthropometric sites were used in measurements of somatotype and body composition; flexibility, agility, anaerobic power, leg muscle power, and dynamic pulmonary functions were used as performance variables. Measurements were made on 17 professional athletes and 17 age-matched sedentary women who acted as controls. The women soccer players showed less fat content and less lean body mass than did the sedentary women. The mean somatotype for the soccer players was 3.07-3.55-2.43 and for the nonathletes was 3.57-3.35-2.90. Anaerobic power, leg muscle power, and agility in the athletes were higher than in the nonathletes, whereas no differences were found in flexibility and pulmonary functions (p > 0.05). The women soccer players showed more significantly mesomorphic, less endomorphic, least ectomorphic components and higher performance level than did the sedentary women.

  10. Performance Characteristics of a Vertical Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Benjamin; Flack, Karen; Lust, Ethan

    2016-11-01

    Performance characteristics are presented for a vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine designed for use in a riverine environment. The test turbine is a 1:6 scale model of a three-bladed device (9.5 m span, 6.5 m diameter) that has been proposed by the Department of Energy. Experiments are conducted in the large towing tank (116 m long, 7.9 m wide, 5 m deep) at the United States Naval Academy. The large scale facility allows for scale independent results. The turbine is towed beneath a moving carriage at a constant speed in combination with a shaft brake to achieve the desired tip speed ratio (TSR) range. The measured quantities of turbine thrust, torque and RPM result in power and thrust coefficients for a range of TSR. Results will be presented for cases with quiescent flow and flow with mild surface waves, representative of riverine environments.

  11. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  12. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation.

  13. Transonic Performance Characteristics of Several Jet Noise Suppressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeer, James W.; Salters, Leland B., Jr.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of the transonic performance characteristics of several noise-suppressor configurations has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The models were tested statically and over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.05 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. The primary jet total-pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 4.5. The effect of secondary air flow on the performance of two of the configurations was investigated. A hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was used to supply the hot-jet exhaust. An 8-lobe afterbody with centerbody, short shroud, and secondary air had the highest thrust-minus-drag coefficients of the six noise-suppressor configurations tested. The 12-tube and 12-lobe afterbodies had the lowest internal losses. The presence of an ejector shroud partially shields the external pressure distribution of the 8-lobe after-body from the influence of the primary jet. A ring-airfoil shroud increased the static thrust of the annular nozzle but generally decreased the thrust minus drag at transonic Mach numbers.

  14. Organizational Characteristics Associated With Fundraising Performance of Nonprofit Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cathleen Owens; Landry, Amy Yarbrough

    2015-01-01

    Fundraising has become increasingly important to nonprofit hospitals as access to capital has grown more difficult and reimbursement for services more complex. This study analyzes the variation in organizational characteristics and fundraising performance among nonprofit acute care hospitals in the United States to identify and measure critical factors related to one key fundraising performance indicator: public support. Results indicate that the presence of an endowment, along with its value, investments in fundraising, and the geographic location of the organization, account for approximately 46% of variance in public support among nonprofit hospitals. The use of a separate foundation for the fundraising operation is not necessarily associated with measures of fundraising success; however, a majority of hospitals do use a foundation, signaling a strategic choice that may be made for numerous reasons. The study results and limitations are discussed and recommendations are made for maximizing the effectiveness of the fundraising enterprise within nonprofit hospitals. Increasing awareness of challenges associated with fundraising success will enhance the strategic management of fundraising operations by hospital executives and board members.

  15. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  16. Performance characteristics of an MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, J. S.; Jang, P. R.; Okhuysen, W. P.; Holt, J. K.

    In magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, a seed material, normally K2CO3, is added to enhance the conductivity of the coal-fired gas stream. The plasma is passed through a magnetic field and electricity is produced by the Hall effect. Future large scale MHD facilities are expected to be more efficient than conventional coal-fired power plants not only because of the dc electricity produced but also from increased heat recovery owing to the large (3000 K) combustion temperatures employed. There is; however, a finite cost for the seed material and the resulting K2SO4 particles (SO2 emissions are minimized by combination with seed potassium) must be collected, converted back to K2CO3 or KCO2H, and recycled back to the combustor. The performance characteristics of the MHD electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are therefore, of interest. We describe Mie scattering and electric field measurements on an MHD pilot scale ESP located at the Coal Fire Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. Results are reported for the determination of near-real-time collection efficiencies, the variation of the ESP performance with seed percentage, and initial studies on the extent of particle re-entrainment.

  17. Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.

  18. Performance Characteristics of Plane-Wall Two-Dimensional Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1953-01-01

    Experiments have been made at Stanford University to determine the performance characteristics of plane-wall, two-dimensional diffusers which were so proportioned as to insure reasonable approximation of two-dimensional flow. All of the diffusers had identical entrance cross sections and discharged directly into a large plenum chamber; the test program included wide variations of divergence angle and length. During all tests a dynamic pressure of 60 pounds per square foOt was maintained at the diffuser entrance and the boundary layer there was thin and fully turbulent. The most interesting flow characteristics observed were the occasional appearance of steady, unseparated, asymmetric flow - which was correlated with the boundary-layer coalescence - and the rapid deterioration of flow steadiness - which occurred as soon as the divergence angle for maximum static pressure recovery was exceeded. Pressure efficiency was found to be controlled almost exclusively by divergence angle, whereas static pressure recovery was markedly influenced by area ratio (or length) as well as divergence angle. Volumetric efficiency. diminished as area ratio increased, and at a greater rate with small lengths than with large ones. Large values of the static-pressure-recovery coefficient were attained only with long diffusers of large area ratio; under these conditions pressure efficiency was high and. volumetric efficiency low. Auxiliary tests with asymmetric diffusers demonstrated that longitudinal pressure gradient, rather than wall divergence angle, controlled flow separation. Others showed that the addition of even a short exit duct of uniform section augmented pressure recovery. Finally, it was found that the installation of a thin, central, longitudinal partition suppressed flow separation in short diffusers and thereby improved pressure recovery

  19. Silver arsenate amorphous electrolyte batteries: conduction characteristics and electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya Sainath Prasad, P.; Rambabu, B.

    Transport properties of silver ion conducting ternary amorphous solid electrolytes, XAgI[(1 - X)( yAg 2O zAs 2O 3)] and XAgI[(1 - X)( yAg 2O zAs 2O 5)] for 30⩽ X⩽70 mol% AgI and 0.20 ⩽( z/y) ⩽3.0 were characterized in a two step process to determine the highest ion conducting composition. Interesting results were obtained by the variation of Glass Former to Glass Modifier ratio ( z/y) and AgI content ( X). Some of the results were previously reported with z/y as a variable parameter for a constant concentration of X. The values of z/y were maintained at the best conducting compositions as derived from the previous work, and the present study reports the conduction characteristics with X as a variable parameter. The best conducting amorphous electrolytes in these two systems were used in the fabrication of solid-state batteries, and their electrochemical performance has been evaluated. A comparison of the solid-state cells with amorphous and polycrystalline electrolytes was undertaken with regard to the current discharge profiles and the cell capacities.

  20. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L-1 flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 1010 m∙kg-1. Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26121132

  1. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L(-1) flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 10(10) m∙kg(-1). Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions.

  2. Performance Characteristics of the Multi-Zone NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new suite of computational benchmarks that models applications featuring multiple levels of parallelism. Such parallelism is often available in realistic flow computations on systems of grids, but had not previously been captured in bench-marks. The new suite, named NPB Multi-Zone, is extended from the NAS Parallel Benchmarks suite, and involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Three reference implementations are available: one serial, one hybrid using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP, and another hybrid using a shared memory multi-level programming model (SMP+OpenMP). We examine the effectiveness of hybrid parallelization paradigms in these implementations on three different parallel computers. We also use an empirical formula to investigate the performance characteristics of the multi-zone benchmarks.

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  4. Characteristics of Whipple Shield Performance in the Shatter Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Bjorkman, Michael; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    those obtained in this study at normal incidence, suggesting that shielding performance in the shatter regime could be well described by considering more complex phase conditions than currently implemented in most BLEs. Furthermore, evidence of these phase effects were found in the oblique test results, providing the basis for an empirical description of these effects that can be applied in MMOD risk assessment software. In this paper, results of the impact experiments are presented, and characteristics of target damage are evaluated. A comparison of intermediate velocity impact failure mechanisms in current BLEs are discussed and compared to the findings of the experimental study. Risk assessment calculations have been made on a simplified structure using currently implemented penetration equations and predicted limits from the experimental program, and the variation in perceived mission risk is discussed. It was found that ballistic limit curves that explicitly incorporated phase change effects within the intermediate regime lead to a decrease in predicted MMOD risk for ISS-representative orbits. When considered for all Whipple-based shielding configurations onboard the ISS, intermediate phase change effects could lead to significant variations in predicted mission risk.

  5. Effect of marinating time and low pH on marinade performance and sensory acceptability of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Yusop, Salma M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, John F; Kerry, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of marinating time (30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and acidic marinade pH (3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2) on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked Chinese-style marinated chicken were investigated. With increasing marinating time up to 180 min, a significant (P<0.05) increase in surface redness (a* value) and the dark pink sensory attribute was observed, along with a corresponding decrease in lightness (L* value) and colour penetration. Increased marinating times of 120-180 min were found to produce more acceptable end products with increased scores for colour, aroma and flavour attributes. Marinade uptake was greater at higher marinade pH levels of 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2, with the highest marinade uptake (3.34%) recorded at pH 4.0. As changes to core meat pH were not observed, the effect of marinating time (up to 180 min) and marinade pH on the instrumental and sensory properties of Chinese-style marinated chicken were located principally at the surface of samples. Consumers considered surface colour as contributing to acceptability of marinated chicken to a greater degree compared to colour penetration.

  6. Performance and Safety Characteristics of Lithium-molybdenum Disulfide Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The lithium-molybdenum disulfide system offers attractive characteristics including high rate capability, successful operation up to 75 C, a very low self-discharge rate, a good cycle life and safety characteristics which compare favorably to those of other lithium cells. Moreover, the materials and manufacturing costs for the system is effectively controlled, so the cells should ultimately be competitive with currently marketed rechargeable cells.

  7. Performance characteristics of a new helical-channel microchannel plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. Gethyn; Graves, Peter W.; Loretz, Thomas J.; Roy, Raymond L.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced version of the 'helical-channel' microchannel plate (MCP) is presented. This MCP is composed of four channels per fiber with each channel having a diameter of 50 microns. The dynamic range, pulse-height distribution, and gain characteristics of this MCP are discussed. It is found that increasing the twist density of the channels makes it possible to increase the detection efficiency and further improve the suppression of ion-feedback providing a tighter saturated pulse-height distribution and improved high-voltage characteristics.

  8. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-05

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  9. Simulation of Image Performance Characteristics of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, John; Gerace, Aaron; Brown, Scott; Gartley, Michael; Montanaro, Matthew; Reuter, Dennis C.

    2012-01-01

    The next Landsat satellite, which is scheduled for launch in early 2013, will carry two instruments: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). Significant design changes over previous Landsat instruments have been made to these sensors to potentially enhance the quality of Landsat image data. TIRS, which is the focus of this study, is a dual-band instrument that uses a push-broom style architecture to collect data. To help understand the impact of design trades during instrument build, an effort was initiated to model TIRS imagery. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool was used to produce synthetic "on-orbit" TIRS data with detailed radiometric, geometric, and digital image characteristics. This work presents several studies that used DIRSIG simulated TIRS data to test the impact of engineering performance data on image quality in an effort to determine if the image data meet specifications or, in the event that they do not, to determine if the resulting image data are still acceptable.

  10. Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.

  11. Effects of College Programme Characteristics on Graduates' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Aracil, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Education programmes are designed to equip young populations with the qualifications required to assume responsible roles in specific professions and in society generally. In this paper, the focus of the analysis is on the significance of a number of higher education programme characteristics in allocating young higher education graduates across…

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of Human Motor Performance in Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    including the neural control of respiration and vestibular organization. In addition, computer simulations of small neuronal networks have added an understanding of circuits involved in motor performance. (Author)

  13. Gust characteristics for WECS design and performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Powell, D.C.

    1980-05-01

    This document provides a description of some gust characteristics which are useful in the study of wind turbine fatigue caused by a fluctuating wind environment. The particular gust form chosen can also be used in the analysis of the dynamic response of a turbine. The statistical behavior of such gust characteristics is not identical to that determined simply from the wind recorded by an anemometer. These modes of behavior may be related, however, by the application of appropriate digital filters to the anemometer data. This procedure has been carried out for a number of sample cases, and the variations of the resultant gust features are presented. A number of suggestions on specific applications and interpretations of the data are included.

  14. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  15. Performance characteristics of gravity-assisted, potassium heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, F.C.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with potassium-stainless steel gravity-assisted heat pipes were performed. Performance limitations due to entrainment or flooding of the liquid return flow are compared with analytical model predictions. The effect of heated pool height was investigated and problems with surface wetting are discussed. A comparison between entrainment limits for smooth-walled and textured-walled heat pipes was made and a minimum internal surface texturing depth is suggested.

  16. Performance characteristics of gravity-assisted potassium heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, F.C.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1986-08-01

    Experiments with potassium-stainless steel gravity-assisted heat pipes were performed. Performance limitations due to entrainment or flooding of the liquid return flow are compared with analytical model predictions. The effect of heated pool height was investigated, and problems with surface wetting are discussed. A comparison between entrainment limits for smoothand textured-walled heat pipes was made, and a minimum internal surface texturing depth is suggested.

  17. Performance Characteristics of Current-Generation Immulite 2000 TORCH Assays

    PubMed Central

    Centonze, A. R.; Tonolli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The performances of seven Immulite 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii, other microorganisms, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) assays were evaluated in comparison with the performances of the ETI-MAX 3000 (DiaSorin) TORCH assays. The two systems demonstrated good agreement, and given their sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, they can be used with confidence for TORCH prenatal screening. PMID:23175287

  18. Characteristics of Whipple Shield Performance in the Shatter Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S.; Bjorkman, M.; Christiansen, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Ballistic limit equations define the failure of metallic Whipple shields in three parts: low velocity, shatter, and hypervelocity. Failure limits in the shatter regime are based on a linear interpolation between the onset of projectile fragmentation, and impulsive rupture of the shield rear wall. A series of hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on aluminum alloy Whipple shields to investigate failure mechanisms and performance limits in the shatter regime. Test results demonstrated a more rapid increase in performance than predicted by the latest iteration of the JSC Whipple shield BLE following the onset of projectile fragmentation. This increase in performance was found to level out between 4.0-5.0 km/s, with a subsequent decrease in performance for velocities up to 6.0 km/s. For a detached spall failure criterion, the failure limit was found to continually decrease up to a velocity of 7.0 km/s, substantially varying from the BLE, while for perforation-based failure an increase in performance was observed. An existing phenomenological ballistic limit curve was found to provide a more accurate reproduction of shield behavior that the BLE, however a number of underlying assumptions such as the occurrence of complete projectile fragmentation and the effect on performance of incipient projectile melt were found to be inaccurate. A cratering relationship based on the largest residual fragment size has been derived for application at velocities between 3.0-4.0 km/s, and was shown to accurately reproduce the trends of the experimental data. Further investigation is required to allow a full analytical description of shatter regime performance for metallic Whipple shields.

  19. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  20. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  1. Performance characteristics of three-phase induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation into the characteristics of three phase, 400 Hz, induction motors of the general type used on aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. Results of laboratory tests are presented and compared with results from a computer program. Representative motors were both tested and simulated under nominal conditions as well as off nominal conditions of temperature, frequency, voltage magnitude, and voltage balance. Good correlation was achieved between simulated and laboratory results. The primary purpose of the program was to verify the simulation accuracy of the computer program, which in turn will be used as an analytical tool to support the shuttle orbiter.

  2. Analysis of Source Selection Methods and Performance Outcomes: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable vs. Tradeoff in Air Force Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND PERFORMANCE...2. REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) As part of procurement planning, government acquisition teams must select

  3. "Acceptance of the Limits of Knowability in Oneself and Others": Performative Politics and Relational Ethics in the Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes up Judith Butler's calls to suspend the desire to completely know the other, and discusses these in relation to the pedagogic relationship in the classroom. It draws upon existing accounts of performative reinscription as a politics to disrupt exclusionary schooling practices and discusses these alongside Butler's theories of…

  4. Performance characteristics of omnidirectional antennas for spacecraft using NASA networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    Described are the performance capabilities and critical elements of the shaped omni antenna developed for NASA for space users of NASA networks. The shaped omni is designed to be operated in tandem for virtually omnidirectional coverage and uniform gain free of spacecraft interference. These antennas are ideal for low gain data requirements and emergency backup, deployment, amd retrieval of higher gain RF systems. Other omnidirectional antennas that have flown in space are described in the final section. A performance summary for the shaped omni is in the Appendix. This document introduces organizations and projects to the shaped omni applications for NASA's space use. Coverage, gain, weight, power, and implementation and other performance information for satisfying a wide range of data requirements are included.

  5. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... guidance material for airplane performance and handling characteristics in new transport category airplanes... associated guidance material for airworthiness certification of airplane designs. Recommendations may result... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance...

  6. FIELD AND LABORATORY PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR RIVERINE MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement and estimation of performance characteristics (i.e., precision, bias, performance range, interferences and sensitivity) are often neglected in the development and use of new biological sampling methods. However, knowledge of this information is critical in enabling p...

  7. School and Teacher Characteristics in Relationship to the Academic Performance of Elementary Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Rhonda D.

    2013-01-01

    This correlation research study examined school and teacher characteristics in relationship to the academic performance of students in elementary schools in South Carolina. The school characteristics examined in this study were school size, poverty, minority level, and student teacher ratio. The teacher characteristics examined in this study were…

  8. Performance characteristics of a three-axis superconducting rock magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienert, B. R.

    1977-01-01

    A series of measurements are carried out with the purpose of quantitatively determining the characteristics of a commercial 6.8 cm access superconducting rock magnetometer located in the magnetic properties laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The measurements show that although a considerable improvement in measurement speed and signal to noise ratios can be obtained using such an instrument, a number of precautions are necessary to obtain accuracies comparable with more conventional magnetometers. These include careful calibration of the sensor outputs, optimum positioning of the sample within the detection region and quantitatively establishing the degree of cross-coupling between the detector coils. In order to examine the uniformity of response for each detector, the responses are mapped as a function of position, using a small dipole.

  9. Experimental investigation of the performance characteristics of hydrocyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.P.

    1984-09-01

    A mathematical model of hydrocyclone classifiers used to process drilling fluid is presented. Four basic non-dimensional parameters are defined to describe the performance of the hydrocyclones. The mathematical model is based on data acquired during a series of tests using 3'', 4'', 5'', and 7'' cones with interchangable parts. The analysis of the model indicates a non-Stokesian behavior in the classification process. According to the present findings, a Stokesian model tends to underdesign the hydrocyclones by at least 15-25%. Further, an optimum value of 4 X 10/sup 4/ for the inlet Reynolds number to the hydrocyclones has been found. A term called the ''Performance Parameter,'' introduced in the analysis, can assist a designer to search for an optimum design through a parametric study.

  10. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  11. The Effects of Ratee Characteristics on Rater Performance Appraisal Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    should spend more time observing Kate and less time working on the 9.,e , e{e,,,,. ; c e’. ’,..... : ;..: ..-.- . . . . . . ... % Page-17 Favero & Ilg...observing, the more accurate were the performance ratings. Page-23 Favero & Ilgen Henneman & Wexley (in press) found a similar relationship between...Page-27 Favero & Ilgen Footnotes 1. We wish to thank Patricia C . Smith for providing us with this scale. 2. Other manipulations and measures included

  12. A Study of Coaxial Rotor Performance and Flow Field Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-22

    opposite directions with a vertical separation distance equivalent to the separation between the upper and lower rotor of the coaxial system were simulated...lower rotor separately . Ramasamy provided a convenient summary of coaxial rotor hover perfor- mance measurements prior to 2013, including those surveyed 1...actual blades. Fig. 3. Performance of HC1 (Ref. 13) in hover compared with momentum theory, BEMT and RotUNS steady cal- culations. Rotor separation

  13. Design for the Maintainer: Projecting Maintenance Performance from Design Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    come from experimentally produced changes in the micro-elements. Several projects have employed time synthesis simulation with generally positive ...would produce, positions the video tape unit to the segment showing that outcome, and plays the taped segment showing a technician performing the test and... Psycological Services, Inc. Massachusetts Institute of Technolgy 404 East Lancaster Street Cembridge, MA 02139 Wayne, PA 19087 Dr. Harry Snyder 1 Dr. W. S

  14. Pitching Flexible Propulsors: Experimental Assessment of Performance Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    E. Motor The motor, shown in Fig. 16, manipulated the angular position of the propulsor using a proportional/integral/derivative ( PID ) controller...cogging torque. The motor also became easier to tune for higher frequency oscillations. The increased frequency corresponded to an increase in the...frequency to resonant frequency, may allow for proper tuning of flexible oscillation parameters for increased performance. Operating at or near a resonant

  15. Calculation of the Characteristic Performance Indicators in an Electrochemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Solla-Gullón, J.; García-García, V.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2003-05-01

    Electrochemical engineering, a relatively young discipline, has important interrelationships with chemical engineering and electrochemistry. The main objectives of electrochemical engineering are the characterization and optimization, both in design and operation mode, of the mechanisms and the processes related to the conversion of chemical and electrical energies. Among the examples of electrochemical synthesis implemented at an industry scale are the synthesis of chlor alkali, aluminium, adiponitrile (an intermediate compound in the manufacture of Nylon). It is feasible to review the systems of electric energy generation (batteries and fuel cells) and sewage treatment. The definition of figures of merit is focused on the electrochemical process and is related to its yield. This concept constitutes a very useful tool to optimize the cost and the economic balance of this process. In this paper, the most characteristic figures of merit in an electrochemical process are defined. They are applied using experimental data obtained in an organic electrosynthesis process: the reduction of L-cystine to L-cysteine in acid media.

  16. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  17. Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

  18. Effects of essential oil on performance characteristics, survival, processing characteristics, and fillet proximate composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on performance, survival, processing characteristics, and fillet proximate composition of channel catfish. Fifteen one-acre ponds at the Delta-Western Research Center, Indianola, MS were stocked with approximatel...

  19. Performance characteristics of a new pixelated portable gamma camera

    PubMed Central

    Siman, W.; Cheenu Kappadath, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and characterize the performance of a new commercially available pixelated portable gamma camera Ergo (Digirad, Poway, CA). Methods: The authors evaluated a pixelated portable gamma camera system, Ergo, that consists of 11 520 elements of 3 × 3 mm2 CsI(Tl) crystals that are 6-mm thick and are coupled to silicon photodiodes. The detector element has a size of 3.31 × 3.24 mm2. The gamma camera performance was evaluated for both low-energy all-purpose (LEAP) and low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimators. The flood-field uniformity for 99mTc and 201Tl was assessed using fillable uniform flood phantoms. Energy spectra were acquired for 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl, and 67Ga to evaluate energy linearity and energy resolution. Spectral fits were performed to calculate the photopeak energies and resolutions. The pixel size and multiwindow spatial registration (MWSR) was evaluated by measuring mixed 99mTc and 201Tl point sources placed at known distances apart. The system’s sensitivity was measured according to the National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) NU1-2007 standards for both LEAP and LEHR collimators as a function of distance from the collimator surface (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 cm). The system resolution without scatter was measured for both LEAP and LEHR using 99mTc-filled capillary tubes located at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 12 cm away from the surface of the collimator. As a measure of the spatial resolution, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) at a given distance was calculated from the presampling line spread function (LSF), constructed from the line profiles of the capillary tubes at the same distance. As a comparison, the FWHM at 10 cm away from LEHR and LEAP collimators was also calculated from linear interpolation as described by NEMA NU-1 2007 and from fitting the profiles to a Gaussian-plus-constant model. Results: All isotope-collimator pairs demonstrated good flood-field uniformity with an integral

  20. Performance characteristics of commercial Y-STR multiplex systems.

    PubMed

    Mayntz-Press, Kathleen A; Ballantyne, Jack

    2007-09-01

    In this work, a number of performance checks were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of commercial Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STR) kits for casework applications. The study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and stability of the Y-STR markers used and the ability to obtain a male profile from postcoital samples taken at various time points after intercourse. All systems performed well with 1-3 ng of male DNA as recommended by the manufacturers. All systems gave full profiles at 100 pg of input DNA, which is within the realm of low copy number DNA analysis. Moreover all, except Y-Plex12, gave full profiles with 30-50 pg of male DNA. No increased performance was obtained with any of the systems by increasing the cycle number beyond that recommended by the various manufacturers. When up to 1 microg of female DNA was used (in the absence of male DNA) no female DNA cross reactivity was observed with the Y-Plex 12 and Y-Filer systems. PowerPlex Y produced female DNA derived products near the DYS438 and within the DYS392 loci at a rare allele position with high input DNA levels (300 ng and 1 microg, respectively). Male/female DNA admixture experiments indicated the particularly high specificity of the Y-Filer and PowerPlex Y systems under conditions of several thousand fold female DNA excess. All systems were able to detect the minor alleles in male/male DNA admixtures at a 1:5 dilution with the PowerPlex Y and Y-Filer being able to detect some minor alleles at 1:20. Species testing indicated some limited, minor cross reactivity of the commercial systems with some domestic male mammals although it is easily recognizable and would not pose any problems in casework analysis. As expected a significant number of cross-reacting products were obtained with nonhuman primate species. All Y-STR multiplex systems tested were able to produce complete Y-STR profiles from bloodstains and semen stains exposed up to 6 weeks when the samples were protected against precipitation and

  1. Comparison of physical characteristics and performance among elite snowboarders.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Hans-Peter; Raschner, Christian; Patterson, Carson; Lembert, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    There are little scientific data regarding snowboarding and the physiological demands on snowboarders. The aim of this study was to assemble and evaluate a battery of tests for the snowboard disciplines parallel, snowboard cross (SBX), big air, and half-pipe (HP). Thirty-seven competitive snowboarders participated in the study and completed a test battery that comprised tests for aerobic capacity, balance, jumping, isokinetic core power, isokinetic leg power, isometric bench press, isometric bench pull, and a snowboard start simulator. The results showed that the battery of tests explained between 61 and 98% of variance when predicting snowboard performance. The test battery predicts better for women than for men and better for SBX, HP, and overall World Cup ranking than for the other disciplines. The results indicate that starting speed, leg power, core power, and aerobic capacity are important in different snowboarding events.

  2. RPC detector characteristics and performance for INO-ICAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Gaur, A.; Hasbuddin, Md.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2016-03-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is an approved multi-institutional collaboration neutrino physics project, aimed at building an underground laboratory in the southern India. INO will utilize a large magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study the atmospheric neutrinos, and to explore the unresolved issues related to neutrinos. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), interleaved in between iron absorber layers, are going to be used as the active signal readouts for the ICAL experiment at INO. The research and development is carried out to find structural quality and electrical response for RPC electrode materials available within local domain. The assembled 2 mm gap RPCs are tested using cosmic muons for their detection performance. The study also incorporates preliminary results on detector timing and signal induced charge measurements.

  3. Performance characteristics of a cosmology package on leading HPCarchitectures

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jonathan; Borrill, Julian; Oliker, Leonid

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a snapshot of the Universe some 400,000 years after the Big Bang. The pattern of anisotropies in the CMB carries a wealth of information about the fundamental parameters of cosmology. Extracting this information is an extremely computationally expensive endeavor, requiring massively parallel computers and software packages capable of exploiting them. One such package is the Microwave Anisotropy Dataset Computational Analysis Package (MADCAP) which has been used to analyze data from a number of CMB experiments. In this work, we compare MADCAP performance on the vector-based Earth Simulator (ES) and Cray X1 architectures and two leading superscalar systems, the IBM Power3 and Power4. Our results highlight the complex interplay between the problem size, architectural paradigm, interconnect, and vendor-supplied numerical libraries, while isolating the I/O file system as the key bottleneck across all the platforms.

  4. Performance characteristics and statistics of a laser initiated microdetonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The test results of 320 units of the laser initiated microdetonator are summarized. The commercially fabricated units used a lead styphnate/lead azide/HMX (1 mg/17.5 mg/13.5 mg) explosive train design contained in a miniature aluminum can and completed with a glass-metal seal window. The test parameters were the high and low laser energy, high and low temperature, laser pulse duration, laser wavelength and nuclear radiation (5 x 10 to the 6th rads of 1 MeV gamma ray). The performance parameters were the laser energy for ignition and the actuation response time. Included also is a description of the development of a flexible, continuously advanced train of explosive devices by using the units, miniature optics and fiber optics.

  5. Performance characteristics of a wave attenuation for pulsed chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonadonna, V.; Weisbach, M. F.; Tong, K.-O.; McClure, J. D.

    1981-06-01

    Parametric performance measurements are reported for a pulsed chemical laser wave attenuator. The attenuator utilizes the combined effects of flow channel area expansion, caustic water spray, and flow-through damping screens to suppress and control the pressure disturbances produced by the chemical heat release of the F2 + D2 chain reaction. Experimental results that illustrate the effects of different area expansion geometries, water spray configurations, and damping screen arrangements are presented. Capability to tune the attenuator system to provide short pressure wave clearing times is emphasized. An attenuator configuration is reported which gives a wave clearing time of 2 msec with a corresponding entropy-wave density nonuniformity of 0.001 for a 18.5/6/76.5 F2/O2/diluent gas mixture at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz.

  6. Performance Characteristics of the Verbal QuickDASH

    PubMed Central

    London, Daniel A.; Stepan, Jeffrey G.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the performance of the verbally administered Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) by assessing its replication of self-administered scores, its test-retest reliability, and its rate of scorable completion compared to its self-administered, written administration. Methods 50 patients presenting for initial visits to a hand clinic were enrolled regardless of diagnosis. All patients completed a written and a verbal QuickDASH 1 day apart (25 patients written first, 25 patients verbal first). Intraclass correlation coefficients quantified the verbal questionnaire’s ability to reproduce written scores. Participants verbally completed the questionnaire a final time, 5 months later, to assess test-retest reliability. To quantify the usability of survey data, we compared percentages of scorable surveys between written and verbally administered QuickDASH questionnaires in this study and in prior studies within our division. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient between the 2 QuickDASH administration types for the entire sample was 0.91. Across all participants, there was a minimal change in mean score from a patient’s written QuickDASH to that patient’s first verbal QuickDASH score. Scoring consistency between QuickDASH administrations was similar for each administration sequence (phone followed by written vs. written followed by phone) and by diagnosis. Test-retest reliability between the 2 verbal administrations demonstrated good reliability and a minimal difference between scores. In this study, no written or verbal surveys were incomplete. Reviewing our practice, 17% of 258 written questionnaires produced unscorable data compared to 0% of 140 verbally administered surveys. Discussion Our results indicate that verbal administration of the QuickDASH replicates clinically relevant scores of the written QuickDASH, has good test-retest performance, and may minimize unusable data. These data allow researchers greater

  7. Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements David R. Gillingham Prashant R. Patel, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE...Paul M. Kodzwa, David A. Sparrow, and Jeremy A. Teichman for performing technical review of this document. Copyright Notice © 2013 Institute for...Paper P-5032 Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements David R. Gillingham

  8. NEXT Long-Duration Test Neutralizer Performance and Erosion Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced capabilities at a low total development cost. A Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005, to verify the NEXT propellant throughput capability to a qualification-level of 450 kg, 1.5 times the anticipated throughput requirement of 300 kg per thruster based on mission analyses. As of September 2, 2009, the thruster has accumulated 24,400 hr of operation with extensive durations at the following input powers: 6.9, 4.7, 1.1, and 0.5 kW. The thruster has processed 434 kg of xenon, surpassing the NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program thruster propellant throughput demonstrated during the extended life testing of the Deep Space 1 flight spare ion thruster and approaching the NEXT development qualification throughput goal of 450 kg. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated a total impulse of 16.1 10(exp 6zzz0 N s; the highest total impulse ever demonstrated by an ion thruster. A reduction in neutralizer flow margin has been the only appreciable source of thruster performance degradation. The behavior of the neutralizer is not easily predicted due to both erosion and deposition observed in previous wear tests. Spot-to-plume mode transition flow data and in-situ erosion results for the LDT neutralizer are discussed. This loss of flow margin has been addressed through a combination of a design change in the prototype-model neutralizer to increase flow margin at low emission current and to update the NEXT throttle table to ensure adequate flow margin as a function of propellant throughput processed. The new throttle table will be used for future LDT operations. The performance of the NEXT LDT neutralizer is consistent with that observed for long-life hollow cathodes. The neutralizer life-limiting failure modes are progressing as expected

  9. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  10. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.

  11. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    DOE PAGES

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches formore » improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.« less

  12. Performance characteristics of valveless and cantilever-valve micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukur, A. F. M.; Sabani, N.; Taib, B. N.; Azidin, M. A. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents comparison between two classes of micropump which are valveless micropump and cantilever-valve micropump. These micropumps consist of basic components which are diaphragm, pumping chamber, actuation mechanism, inlet and outlet. Piezoelectric actuation is carried out by applying pressure on the micropump diaphragm to produce deflection. The micropumps studied in this paper had been designed with specific diaphragm thickness and diameter; while varying the materials, pressure applied and liquid types used. The outer dimension for both micropumps is 4mm × 4mm × 0.5mm with diameter and thickness of the diaphragm are 3.8mm and 20μm respectively. Valveless micropump was shown in this paper to have better performance in mechanical and fluid analysis in terms of maximum deflection and maximum flow rate at actuation pressure 30kPa vis-à-vis cantilever-valve micropump. Valveless micropump was shown in this study to have maximum diaphragm deflection of 183.06μm and maximum flow rate with 191.635μL/s at actuation pressure 30kPa using silicon dioxide as material.

  13. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  14. Toward Uniformly Dispersed Battery Electrode Composite Materials: Characteristics and Performance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yo Han; Huie, Matthew M; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-02-10

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. The study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.

  15. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  16. Performance characteristics of DRI, CEDIA, and REMEDi systems for preliminary tests of amphetamines and opiates in human urine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Kun; Dai, Yu-Shan; Lee, Choung-Huei; Liu, Chiareiy; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng

    2006-01-01

    Arrestee urine specimens (930) were tested with DRI, CEDIA, and REMEDi; those that tested positive for amphetamines and opiates (616 and 414, respectively) were then confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The performance characteristics of these three preliminary systems were evaluated using the following commonly used parameters: true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of these methods were also calculated. Data derived from this study indicated DRI and CEDIA adapted by this study generated acceptable preliminary test results for amphetamine/methamphetamine and morphine/codeine, but not for MDA/MDMA and REMEDi has lower sensitivity than DRI and CEDIA, but with better specificity and efficiency, supporting its use under emergency room settings where drug concentrations in overdose cases are expectedly at high levels.

  17. Starting characteristics and combustion performance of magnesium slurry in 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine mounted in connected-pipe facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, James B

    1954-01-01

    The starting characteristics and combustion performance of slurry type fuels, consisting of 50 percent magnesium powder in a hydrocarbon carrier, have been investigated in a flight-type, 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine in a connected-pipe facility. Quick, dependable starting of the engine was obtained by the use of a disk which blocked part of the combustor area downstream of the flame holder. Acceptable performance was achieved with a short fuel-air mixing length by the development of a fuel-distribution control sleeve.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Learning Organization Characteristics and Change Adaptation, Innovation, and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine; Awbre, Susan M.; Feurig, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between certain learning organization characteristics and change adaptation, innovation, and bottom-line organizational performance. The following learning organization characteristics were found to be the strongest predictors of rapid change adaptation, quick product or…

  19. Job Characteristics and College Performance and Attitudes: A Model of Work-School Conflict and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.

    2007-01-01

    The processes linking job characteristics to school performance and satisfaction in a sample of 253 full-time college students were examined from 2 role theory perspectives, 1 of which emphasized resource scarcity and the other resource expansion. Model tests using structural equation modeling showed that 2 resource-enriching job characteristics,…

  20. The Relative Importance of Psychological Acceptance and Emotional Intelligence to Workplace Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…

  1. Psychosocial Characteristics of Optimum Performance in Isolated and Confined Environments (ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Shea, Camille; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), including the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. BHP supports and conducts research to help characteristics and mitigate the Behavioral Medicine risk for exploration missions, and in some instances, current Flight Medical Operations. The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element identified research gaps within the Behavioral Medicine Risk, including Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE)? To address this gap, we conducted an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the following: 1) psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICE environments; 2) characteristics that are most malleable; and 3) specific countermeasures that could enhance malleable characteristics.

  2. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  3. Academic Performance, Characteristics and Expenditures in New York City Elementary and Middle Schools. Condition Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Iatarola, Patrice; Fruchter, Norm

    This study examines the academic performance of students in New York City's elementary and middle schools, investigating variations across grades and schools and documenting differences in student and teacher characteristics and the pattern and level of expenditure between low, middle, and high performing schools. The study reports averages of…

  4. Relationship of Student Characteristics and Performance in a Personalized System of Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The author examined college student characteristics and their relation to performance in a psychology course which employed a personalized system of instruction (PSI). Findings indicated that dependable predictors, such as past performance and ability measures, were as applicable to PSI courses as to traditional ones. (Author/DB)

  5. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  6. Influence of Morphological Characteristics on Physical and Physiological Performances of Tunisian Elite Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. Methods A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Results Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Conclusions Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances. PMID:22942992

  7. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    PubMed

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products.

  8. A Study of the Associations between Conditions of Performance and Characteristics of Performers and New York State Solo Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vonWurmb, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes an analysis of 1,044 performance evaluations from New York State School Music Association (NYSSMA) Spring Festival solo adjudication ratings of student performers from a large suburban school district. It relies on results of evaluations of observed performances, and takes these evaluations as assessments of what the…

  9. Socioeconomic characteristics of enrollees appear to influence performance scores for medicare part D contractors.

    PubMed

    Young, Gary J; Rickles, Nathaniel M; Chou, Chia-Hung; Raver, Eli

    2014-01-01

    More than 150 private companies contract with the federal government to provide Part D prescription drug benefits to Medicare beneficiaries, either through stand-alone drug plans or as part of Medicare Advantage plans. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) evaluates these companies on a set of performance measures, including plan enrollees' medication adherence. We used 2012 data from CMS and data from the US Census Bureau to investigate whether these performance ratings are influenced by the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations. We found that some companies have a substantial advantage over others because of their enrollees' socioeconomic characteristics, with more than a third of the variation in adherence scores tied to these characteristics. CMS should seriously consider adjusting adherence scores to account for differences in the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations.

  10. Performance characteristics of LOX-H2, tangential-entry, swirl-coaxial, rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Doug; Petersen, Eric; Clark, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Development of a high performing swirl-coaxial injector requires an understanding of fundamental performance characteristics. This paper addresses the findings of studies on cold flow atomic characterizations which provided information on the influence of fluid properties and element operating conditions on the produced droplet sprays. These findings are applied to actual rocket conditions. The performance characteristics of swirl-coaxial injection elements under multi-element hot-fire conditions were obtained by analysis of combustion performance data from three separate test series. The injection elements are described and test results are analyzed using multi-variable linear regression. A direct comparison of test results indicated that reduced fuel injection velocity improved injection element performance through improved propellant mixing.

  11. Perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements determine the expected effectiveness in boosting strength, endurance, and concentration performances.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Bárdos, György

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the link between the physical-perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements and their expected effectiveness in enhancing sport performance. Participants (n = 267) ranked nine images of fictive nutritional supplements, varying in shape, color, and route of administration (e.g., pill, powder, lotion, etc.), in ranked- order of expected effectiveness. They performed the task three times, (1) for strength, (2) endurance, and (3) for concentration. Results have revealed that the perceived effectiveness of the supplements was statistically significantly different for the three types of performances (p < .001). A significant interpersonal variability was observed in the ranking-order of the supplements. The findings reveal that perceptual characteristics of 'believed to be nutritional supplements', aimed at sport performance enhancement, influence their perceived effectiveness. Future inquiries in sport nutrition should examine the relationship between expected and experienced effectiveness of various nutritional supplements in enhancing sport performance.

  12. Effects of various dietary lipid additives on lamb performance, carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; Guan, L L; McAllister, T A

    2015-06-01

    Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum; TA) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO), and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue in skirt muscle (SM), subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, and wool production and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (n = 14 per treatment). Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet containing either TA, CO, FO, or SO (2% of dietary DM). Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg BW. Carcass characteristics, rumen pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm2 shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micrometer and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. No effects were observed on intake, growth, or carcass characteristics. A greater (P = 0.02) staple strength of lambs fed CO was the only effect observed in wool. Flax oil increased total n-3 and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in tissue FA profiles (P < 0.001) in comparison to other diets. Tasco increased (P ≤ 0.001) SFA/PUFA in all tissues, whereas concentrations of CLA c-9, t-11 were greatest with SO in all tissues (P ≤ 0.02), compared to other diets. These results suggest Tasco supplementation did not improve the n-3/n-6 or SFA/PUFA ratios of lamb adipose tissues compared to other dietary lipid additives.

  13. Modifiable Anthropometric Characteristics Are Associated With Unilateral and Bilateral Carry Performance.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Carstairs, Greg L; Billing, Daniel C; Caldwell, Joanne N; Middleton, Kane J

    2017-02-01

    Beck, B, Carstairs, GL, Billing, DC, Caldwell, JN, and Middleton, KJ. Modifiable anthropometric characteristics are associated with unilateral and bilateral carry performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 489-494, 2017-A mismatch between physical ability and task requirements can increase the risk of on-the-job injury. Therefore, understanding key anthropometric characteristics associated with job performance is important in developing targeted training programs and selecting employees in physically demanding occupations. The aims of this study were to understand which anthropometric and demographic (age/sex) characteristics were associated with performance in a unilateral stretcher carry and bilateral jerry can and kettle bell carries. Sixty-seven enlisted Australian Army soldiers (46 men and 21 women) participated in this investigation. Body composition was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate and multivariable regression techniques were used to quantify correlations between anthropometric characteristics and carry performance. Median carry distance was 650 m (interquartile range [IQR] = 425-1,025 m) in the stretcher carry, 300 m (IQR = 215-445 m) in the jerry can carry, and 265 m (IQR = 200-400 m) in the kettle bell carry. Univariate analyses demonstrated that whole body, trunk, upper arm, forearm, and leg lean mass, as well as stature and body mass were associated with performance across the 3 carry tasks. Of these, leg lean mass was shown to be a key characteristic associated with carry performance. Subsequently, it is suggested that training programs focus on whole-body lean mass with specific emphasis on leg lean mass. Additionally, we demonstrated that age and sex were not significantly associated with carry performance when controlling for leg lean mass, indicating that modifiable factors can be targeted in training programs to improve job performance.

  14. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance.

  15. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Prototype Batteries for Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Byers, J.; Marsh, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the scientific payload, expected launch date and tasks, and an image of the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander components. The Lander's battery specifications are given. The program objectives for the Li-ion cells for the Lander are listed, and results performance evaluation and cycle life performance tests are outlined for different temperatures. Cell charge characteristics are described, and test data is presented for charge capacity at varying temperatures. Capacity retention and storage characteristics tests are described and results are shown.

  16. Development of FEC and ESC performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Francisco; Koga, Keiichiro

    1988-12-01

    The requirement for restoration of high capacity fiber optic cables and the new tariffs approved for Intelsat digital services has created a requirement to develop performance characteristics for intermediate data rate (IDR) carriers greater than 10 Mb/s. This paper presents the trade-offs used in this development, and estimates the coding gains needed to meet these requirements. A number of forward error correction schemes are evaluated and a rate 3/4 convolutional code with soft decision Viterbi decoding is selected. Engineering service circuits performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s are presented.

  17. A scheme for assessing the performance characteristics of small field-of-view gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, B S; Bugby, S L; Lees, J E; Perkins, A C

    2015-02-01

    Existing protocols for assessing the performance characteristics of large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma cameras can be inappropriate and require modification for use with small field-of-view (SFOV) gamma camera systems. This communication proposes a generic scheme suitable for evaluating the performance characteristics of SFOV gamma cameras, based on modifications to the standard procedures of NEMA NU1-2007. Key differences in methodology between tests for LFOV and SFOV gamma cameras are highlighted along with the rationale for these changes. It is envisaged that this scheme will provide more appropriate methods for equipment characterisation, ensuring quality and consistency for all SFOV cameras.

  18. Malaysian and Singaporean students' affective characteristics and mathematics performance: evidence from PISA 2012.

    PubMed

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the extent to which the affective characteristics of Malaysian and Singaporean students' attainment compared to the OECD average in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, and examine the influence of students' affective characteristics, gender, and their socioeconomic status on mathematics performance at both student and school levels. Sample consisted of 5197 and 5546 15-year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.0 software. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed.

  19. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  20. A comparison between two lingual orthodontic brackets in terms of speech performance and patients' acceptance in correcting Class II, Division 1 malocclusion: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Haj-Younis, Samiha; Khattab, Tarek Z.; Hajeer, Mohammad Y.; Farah, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare speech performance and levels of oral impairment between two types of lingual brackets. Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial was carried out on patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion treated at the University of Hama School of Dentistry in Hama, Syria. A total of 46 participants (mean age: 22.3 ± 2.3 years) with maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion were randomly distributed into two groups with 23 patients each (1:1 allocation ratio). Either STb (Ormco) or 7th Generation (Ormco) lingual brackets were applied. Fricative sound/s/ spectrograms were analyzed directly before intervention (T0), one week following premolar extraction prior to bracket placement (T1), within 24 hours of bracket bonding (T2), one month after (T3), and three months after (T4) bracket placement. Patients′ acceptance was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires. Results: After bracket placement, significant deterioration in articulation was recorded at all assessment times in the 7th Generation group, and up to T3 in the STb group. Significant intergroup differences were detected at T2 and T3. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in reported tongue irritation levels, whereas chewing difficulty was significantly higher in the 7th Generation group one month after bracket placement. Conclusions: 7th Generation brackets have more interaction with sound production than STb ones. Although patients in both groups complained of some degree of oral impairment, STb appliances appeared to be more comfortable than the 7th Generation ones, particularly within the first month of treatment. PMID:27653268

  1. Effect of backgrounding system on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers that were backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 days a week with 2.77 kg DM/hd of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF) or 3) drylotting on a ...

  2. Hindi Heritage Language Learners' Performance during OPIs: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Gabriela Nik.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the oral performance of Hindi language learners during practice Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) conducted during workshops hosted by New York University and sponsored by STARTALK. The most salient characteristics of the heritage language learners' output are compared with the output of foreign language learners who are…

  3. Performance characteristics of a low-cost, field-deployable miniature CCD spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Simon; Nimmo, Malcolm; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Miniature spectrometers incorporating array detectors are becoming a viable, low-cost option for field and process deployments. The performance characteristics of one such instrument are reported and compared with those of a conventional benchtop instrument. The parameters investigated were wavelength repeatability, photometric linearity, instrumental noise (photometric precision) and instrumental drift. PMID:18924863

  4. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  5. Postweaning feed restriction effects on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Bull calves (n = 56 in 2010; n = 51 in 2011) were bo...

  6. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  7. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  8. Current Performance Characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Base and Standardized Test Procedure for Future Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowen, Brandon; Stringer, Mary T.; Hutchinson, Brian K.; Davidson, Paul C.; Gupton, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the updated performance characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Cockpit Motion Base (CMB) after recent revisions that were made to its inner-loop, feedback control law. The modifications to the control law will be briefly described. The performance of the Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) will be presented. A short graphical comparison to the previous control law can be found in the appendix of this report. The revised controller will be shown to yield reduced parasitic accelerations with respect to the previous controller. Metrics based on the AGARD Advisory Report No. 144 are used to assess the overall system performance due to its recent control algorithm modification. This report also documents the standardized simulator test procedure which can be used in the future to evaluate potential updates to the control law.

  9. The Thermal Performance and Air Leakage Characteristics of Six Log Homes in Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Carolyn; Eklund, Ken; Baylon, David

    1993-08-01

    The thermal performance and air leakage characteristics of four electrically heated log houses located in Idaho are summarized. The air leakage and construction characteristics of two additional log homes are also examined. The energy consumption of the four homes was submetered at weekly reporting intervals for up to 16 months. Blower door tests and site audits were performed. In addition, conditions at two of these homes, including heat flux through the log walls, indoor and outdoor temperatures, solar flux and envelope tightness, were measured in detail over several days during winter conditions. The energy use and thermal performance of these two homes were then modeled using SUNCODE-PC, an hourly thermal simulation program employing a finite difference technique.

  10. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel.

  11. Observed inter-camera variability of clinically relevant performance characteristics for Siemens Symbia gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Erwin, William D; Wendt, Richard E

    2006-11-28

    We conducted an evaluation of the intercamera (i.e., between cameras) variability in clinically relevant performance characteristics for Symbia gamma cameras (Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) based on measurements made using nine separate systems. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was determined by comparing it to the intracamera (i.e., within a single camera) variability. Measurements of performance characteristics were based on the standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and reports 6, 9, 22, and 52 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. All measurements were performed using 99mTc (except 57Co used for extrinsic resolution) and low-energy, high-resolution collimation. Of the nine cameras, four have crystals 3/8 in. thick and five have crystals 5/8 in. thick. We evaluated intrinsic energy resolution, intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolution, intrinsic integral and differential flood uniformity over the useful field-of-view, count rate at 20% count loss, planar sensitivity, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) resolution, and SPECT integral uniformity. The intracamera variability was estimated by repeated measurements of the performance characteristics on a single system. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was evaluated using the two-tailed F distribution. The planar sensitivity of the gamma cameras tested was found be variable at the 99.8% confidence level for both the 3/8-in. and 5/8-in. crystal systems. The integral uniformity and energy resolution were found to be variable only for the 5/8-in. crystal systems at the 98% and 90% confidence level, respectively. All other performance characteristics tested exhibited no significant variability between camera systems. The measured variability reported here could perhaps be used to define nominal performance values of Symbia gamma cameras for planar and SPECT imaging.

  12. Off-Design Performance Prediction of Gas Turbines without the use of Compressor or Turbine Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraweera, Janitha Kanishka

    A new method of predicting gas turbine off-design performance is presented. This method, referred to as the core control method, is based on the idea that performance across a gas turbine depends on a single parameter that controls the energy input to the said gas turbine. It is shown that only the design-point performance of a gas turbine is needed to predict its off-design performance, and that neither compressor nor turbine characteristics are required. A thermodynamic model is developed for predicting the off-design performance of a single-spool turbojet and a two-spool gas generator with a free power turbine. This model is further developed to simulate the effects of handling bleed schedules, performance limiters and performance deterioration. The core control method is then used to predict the off-design performance of a Rolls-Royce Viper Mark 521 as a proof-of-concept, after which, the new and deteriorated off-design performance of three Rolls-Royce RB211-24GT gas turbines is predicted. In addition to the discussions on the involved theories and the performance predictions, the process by which the deteriorated RB211-24GT performance data was analyzed, and the sources and propagation of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  13. Summary of directional divergence characteristics of several high performance aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a number of high-performance aircraft as determined from model force tests and free-flight model tests and correlates these characteristics with the dynamic directional-stability parameter. This correlation shows that the dynamic directional-stability parameter correlates fairly well with directional divergence. Data are also presented to show the effect of some airframe modifications on the directional divergence potential of the configuration. These results show that leading-edge slates seem to be the most effective airframe modification for reducing or eliminating the directional divergence potential of aircraft with moderately swept wings.

  14. Simulation Model for Prediction of Transient Performance Characteristics of Single-Phase Shaded Pole Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Vasilija; Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Paper proposes mathematical model of single phase shaded pole motor suitable for analysis of motor dynamic behavior. Derived mathematical model from d-q reference frame theory is applied at motor simulation model. Derived simulation model enables analysis of transient performance characteristics of motor currents, speed and electromagnetic torque under different operating regimes. Obtained results from the simulation are compared with data from analytical calculations based on method of symmetrical components and data from experiment for the purpose of verification of the simulation model. Simulation model is useful for studying the effect of parameters on motor starting and running characteristics at different types of loads.

  15. Performance characteristics according to the channel length and magnetic fields of cylindrical Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsub; Seo, Mihui; Seon, Jongho; June Lee, Hae; Choe, Wonho

    2011-09-01

    Performance characteristics of low power cylindrical Hall thrusters are investigated in terms of the length of the discharge channel. Thrust, efficiency, discharge current, and propellant utilization are evaluated for different channel lengths of 19, 22, and 25 mm. It is found that the propellant utilization and ion energy distribution function are strongly associated with the channel length. Increase of thrust and efficiency are also found with increasing channel lengths. These characteristics of the thruster are interpreted with possible generation of multi-charged ions due to increased residing time within the extended space inside the channel.

  16. SELECTION OF ENDOCRINOLOGY SUBSPECIALTY TRAINEES: WHICH APPLICANT CHARACTERISTICS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PERFORMANCE DURING FELLOWSHIP TRAINING?

    PubMed Central

    Natt, Neena; Chang, Alice Y.; Berbari, Elie F.; Kennel, Kurt A.; Kearns, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine which residency characteristics are associated with performance during endocrinology fellowship training as measured by competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings of trainee performance. Method We performed a retrospective review of interview applications from endocrinology fellows who graduated from a single academic institution between 2006 and 2013. Performance measures included competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings. The association between applicant characteristics and measures of performance during fellowship was examined by linear regression. Results The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director’s letter of recommendation (LoR) or experience as a chief resident was significantly associated with competency-based faculty evaluation scores (β = 0.22, P = 0.001; and β = 0.24, P = 0.009, respectively) and faculty global ratings (β = 0.85, P = 0.006; and β = 0.96, P = 0.015, respectively). Conclusion The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director’s LoR or experience as a chief resident were significantly associated with overall performance during subspecialty fellowship training. Future studies are needed in other cohorts to determine the broader implications of these findings in the application and selection process. PMID:26437219

  17. Analyzing the revolution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) performance and sludge characteristics under zinc inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the short- and long-term effects of Zn(II) on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) performance and sludge characteristics were evaluated. The anammox activity decreased with increasing Zn(II) concentration and pre-exposure time in short-term tests. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Zn(II) was found to be 25.0 mg L(-1). The 24 and 48-h pre-exposure time was a restricted factor impacting the anammox activity, and washing the inhibited sludge with buffer solution only worked under 0 and 24-h pre-exposure time. The anammox sludge could tolerate 5 mg L(-1) Zn(II) but was suppressed at 8 mg L(-1). The inhibited performance could be remitted, as the combination strategies were applied, and after the short term of recovery period, the inhibited sludge characteristics were remitted to the normal.

  18. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly.

  19. Output power characteristics and performance of TOPAZ II Thermionic Fuel Element No. 24

    SciTech Connect

    Luchau, D.W.; Bruns, D.R.; Izhvanov, O.; Androsov, V.

    1996-03-01

    A final report on the output power characteristics and capabilities of single cell TOPAZ II Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) No. 24 is presented. Thermal power tests were conducted for over 3000 hours to investigate converter performance under normal and adverse operating conditions. Experiments conducted include low power testing, high power testing, air introduction to the interelectrode gap, collector temperature optimization, thermal modeling, and output power characteristic measurements. During testing, no unexpected degradation in converter performance was observed. The TFE has been removed from the test stand and returned to Scientific Industrial Association {open_quote}{open_quote}LUCH{close_quote}{close_quote} for materials analysis and report. This research was conducted at the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Facility at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) as a part of the Topaz International Program (TIP) by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (PL). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Reader characteristics linked to detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs: ROC vs. JAFROC analyses of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Akshay; Robinson, John W.; Ryan, John; McEntee, Mark F.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether reader characteristics are linked to heightened levels of diagnostic performance in chest radiology using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and jackknife free response ROC (JAFROC) methodologies. A set of 40 postero-anterior chest radiographs was developed, of which 20 were abnormal containing one or more simulated nodules, of varying subtlety. Images were independently reviewed by 12 boardcertified radiologists including six chest specialists. The observer performance was measured in terms of ROC and JAFROC scores. For the ROC analysis, readers were asked to rate their degree of suspicion for the presence of nodules by using a confidence rating scale (1-6). JAFROC analysis required the readers to locate and rate as many suspicious areas as they wished using the same scale and resultant data were used to generate Az and FOM scores for ROC and JAFROC analyses respectively. Using Pearson methods, scores of performance were correlated with 7 reader characteristics recorded using a questionnaire. JAFROC analysis showed that improved reader performance was significantly (p<=0.05) linked with chest specialty (p<0.03), hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.03) and chest readings per year (p<0.04). ROC analyses demonstrated only one significant relationship, hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.02).The results of this study have shown that radiologist's performance in the detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs is significantly linked to chest specialty, hours reading per week and number of radiographs read per year. Also, JAFROC is a more powerful predictor of performance as compared to ROC.

  1. Talent in Female Gymnastics: a Survival Analysis Based upon Performance Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pion, J; Lenoir, M; Vandorpe, B; Segers, V

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the link between the anthropometric, physical and motor characteristics assessed during talent identification and dropout in young female gymnasts. 3 cohorts of female gymnasts (n=243; 6-9 years) completed a test battery for talent identification. Performance-levels were monitored over 5 years of competition. Kaplan-Meier and Cox Proportional Hazards analyses were conducted to determine the survival rate and the characteristics that influence dropout respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that only 18% of the female gymnasts that passed the baseline talent identification test survived at the highest competition level 5 years later. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model indicated that gymnasts with a score in the best quartile for a specific characteristic significantly increased chances of survival by 45-129%. These characteristics being: basic motor skills (129%), shoulder strength (96%), leg strength (53%) and 3 gross motor coordination items (45-73%). These results suggest that tests batteries commonly used for talent identification in young female gymnasts may also provide valuable insights into future dropout. Therefore, multidimensional test batteries deserve a prominent place in the selection process. The individual test results should encourage trainers to invest in an early development of basic physical and motor characteristics to prevent attrition.

  2. Performance and operating characteristics of the arc-driven Langley 6-inch shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the arc-driven Langley 6-inch shock tube were determined for driver energies from 0.62 to 5 MJ. Voltage, current and pressure histories of the arc driver were recorded, and driver efficiencies were determined from measured shock velocities. Time-resolved spectra for test gases of air, carbon monoxide, xenon, and a mixture of 80 percent helium and 20 percent hydrogen are presented.

  3. Description and performance characteristics for the neutron Coincidence Collar for the verification of reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1981-08-01

    An active neutron interrogation method has been developed for the measurement of /sup 235/U content in fresh fuel assemblies. The neutron Coincidence Collar uses neutron interrogation with an AmLi neutron source and coincidence counting the induced fission reaction neutrons from the /sup 235/U. This manual describes the system components, operation, and performance characteristics. Applications of the Coincidence Collar to PWR and BWR types of reactor fuel assemblies are described.

  4. Performance characteristics of an isolated coannular plug nozzle at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Burley, J. R., II

    1985-01-01

    The Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of a coannular plug nozzle at static conditions (Mach number of 0) and at Mach numbers from 0.65 to 1.20. Jet total pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to 10.0. Thirty-seven configurations generated by the combination of three geometric variables - plug angle, shroud boattail length (fixed exit radius), and shroud extension length - were tested.

  5. The Design and Performance Characteristics of a Cellular Logic 3-D Image Classification Processor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    number) Pattern Recognition Cellular Automata " Cellular Logic Target Classificatio4 1Neighborhood Transformation Image Processing Laser Radar iASSTRACT...AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CELLULAR LOGIC 3-D IMAGE CLASSIFICATION PROCESSOR 1 &/. , DISSERTATION AFIT/DS/EE/81-1 Lawrence A. Ankeney... CELLULAR LOGIC 3-D IMAGE - -- A&I PRCSRDTIC T B CLASSIFICATION PROCESSOR Unannounced 0 Justificatio b yD t i u i n Lawrence A. Ankeney, B.S., M.S

  6. Aerodynamic and propeller performance characteristics of a propfan-powered, semispan model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Alan D.; Smith, Ronald C.; Wood, Richard D.

    1985-01-01

    A semispan wing/body model with a powered propeller was tested to provide data on a total powerplant installation drag penalty of advanced propfan-powered aircraft. The test objectives were to determine the total power plant installation drag penalty on a representative propfan aircraft; to study the effect of configuration modifications on the installed powerplant drag; and to determine performance characteristics of an advanced design propeller which was mounted on a representative nacelle in the presence of a wing.

  7. Performance characteristics of 1977 American Motors 304 CID engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 AM 304 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  8. Performance characteristics of 1977 General Motors 350 CID engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 GM 350 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  9. Optimization of rotor blades for combined structural, performance, and aeroelastic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Cheng, Y. P.

    1989-01-01

    The strategies whereby helicopter rotor blades can be optimized for combined structural, inertial, dynamic, aeroelastic, and aerodynamic performance characteristics are outlined. There are three key ingredients in the successful execution of such an interdisciplinary optimization. The first is the definition of a satisfactory performance index that combines all aspects of the problem without too many constraints. The second element is the judicious choice of computationally efficient analysis tools for the various quantitative components in both the cost functional and constraints. The third element is an effective strategy for combining the various disciplines either in parallel or sequential optimizations.

  10. Cavitation performance and flow characteristic in a centrifugal pump with inlet guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Zha, L.; Cao, S. L.; Wang, Y. C.; Gui, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of prewhirl regulation by inlet guide vanes (IGVs) on cavitation performance and flow characteristic in a centrifugal pump is investigated. At the impeller inlet, the streamlines are regulated by the IGVs, and the axial velocity distribution is also influenced by the IGVs. Due to the total pressure loss on the IGVs, the cavitation performance of the centrifugal pump degrades. The cavitation area in impeller with IGVs is larger than one without IGVs. The specify values of total pressure loss between the suction pipe inlet and impeller inlet for three cavitation conditions show that the IGVs will generate additional pressure loss, which is related to the IGVs angles and cavitation conditions.

  11. Demand characteristics of music affect performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test Of Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Verpaelst, Celissa C; Standing, Lionel G

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether demand characteristics concerning music can change subjects' performance on the Wonderlic Personnel Test of intelligence. Participants (N= 60) were randomly assigned and informed either that Mozart's music typically enhances cognitive performance or diminishes it. They then completed the Wonderlic Personnel Test while listening to a Mozart piano sonata. The subjects with a positive set answered significantly more items correctly on the test (14%) than those with a negative set (p = .03). This result may hold implications for the study of the 'Mozart effect'.

  12. Study of performance and propagation characteristics of wire and planar structures around human body.

    PubMed

    Aroul, A L Praveen; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Continued miniaturization of electronic devices and technological advancements in wireless communications has made wearable body-centric telemedicine systems viable. Antennas play a crucial role in characterizing the efficiency and reliability of these systems. The performance characteristics such as the radiation pattern, gain, efficiency of the antennas get adversely affected due to the presence of lossy human body tissues. In this paper we investigate the above mentioned performance parameters and radio frequency transmission properties of wire and planar structures operating at ISM frequency band of 2.40-2.50 GHz in the proximity of human body.

  13. Proposed acceptance, qualification, and characterization tests for thin-film PV modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, D.; Mrig, L.; Deblasio, R.; Ross, R.

    1988-01-01

    Details of a proposed test program for PV thin-film modules which the Department of Energy has directed the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to prepare are presented. Results of one of the characterization tests that SERI has performed are also presented. The objective is to establish a common approach to testing modules that will be acceptable to both users and manufacturers. The tests include acceptance, qualification, and characterization tests. Acceptance tests verify that randomly selected modules have similar characteristics. Qualification tests are based on accelerated test methods designed to simulate adverse conditions. Characterization tests provide data on performance in a predefined environment.

  14. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  15. Experimental study on multiple-pulse performance characteristics of ammonium perchlorate/aluminum powder rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Hu, Chunbo; Deng, Zhe; Li, Chao; Sun, Haijun; Cai, Yupeng

    2017-04-01

    The performance characteristics of ammonium perchlorate/aluminum powder rocket motor were investigated experimentally based on a powder rocket testing system. Three-pulse experiment with one hour interval and four-pulse experiment with 15 s interval were conducted with a bi-propellant powder feed system. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the powder rocket for the multiple-pulse operation and the synchronization of powder feed method. The multiple-pulse performance characteristics were analyzed accordingly. It shows that the motor initiates steadily with the mass flow rate of 2.5 g/s for oxidizer powder fluidization gas and 2.0 g/s for fuel powder fluidization gas. The relative standard deviation was adopted to describe the repeatability characteristics of the pulses. The relative standard deviation of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum pistons velocity is 0.072 and 0.007, and that of oxidizer-fuel mass feed ratio is 0.052. The motor performed well with good repeatability of combustor pressure, start-up response and combustion efficiency during the multiple-pulse tests. Low frequency combustion pressure oscillations,3.6-4.2 Hz with amplitudes up to 18.7% of mean combustor pressure, were encountered. The phenomenon appeared seriously at first pulse, then alleviated at the following pulses. Further analysis of test results showed that increasing chamber pressure could ameliorate the oscillation.

  16. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).

  17. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  18. Effects of Charitable Versus Monetary Incentives on the Acceptance of and Adherence to a Pedometer-Based Health Intervention: Study Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kehr, Flavius; Wahle, Fabian; Elser, Niklas; Fleisch, Elgar

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has so far benefited from the use of pedometers in physical activity interventions. However, when public health institutions (eg, insurance companies) implement pedometer-based interventions in practice, people may refrain from participating due to privacy concerns. This might greatly limit the applicability of such interventions. Financial incentives have been successfully used to influence both health behavior and privacy concerns, and may thus have a beneficial effect on the acceptance of pedometer-based interventions. Objective This paper presents the design and baseline characteristics of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that seeks to examine the effect of financial incentives on the acceptance of and adherence to a pedometer-based physical activity intervention offered by a health insurance company. Methods More than 18,000 customers of a large Swiss health insurance company were allocated to a financial incentive, a charitable incentive, or a control group and invited to participate in a health prevention program. Participants used a pedometer to track their daily physical activity over the course of 6 months. A Web-based questionnaire was administered at the beginning and at the end of the intervention and additional data was provided by the insurance company. The primary outcome of the study will be the participation rate, secondary outcomes will be adherence to the prevention program, physical activity, and health status of the participants among others. Results Baseline characteristics indicate that residence of participants, baseline physical activity, and subjective health should be used as covariates in the statistical analysis of the secondary outcomes of the study. Conclusions This is the first study in western cultures testing the effectiveness of financial incentives with regard to a pedometer-based health intervention offered by a large health insurer to their customers. Given that the incentives prove to be effective

  19. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  20. Any link between sexual inactivity and treadle pump performance characteristics: The Malawi case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Chidanti-Malunga; Yamikani, Malunga

    In mitigating the effects of climate change in Malawi, government promotes the use of low cost irrigation technologies to small-scale farmers, especially in wetlands where water is available. The treadle pump is one such technology. The pump is a manual water lifting device operated by feet. Although the technology has been widely accepted by small-scale farmers, there are documented reports that some farmers abandon the technology, preferring other technologies such as river diversion. One theory for the abandonment is that female farmers claim that the technology makes their male counterparts sexually inactive. This research seeks to find an explanation to the misconception. The study analyzed the physical characteristics of the treadle pump and its users. The results show that the technology is male-dominated (30% were females out of a sample of 40). The results also show that the technology is labor-intensive with very small discharge rates (an average of 0.78 l/s) achieved regardless of the BMI of the operator. With such small discharge rates, in order to fulfill irrigation requirements of a crop, the operator has to pump for long hours. This exercise makes men naturally tired, perhaps making them sexually inactive as well.

  1. Class modality, student characteristics, and performance in a community college introductory STEM course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogle, Thomas Ty

    Research on introductory STEM course performance has indicated that student characteristics (age, ethnicity and gender) and Grade Point Average (G.P.A.) can be predictive of student performance, and by implication, a correlation among these factors can help determine course design interventions to help certain types of students perform well in introductory STEM courses. The basis of this study was a community college Visual Basic programming course taught in both online and hybrid format. Beginning students in this course represented a diverse population residing in a large, mid-western, city and surrounding communities. Many of these students were defined as "at-Risk" or "non-traditional, which generally means any combination of socio-economic, cultural, family and employment factors that indicate a student is non-traditional. Research has shown these students struggle academically in technologically dense STEM courses, and may require student services and support to achieve their individual performance goals. The overall number in the study range was 392 distance students and 287 blended course students. The main question of this research was to determine to what extent student characteristics in a community college context, and previous success, as measured in overall G.P.A., were related to course performance in an introductory Visual Basic programming (STEM) course; and, whether or not a combination of these factors and course modality was predictive of success. The study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental design to assess whether students' course performance was linked to course modality, student characteristics and overall G.P.A. The results indicated that the only predictor of student performance was overall G.P.A. Despite the research analyzed in Chapter 2, there was no statistically significant relationship to modality, age, ethnicity, or gender to performance in the course. Cognitive load is significant in a computer programming course and it

  2. Design Characteristics Influence Performance of Clinical Prediction Rules in Validation: A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jong-Wook; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Urreta, Iratxe; Burls, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new clinical prediction rules are derived and validated. But the design and reporting quality of clinical prediction research has been less than optimal. We aimed to assess whether design characteristics of validation studies were associated with the overestimation of clinical prediction rules’ performance. We also aimed to evaluate whether validation studies clearly reported important methodological characteristics. Methods Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of clinical prediction rule studies published between 2006 and 2010. Data were extracted from the eligible validation studies included in the systematic reviews. A meta-analytic meta-epidemiological approach was used to assess the influence of design characteristics on predictive performance. From each validation study, it was assessed whether 7 design and 7 reporting characteristics were properly described. Results A total of 287 validation studies of clinical prediction rule were collected from 15 systematic reviews (31 meta-analyses). Validation studies using case-control design produced a summary diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 2.2 times (95% CI: 1.2–4.3) larger than validation studies using cohort design and unclear design. When differential verification was used, the summary DOR was overestimated by twofold (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to complete, partial and unclear verification. The summary RDOR of validation studies with inadequate sample size was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to studies with adequate sample size. Study site, reliability, and clinical prediction rule was adequately described in 10.1%, 9.4%, and 7.0% of validation studies respectively. Conclusion Validation studies with design shortcomings may overestimate the performance of clinical prediction rules. The quality of reporting among studies validating clinical prediction rules needs to be improved. PMID:26730980

  3. The Physical and Athletic Performance Characteristics of Division I Collegiate Female Soccer Players by Position.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Orjalo, Ashley J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Risso, Fabrice G; Davis, DeShaun L; Crelling, Jeff B; Lockwood, John R; Jalilvand, Farzad

    2016-07-07

    Playing positions in soccer can exhibit different movement demands during a match, contributing to variations in physical and performance characteristics. NCAA soccer features different substitution rules when compared to FIFA-sanctioned matches, which could influence each players' characteristics. Therefore, this study determined the athletic performance characteristics of Division I female soccer players. Twenty-six players (3 goalkeepers; 8 defenders; 10 midfielders; 5 forwards) from the same squad completed assessments of: lower-body power (vertical and standing broad jump); linear (0-5, 0-10, 0-30 meter [m] sprint intervals) and change-of-direction (pro-agility shuttle; Arrowhead change-of-direction speed test) speed; and soccer-specific fitness (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test [YYIRT] levels 1 and 2). Players were split into position groups, and a Kruskal-Wallis H test with post hoc pairwise analyses (p < 0.05) calculated significant between-group differences. There were no differences in age, height, or body mass between the positions. Midfielders had a faster 0-5 m time compared to the defenders (p = 0.017), and the goalkeepers (p = 0.030). The defenders (p = 0.011) and midfielders (p = 0.013) covered a greater YYIRT2 distance compared to the goalkeepers. There were no other significant between-position differences. Overall, Division I collegiate female players from the same squad demonstrated similar characteristics as measured by soccer-specific performance tests, which could allow for flexibility in position assignments. However, a relatively homogenous squad could also indicate commonality in training prescription, particularly regarding acceleration and high-intensity running. Strength and conditioning coaches may have to consider the specific movement demands of individual positions when training these capacities.

  4. Triple-head gamma camera PET: system overview and performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grosev, D; Loncarić, S; Vandenberghe, S; Dodig, D

    2002-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is currently performed using either a dedicated PET scanner or scintillation gamma camera equipped with electronic circuitry for coincidence detection of 511 keV annihilation quanta (gamma camera PET system). Although the resolution limits of these two instruments are comparable, the sensitivity and count rate performance of the gamma camera PET system are several times lower than that of the PET scanner. Most gamma camera PET systems are manufactured as dual-detector systems capable of performing dual-head coincidence imaging. One possible step towards the improvement of the sensitivity of the gamma camera PET system is to add another detector head. This work investigates the characteristics of one such triple-head gamma camera PET system capable of performing triple-head coincidence imaging. The following performance characteristics of the system were assessed: spatial resolution, sensitivity, count rate performance. The spatial resolution, expressed as the full width at half-maximum (FWHM), at 1 cm radius is 5.9 mm; at 10 cm radius, the transverse radial resolution is 5.3 mm, whilst the transverse tangential and axial resolutions are 8.9 mm and 13.3 mm, respectively. The sensitivity for a standard cylindrical phantom is 255 counts.s(-1).MBq*(-1)), using a 30% width photopeak energy window. An increase of 35% in the PET sensitivity is achievable by opening an additional 30% width energy window in the Compton region. The count rate in coincidence mode, at the upper limit of the systems optimal performance, is 45 kc.s(-1) (kc=kilocounts) using the photopeak energy window only, and increases to 60 kc.s(-1) using the photopeak + Compton windows. Sensitivity results are compared with published data for a similar dual-head detector system.

  5. Physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and on-field performances of soccer goalkeepers.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2011-12-01

    The soccer goalkeeper (GK) is required to perform strenuous actions during practice sessions and actual games. One of the objectives of those professionals who work with GKs is to obtain relevant information on physical characteristics and physiological attributes of GKs, and to use it effectively when planning training programs for them. This article has three purposes: (a) to review a series of studies (n = 23) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and on-field performances of soccer GKs; (b) to outline a number of methodological limitations and research concerns associated with these studies; and (c) to suggest several practical recommendations for soccer coaches who work with GKs. Four main findings emerged from our review: (a) professional adult GKs usually are over 180 cm tall and have a body mass of over 77 kg; (b) studies on agility and speed produced mixed results, with some showing similar values between GKs and field players and others showing reduced performance in GKs; (c) GKs usually have higher vertical jump values when compared with players playing the various field positions; (d) GKs cover approximately 5.5 km during a game, mostly by walking and jogging. Four methodological limitations and research concerns associated with the reviewed studies were discussed, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach and the lack of on-field performance studies. Three practical recommendations are made for coaches, one of which is that coaches should adopt a careful approach when selecting testing protocols and devices for the assessment of GKs' physiological attributes.

  6. Heat Shielding Characteristics and Thermostructural Performance of a Superalloy Honeycomb Sandwich Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Heat-transfer, thermal bending, and mechanical buckling analyses have been performed on a superalloy "honeycomb" thermal protection system (TPS) for future hypersonic flight vehicles. The studies focus on the effect of honeycomb cell geometry on the TPS heat-shielding performance, honeycomb cell wall buckling characteristics, and the effect of boundary conditions on the TPS thermal bending behavior. The results of the study show that the heat-shielding performance of a TPS panel is very sensitive to change in honeycomb core depth, but insensitive to change in honeycomb cell cross-sectional shape. The thermal deformations and thermal stresses in the TPS panel are found to be very sensitive to the edge support conditions. Slight corrugation of the honeycomb cell walls can greatly increase their buckling strength.

  7. Parametric performance characteristics and treatment of temperature coefficients of silicon solar cells for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. E.; Yasui, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    The electrical performance characteristics of 2 and 10 ohms-cm N/P-type silicon solar cells were measured at simulated solar intensities of 5, 50, 100, 140, 250, 400, 550, 700, and 850 mW/sq cm. At each intensity, the temperature was varied in increments of 20 deg between extremes of +160 and -160 C. Short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power are presented in graphical format. Also described are three methods for predicting solar cell electrical performance as a function of temperature and intensity. Two of the methods are suitable for use at extreme temperature-intensity conditions. These methods were used sucessfully to predict the performance of the transducer on board the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft.

  8. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  9. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  10. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  11. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  12. Muscle characteristics and plasma lactate and ammonia response after racing in Standardbred trotters: relation to performance.

    PubMed

    Ronéus, N; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A; Persson, S

    1999-03-01

    Blood samples from the jugular vein and muscle biopsies (gluteus medius) in 25 Standardbred trotters were obtained 5-10 min after racing. The biopsies were analysed for fibre type composition and enzymatic profile and blood samples for plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations. Muscle characteristics, plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations after racing were compared with each horse's individual performance index (IPI). The IPI is calculated annually from the individual horse's racing performance (% placing 1, 2 or 3, total annual earnings, average earning per start, and best racing record), respectively, converted to and expressed as a percentage deviation from the average record of the same sex and age group. The IPI values were 100-116. Plasma lactate concentrations were 15.0-42.7 mmol/l (mean 31.3 mmol/l) and ammonia concentrations 65-210 micromol/l (mean 141 micromol/l) after racing. Fibre type composition varied among horses (range 9-27% for Type I, 32-54% for Type IIA, and 27-46% for Type IIB). Fibre type composition, enzyme activities, plasma lactate and ammonia responses to racing were not correlated to IPI. Ten of the horses also performed a submaximal test on the track, consisting of 5 incremental 1000 m heats at approximate speeds of 9.1, 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, and 11.1 m/s. Immediately after each heat a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein for plasma lactate analysis. Plasma lactate response to exercise differed between horses, but no correlation was seen with IPI. Muscle characteristics, plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations after racing and lactate response to a submaximal track test did not correlate with current race performance expressed as IPI in a group of horses with average or better performance capacity at the time of testing. Analysis of lactate and ammonia in blood after racing is not a valuable tool to predict an individual performance index.

  13. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling."

  14. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a variable-geometry spacecraft designed for high hypersonic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made in the high Mach number test section of the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel on a variable-geometry high hypersonic performance spacecraft concept at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.63. The basic lifting body is designed for hypersonic lift-drag ratio near 3.0. The variable-geometry feature is a single-pivot two-position high wing which is deployed at subsonic speeds to improve vehicle landing characteristics. For the present investigation the wing was maintained in a stowed position, and the effects of horizontal stabilizer dihedral, elevon control effectiveness, and the addition of either a conventional single vertical tail or dorsal-fin-type vertical stabilizers on the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics were studied.

  15. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. R.; Ye, X. M.; Lin, G. X.; Brück, E.

    2006-05-01

    A general model of an irreversible Ericsson refrigeration cycle employing paramagnetic materials as the working substance is presented, in which multi-irreversibilities such as finite-rate heat transfer, regenerative loss, heat leak, efficiency of regenerator and internal irreversibility resulting from magnetic working substances are taken into account. On the basis of the general thermodynamic properties of paramagnetic materials and the optimal-control theory, the optimal mathematical expressions of cooling load, coefficient of performance and power input of the irreversible Ericsson refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic materials as the working substance are derived. By means of a numerical approach, the influence of the heat leak, the internal irreversibility, the efficiency of regenerator, the ratio of the magnetic fields on the cyclic performance characteristics of the refrigeration cycle are revealed and discussed in detail. Some important performance bounds, e.g. the maximum cooling load and the corresponding coefficient of performance, the maximum coefficient of performance and the corresponding cooling load, are determined and evaluated. Furthermore, several special cases may be deduced from the primary results in this paper. The conclusions obtained in the present paper are more general and useful than those existing in literature and can provide some new important information for the optimal design and performance improvement of magnetic refrigerators.

  16. Correlation of denitrification-accepted fraction of electrons with NAD(P)H fluorescence for Pseudomonas aeruginosa performing simultaneous denitrification and respiration at extremely low dissolved oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fan; Xia, Qing; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2004-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis airway infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms a microaerobic biofilm and undergoes significant physiological changes. It is important to understand the bacterium's metabolism at microaerobic conditions. In this work, the culture properties and two indicators (the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and an NAD(P)H fluorescence fraction) for the culture's "fractional approach" to a fully anaerobic denitrifying state were examined in continuous cultures with practically zero DO but different aeration rates. With decreasing aeration, specific OUR decreased while specific NAR and NIR increased and kept Y(ATP/S) relatively constant. P. aeruginosa thus appeared to effectively compensate for energy generation at microaerobic conditions with denitrification. At the studied dilution rate of 0.06 h(-1), the maximum specific OUR was 2.8 mmol O2/g cells-h and the Monod constant for DO, in the presence of nitrate, was extremely low (<0.001 mg/L). The cell yield Y(X/S) increased significantly (from 0.24 to 0.34) with increasing aeration, attributed to a roughly opposite trend of Y(ATP/X) (ATP generation required for cell growth). As for the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and the fluorescence fraction, both decreased with increasing aeration as expected. The two fractions, however, were not directly proportional. The fluorescence fraction changed more rapidly than the e- fraction at very low aeration rates, whereas the opposite was true at higher aeration. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using online NAD(P)H fluorescence to monitor sensitive changes of cellular physiology and provided insights to the shift of e- -accepting mechanisms of P. aeruginosa under microaerobic conditions.

  17. Generic anthropometric and performance characteristics among elite adolescent boys in nine different sports.

    PubMed

    Pion, Johan; Segers, Veerle; Fransen, Job; Debuyck, Gijs; Deprez, Dieter; Haerens, Leen; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Flemish Sports Compass (FSC), a non-sport-specific generic testing battery. It was hypothesised that a set of 22 tests would have sufficient discriminant power to allocate athletes to their own sport based on a unique combination of test scores. First, discriminant analyses were applied to the 22 tests of anthropometry, physical fitness and motor coordination in 141 boys under age 18 (16.1 ± 0.8 years) and post age at peak height velocity (maturity offset = 2.674 ± 0.926) from Flemish Top Sport Academies for badminton, basketball, gymnastics, handball, judo, soccer, table tennis, triathlon and volleyball. Second, nine sequential discriminant analyses were used to assess the ability of a set of relevant performance characteristics classifying participants and non-participants for the respective sports. Discriminant analyses resulted in a 96.4% correct classification of all participants for the nine different sports. When focusing on relevant performance characteristics, 80.1% to 97.2% of the total test sample was classified correctly within their respective disciplines. The discriminating characteristics were briefly the following: flexibility in gymnastics, explosive lower-limb strength in badminton and volleyball, speed and agility in badminton, judo, soccer and volleyball, upper-body strength in badminton, basketball and gymnastics, cardiorespiratory endurance in triathletes, dribbling skills in handball, basketball and soccer and overhead-throwing skills in badminton and volleyball. The generic talent characteristics of the FSC enable the distinction of adolescent boys according to their particular sport. Implications for talent programmes are discussed.

  18. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  19. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt Transmitter Experiment Package for CTS. [Communication Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured performance characteristics from ground test of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite are presented. The experiment package consists of a 200 W Output Stage Tube (OST) powered by a Power Processing System (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 per cent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 per cent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, intermodulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  20. Deployment and Performance Characteristics of 5-Foot Diameter Attached Inflatable Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Deployment and Performance Characteristics of 5-Foot Diameter (1.5m) Attached Inflatable Decelerators from Mach Numbers 2.2-4.4. Deployment characteristics and steady-state performance data were obtained over the Mach number range from 2.2 to 4.4 and at angles of attack from 0 degrees to l0 degrees. All attached inflatable decelerator (AID) models deployed successfully and exhibited flutter-free performance after deployment. Shock loads commonly associated with inflation of parachutes during deployment were not experienced. Force and moment data and ram-air pressure data were obtained throughout the Mach number range and at angles of attack from 0 degrees to l0 degrees. The high drag coefficient of 1.14 was in good agreement with the value predicted by the theory used in the design and indicated other AID shapes may be designed on a rational basis with a high degree of confidence. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031006. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  1. Performance characteristics of two immunoassays for the measurement of urinary luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Neil; Saudan, Christophe; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2007-01-04

    Urine luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration is routinely measured in all anti-doping laboratories to exclude recombinant LH abuse and to test any potential alteration of the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. Before establishing proper reference values among professional top level athletes, an extended validation of two commercial immunoassays for LH measurements was performed. Elecsys 1010 and Access are two automated immunoanalyzers for central laboratories. The limit of detection, the limit of quantification, intra-laboratory, inter-technique correlation, precision, accuracy were determined. Furthermore, reference urinary LH distribution values for male and female top level athletes were determined. Stability studies of LH in urine following freezing and thawing cycles (n=3) as well as storage conditions at room temperature, 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C were performed. Male and female subjects showed important urinary corrected (specific gravity correction) LH distribution differences. Intra-assay precision for the Access analyzer was less than 8.0% whereas inter-assay was close to 11%. Intra and inter-assay precision for the Elecsys 1010 analyzer was slightly better. A good inter-technique correlation was obtained ([Elecsys 1010]=1.0434[Access]+1.146, R=0.953). No urinary LH loss was observed after two freezing and thawing cycles. On the other hand, time and bad storage conditions such as elevated temperature can deteriorate rapidly urinary LH. In conclusion, both analyzers showed acceptable performances and are suitable for screening anti-doping analyses. Each anti-doping laboratory has to settle its own reference distribution values and then determine when to launch a confirmation procedure. This takes place then depending on the positivity criteria the anti-doping laboratory has established and validated. This study also clearly showed that the time delay between the urine collection and the analysis should be reduced as much as possible and urine samples should be

  2. Performance characteristics of mobile MOSFET dosimeter for kilovoltage X-rays used in image guided radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. Sathish; Singh, I. Rabi Raja; Sharma, S. D.; Ravindran, B. Paul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray beams in order to perform the in vivo dosimetry during image guidance in radiotherapy. The performance characteristics of high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters were investigated for 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, and 125 kV X-ray beams used for imaging in radiotherapy. This study was performed using Clinac 2100 C/D medical electron linear accelerator with on-board imaging and kV cone beam computed tomography system. The characteristics studied in this work include energy dependence, angular dependence, and linearity. The X-ray beam outputs were measured as per American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG 61 recommendations using PTW parallel plate (PP) ionization chamber, which was calibrated in terms of air kerma (Nk) by the National Standard Laboratory. The MOSFET dosimeters were calibrated against the PP ionization chamber for all the kV X-ray beams and the calibration coefficient was found to be 0.11 cGy/mV with a standard deviation of about ±1%. The response of MOSFET was found to be energy independent for the kV X-ray energies used in this study. The response of the MOSFET dosimeter was also found independent of angle of incidence for the gantry angles in the range of 0° to 360° in-air as well as at 3 cm depth in tissue equivalent phantom. PMID:26500397

  3. The seasonal variations in anthropometric and performance characteristics of elite inter county Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Richard A; Collins, Kieran

    2017-02-13

    There is limited research assessing the anthropometric and performance variations in elite Gaelic football. The aim of the current study was to assess the anthropometric and performance characteristics of an elite inter-county squad within a season. Following ethical approval and informed consent 26 participants were assessed at the start of pre-season (November), following early in-season (January) and mid-season (March). Measurements included stature, body mass, sum of 8 skinfold sites (ΣSkf8), estimated body fat (bf%), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), 5-, 10- and 20- m sprint time, upper and lower body strength (1RM) and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine seasonal and positional variations. Anthropometric variations were observed with an overall increase in participants' body mass and a concomitant decrease in ΣSkf8 and bf% (-21.5%, p = 0.002, η = 0.15; -1.43 %, p = 0.004, η = 0.13). Performance variations showed improvements in sprint time over 5- (p = 0.001, η = 0.19) and 10-m (p = 0.008, η = 0.11), SJ (p = 0.013, η = 0.1), CMJ (p = 0.013, η = 0.1) height and Yo-Yo IRT2 (p < 0.001, η = 0.34) noted from pre-season to mid-season. Significant anthropometric variations are observed between the pre-season and early in-season, meanwhile significant performance variations are observed between the pre-season and mid-season. Distinct positional variations are evident for both anthropometric and performance characteristics at all time points. Applied practitioners should consider these findings when implementing a seasonal training plan.

  4. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  5. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  6. Wearing knee wraps affects mechanical output and performance characteristics of back squat exercise.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Carden, Patrick J C; Shorter, Kath A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing knee wraps on mechanical output and performance characteristics of back squat exercise. Ten resistance trained men (back squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 160.5 ± 18.4 kg) performed 6 single back squats with 80% 1RM, 3 wearing knee wraps, 3 without. Mechanical output was obtained from ground reaction force, performance characteristics from digitized motion footage obtained from a single high-speed digital camera. Wearing knee wraps led to a 39% reduction (0.09 compared with 0.11 m, p = 0.037) in horizontal barbell displacement that continued during the lifting phase. Lowering phase vertical impulse remained within 1% across conditions; however, the lowering phase was performed 45% faster (1.13 compared with 1.57 seconds). This demonstrated that vertical force applied to the center of mass during the lowering phase was considerably larger and was likely a consequence of the generation and storage of elastic energy within the knee wrap. Subsequent vertical impulse applied to the center of mass was 10% greater (192 compared with 169 N·s, p = 0.018). Mechanical work involved in vertically displacing the center of mass was performed 20% faster and was reflected by a 10% increase in peak power (2,121 compared with 1,841 W, p = 0.019). The elastic properties of knee wraps increased mechanical output but altered back squat technique in a way that is likely to alter the musculature targeted by the exercise and possibly compromise the integrity of the knee joint. Knee wraps should not be worn during the strength and condition process, and perceived weakness in the knee joint should be assessed and treated.

  7. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg−1 means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage period, which may be considered this amine as a quality index for fermented milks. The other principal biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine) were produced on days 1–5 of storage, and thereafter decreased. At the end of the 10th day, these amines, respectively, showed values of fermented cow's milk 20.26, 29.09, 17.97, and 82.07 mg kg−1; and values of fermented goat's milk 22.92, 29.09, 34.85, and 53.85 mg kg−1, in fermented cow's and goat's milk. Fermented cow's milk was well accepted compared to fermented goat's milk. The results suggested that the content of biogenic amines may be a criterion for selecting lactic acid bacteria used to produce fermented milks. PMID:25987991

  8. Improving the performance of predicting users' subjective evaluation characteristics to reduce their fatigue in IEC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shangfei; Takagi, Hideyuki

    2005-01-01

    Users' fatigue is the biggest technological hurdle facing Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC). This paper introduces the idea of "absolute scale" and "neighbour scale" to improve the performance of predicting users' subjective evaluation characteristics in IEC, and thus it will accelerate EC convergence and reduce users' fatigue. We experimentally evaluate the effect of the proposed method using two benchmark functions. The experimental results show that the convergence speed of IEC using the proposed predictor, which learns from absolute evaluation data, is much faster than the conventional one, which learns from relative data, especially in early generations. Also, IEC with predictors that use recent data are more effective than those which use all past data.

  9. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of BVA Resonators under Static and Dynamic Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    AO-AI05 064 FREQUENCY AND TIME SYSTEMS INC BEVERLY MA F/S 9/1. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF BVA RESONATORS--ETC(UI AUG 81 D A...HARACTERISTICS OF BVA ESONATORS UNDER STATIC AND YNAMIC CONDITIONS ecuency and Time Systems, Inc. DTIC ELECTE DonaW A. Emmons C APIROVED FOR PUlIC RELEASE... Time Systems, Inc. (FTS) relatinq to a novel quartz frequency control element, the BVA resonator. The pur- pose of the study has been to evaluate the

  10. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2016-11-05

    This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level non-professional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top- and middle-level players in Japan in order to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. One hundred sixty-eight American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into one of three position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and non-selected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the three position groups. Compared with non-selected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and non-selected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND) , where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially

  11. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  12. Electrical performance characteristics of high power converters for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.

    1989-01-01

    The first goal of this project was to investigate various converters that would be suitable for processing electric power derived from a nuclear reactor. The implementation is indicated of a 20 kHz system that includes a source converter, a ballast converter, and a fixed frequency converter for generating the 20 kHz output. This system can be converted to dc simply by removing the fixed frequency converter. This present study emphasized the design and testing of the source and ballast converters. A push-pull current-fed (PPCF) design was selected for the source converter, and a 2.7 kW version of this was implemented using three 900 watt modules in parallel. The characteristic equation for two converters in parallel was derived, but this analysis did not yield any experimental methods for measuring relative stability. The three source modules were first tested individually and then in parallel as a 2.7 kW system. All tests proved to be satisfactory; the system was stable; efficiency and regulation were acceptable; and the system was fault tolerant. The design of a ballast-load converter, which was operated as a shunt regulator, was investigated. The proposed power circuit is suitable for use with BJTs because proportional base drive is easily implemented. A control circuit which minimizes switching frequency ripple and automatically bypasses a faulty shunt section was developed. A nonlinear state-space-averaged model of the shunt regulator was developed and shown to produce an accurate incremental (small-signal) dynamic model, even though the usual state-space-averaging assumptions were not met. The nonlinear model was also shown to be useful for large-signal dynamic simulation using PSpice.

  13. The impact of green roof ageing on substrate characteristics and hydrological performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-Ville, Simon; Menon, Manoj; Jia, Xiaodong; Reed, George; Stovin, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs contribute to stormwater management through the retention of rainfall and the detention of runoff. However, there is very limited knowledge concerning the evolution of green roof hydrological performance with system age. This study presents a non-invasive technique which allows for repeatable determination of key substrate characteristics over time, and evaluates the impact of observed substrate changes on hydrological performance. The physical properties of 12 green roof substrate cores have been evaluated using non-invasive X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging. The cores comprised three replicates of two contrasting substrate types at two different ages: unused virgin samples; and 5-year-old samples from existing green roof test beds. Whilst significant structural differences (density, pore and particle sizes, tortuosity) between virgin and aged samples of a crushed brick substrate were observed, these differences did not significantly affect hydrological characteristics (maximum water holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity). A contrasting substrate based upon a light expanded clay aggregate experienced increases in the number of fine particles and pores over time, which led to increases in maximum water holding capacity of 7%. In both substrates, the saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated from the XMT images was lower in aged compared with virgin samples. Comparisons between physically-derived and XMT-derived substrate hydrological properties showed that similar values and trends in the data were identified, confirming the suitability of the non-invasive XMT technique for monitoring changes in engineered substrates over time. The observed effects of ageing on hydrological performance were modelled as two distinct hydrological processes, retention and detention. Retention performance was determined via a moisture-flux model using physically-derived values of virgin and aged maximum water holding capacity. Increased water holding

  14. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  15. Thermal performance of multilayer insulations. [gas evacuation characteristics of three selected multilayer insulation composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. W.; Cunnington, G. R.; Glassford, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted in order to extend previous knowledge of the thermal performance and gas evacuation characteristics of three selected multilayer insulation (MLI) composites. Flat plate calorimeter heat flux measurements were obtained for 20- and 80- shield specimens using three representative layer densities over boundary temperatures ranging from 39 K (70 R) to 389 K (700 R). Laboratory gas evacuation tests were performed on representative specimens of each MLI composite after initially purging them with helium, nitrogen, or argon gases. In these tests, the specimens were maintained at temperatures between 128 K (230 R) and 300 K (540 R). Based on the results of the laboratory-scale tests, a composite MLI system consisting of 112 unperforated, double-aluminized Mylar reflective shields and 113 water preconditioned silk net spacer pairs was fabricated and installed on a 1.22-m-(4-ft-) diameter calorimeter tank.

  16. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment package consists of a 200 W output stage tube (OST) powered by a power processing system (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 percent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 percent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, inter-modulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  17. Predicting performance on the Columbia Card Task: effects of personality characteristics, mood, and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Melissa T

    2015-04-01

    Behavioral measures of risky decision making are frequently used by researchers and clinicians; however, most of these measures are strongly associated with personality characteristics and state mood. The present study sought to examine personality, mood, and executive function predictors of performance on a newer measure of decision making, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Participants were 489 undergraduate students who completed either the hot or cold version of the CCT as well as measures of state mood, impulsive sensation seeking, behavioral inhibition and activation systems, and executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sort Task; Digit Span). Results indicated that performance on the CCT-cold was predicted by Wisconsin Card Sort Task errors, and Digit Span predicted the CCT-hot. In addition, significant correlations were found between the CCT information use variables and the predictor variables. Implications for the utility of the CCT as a clinical instrument and its relationship with other measures of decision making are discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Glide-Back Performance of Langley Glide-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Covell, Peter F.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA-Langley Research Center is conducting system level studies on an-house concept of a small launch vehicle to address NASA's needs for rapid deployment of small payloads to Low Earth Orbit. The vehicle concept is a three-stage system with a reusable first stage and expendable upper stages. The reusable first stage booster, which glides back to launch site after staging around Mach 3 is named the Langley Glide-Back Booster (LGBB). This paper discusses the aerodynamic characteristics of the LGBB from subsonic to supersonic speeds, development of the aerodynamic database and application of this database to evaluate the glide back performance of the LGBB. The aerodynamic database was assembled using a combination of wind tunnel test data and engineering level analysis. The glide back performance of the LGBB was evaluated using a trajectory optimization code and subject to constraints on angle of attack, dynamic pressure and normal acceleration.

  19. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.

  20. Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Jennings, J S; Depenbusch, B E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alternative finishing strategies on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Beef steers (64 pens; 8 steers/pen) were allocated to a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Factor 1 consisted of diet, with cattle fed a conventional (CON) diet or a diet consisting of Programmed Nutrition Beef Program (PN) supplements. The PN treatment included Programmed Nutrition Beef Receiver fed from d 1 through 20 of feeding and Programmed Nutrition Beef Finisher fed from d 21 to harvest. Factor 2 evaluated the presence (EGP+) or absence (EGP-) of exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) in the production system. Steers in the EGP+ treatments were initially implanted with Component E-S, reimplanted with Component TE-IS, and fed 400 mg·animal·dof ractopamine hydrochloride for the final 28 d before harvest. Steers were harvested on d 175, and strip loins were removed from 2 carcasses selected at random from each pen for transport to Kansas State University. One 1.27-cm-thick steak was removed from the anterior face for proximate and long-chain fatty acid analysis. There were no diet × ExGP interactions ( > 0.10) for feedlot performance except for DMI ( = 0.02). Steers in the PN/EGP+ treatment consumed more feed than all other treatments ( < 0.05). Both diet and ExGP affected DMI ( < 0.05), with PN and EGP+ steers consuming more feed than their contemporaries. Gain:feed and ADG were unaffected ( > 0.10) by diet, but ExGP improved these measures ( < 0.01). There were no diet × ExGP interactions for carcass characteristics except KPH fat and percentages of yield grade 3 and 4 carcasses ( < 0.05). Diet affected total incidence of liver abscesses because PN steers had a greater ( = 0.05) incidence of liver abscesses than steers in the CON treatment. Diet did not affect the other carcass characteristics ( > 0.10). Use of ExGP increased ( < 0.05) HCW, LM area, and 12th-rib fat but did

  1. Standardization based on human factors for 3D display: performance characteristics and measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Shin-ichi; Ujike, Hiroyasu; Hamagishi, Goro; Taira, Kazuki; Koike, Takafumi; Kato, Chiaki; Nomura, Toshio; Horikoshi, Tsutomu; Mashitani, Ken; Yuuki, Akimasa; Izumi, Kuniaki; Hisatake, Yuzo; Watanabe, Naoko; Umezu, Naoaki; Nakano, Yoshihiko

    2010-02-01

    We are engaged in international standardization activities for 3D displays. We consider that for a sound development of 3D displays' market, the standards should be based on not only mechanism of 3D displays, but also human factors for stereopsis. However, we think that there is no common understanding on what the 3D display should be and that the situation makes developing the standards difficult. In this paper, to understand the mechanism and human factors, we focus on a double image, which occurs in some conditions on an autostereoscopic display. Although the double image is generally considered as an unwanted effect, we consider that whether the double image is unwanted or not depends on the situation and that there are some allowable double images. We tried to classify the double images into the unwanted and the allowable in terms of the display mechanism and visual ergonomics for stereopsis. The issues associated with the double image are closely related to performance characteristics for the autostereoscopic display. We also propose performance characteristics, measurement and analysis methods to represent interocular crosstalk and motion parallax.

  2. Effects of Elevated Crude Glycerin Concentrations on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Steers

    PubMed Central

    Chanjula, P.; Raungprim, T.; Yimmongkol, S.; Poonko, S.; Majarune, S.; Maitreejet, W.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty crossbred steers (400±40.1 kg of initial body weight) were used to assess the effects of a dietary supplementation with crude glycerin (CG) as a substitute for corn grain on performance, carcass traits, and meat quality. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were offered to the experimental animals (5 steers per treatment) for 121 days using randomized complete block design. The steers individually received dietary treatments containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 21% of CG (88.91% pure) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. Weight gain and carcass traits were determined. At the end of the experimental period, the harvest data and carcass characteristics of the steers were recorded, and meat quality was determined. No significant effect of CG inclusion was observed in any of the growth performance and carcass characteristics traits studied. Also, there were no apparent effects of diets (p>0.05) on meat quality (pH, water holding capacity, drip losses, and cooking losses). The study concluded that CG could be used as a substitute for corn grain up to the level of approximately 21% of DM in the diets of finishing steers. PMID:26732331

  3. Altitude Performance and Operational Characteristics of an XT38-A-2 Turboprop Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Essig, R H; Schulze, F W

    1954-01-01

    The overall engine performance and the starting and windmilling characteristics of an XT38-A-2 turboprop engine have been investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. The simulated flight conditions ranged from altitudes of 5000 to 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.30 and from Mach numbers of 0.301 to 0.557 at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The engine, equipped with a standard-area exhaust nozzle, was operated with independent control of fuel flow and propeller pitch; operation was thereby allowed over a wide range of engine conditions. Windmilling characteristics were obtained at altitudes of 15,000 feet and 35,000 feet. Analysis of the performance maps obtained at each flight condition revealed that both altitude and flight Mach number had a major effect on corrected engine variables. The large reductions in corrected shaft horsepower occurring when the altitude was increased were the result of decreases in compressor and turbine efficiencies. Windmilling engine starts were made at altitudes as high as 35,000 feet at an engine speed of 2000 rpm.

  4. Performance characteristics of countercurrent separation in analysis of natural products of agricultural significance.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-01-09

    A standard test mix consisting of 21 commercially available natural products of agricultural significance, termed the GUESSmix, was employed to measure the countercurrent chromatography performance characteristics of a very popular quaternary solvent system family made up of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat). The polarity range of the GUESSmix combined with the elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography (EECCC) technique and the newly developed reciprocal symmetry (ReS) and reciprocal shifted symmetry (ReSS) plots allow liquid-liquid distribution ratios ( K D) to be plotted for every compound eluted on a scale of zero to infinity. It was demonstrated that 16 of the 21 GUESSmix compounds are found in the optimal range of resolution (0.25 < K(D) < 16) of at least one HEMWat solvent system. The HEMWat solvent systems represented by the ratios 4:6:5:5, 4:6:4:6, and 3:7:4:6 possess the most densely populated optimal ranges of resolution for this standard mix. ReS plots have been shown to reveal the symmetrical reversibility of the EECCC method in reference to K(D) = 1. This study lays the groundwork for evaluation and comparison of solvent system families proposed in the literature, as well as the creation of new solvent system families with desired performance characteristics.

  5. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cycle Combined Absorption Heat Transformer and Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Otsuka, Shin-Ichi; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of hybrid cycles which combined the single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and four kinds of absorption heat transformers were proposed. It is possible that each of these hybrid cycles gets high temperature and low temperature from one cycle, simultaneously. As basic cycle of absorption heat transformer, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption heat transformer and two kinds of two-stage absorption heat transformer. As a working medium-absorbent system, H2O-LiBr system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3 system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3-LiCl system, H2O-LiBr-C2H6O2 system and H2O-LiNO3-LiCl system were adopted. Using these five kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  6. The association of layperson characteristics with the quality of simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Marion; Buckler, David G.; Ikeda, Daniel J.; Saraiva, Daiane A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Blewer, Audrey L.; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association of layperson characteristics with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provision. Previous studies suggested provider characteristics, including age and gender, were associated with CPR quality, particularly chest compression (CC) depth. We sought to determine the association of subject characteristics, including age and gender with layperson CPR quality during an unannounced simulated CPR event. We hypothesized shallower CC depth in females, and older-aged subjects. METHODS: As part of a larger multicenter randomized controlled trial of CPR training for cardiac patients’ caregivers, CPR skills were assessed 6 months after training. We analyzed associations between subject characteristics and CC rate, CC depth and no-flow time. Each variable was analyzed independently; significant predictors determined via univariate analysis were assessed in a multivariate regression model. RESULTS: A total of 521 laypersons completed a 6-month CPR skills assessment and were included in the analysis. Mean age was 51.8±13.7 years, 75% were female, 57% were Caucasian. Overall, mean CC rate was 88.5±25.0 per minute, CC depth was 50.9±2.0 mm, and mean no-flow time was 15.9±2.7 sec/min. CC depth decreased significantly in subjects >62 years (P<0.001). Male subjects performed deeper CCs than female subjects (47.5±1.7 vs. 41.9±0.6, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: We found that layperson age >62 years and female gender are associated with shallower CC depth. PMID:28123614

  7. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  8. Impact performance characteristics and modeling failure mechanisms of pultruded glass-graphite/epoxy hybrid composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowsika, Murthy V. S. L. N.

    In this study, investigation was performed to comprehend the influence of hybridization on the impact performance in terms of the energy absorption characteristics and delamination fracture toughness of pultruded uni-directional composite materials. In order to evaluate the improvements/changes in the impact performance as a result of hybridization, apart from considering mono-fiber reinforced all-graphite and all-glass composites, several types of sandwich hybrid composites comprising of both graphite as well as glass fibers were included in the investigation. By keeping a constant overall fiber content, the lay-up sequence and the volume fraction of each type of fiber are altered in these pultruded composites to determine the trend in the mechanical behavior as a result of hybridization. The response of pultruded all-graphite, all-glass and glass-graphite hybrid composites is evaluated under two different incident impact energy conditions. A high incident energy (HIE) and a low incident energy (LIE) of impact are chosen to cause either complete fracture or induce delamination, respectively, for assessing the energy absorption characteristics (crashworthiness) and delamination fracture toughness of these composites. Finite element modeling is performed under static as well as dynamic loading conditions to simulate the stress distribution and to predict the energy absorption behavior of composites. Progressive damage due to sequential ply failure was modeled by utilizing the failure strain data obtained from static and HTE impact tests for analyzing the post-initial ply failure characteristics of pultruded composites. Finite element modeling was also performed to simulate delamination crack propagation at various levels through the thickness. The strain energy release rate computed using the virtual crack closure technique was monitored to determine the likelihood of delamination crack propagation with increment in crack growth for the pultruded composites under

  9. Combustion Characteristics and Propulsive Performance of Boron/Ammonium Perchlorate Mixtures in Microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Wang, Yang; Yang, Yuxin

    2016-07-01

    A microthruster is used for the operation tracking and posture control of microsatellites. In this work, the combustion characteristics and propulsive performance of a boron/ammonium perchlorate (B/AP) propellant mixture for a microthruster were investigated. Amorphous B and AP were used in different mass ratios to prepare the propellant samples. A laser-ignition solid micropropulsion test system was set up, and a differential scanning calorimeter was used. The solid combustion products of the samples with good performance were collected. Microstructural and component analyses of the combustion products were performed. Various performance parameters, including the combustion temperature, combustion velocity, spectral intensity, ignition delay time, thrust, specific impulse, density specific impulse, and heat flow, changed with the fuel-oxidant ratio. The optimal fuel-oxidant mass ratio of the propellant samples was 40%, with a density specific impulse of 0.474 kg/m2•s and a maximum heat flow of 4.4913 mW/mg. Analysis of the combustion products revealed that the clearance between particles significantly diminished after combustion. During combustion, the AP completely decomposed, and a large amount of H3BO3, B2O3, and HBO2 was generated.

  10. Analysis of performance of prepubertal swimmers assessed from anthropometric and bio-energetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duché, P; Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Lac, G; Robert, A; Coudert, J

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between anthropometric and bio-energetic data and timed performance over 50 to 400 m was studied in 25 young male swimmers [11.3 (SD 1) years]. Anthropometric measurements included height, body mass, body fat mass, body area, thoracic section area (Ats) thoracic circumferences, lengths of upper limb, bi-acromial and bi-iliac diameters. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max; direct method), maximal anaerobic power (W(an),max; force-velocity test) and mean power in 30 s sprint (W30 s; Wingate test) were also measured. Each of these bio-energetic variables was expressed in absolute terms, relating to body mass, body area and Ats. The stepwise regression method was used to determine contribution of the variables (anthropometric and/or bio-energetic) of the time achieved over the distance. The W30 s/Ats accounted for 46% of the time over 50 m (negative correlation). The VO2max/Ats and height were negatively correlated with the times of performances over 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, these two variables accounted for 71% to 77% of the performance. These results would indicate that even in young boys, anthropometric and bio-energetic characteristics are both important in swimming performance, particularly the bio-energetic variables expressed per Ats.

  11. Steady-state performance characteristics of latent heat TES/heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmon, T. W.

    1982-03-01

    Two projects are currently being completed that wholly or in part address various technical issues involved in the implementation of heat pump systems combined with thermal energy storage (TES). The first of these involves the determination of steady state performance characteristics for six generic TES/heat pump configurations and the comparison of the operational performance of these systems with other space heating and cooling TES technologies. Of these latter systems four are commercial or near commerical air conditioner or heat pump coupled TES systems. Steady state performance has been established for all systems. Operational performance and system life cycle cost has been determined for the six generic designs for a limited set of application conditions. The intent of the second project is to establish a reliable method of estimating seasonal energy use by TES/heat pump systems, to utilize this methodology to evaluate a large number of possible system designs, identify a small number of systems that merit more detailed analysis, and, to the extent possible, conduct these detailed studies.

  12. Relationship between performance at different exercise intensities and skeletal muscle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Thomassen, Martin; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-06-01

    The hypothesis investigated whether exercise performance over a broad range of intensities is determined by specific skeletal muscle characteristics. Seven subjects performed 8-10 exhaustive cycle trials at different workloads, ranging from 150 to 700 W (150 min to 20 s). No relationships between the performance times at high and low workloads were observed. A relationship (P < 0.05) was noticed between the percentage of fast-twitch x fibers and the exercise time at 579 ± 21 W (∼30 s; r(2) = 0.88). Capillary-to-fiber-ratio (r(2): 0.58-0.85) was related (P < 0.05) to exercise time at work intensities ranging from 395 to 270 W (2.5-21 min). Capillary density was correlated (r(2) = 0.68; P < 0.05) with the net rate of plasma K(+) accumulation during an ∼3-min bout and was estimated to explain 50-80% (P < 0.05) of the total variance observed in exercise performances lasting ∼30 s to 3 min. The Na(+)-K(+) pump β(1)-subunit expression was found to account for 13-34% (P < 0.05) during exhaustive exercise of ∼1-4 min. In conclusion, exercise performance at different intensities is related to specific physiological variables. A large distribution of fast-twitch x fibers may play a role during very intense efforts, i.e., ∼30 s. Muscle capillaries and the Na(+)-K(+) pump β(1)-subunit seem to be important determinants for performance during exhaustive high-intensity exercises lasting between 30 s and 4 min.

  13. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  14. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  15. Heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics of heat exchanger tube fitted with perforated twisted-tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thianpong, Chinaruk; Eiamsa-ard, Petpices; Eiamsa-ard, Smith

    2012-06-01

    Twisted tape insert was applied as a swirling flow generator for the passive heat transfer enhancement in the present work. The influences of the perforated twisted tapes (PTs) on the heat transfer, pressure loss and thermal performance characteristics were investigated experimentally. The experiments were performed under uniform wall heat flux condition by using PTs with y/W = 3, 4 and 5, d/W = 0.11, 0.14 and 0.17 and s/W = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 where y is a twist length, d is a perforation hole diameter, s is a spacing between holes (pitch) and W is a tape width. The experimental results reveal that Nusselt number increased with decreasing s/W and y/W and increasing d/W. For the present range, the maximum heat transfer was obtained by utilizing the tape with s/W = 0.4, d/W = 0.17 and y/W = 3, which is higher than those obtained from the plain tube with and without typical twisted tape by around 27.4 and 86.7%, respectively. In addition, the empirical correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance are also proposed in the present paper.

  16. Heat transfer and performance characteristics of axial cooling fans with downstream guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzis, Alexandros; Stylianou, Ioannis; Kalfas, Anestis I.; Ott, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This study examines experimentally the effect of stators on the performance and heat transfer characteristics of small axial cooling fans. A single fan impeller, followed by nine stator blades in the case of a complete stage, was used for all the experimental configurations. Performance measurements were carried out in a constant speed stage performance test rig while the transient liquid crystal technique was used for the heat transfer measurements. Full surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were obtained by recording the temperature history of liquid crystals on a target plate. The experimental data indicated that the results are highly affected by the flow conditions at the fan outlet. Stators can be beneficial in terms of pressure drop and efficiency, and thus more economical operation, as well as, in the local heat transfer distribution at the wake of the stator blades if the fan is installed very close to the cooling object. However, as the separation distance increases, enhanced heat transfer rate in the order of 25% is observed in the case of the fan impeller.

  17. Performance characteristics of lithium primary cells after controlled storage. [on-orbit for energy power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Halpert, G.; Ang, V.; Donley, S.

    1991-01-01

    A program was initiated to investigate the effects of storage on the performance of lithium primary cells. Two types of liquid cathode cells were chosen to investigate these effects. The cell types included Li-SOCl2/BCX cells, Li-SO2 cells from two different manufacturers, and a small sample size of 8-year-old Li-SO2 cells. The following measurements are performed at each test interval: open circuit voltage, resistance and weight, microcalorimetry, ac impedance, capacity, and voltage delay. The authors examine the performance characteristics of these cells after one year of controlled storage at two temperatures (10 and 30 C). The Li-SO2 cells experienced little to no voltage and capacity degradation after one year storage. The Li-SOCl2/BCX cells exhibited significant voltage and capacity degradation after 30 C storage. Predischarging shortly prior to use appears to be an effective method of reducing the initial voltage drop. Studies are in progress to correlate ac impedance and microcalorimetry measurements with capacity losses and voltage delay.

  18. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  19. Performance characteristic of a Stirling refrigeration cycle in micro/nano scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wenjie; He, Jizhou; Du, Jianqiang

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the performance characteristics of a Stirling refrigeration cycle in micro/nano scale, in which the working substance of cycle is an ideal Maxwellian gas. Due to the quantum boundary effect on the gas particles confined in the finite domain, the cycle no longer possesses the condition of perfect regeneration. The inherent regenerative losses, the refrigeration heat and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle are derived. It is found that, for the micro/nano scaled Stirling refrigeration cycle devices, the refrigeration heat and COP of cycle all depend on the surface area of the system (boundary of cycle) besides the temperature of the heat reservoirs, the volume of system and other parameters, while for the macro scaled refrigeration cycle devices, the refrigeration heat and COP of cycle are independent of the surface area of the system. Variations of the refrigeration heat ratio rR and the COP ratio rε with the temperature ratio τ and volume ratio rV for the different surface area ratio rA are examined, which reveals the influence of the boundary of cycle on the performance of a micro/nano scaled Stirling refrigeration cycle. The results are useful for designing of a micro/nano scaled Stirling cycle device and may conduce to confirming experimentally the quantum boundary effect in the micro/nano scaled devices.

  20. An Evaluation of Controller and Pilot Performance, Workload and Acceptability under a NextGen Concept for Dynamic Weather Adapted Arrival Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Battiste, Vernol

    2012-01-01

    In todays terminal operations, controller workload increases and throughput decreases when fixed standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) are impacted by storms. To circumvent this operational constraint, Prete, Krozel, Mitchell, Kim and Zou (2008) proposed to use automation to dynamically adapt arrival and departure routing based on weather predictions. The present study examined this proposal in the context of a NextGen trajectory-based operation concept, focusing on the acceptability and its effect on the controllers ability to manage traffic flows. Six controllers and twelve transport pilots participated in a human-in-the-loop simulation of arrival operations into Louisville International Airport with interval management requirements. Three types of routing structures were used: Static STARs (similar to current routing, which require the trajectories of individual aircraft to be modified to avoid the weather), Dynamic routing (automated adaptive routing around weather), and Dynamic Adjusted routing (automated adaptive routing around weather with aircraft entry time adjusted to account for differences in route length). Spacing Responsibility, whether responsibility for interval management resided with the controllers (as today), or resided with the pilot (who used a flight deck based automated spacing algorithm), was also manipulated. Dynamic routing as a whole was rated superior to static routing, especially by pilots, both in terms of workload reduction and flight path safety. A downside of using dynamic routing was that the paths flown in the dynamic conditions tended to be somewhat longer than the paths flown in the static condition.

  1. Tool Use and Performance: Relationships between Tool- and Learner-Related Characteristics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez-Collazo, Norma A.; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    It is still unclear on what and how tool and learner characteristics influence tool use and consequently performance in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). This study examines the relationships between tool-related characteristics (tool presentation: non-/embedded tool and instructional cues: non-/explained tool functionality) and…

  2. An Online Premium? Characteristics and Performance of Online versus Face-to-Face Students in Principles of Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dendir, Seife

    2016-01-01

    The author uses data from two Principles of Microeconomics courses to examine differences in characteristics and performance of online versus face-to-face students. The analysis indicates that even in a traditional institution, the two delivery modes may be serving students with distinctly different backgrounds and characteristics. In terms of…

  3. Heat Transfer Characteristics and Performance of a Spirally Coiled Heat Exchanger under Sensible Cooling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongwises, Somchai; Naphon, Paisarn

    In the present study, new experimental data on the heat transfer characteristics and the performance of a spirally coiled heat exchanger under sensible cooling conditions is presented. The spiral-coil heat exchanger consists of a steel shell and a spirally coiled tube unit. The spiral-coil unit consists of six layers of concentric spirally coiled tubes. Each tube is fabricated by bending a 9.27mm diameter straight copper tube into a spiral-coil of five turns. The innermost and outermost diameters of each spiral-coil are 67.7 and 227.6mm, respectively. Air and water are used as working fluids in shell side and tube side, respectively. A mathematical model based on the conservation of energy is developed to determine the heat transfer characteristics. There is a reasonable agreement between the results obtained from the experiment and those obtained from the model and a good agreement for the high air mass flow rate region. The results obtained from the parametric study are also discussed.

  4. High performance and transparent multilayer MoS2 transistors: Tuning Schottky barrier characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Young Ki; Yoo, Geonwook; Kwon, Junyeon; Hong, Seongin; Song, Won Geun; Liu, Na; Omkaram, Inturu; Yoo, Byungwook; Ju, Sanghyun; Kim, Sunkook; Oh, Min Suk

    2016-05-01

    Various strategies and mechanisms have been suggested for investigating a Schottky contact behavior in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film transistor (TFT), which are still in much debate and controversy. As one of promising breakthrough for transparent electronics with a high device performance, we have realized MoS2 TFTs with source/drain electrodes consisting of transparent bi-layers of a conducting oxide over a thin film of low work function metal. Intercalation of a low work function metal layer, such as aluminum, between MoS2 and transparent source/drain electrodes makes it possible to optimize the Schottky contact characteristics, resulting in about 24-fold and 3 orders of magnitude enhancement of the field-effect mobility and on-off current ratio, respectively, as well as transmittance of 87.4 % in the visible wavelength range.

  5. RUSAP: A computer program for the calculation of Roll-Up Solar Array Performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Coyner, J. V., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    RUSAP is a FORTRAN 4 computer program designed to determine the performance characteristics (power-to-weight ratio, blanket tension, structural member section dimensions, and resonant frequencies) of large-area, roll-up solar arrays of the single-boom, tensioned-substrate design. The program includes the determination of the size and weight of the base structure supporting the boom and blanket and the determination of the blanket tension and deployable boom stiffness needed to achieve the minimum-weight design for a specified frequency for the first mode of vibration. A complete listing of the program, a description of the theoretical background, and all information necessary to use the program are provided.

  6. Performance characteristics and some applications of the nitrogen oxide gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, S.S.M.; Tadros, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    The performance characteristics of nitrogen oxide gas sensor with regard to the origin of response, limit of detection, response time, influence of the membrane type, and selectivity have been systematically examined. Optimum conditions for direct potentiometric determination of as low as 0.1 ..mu..mol mL/sup -1/ nitrite are described and results with an average recovery of 98.2% (standard deviation +/- 0.3%) are obtained. The sensor is also used to monitor direct titration of micromole per liter quantities of primary aryl amines, hydrazines, and azide with sodium nitrite or sodium cobaltinitrite. Results with an average recovery of 98.3% (standard deviation +/- 1.3%) are obtainable without any significant interference from 1000-fold molar excess of amides, imides, anilides, tertiary amines, and quaternary ammonium salts. 24 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  7. System characteristics and performance evaluation of a trailer-scale downdraft gasifier with different feedstock.

    PubMed

    Balu, Elango; Chung, J N

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the thermal profiles of a trailer-scale gasifier in different zones during the course of gasification and also to elaborate on the design, characteristics and performance of the gasification system using different biomass feedstock. The purpose is to emphasize on the effectiveness of distributed power generation systems and demonstrate the feasibility of such gasification systems in real world scenarios, where the lingo-cellulosic biomass resources are widely available and distributed across the board. Experimental data on the thermal profiles with respect to five different zones in the gasifier and a comprehensive thermal-chemical equilibrium model to predict the syngas composition are presented in detail. Four different feedstock-pine wood, horse manure, red oak, and cardboard were evaluated. The effects of C, H, O content variations in the feedstock on the thermal profiles, and the efficiency and viability of the trailer-scale gasifier are also discussed.

  8. Relationships between muscle fibre characteristics and physical performance capacity in trained athletic boys.

    PubMed

    Mero, A; Jaakkola, L; Komi, P V

    1991-01-01

    The relationships between muscle fibre characteristics and the physical performance capacity of trained athletic boys (aged 11-13 years) were studied over 2 days. The subjects were divided into two groups according to muscle fibre distribution. The 'fast' group (FG) comprised 10 subjects (sprinters, weightlifters, tennis players) with more than 50% fast-twitch fibres (type II), and the 'slow' group (SG) comprised 8 subjects (endurance runners, tennis players, one weightlifter) with more than 50% slow-twitch fibres (type I) in their vastus lateralis muscle. The 'fast' group had 59.2 +/- 6.3% and the 'slow' group had 39.4 +/- 9.8% type II fibres. Other clear differences (P less than 0.05-0.01) between the groups were observed as regards reaction time, rate of force development and rise of the body's centre of gravity in the squatting jump. For these variables, the 'fast' group was superior to the 'slow' group. Muscle fibre distribution (% type II) correlated (P less than 0.05-0.01) negatively with reaction time. Muscle fibre area (% type II) correlated negatively with reaction time (P less than 0.05-0.001) and positively with chronological age (P less than 0.05) height (P less than 0.05), mass (P less than 0.001), serum testosterone (P less than 0.05), force production (P less than 0.05-0.01) and blood lactate (P less than 0.05) in the 60-s maximal anaerobic test. There were no significant correlations between muscle fibre characteristics and maximal oxygen uptake. The present study assumes that heredity partly affects the selection of sporting event. Growth, development and training are associated with muscle fibre area, which affects the physical performance capacity of the neuromuscular system in trained young boys.

  9. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  10. Effects of Morphological Characteristics of Muscle Fibers on Porcine Growth Performance and Pork Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Ryu, Youn Chul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of morphological characteristics of porcine muscle fibers on growth performance, muscle fiber characteristics, and pork quality taken from the longissimus dorsi muscle. A total of 239 crossbred pigs (164 castrated males and 75 females) were used in this study. Experimental pigs were categorized by the total number of muscle fiber (TNF: High and Low) and cross sectional area of muscle fiber (CSAF: Large, Middle, and Small). Their combinations were classified into six groups (High-Large, HL; High-Middle, HM; High-Small, HS; Low-Large, LL; Low-Middle, LM; Low-Small, LS). The TNF and CSAF were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with growth rate and carcass productivity, while the only of the type I number had no meaningful relationships excluding the correlation with loin area (p<0.001). The proportion of type I area was positively correlated with pH45 min while the proportion of type IIB area was negatively correlated with pH45 min and pH24 h (p<0.05). Drip loss and protein denaturation had strong relationships with the proportion of type IIB number or area. The HL group exhibited the greatest growth performance. In addition, the HL group had significantly greater values in protein solubility than the other groups. In conclusion, this study suggest that high TNF combined to large CSAF improve the ultimate lean meat productivity and assure normal meat quality simultaneously with increased both proportion of number and area of type I, type IIA muscle fibers and lowered proportion of number and area of type IIB. PMID:27857533

  11. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG; < 15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn- (SFC) based diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility of feeedlt ocattle. In Experi...

  12. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  13. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Improvac-treated male pigs compared with barrows.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Anna; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Henning, Martina; Bekendorf, Torsten; Krieter, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the effects of using Improvac (Pfizer Animal Health, Germany) on growth performance and meat characteristics in cross-bred male pigs. In addition average daily weight gain of immunised and surgically castrated males was estimated in order to demonstrate differences in growing patterns in these two treatment groups. The study was carried out in two identical batches. Pigs within batches (n = 446) were allocated to two different treatment groups: immunisation (IM) versus surgical castration (CM). Within treatment groups pigs were randomly assigned to two different diets (low- and high-lysine diet) in order to examine interactions of growth performance and castration technique. Vaccination was performed on the day of entry to the fattening unit and four to six weeks prior to slaughter. At the second vaccination IM-pigs showed significantly lower body weights than the control group (p < 0.05) in both batches. Throughout the whole fattening period CM-pigs tended to have a higher feed intake than IM-pigs while IM-pigs had a significantly lower (better) feed conversion ratio than CM-pigs (p < 0.05).The different lysine content of the diets had no coherent effect on any of the growth performance parameters analysed. Immunised pigs of both feeding groups and in both batches showed a tendency towards a lower carcass weight, back fat values and dressing percentages than surgically castrated pigs.The castration technique had no significant effect on meat quality parameters such as drip loss, shear force or cooking loss while intramuscular fat content (IMF) in immunised pigs fed high-lysine diets (IM(high)) tended to be higher than IMF in immunised pigs fed low-lysine diets (IM(low)). This effect was not seen in surgical castrates in either batch. Immunisation against GnRH offers a good approach to produce taint-free pork while ensuring boar-like growth for a large part of the fattening period.

  14. Ten minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient to potentiate vertical jump performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Turki, Olfa; Chaouachi, Anis; Drinkwater, Eric J; Chtara, Moktar; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Behm, David G

    2011-09-01

    The current literature recommends dynamic rather than static stretching for the athletic warm-up. Dynamic stretching and various conditioning stimuli are used to induce potentiation in subsequent athletic performance. However, it is unknown as to which type of activity in conjunction with dynamic stretching within a warm-up provides the optimal potentiation of vertical jump performance. It was the objective of the study to examine the possible potentiating effect of various types of conditioning stimuli with dynamic stretching. Twenty athletes participated in 6 protocols. All the experimental protocols included 10 minutes of dynamic stretching. After the dynamic stretching, the subjects performed a (a) concentric (DS/CON): 3 sets of 3 repetition maximum deadlift exercise; (b) isometric (DS/ISOM): 3 sets of 3-second maximum voluntary contraction back squats; (c) plyometric (DS/PLYO): 3 sets of 3 tuck jumps; (d) eccentric (DS/ECC): 3 modified drop jumps; (e) dynamic stretching only (DS), and (f) control protocol (CON). Before the intervention and at recovery periods of 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes, the participants performed 1-2 maximal countermovement jumps. The DS and DS/CON protocols generally had a 95-99% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change for vertical jump height, peak power, velocity and force. However, the addition of the deadlift to the DS did not augment the potentiating effect. Time-to-peak potentiation was variable between individuals but was most consistent between 3 and 5 minutes. Thus, the volume and the intensity associated with 10 minutes of dynamic stretching were sufficient to provide the potentiation of vertical jump characteristics. Additional conditioning activities may promote fatigue processes, which do not permit further potentiation.

  15. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    PubMed

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2016-07-20

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max), power output at [Formula: see text]O2max (W[Formula: see text]O2max), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (Wmax) and force (Fmax). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HRmax. Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (WLT) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  16. Effect of membrane characteristics on the performance of membrane bioreactors for oily wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mafirad, S; Mehrnia, M R; Sarrafzadeh, M H

    2011-01-01

    Influence of membrane material and pore size on the performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) for oily wastewater treatment was investigated. The sMBR had a working volume of about 19 L with flat sheet modules at the same hydrodynamic conditions. Five types of micro- and ultra-polymeric membranes containing cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose nitrate (CN), polyamide (PA), polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) were used and their filtration performance in terms of permeability, permeate quality and fouling intensity were evaluated. Characterization of the membranes was done by performing some analysis such as pore size distribution; contact angle and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) microphotograph on all membranes. The quality of permeates from each membrane was identified by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results showed more irreversible fouling intensity for membranes with larger pore size which can be due to more permeation of bioparticles and colloids inside the pores. Membrane characteristics have a major role in the preliminary time of the filtration before cake layer formation so that the PA with the highest hydrophilicity had the lowest permeability decline by fouling in this period. Also, the PVDF and PES membranes had better performance according to better permeate quality in the preliminary time of the filtration related to smaller pore size and also their better fouling resistance and chemical stability properties. However, all membranes resulted in the same permeability and permeate quality after cake layer formation. An overall efficiency of about 95% in COD removal was obtained for oily wastewater treatment by the membranes used in this study.

  17. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees’ psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees’ performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees’ psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees’ performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees’ performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems’ performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees. PMID:26742054

  18. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems.

    PubMed

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-05

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees' psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees' performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees' psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees' performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees' performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems' performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  19. The Snellen human calorimeter revisited, re-engineered and upgraded: design and performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Francis D; Leppik, Kalle E; Wegmann, René; Webb, Paul; Ducharme, Michel B; Kenny, Glen P

    2006-08-01

    The measurement of whole body heat loss in humans and the performance characteristics of a modified Snellen whole body air calorimeter are described. Modifications included the location of the calorimeter in a pressurized room, control of operating temperature over a range of - 15 to + 35 degrees C, control of ambient relative humidity over a range of 20-65%, incorporation of an air mass flow measuring system to provide real time measurement of air mass flow through the calorimeter, incorporation of a constant load 'eddy current' resistance ergometer and an open circuit, expired gas analysis calorimetry system. The performance of the calorimeter is a function of the sensitivity, precision, accuracy and response time characteristics of the fundamental measurement systems including: air mass flow; thermometry and hygrometry. Calibration experiments included a calibration of the air mass flow sensor, the response of the thermometric measurement system for dry heat loss and the response of the hygrometric measurement system for evaporative heat loss. The air mass flow system was evaluated using standard differential temperature procedures to demonstrate linearity and sensitivity of the device. A novel procedure based on differential hygrometry was developed to ascertain the absolute calibration of air mass flow by resolving the unique system coefficient K. The results of the hygrometric calibration demonstrate the air mass flow response of the system is linear over the range of air mass flows from 6 to 15 kg min(-1). R(2) was 0.995. The average half response time (tR50) was 14.5 +/- 2.1 s. Similarly the results of the thermometric calibration demonstrate that the response of the apparatus is linear over the range of power input measured (coefficient of linearity R(2)=0.9997) with a precision of 0.72 W and an accuracy to within 0.36 W. The average (tR50) over all conditions was 6.0 +/- 1.9 min. In summary, modifications brought to the Snellen calorimeter have

  20. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  1. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  2. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Cho, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Chaesil

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  3. Drag Reduction and Performance Improvement of Hydraulic Torque Converters with Multiple Biological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chunbao, Liu; Li, Li; Yulong, Lei; Changsuo, Liu; Yubo, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved. The mechanism accounting for drag reduction of three factors was also investigated. After bionic design, the torque ratio and the highest efficiencies of YJSW335 were both advanced, which were very difficult to achieve through traditional design method. Moreover, the highest efficiency of the low speed area and high speed area is 85.65% and 86.32%, respectively. By economic matching analysis of the original and bionic powertrains, the latter can significantly reduce the fuel consumption and improve the operating economy of the loader.

  4. Statistical Performance Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Mass Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Papadopoulou, Maria P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.

    2016-04-01

    As groundwater remains one of the most critical natural resources worldwide, numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport provide a reliable tool for the efficient protection, planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources. This work focuses on the evaluation of the performance of different numerical models which have been developed to simulate spatiotemporal groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport in a coastal aquifer system. The evaluation of the models' performance has been based on 9 different statistical measures and indices of goodness of fit. Overall, the simulation of groundwater level and contaminant mass concentration delivered very good calibration and validation results in all cases, quite close to the desired values. Maps of aquifer water level and contaminant mass concentrations are provided for all cases in order the differences to be discussed and assessed. The selection of the appropriate model(s) is case oriented and it should be based on the problem's characteristics in order the spatiotemporal variability of the components under study to be optimally estimated.

  5. A preliminary study of the performance and characteristics of a supersonic executive aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of advanced supersonic technologies on the performance and characteristics of a supersonic executive aircraft was studied in four configurations with different engine locations and wing/body blending and an advanced nonafterburning turbojet or variable cycle engine. An M 2.2 design Douglas scaled arrow-wing was used with Learjet 35 accommodations. All four configurations with turbojet engines meet the performance goals of 5926 km (3200 n.mi.) range, 1981 meters (6500 feet) takeoff field length, and 77 meters per second (150 knots) approach speed. The noise levels of of turbojet configurations studied are excessive. However, a turbojet with mechanical suppressor was not studied. The variable cycle engine configuration is deficient in range by 555 km (300 n.mi) but nearly meets subsonic noise rules (FAR 36 1977 edition), if coannular noise relief is assumed. All configurations are in the 33566 to 36287 kg (74,000 to 80,000 lbm) takeoff gross weight class when incorporating current titanium manufacturing technology.

  6. Development and performance characteristics of bipolar lithium/iron disulfide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, D. R.; Kaun, T. D.; Prakash, J.; Turner, R. L.; Hash, M. C.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose is to review the projected performance and safety characteristics of the bipolar lithium/iron disulfide battery as it relates to a propulsion device for electric vehicles (EV's). Lithium/iron disulfide cells with a molten-salt electrolyte are well suited to the development of a bipolar battery. Long strings of series-connected cells are practical since these cells always fail in a short-circuit condition, and a technique has been developed to equalize the cells whose capacity may have gotten out of balance after many cycles. To maintain the electrolyte molten, the battery is normally operated at 425 C. The Li/FeS2 cell exhibits the high performance and long life needed for the electric vehicle application. The cell uses a molten-salt electrolyte whose composition is 34 mol% LiCl, 32.5 mol% LiBr, and 33.5. mol% KBr (m.p. 322 C), and a densely loaded FeS2 electrode that is only operated on the upper voltage plateau (UP). The Li-Al alloy is used as the negative electrode in the cell. The alloy is normally operated in the alpha + beta region of the phase diagram and covers a compositional range of 9 to 47 atom % lithium. This two-phase alloy is within 300 mV of the pure lithium metal potential, but remains solid at cell operating temperatures (400-450 C).

  7. Drag Reduction and Performance Improvement of Hydraulic Torque Converters with Multiple Biological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chunbao, Liu; Changsuo, Liu; Yubo, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved. The mechanism accounting for drag reduction of three factors was also investigated. After bionic design, the torque ratio and the highest efficiencies of YJSW335 were both advanced, which were very difficult to achieve through traditional design method. Moreover, the highest efficiency of the low speed area and high speed area is 85.65% and 86.32%, respectively. By economic matching analysis of the original and bionic powertrains, the latter can significantly reduce the fuel consumption and improve the operating economy of the loader. PMID:27752220

  8. Investigation of Performance Analysis and Emission Characteristics of Waste Plastic Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, M.; Ramasubramanian, S.; Pugazhenthi, R.; Sivaganesan

    2017-03-01

    Today the world is confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and stringent emission norms, because of the environmental awareness. The disposal and degradation of waste plastic is a major issue and scarcities of fuel were major focus area of the researchers. In this virtue the waste plastic fuel extraction makes more attention to the researchers. In this research work focused to find the performance of the waste plastic fuel and compared to diesel. The waste plastic fuel extract from thermal cracking method this process the polymer chains were breakdown into useful lower molecular weight compounds and it becomes plastic pyrolysis it can be utilized as a fuel. The properties of the waste plastic fuel is obtained by various testing process and which is analyze and compare with the fossil fuel diesel. It is found that almost it has similar properties to the diesel and almost all properties of the pyrolysis is closer to that of diesel. The characteristics of the pyrolysis were tested in the engine test bed. The pyrolysis / waste plastic fuel can be directly used in diesel engines over the entire load spectrum smoothly without any major modification. The performance of the waste plastic fuel / pyrolysis is evidenced that it is one of the best alternative fuel as well as the waste plastic can be converted into a useful fuel

  9. Comparison of Thermal Performance Characteristics of Ammonia and Propylene Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaya, Tarik; Baker, Charles; Ku, Jentung

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, experimental work performed on a breadboard Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) is presented. The test article was built by DCI for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument on the ICESat spacecraft. The thermal system requirements of GLAS have shown that ammonia cannot be used as the working fluid in this LHP because GLAS radiators could cool to well below the freezing point of ammonia. As a result, propylene was proposed as an alternative LHP working fluid since it has a lower freezing point than ammonia. Both working fluids were tested in the same LHP following a similar test plan in ambient conditions. The thermal performance characteristics of ammonia and propylene LHP's were then compared. In general, the propylene LHP required slightly less startup superheat 5nd less control heater power than the ammonia LHP, The thermal conductance values for the propylene LHP were also lower than the ammonia LHP. Later, the propylene LHP was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber. These tests demonstrated that propylene could meet the GLAS thermal design requirements. Design guidelines were proposed for the next flight-like Development Model (DM) LHP for thermal control of the GLAS instrument.

  10. Characteristic correlation study of UV disinfection performance for ballast water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Te; Li, Hongying; Osman, Hafiiz; Kang, Chang-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Characteristic correlation between ultraviolet disinfection performance and operating parameters, including ultraviolet transmittance (UVT), lamp power and water flow rate, was studied by numerical and experimental methods. A three-stage model was developed to simulate the fluid flow, UV radiation and the trajectories of microorganisms. Navier-Stokes equation with k-epsilon turbulence was solved to model the fluid flow, while discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model and discrete phase model (DPM) were used to introduce UV radiation and microorganisms trajectories into the model, respectively. The UV dose statistical distribution for the microorganisms was found to move to higher value with the increase of UVT and lamp power, but moves to lower value when the water flow rate increases. Further investigation shows that the fluence rate increases exponentially with UVT but linearly with the lamp power. The average and minimum resident time decreases linearly with the water flow rate while the maximum resident time decrease rapidly in a certain range. The current study can be used as a digital design and performance evaluation tool of the UV reactor for ballast water treatment.

  11. Influence of guide vane setting in pump mode on performance characteristics of a pump-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyou; Wang, Hongjie; Nielsen, Torbjørn K.; Gong, Ruzhi; Wei, Xianzhu; Qin, Daqing

    2016-11-01

    Performance characteristics in pump mode of pump-turbines are vital for the safe and effective operation of pumped storage power plants. They are resultant of Euler head (power input) and hydraulic losses (power dissipation). In this paper, 3-D steady simulations were performed under 13mm, 19mm and 25mm guide vane openings (GVOs). Three groups of operating points under the three GVOs were chosen based on experimental validation to investigate the influence of guide vane setting on flow patterns upstream and downstream. Analysed results show that, the guide vane setting will obviously change the flow pattern downstream, which in turn influences the flow upstream. It shows a strong effect on hydraulic losses in guide and stay vanes. In addition, at the large part load conditions, the change of GVO will increase the relative flow angle at the runner outlet. As a consequence, it decreases the Euler head. However, at other operating conditions, it only has a little influence on Euler head. Flow patterns in pump mode are very dependent on the GVO and discharge.

  12. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    PubMed

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.

  13. Associations between Otolaryngology Applicant Characteristics and Future Performance in Residency or Practice: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M; Gray, Stacey T

    2017-03-01

    Objective This systematic review aims to evaluate which applicant characteristics available to an otolaryngology selection committee are associated with future performance in residency or practice. Data Sources PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, Health Business, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and SocINDEX. Review Methods Study eligibility was performed by 2 independent investigators in accordance with the PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses). Data obtained from each article included research questions, study design, predictors, outcomes, statistical analysis, and results/findings. Study bias was assessed with the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Results The initial search identified 439 abstracts. Six articles fulfilled all inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were retrospective cohort studies (level 4). Overall, the studies yielded relatively few criteria that correlated with residency success, with generally conflicting results. Most studies were found to have a high risk of bias. Conclusion Previous resident selection research has lacked a theoretical background, thus predisposing this work to inconsistent results and high risk of bias. The included studies provide historical insight into the predictors and criteria (eg, outcomes) previously deemed pertinent by the otolaryngology field. Additional research is needed, possibly integrating aspects of personnel selection, to engage in an evidence-based approach to identify highly qualified candidates who will succeed as future otolaryngologists.

  14. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  15. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  16. Performance and slipstream characteristics of small-scale propellers at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deters, Robert W.

    The low Reynolds number effects of small-scale propellers were investigated. At the Reynolds numbers of interest (below 100,000), a decrease in lift and an increase in drag is common making it difficult to predict propeller performance characteristics. A propeller testing apparatus was built to test small scale propellers in static conditions and in an advancing flow. Twenty-seven off-the-shelf propellers, with diameters ranging from 2.25 in to 9 in, were tested in order to determine the general effects of low Reynolds numbers on small propellers. From these tests, increasing the Reynolds number for a propeller increases its efficiency by either increasing the thrust produced or decreasing the power. By doubling the Reynolds number of a propeller, it is not uncommon to increase the efficiency by more the 10%. Using off-the-shelf propellers limits the geometry available and finding propellers of the same geometry but of different scale is very difficult. To solve this problem, four propellers were design and built using a 3D printer. Two of the propellers were simple rectangular twisted blades of different chords. Another propeller was modeled after a full-scale propeller. The fourth propeller was created using inverse design to minimize power loss. Each propeller was built in a 5-in and 9-in diameter version in order to test a larger range of Reynolds numbers. A separate propeller blade and hub system was created to allow each propeller to be tested with different pitch angles and to test each propeller in a 2-, 3-, and 4-blade version. From the performance results of the 3D printed propellers, it was shown that propellers of different scale, but tested at the same Reynolds number, had about the same performance results. Finally, the slipstreams of different propellers were measured using a 7-hole probe. Propeller slipstreams can have a large effect on the aerodynamics of lifting surfaces downstream of the propeller. Small UAVs and MAVs flying in close proximity

  17. Dynamic characteristics and performance evaluation for the part strut failure of the vibration isolation platform on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Sheng, Chao; Guo, Zixi; Wang, Youyi; Li, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics and performance evaluation for the part strut failure of the vibration isolation platform are presented in this paper. The first step provides and mathematically describes two types of strut failure: fractured and stuck. Secondly, the dynamic model of the vibration isolation platform, which considers the part strut failure, is established using the Newton-Euler method and a constraint equation to evaluate its dynamic characteristics and performance. Then, with reasonable assumptions, the dynamic model of the satellite, which has a vibration isolation platform and vibration sources (such as control moment gyros) of three working situations (without and with two types of strut failure), is simplified to analyse the frequency domain characteristic and coupling characteristic with the attitude control system. Finally, a numerical simulation is used to study the effect of the vibration isolation platform with part strut failure on the attitude control and stabilization, and the attitude control performance is evaluated.

  18. Interactions Between Channel Topography and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Sediment Transport, Turbine Performance, and Wake Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Craig Steven

    Accelerating marine hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy development towards commercial viability requires investigating interactions between the engineered environment and its surrounding physical and biological environments. Complex and energetic hydrodynamic and morphodynamic environments desired for such energy conversion installations present difficulties for designing efficient yet robust sustainable devices, while permitting agency uncertainties regarding MHK device environmental interactions result in lengthy and costly processes prior to installing and demonstrating emerging technologies. A research program at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota, utilized multi-scale physical experiments to study the interactions between axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines, turbulent open channel flow, sediment transport, turbulent turbine wakes, and complex hydro-morphodynamic processes in channels. Model axial-flow current-driven three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. Device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel topography has on device performance. Complimentary experiments were performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate device interactions with bedform migration and secondary turbulent flow patterns in asymmetric channel environments. The suite of experiments undertaken during this research program at SAFL in multiple channels with stationary and mobile substrates under a variety of turbine configurations provides an in-depth investigation into how axial-flow hydrokinetic devices respond to turbulent channel flow and topographic complexity, and how they impact local and far-field sediment transport characteristics

  19. Anaerobic cycling performance characteristics in prepubescent, adolescent and young adult females.

    PubMed

    Doré, E; Bedu, M; França, N M; Van Praagh, E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence.

  20. Improvement of mechanical characteristics and performances with Ni diffusion mechanism throughout Bi-2223 superconducting matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarıtekin, N. K.; Bilge, H.; Kahraman, M. F.; Zalaoǧlu, Y.; Pakdil, M.; Doǧruer, M.; Yıldırım, G.; Oz, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study is interested in the role of diffusion annealing temperature (650-850°C) on the mechanical characteristics and performance of pure and Ni diffused Bi-2223 superconducting materials by means of standard compression tests and Vickers hardness measurements at performed different applied loads in the range of 0.245-2.940N and theoretical calculations. Based on the experimental findings, the mechanical performances improve with increasing annealing temperature up to 700 °C beyond which they degrade drastically due to the increased artificial disorders, cracks and irregular grain orientation distribution. In other words, the penetration of excess Ni inclusions accelerates both the dislocation movement and especially the cracks and voids propagation as a result of the decrement in the Griffith critical crack length. Further, it is to be mentioned here that all the sample exhibit typical indentation size effect (ISE) behavior. In this respect, both the plastic (irreversible) and elastic (reversible) deformations have dominant role on the superconducting structures as a result of the enhancement in the elastic recovery. At the same time elastic modulus, yield strength and fracture toughness parameters are theoretically extracted from the microhardness values. Moreover, the elastic modulus parameters are compared with the experimental values. It is found that the differentiation between the comparison results enhances hastily with the increment in the applied indentation test loads due to the existence of the increased permanent disorders, lattice defects and strains in the stacked layers. Namely, the error level increases away from the actual crystal structure. Additionally, the microhardness values are theoretically analyzed for the change of the mechanical behaviors with the aid of Meyer's law, elastic/plastic deformation and Hays-Kendall approaches for the first time.

  1. Prediction of circulation control performance characteristics for Super STOL and STOL applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Messam Abbas

    due to the lack of a simple prediction capability. This research effort was focused on the creation of a rapid prediction capability of Circulation Control Aerodynamic Characteristics which could help designers with rapid performance estimates for design space exploration. A morphological matrix was created with the available set of options which could be chosen to create this prediction capability starting with purely analytical physics based modeling to high fidelity CFD codes. Based on the available constraints, and desired accuracy meta-models have been created around the two dimensional circulation control performance results computed using Navier Stokes Equations (Computational Fluid Dynamics). DSS2, a two dimensional RANS code written by Professor Lakshmi Sankar was utilized for circulation control airfoil characteristics. The CFD code was first applied to the NCCR 1510-7607N airfoil to validate the model with available experimental results. It was then applied to compute the results of a fractional factorial design of experiments array. Metamodels were formulated using the neural networks to the results obtained from the Design of Experiments. Additional validation runs were performed to validate the model predictions. Metamodels are not only capable of rapid performance prediction, but also help generate the relation trends of response matrices with control variables and capture the complex interactions between control variables. Quantitative as well as qualitative assessments of results were performed by computation of aerodynamic forces & moments and flow field visualizations. Wing characteristics in three dimensions were obtained by integration over the whole wing using Prandtl's Wing Theory. The baseline Super STOL configuration [3] was then analyzed with the application of circulation control technology. The desired values of lift and drag to achieve the target values of Takeoff & Landing performance were compared with the optimal configurations obtained

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  3. Impact of Energy Gain and Subsystem Characteristics on Fusion Propulsion Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidt, G. R.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid transport of large payloads and human crews throughout the solar system requires propulsion systems having very high specific impulse (I(sub sp) > 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 5) s). It also calls for systems with extremely low mass-power ratios (alpha < 10(exp -1) kg/kW). Such low alpha are beyond the reach of conventional power-limited propulsion, but may be attainable with fusion and other nuclear concepts that produce energy within the propellant. The magnitude of energy gain must be large enough to sustain the nuclear process while still providing a high jet power relative to the massive energy-intensive subsystems associated with these concepts. This paper evaluates the impact of energy gain and subsystem characteristics on alpha. Central to the analysis are general parameters that embody the essential features of any 'gain-limited' propulsion power balance. Results show that the gains required to achieve alpha = 10(exp -1) kg/kW with foreseeable technology range from approximately 100 to over 2000, which is three to five orders of magnitude greater than current fusion state of the arL Sensitivity analyses point to the parameters exerting the most influence for either: (1) lowering a and improving mission performance or (2) relaxing gain requirements and reducing demands on the fusion process. The greatest impact comes from reducing mass and increasing efficiency of the thruster and subsystems downstream of the fusion process. High relative gain, through enhanced fusion processes or more efficient drivers and processors, is also desirable. There is a benefit in improving driver and subsystem characteristics upstream of the fusion process, but it diminishes at relative gains > 100.

  4. NLDN Performance Characteristics for Return Strokes and Pulses Superimposed on Steady Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.; Hill, J. D.; Ngin, T.; Gamerota, W. R.; Pilkey, J. T.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Cramer, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Jerauld et al. (2005) and Nag et al. (2011) evaluated the performance characteristic of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) by comparing NLDN data with the corresponding ground-truth data for lightning triggered at Camp Blanding (CB), Florida. Their results are thought to be applicable to subsequent return strokes in natural downward lightning. Besides return strokes, the NLDN is capable of recording sufficiently large pulses superimposed on steady currents occurring during the initial stage of rocket-triggered or object-initiated lightning, as well as on those following some return-stroke pulses in both downward and upward flashes. The NLDN performance characteristics for such superimposed pulses are presently unknown. In this paper, we extend the studies of Jerauld et al. (2005) and Nag et al. (2011) using additional ground-truth data for CB triggered lightning. The new data set covers the period from 2004 to 2012 (9 years after the last major NLDN upgrade). The data set includes "classical" return strokes, generally preceded by "zero-current" (less than 1 A) intervals and kiloampere-scale pulses (with amplitudes equal to or greater than 1 kA) superimposed on steady currents (initial-stage pulses and M-components). Fisher et al. (1993) found that triggered-lightning return strokes were invariably preceded by a time interval without measurable current flowing to ground (the minimum detectable current level was less than 2 A), implying that a complete cutoff in channel current is a prerequisite for the formation of a subsequent leader/return stroke sequence. This finding is consistent with the observations of McCann (1944) and Berger (1967) who reported that the current between strokes fell below their systems' minimum detectable levels of 0.1 A and 1 A, respectively. On the other hand, "classical" M-components and some of the initial-stage pulses develop along channel sections, a kilometer or more in length, that carry steady currents, typically

  5. Learner Characteristics Predict Performance and Confidence in E-Learning: An Analysis of User Behavior and Self-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeske, Debora; Roßnagell, Christian Stamov; Backhaus, Joy

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of learner characteristics as predictors of four aspects of e-learning performance, including knowledge test performance, learning confidence, learning efficiency, and navigational effectiveness. We used both self reports and log file records to compute the relevant statistics. Regression analyses showed that both need for…

  6. Performance characteristics of the MAMMOCARE PET system based on NEMA standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; Hellingman, D.; Alamo, J.; Carrilero, V.; Orero, A.; González, A. J.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the performance characteristics of the MAMMOCARE PET prototype based on an adaptation of the NU 4-2008 NEMA standard. MAMMOCARE is a project under the European Commission's 7th Framework programme to develop a breast biopsy system guided by a dedicated breast PET (dbPET) images. The PET system is formed by two rings with twelve detector modules each. The transaxial FOV is 170 mm and the axial FOV is 94 mm. The system can separate the detectors up to 60 mm in transaxial plane to allow the biopsy needle entrance. The acquisitions are reconstructed using the LMOS algorithm with tube-of-response (TOR) backprojector, 1 iteration and 16 subsets. The voxel and pixel sizes are (1 × 1 × 1) mm3 and (1.6 × 1.6) mm2 respectively. The radial resolution measured is 1.62 mm in the center of the FOV and 3.45 mm at 50 mm off the center in the radial direction using the closed configuration. In the open configuration the resolution reaches 1.85 mm and 3.65 mm at center and at 50 mm off-center. The adapted recovery coefficients (ARC) are measured for six hot rods inside a cylindrical phantom with a warm background. The ratio between hot and background regions is 10. The ARC values for the closed configuration are 0.32, 0.77 and 0.96 for the inserts with a diameter of 4.5 mm, 8.3 mm and 25 mm, respectively. These values decrease to 0.16, 0.52 and 0.77 for the open configuration. The sensitivity measured using an energy window of 250 keV-750 keV is 3.6% and 2.5% for the closed and open configurations respectively. The NEC peak is 141 kcps@68 MBq and 147 kcps@78 MBq for closed and open configurations. The performance characteristics measured with the open ring configuration decreases with respect the closed configuration, however the values remain comparable to other dbPETs.

  7. A Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Androgyny and Self-Esteem, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eman, Virginia A.; Morse, Benjamin W.

    Androgynous persons accept both their masculine and feminine characteristics rather than adhere to traditional sex-role stereotypes. This study tested whether the multidimensional approach and psychological freedom of androgynous persons would give them greater self-esteem, self-acceptance, and acceptance of others, according to their own…

  8. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  9. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-03-28

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ``Real World`` water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument`s precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument`s accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ``real world``, water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments.

  10. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the clinical laboratory: current procedures, performance characteristics and limitations.

    PubMed

    Wallace, A M; Gibson, S; de la Hunty, A; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Ashwell, M

    2010-07-01

    In this review we describe procedures, performance characteristics and limitations of methods available for the measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin (25OHD) since the year 2000. The two main types of methods are competitive immunoassay and those based on chromatographic separation followed by non-immunological direct detection (HPLC, LC-MS/MS). Lack of a reference standard for 25OHD has, until recently, been a major issue resulting in poor between-method comparability. Fortunately this should soon improve due to the recent introduction of a standard reference material in human serum (SRM 972) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For immunoassay, specificity can be an issue especially in relation to the proportion of 25OHD2 that is quantified whereas HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods are able to measure the two major vitamin D metabolites 25OHD2 and 25OHD3 independently. HPLC and LC-MS/MS require more expensive equipment and expert staff but this can be offset against lower reagent costs. Increasingly procedures are being developed to semi-automate or automate HPLC and LC-MS/MS but run times remain considerably longer than for immunoassays especially if performed on automated platforms. For most HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods extraction and procedural losses are corrected for by the inclusion of an internal standard which, in part, may account for higher results compared to immunoassay. In general precision of immunoassay, HPLC and LC-MS/MS are comparable and all have the required sensitivity to identify severe vitamin D deficiency. Looking to the future it is hoped that the imminent introduction of a standard reference method (or methods) for 25OHD will further accelerate improvements in between method comparability.

  11. Calcium hydroxyapatite-based photocatalysts for environment remediation: Characteristics, performances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, C; L Castro, P M

    2017-02-09

    Calcium hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) is a material widely used in biomedicine, for bone implants manufacture, due to its biocompatibility. HAp has also application for environmental remediation, as it can be employed as metal removal; moreover, it has the capability of effectively adsorbing organic molecules its surface. In recent years, the photocatalytic properties of HAp have been investigated; indeed several studies report of HAp used as photocatalyst, either on its own or combined with other photocatalytic materials. Although in the majority of cases the activity was induced by UV light, some reports of visible light-activated materials were reported. Here we present a critical review of the latest developments for HAp-based photocatalysts; the materials discussed are undoped single phase HAp, doped HAp and HAp-containing composites. For undoped single phase HAp, the possible surface treatment and lattice defects which can lead to a photoactive material are discussed. Considering doped HAp, the use of Ti(4+) (the most common dopant) is described, with particular attention to the effects that this metal have on the characteristics of the material (i.e. crystallinity) and on its photocatalytic behaviour. The use of other dopants is also discussed. For the multiphasic materials, the combination of HAp with other photocatalysts is discussed, mainly but not only with titanium dioxide TiO2. Overall, HAp is a compound with high potential as photocatalyst; this property, combined with its capability for heavy metal removal, makes it a multifunctional material for environmental remediation. As future perspectives, further studies, based on the results obtained until present, should be performed, to improve the performance of the materials and/or shift the band gap into the visible. The use of other dopants and/or the combination with other photocatalysts, for instance, are features which is worth exploring.

  12. Athlete Characteristics and Team Competitive Performance as Moderators for the Relationship Between Coach Transformational Leadership and Athlete Performance.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai C; Schulte-Coerne, Paul; Diebig, Mathias; Rowold, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of coaches' transformational leadership on player performance. To advance existing research, we examine (a) effects on individual and team performance and (b) consider joint moderating effects of players' win orientation and teams' competitive performance on the leadership- individual performance link. In a three-source sample from German handball teams, we collected data on 336 players and 30 coaches and teams. Results showed positive main effects of transformational leadership's facet of articulating a vision (AV) on team and individual performance and negative main effects of providing an appropriate model (PAM) on team performance. With regard to moderating effects, AV increased and PAM decreased individual performance when both moderators were low, and intellectual stimulation had a positive effect when both were high. This study expands insights into the potential and limitation of transformational leadership with a strong focus on the role of situational contingencies.

  13. Cow characteristics and their association with production performance with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2014-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Some cows have less milk production loss than other cows after applying no DP or a short DP. The aim of this study is to evaluate which cow characteristics are associated with the amount of milk production losses following no DP or a short DP (30d). Daily production information from the lactation before and after the DP was available from 161 dairy cows (54 cows with a 0-d DP, 51 cows with a 30-d DP, and 56 cows with a 60-d DP) from a research herd. Daily production (milk, fat, and protein) until 305d in milk was estimated for all cows. Subsequently, total fat- and protein-corrected milk yield from 60d before the expected calving date until 305d in the following lactation (FPCMtotal) was estimated. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which cow characteristics were associated with limited or no production losses following no DP or a short DP, compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Average FPCMtotal was 9,341, 10,499, and 10,795kg for cows with no DP, a 30-d DP, and a 60-d DP, respectively. The cow characteristics parity, daily milk production at 12wk before the expected calving date, and reduction in daily milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date were associated with production loss due to a short (30d) or no DP. Compared with 60d DP, multiparous cows had less production loss (987kg) following no DP than primiparous cows (2,132kg). The difference in FPCMtotal between the 3DP groups was largest for cows with a low milk production (e.g., 10kg/d) at 12wk before the expected calving date. The greater the reduction in milk production between 16 and 12wk before the expected calving date, the larger the difference in FPCMtotal between

  14. Revealing the characteristics of a novel bioflocculant and its flocculation performance in Microcystis aeruginosa removal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Bai, Naling; Yang, Shengmao; Wan, Li; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, YuHua

    2015-12-02

    In the present work, a novel bioflocculant, EPS-1, was prepared and used to flocculate the kaolin suspension and Microcystis aeruginosa. We focused on the characteristics and flocculation performance of EPS-1, especially with regard to its protein components. An important attribute of EPS-1 was its protein content, with 18 protein types identified that occupied a total content of 31.70% in the EPS-1. Moreover, the flocculating activity of these protein components was estimated to be no less than 33.93%. Additionally, polysaccharides that occupied 57.12% of the total EPS-1 content consisted of four monosaccharides: maltose, D-xylose, mannose, and D-fructose. In addition, carbonyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups were identified as the main functional groups. Three main elements, namely C1s, N1s, and O1s, were present in EPS-1 with relative atomic percentages of 62.63%, 24.91%, and 10.5%, respectively. Zeta potential analysis indicated that charge neutralization contributed to kaolin flocculation, but was not involved in M. aeruginosa flocculation. The flocculation conditions of EPS-1 were optimized, and the maximum flocculating efficiencies were 93.34% within 2 min for kaolin suspension and 87.98% within 10 min for M. aeruginosa. These results suggest that EPS-1 could be an alternative to chemical flocculants for treating wastewaters and cyanobacterium-polluted freshwater.

  15. Determining heat loss into the environment based on comprehensive investigation of boiler performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Malygin, P. V.; Popov, A. N.; Popova, E. I.

    2015-08-01

    A refined procedure for determining heat loss into the environment from heat-generating installations is presented that takes into account the state of their lining and heat insulation quality. The fraction of radiative component in the total amount of heat loss through the outer surfaces is determined. The results from experimental investigations of the thermal engineering and environmental performance characteristics of a foreign hot-water boiler in firing wood pellets are presented. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of using such hot-water boilers for supplying heat to low-rise buildings, especially for the conditions of the North-Arctic region. The results from a thermal engineering investigation of wood pellets and furnace residue carried out on installations of a thermal analysis laboratory are presented together with the grain-size composition of fuel and indicators characterizing the mechanical strength of wood pellets. The velocity fields, flue gas flow rates, and soot particle concentrations are determined using the external filtration methods, and the composition of combustion products is investigated using a gas analyzer. The graphs of variation with time of boiler external surface temperature from the moment of achieving the nominal mode of operation and heat loss into the environment for stationary boilers are presented.

  16. Parametric analysis of performance and design characteristics for advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.; Strack, W. C.; Padrutt, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Performance, trajectory, and design characteristics are presented for (1) a single-stage shuttle with a single advanced rocket engine, (2) a single-stage shuttle with an initial parallel chemical engine and advanced engine burn followed by an advanced engine sustainer burn, (3) a single-stage shuttle with an initial chemical engine burn followed by an advanced engine burn, and (4) a two-stage shuttle with a chemical propulsion booster stage and an advanced propulsion upper stage. The ascent trajectory profile includes a brief initial vertical rise; zero-lift flight through the sensible atmosphere; variational steering into an 83-kilometer by 185-kilometer intermediate orbit; and a fixed, 460-meter per second allowance for subsequent maneuvers. Results are given in terms of burnout mass fractions (including structure and payload), trajectory profiles, propellant loadings, and burn times. These results are generated with a trajectory analysis that includes a parametric variation of the specific impulse from 800 to 3000 seconds and the specific engine weight from 0 to 1.0.

  17. Resistive switching characteristics of Pt/TaOx/HfNx structure and its performance improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qigang; Zhai, Jiwei

    2013-03-01

    The refractory transition metal nitride (TMN) film Hafnium nitride (HfNx) was successfully prepared on silicon-based substrates as bottom electrodes for resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells in Pt (top)/metal oxide/ HfNx (bottom) sandwich structure. The reproducible resistive switching (RS) characteristics of the memory cells were studied systematically for RRAM applications. The advantages of adopting HfNx instead of Pt as bottom electrode material were demonstrated, including the improvement of the low resistive state value, the RS endurance and the uniformity of RS parameters. The composition and chemical bonding states of the prepared HfNx was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The nitrogen content in the HfNx and the Gibbs free energy of the corresponding metal oxide formation has great influences on the RS properties. The oxygen reservoir ability and diffusion barrier effect of the HfNx play a key role in the RS performance improvement of the RRAM devices.

  18. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.

  19. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants.

  20. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency.

  1. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-06-17

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives.

  2. Feeding soywaste or pellet on performance and carcass characteristics of post-weaning kids.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Khadijah, Wan Embong Wan; Abdullah, Ramli Bin

    2016-08-01

    Twelve Jermasia kids were individually housed in pens to study the effects of soywaste on growth performance and carcass characteristics and to compare such effects with commercial pellet. Kids were divided into a pellet group and a soywaste group, including six kids (3 males and 3 females) in each group. Pellet or soywaste was offered to kids at a rate of 2.0 % dry matter (DM) of body weight/day in addition to Napier grass ad libitum. In last 10 days of experiment, kids were housed in metabolism crates for faeces collection. At the end of the experiment, three males from each group were slaughtered. Kids fed soywaste diet consumed more grass and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than those fed pellet. The same trend was found for the digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM) and NDF. Conversely, kids fed soywaste diet consumed less soywaste supplement than kids fed pellet. No treatment effects were observed on total intakes of DM, OM and crude protein (CP) including CP digestibility. Similarly, no effects were found on carcass and non-carcass components, except for lean, lean to fat ratio and kidney weight which were higher for kids fed soywaste diet. Results indicate that soywaste is effective as a feed for growing kids.

  3. Performance characteristics of a 1.8 by 3.7 meter Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    Line-focusing acrylic Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range were analytically and experimentally investigated. The measured solar concentration characteristics of a 1.8 by 3.7 m lens and its utilization in a solar collection mode are presented. A measured peak concentration ratio of 62 with 90 percent of the transmitted energy focused into a 5.0cm width was achieved. A peak concentration of 59 and a 90 percent target width of 4.3 cm were analytically computed. The experimental and analytical lens transmittance was 78 percent and 86 percent, respectively. The lens was also interfaced with a nonevacuated receiver assembly and operated in the collection mode. With a natural oxide absorber tube coating (alpha/epsilon = 0.79/0.10), the measured collection efficiency ranged from 43 percent to 200 C to 34 percent at 260 C. Efficiency improvements to the 40 to 50 percent range can be achieved with second generation lenses and higher performance absorptive coatings.

  4. Performance of Precipitation Algorithms During IPHEx and Observations of Microphysical Characteristics in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlingis, J. M.; Gourley, J. J.; Kirstetter, P.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Anagnostou, M.

    2015-12-01

    An Intensive Observation Period (IOP) for the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), part of NASA's Ground Validation campaign for the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission satellite took place from May-June 2014 in the Smoky Mountains of western North Carolina. The National Severe Storms Laboratory's mobile dual-pol X-band radar, NOXP, was deployed in the Pigeon River Basin during this time and employed various scanning strategies, including more than 1000 Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans in coordination with another radar and research aircraft. Rain gauges and disdrometers were also positioned within the basin to verify precipitation estimates and estimation of microphysical parameters. The performance of the SCOP-ME post-processing algorithm on NOXP data is compared with real-time and near real-time precipitation estimates with varying spatial resolutions and quality control measures (Stage IV gauge-corrected radar estimates, Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor System Quantitative Precipitation Estimates, and CMORPH satellite estimates) to assess the utility of a gap-filling radar in complex terrain. Additionally, the RHI scans collected in this IOP provide a valuable opportunity to examine the evolution of microphysical characteristics of convective and stratiform precipitation as they impinge on terrain. To further the understanding of orographically enhanced precipitation, multiple storms for which RHI data are available are considered.

  5. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  6. Revealing the characteristics of a novel bioflocculant and its flocculation performance in Microcystis aeruginosa removal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Bai, Naling; Yang, Shengmao; Wan, Li; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, YuHua

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a novel bioflocculant, EPS-1, was prepared and used to flocculate the kaolin suspension and Microcystis aeruginosa. We focused on the characteristics and flocculation performance of EPS-1, especially with regard to its protein components. An important attribute of EPS-1 was its protein content, with 18 protein types identified that occupied a total content of 31.70% in the EPS-1. Moreover, the flocculating activity of these protein components was estimated to be no less than 33.93%. Additionally, polysaccharides that occupied 57.12% of the total EPS-1 content consisted of four monosaccharides: maltose, D-xylose, mannose, and D-fructose. In addition, carbonyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups were identified as the main functional groups. Three main elements, namely C1s, N1s, and O1s, were present in EPS-1 with relative atomic percentages of 62.63%, 24.91%, and 10.5%, respectively. Zeta potential analysis indicated that charge neutralization contributed to kaolin flocculation, but was not involved in M. aeruginosa flocculation. The flocculation conditions of EPS-1 were optimized, and the maximum flocculating efficiencies were 93.34% within 2 min for kaolin suspension and 87.98% within 10 min for M. aeruginosa. These results suggest that EPS-1 could be an alternative to chemical flocculants for treating wastewaters and cyanobacterium-polluted freshwater. PMID:26626432

  7. Multiple performance characteristics optimization for Al 7075 on electric discharge drilling by Taguchi grey relational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Rajesh; Kumar, Anish; Garg, Mohinder Pal; Singh, Ajit; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-05-01

    Electric discharge drill machine (EDDM) is a spark erosion process to produce micro-holes in conductive materials. This process is widely used in aerospace, medical, dental and automobile industries. As for the performance evaluation of the electric discharge drilling machine, it is very necessary to study the process parameters of machine tool. In this research paper, a brass rod 2 mm diameter was selected as a tool electrode. The experiments generate output responses such as tool wear rate (TWR). The best parameters such as pulse on-time, pulse off-time and water pressure were studied for best machining characteristics. This investigation presents the use of Taguchi approach for better TWR in drilling of Al-7075. A plan of experiments, based on L27 Taguchi design method, was selected for drilling of material. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows the percentage contribution of the control factor in the machining of Al-7075 in EDDM. The optimal combination levels and the significant drilling parameters on TWR were obtained. The optimization results showed that the combination of maximum pulse on-time and minimum pulse off-time gives maximum MRR.

  8. Revealing the characteristics of a novel bioflocculant and its flocculation performance in Microcystis aeruginosa removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Bai, Naling; Yang, Shengmao; Wan, Li; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, a novel bioflocculant, EPS-1, was prepared and used to flocculate the kaolin suspension and Microcystis aeruginosa. We focused on the characteristics and flocculation performance of EPS-1, especially with regard to its protein components. An important attribute of EPS-1 was its protein content, with 18 protein types identified that occupied a total content of 31.70% in the EPS-1. Moreover, the flocculating activity of these protein components was estimated to be no less than 33.93%. Additionally, polysaccharides that occupied 57.12% of the total EPS-1 content consisted of four monosaccharides: maltose, D-xylose, mannose, and D-fructose. In addition, carbonyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups were identified as the main functional groups. Three main elements, namely C1s, N1s, and O1s, were present in EPS-1 with relative atomic percentages of 62.63%, 24.91%, and 10.5%, respectively. Zeta potential analysis indicated that charge neutralization contributed to kaolin flocculation, but was not involved in M. aeruginosa flocculation. The flocculation conditions of EPS-1 were optimized, and the maximum flocculating efficiencies were 93.34% within 2 min for kaolin suspension and 87.98% within 10 min for M. aeruginosa. These results suggest that EPS-1 could be an alternative to chemical flocculants for treating wastewaters and cyanobacterium-polluted freshwater.

  9. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshnay, N. K.; Singh, A.; Benerji, N. S.

    2017-02-01

    Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation. A magnetically coupled tangential blower is used for gas circulation inside the laser chamber for repetitive operation. The exciter consists of C-C energy transfer circuit and thyratron is used as a high-voltage main switch with single-stage magnetic pulse compression (MPC) between thyratron and the laser electrodes. Low inductance of the laser head and uniform and intense pre-ionization are the main features of the electric circuit used in the laser. A 250 ns rise time voltage pulse was compressed to 100 ns duration with a single-stage magnetic pulse compressor using Ni-Zn ferrite cores. The laser can generate about 150 mJ at ˜100 Hz rep-rate reliably from a discharge volume of 100 cm 3. 2D spatial laser beam profile generated is presented here. The profile shows that the laser beam is completely filled with flat-top which is suitable for material processing applications. The SEM image of the microhole generated on copper target is presented here.

  10. Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Küçükyılmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Çınar, Mustafa; Çatlı, Abdullah Uğur; Bintaş, Erol; Çöven, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty

  11. Effect of copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition of meat goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Wang, Y; Spears, J W; Lin, X; Guo, C H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cu on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition in meat goats. Thirty five Jianyang Big-ear goat (JYB) kids (average BW 20.3 ± 0.6 kg and age 3 to 4 mo) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 7 experimental treatments (n = 5 goats per treatment). Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu; 14.3 mg Cu/kg DM), 2) 20 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 3) 40 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 4) 80 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 5) 160 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 6) 320 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, and 7) 640 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM. Copper was supplemented from CuSO4•5H2O (25.2% Cu). Goats were individually fed a concentrate-hay based diet for 96 d. Performance was not affected by Cu concentration. Liver Cu concentration was increased (P < 0.01) with Cu supplementation. Goats supplemented with 0 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM had lower (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations than the other treatments. Backfat depth (P < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.01) were also increased with Cu supplementation. However, Cu-supplemented goats had lower (P = 0.04) longissimus muscle area (LMA) compared with control. Dietary Cu supplementation increased the percentage of C14:0 (P < 0.01), C20:4 (P < 0.01), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.03), decreased C18:1 trans (P = 0.04), and tended to decrease C18:0 (P = 0.08) in LM. Other fatty acids detected were not affected by dietary Cu supplementation (P > 0.10). These results indicate that JYB goats can tolerate up to 640 mg Cu/kg DM for 96 d without adverse effects on performance, but fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the body could be altered by Cu supplementation as low as 20 mg/kg of diet with high concentrate-hay. Copper supplementation increased backfat depth, IMF, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LM and decreased LMA in the carcass of JYB goats.

  12. Testing and performance characteristics of a 1-kW free piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1 kW single cylinder free piston Stirling engine, configured as a research engine, was tested with helium working gas. The engine features a posted displacer and dashpot load. The test results show the engine power output and efficiency to be lower than those observed during acceptance tests by the manufacturer. Engine tests results are presented for operation at the two heater head temperatures and with two regenerator porosities, along with flow test results for the heat exchangers.

  13. Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R.D.

    1994-10-20

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027.

  14. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  15. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  16. The relationship between characteristics of nursing performance and years of experience in nurses with high emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yuriko; Tanaka, Michiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of nursing performance among nurses with high emotional intelligence (EI) and examine the influence of years of experience on nursing performance and EI. A survey, including The Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Six-Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance, was administered to 1395 nurses working at general hospitals in Japan from November 2010 to March 2011. We received 1045 responses (76% response rate). There was a significant positive correlation between EI and nursing performance. Nurses with high EI reported more professional development activities, suggesting that they continue learning, attain licenses and actively improve their nursing skills. High-performing nurses had high situational abilities and showed improved nursing performance with experience. However, nurses with low situational abilities demonstrated no improvement in nursing performance related to experience. EI involves skills that can be acquired from training. Therefore, educational programmes to improve EI could improve nursing performance.

  17. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    can be used effectively in feedlot diets, decreasing the need for barley grain or silage without negatively affecting growth performance and carcass characteristics. A reduction in the amount of roughage required to maintain growth performance is a potential advantage in feedlot operations because forage is costly and often of limited availability. Thus, DDGS can be a possible alternative as long as they are available and cost effective; however, increased incidence of liver abscess and increased N content of manure need to be considered when greater amounts of wheat DDGS are included in finishing diets.

  18. Trends in Performance and Characteristics of Ultra-Stable Oscillators for Deep Space Radio Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunication systems of spacecraft on deep space missions also function as instruments for Radio Science experiments. Radio scientists utilize the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine very small changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and/or polarization of radio signals to investigate a host of physical phenomena in the solar system. Several missions augmented the radio communication system with an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) in order to provide a highly stable reference signal for oneway downlink. This configuration is used in order to enable better investigations of the atmospheres of the planets occulting the line-of-sight to the spacecraft; one-way communication was required and the transponders' built-in auxiliary oscillators were neither sufficiently stable nor spectrally pure for the occultation experiments. Since Radio Science instrumentation is distributed between the spacecraft and the ground stations, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is also equipped to function as a world-class instrument for Radio Science research. For a detailed account of Radio Science experiments, methodology, key discoveries, and the DSN's historical contribution to the field, see Asmar and Renzetti (1993). The tools of Radio Science can be and have also been utilized in addressing several mission engineering challenges; e.g., characterization of spacecraft nutation and anomalous motion, antenna calibrations, and communications during surface landing phases. Since the first quartz USO was flown on Voyager, the technology has advanced significantly, affording future missions higher sensitivity in reconstructing the temperature pressure profiles of the atmospheres under study as well as other physical phenomena of interest to Radio Science. This paper surveys the trends in stability and spectral purity performance, design characteristics including size and mass, as well as cost and history of these clocks in space.

  19. Effects of Forage Sources on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, Performance, and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Midlactation Cows

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Hou, Yujie; Yang, Hongbo; Shi, Renhuang; Wu, Caixia; Huo, Yongjiu; Zhao, Guoqi

    2014-01-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (632±12 kg BW; 135±16 DIM) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of forage sources on rumen fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein (MCP) synthesis. The forage portion of the diets contained alfalfa hay (AH), oat hay (OH), Leymus chinensis (LC), or rice straw (RS) as the primary source of fiber. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and cows were fed four corn silages based total mixed rations with equivalent nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) and forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forages, ranging from 18.83 to 19.20 kg/d, consequently, milk yield was similar among diets. Because of the numerical differences in milk fat and milk protein concentrations, 4% FCM and ECM yields were unchanged (p>0.05). Mean rumen pH, NH3-N content, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Dietary treatments did not affect the total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p>0.05); however, digestibility of NDF and acid detergent fiber in RS diet was higher compared with AH, OH, and LC diets (p<0.05). Total purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed AH, OH, and LC diets compared with those fed RS diet (p<0.05), consequently, estimated MCP synthesis was 124.35 g/d higher in cows fed AH diet compared with those fed RS diet (p<0.05). The results indicated that cows fed AH, OH, LC, and RS diets with an equivalent forage NDF and NFC have no unfavourable effect on the ruminal fermentation and productive parameters. PMID:25050001

  20. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin concentration compared with ADQ cattle. Both temperament groups had similar serum concentrations of IgA ( = 0.25) and total protein ( = 0.84). Cattle classified as EXC presented greater amounts ( = 0.05) of carcass bruises. In conclusion, an EXC temperament impaired feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality traits in finishing Nellore cattle.

  1. Potential performance characteristics of ICESat-2/ATLAS for canopy height retrievals in different ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Pitts, K.

    2015-12-01

    With an expected launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications including forest structural mapping and improved global digital terrain models. The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument on ICESat-2 will utilize a photon counting lidar which utilizes low power laser pulse with detectors sensitive at the single photon level. Due to this type of detector, any returned photon whether from the reflected signal or solar background can trigger a detection event. The ATLAS instrument will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection that can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. One of the uncertainties facing the ecosystem community is a comprehensive understanding of the performance of ICESat-2 will be for various ecosystems. Specifically, which ecosystems -and to a greater extent- what amount of canopy cover will create constraints on the ability to derive relative canopy height from ICESat-2 measurements. This paper aims to provide the science and user community of the ICESat-2 land/vegetation data products with a realistic understanding of the performance characteristics and subsequent data quality and the associated errors. To simulate ICESat-2/ATLAS data, data from small-footprint waveform lidar are the best surrogate for empirically deriving simulated ICESat-2 data as the entire temporal profile of the laser energy is recorded on each waveform. As such, a normalized waveform is the probability of where a photon is returned from the reflecting surface along the laser line-of-sight. Using this empirical approach, simulated ICESat-2 data can be developed for a variety of ecosystems ranging from sparse shrublands

  2. Carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.) improve growth performance, antioxidant status and caecal characteristics in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu Hafsa, S H; Ibrahim, S A; Hassan, A A

    2017-01-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate carob pods and their effect on growth performance, antioxidant activities, carcass and caecal characteristics and equilibrium modification of the caecal microbiota population of growing NZW rabbits. Eighty weaned rabbits (initial body weight: 625.00 ± 26.46 g) were randomly allocated into four dietary groups of 20 rabbits each until 90 days of age. Dietary groups were as follows: C (basal diet with no supplementation), CP1 (basal diet + 2.5% carob pods), CP2 (basal diet + 5% carob pods) and CP3 (basal diet + 10% carob pods). Rabbits given the CP2 diet had significantly higher daily and final body weights compared with the other experimental groups. The increase in inclusion rate of carob pods significantly decreased feed intake, whereas carob pods at 5% in the CP2 group recorded the best value of feed conversion ratio. Rabbits in the CP3 group showed the worst slaughter weight and carcass dressing percentage weight. No significant effect was found on meat protein and ash contents. Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in rabbits treated with carob pods compared with the control. Because of high content of the antioxidant compounds in CP2 and CP3 groups, the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase increased, whereas the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance decreased significantly. Rabbits given the CP2 diet had a significantly higher volatile fatty acid concentration and a lower pH in content of the caecum compared to the other groups. The data of microbial analysis for C group showed a significant increase in Escherichia coli and Clostridium counts. Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts increased significantly more in the CP2 and CP3 groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, 5% of carob pods in the diet stimulated the performance of growing rabbits, and

  3. Decomposing Inequalities in Performance Scores: The Role of Student Background, Peer Effects and School Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the mechanisms of stratification and inequalities in educational achievements. The main objective is to determine how stratification leads to unequal educational outcomes and how inequalities are channelled through student characteristics, school characteristics and peer effects. This analysis is undertaken in five countries…

  4. Evaluating Characteristics of Top and Bottom Performance: Online versus In-Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendler, Richard J.; Ruff, Craig; Shrikhande, Milind

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the characteristics of students who excel (those in the top quarter of their class) and students who merely survive (bottom quarter of class) when attending a course either in-class or online. Student characteristics such as personal attributes (learning styles and gender), individual competence (grade point average), and major…

  5. Performance Characteristics of Flush and Shielded Auxiliary Exits at Mach Numbers of 1.5 to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalla, Kaleel L.

    1959-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several flush and shielded auxiliary exits were investigated at Mach numbers of 1.5 to 2.0, and jet pressure ratios from jet off to 10. The results indicate that the shielded configurations produced better overall performance than the corresponding flush exits over the Mach-number and pressure-ratio ranges investigated. Furthermore, the full-length shielded exit was highest in performance of all the configurations. The flat-exit nozzle block provided considerably improved performance compared with the curved-exit nozzle block.

  6. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  7. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  8. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  9. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  10. The State of Charter Schools in Colorado, 2004-05: The Characteristics, Status, and Performance Record of Colorado Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This report presents and analyzes data from the 2004-05 school year related to the characteristics of charter schools in Colorado, including student achievement and school performance. The purpose, methodology and growth of charter schools in the state is discussed, followed by an overview of the background and mandates of the Colorado Charter…

  11. Two-year study: Effect of backgrounding system on growing and finishing performance, and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr study evaluated growing and finishing performance, as well as carcass characteristics of spring-born calves backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 d/wk with 2.77 kg DM/head of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF), or 3) drylotting on a g...

  12. Effects of strain and light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of genetic strain and light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights were investigated. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Treatment structure was a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement with the main factors being ...

  13. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  14. Resident Advisor General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Personality Dimensions, and Internal Belief Characteristics as Predictors of Rated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Max B.; Stemler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Resident Advisors (RAs) have a significant hand in helping students adjust and thrive in college life. Given the importance of selecting high-performing RAs, this study sought to examine how well various measures of intelligence (e.g., general, emotional) in addition to personality and additional "internal belief" characteristics predict…

  15. Learner Characteristics and Writing Performance in a Community College English as a Second Language Course: Some Unexpected Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Olga D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…

  16. Influence of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of photoperiod, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers in 2 trials. In each trial, 540 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females chicks...

  17. How Well Does Growth Mixture Modeling Identify Heterogeneous Growth Trajectories? A Simulation Study Examining GMM's Performance Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James; Fan, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) has become a more popular statistical method for modeling population heterogeneity in longitudinal data, but the performance characteristics of GMM enumeration indexes in correctly identifying heterogeneous growth trajectories are largely unknown. Few empirical studies have addressed this issue. This study considered…

  18. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  19. An Investigation of Selected Predictors of Nontraditional Student Academic Performance in Different Learning Environments: Personal Characteristics, Stressors, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The current study employed a secondary statistical analysis on the 2007 National Study on Nontraditional Students Survey data to investigate whether personal characteristics, student perceived stressors, and social support could predict academic performance of nontraditional students enrolled in three different learning environments in terms of…

  20. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Thymol on Growth Performance and Gut Characteristics of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Hui; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Chen, Daiwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 144 weaned crossed pigs were used in a 42-d trial to explore the effects of different concentrations/combinations of benzoic acid and thymol on growth performance and gut characteristics in weaned pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: i) control (C), basal diet, ii) C+1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol (BT1), iii) C+1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+200 mg/kg thymol (BT2) and, iv) C+2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol (BT3). Relative to the control, pigs fed diet BT3 had lower diarrhoea score during the overall period (p<0.10) and improved feed to gain ratio between days 1 to 14 (p<0.05), which was accompanied by improved apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract, Ca and crude ash (p<0.05), and larger lipase, lactase and sucrose activities in the jejunum (p<0.05) at d 14 and d 42. Similarly, relative to the control, pigs fed diet BT3 had higher counts for Lactobacillus spp in digesta of ileum at d 14 (p<0.05), and pigs fed diets BT1, BT2, or BT3 also had higher counts of Bacillus spp in digesta of caecum at d 14 (p<0.05), and lower concentration of ammonia nitrogen in digesta of caecum at d 14 and d 42 (p<0.05). Finally, pigs fed diet BT3 had higher concentration of butyric acid in digesta of caecum at d 42 (p<0.05), and a larger villus height:crypt depth ratio in jejunum and ileum at d 14 (p<0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, piglets fed diet supplementation with different concentrations/combinations of benzoic acid and thymol could improve feed efficiency and diarrhoea, and improve gut microfloral composition. The combination of 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol produced better effects than other treatments in most measurements. PMID:25925060

  1. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-07-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (676 +/- 57 kg of body weight; 121 +/- 17 d-in-milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of 4 sources of carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation, and microbial N flow to the duodenum. Four cows in one of the Latin squares were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae. Diets contained (DM basis) 50% forage in combinations of alfalfa hay and barley silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate portion of the diets contained barley, corn, wheat, or oats grain as the primary source of carbohydrate. Intake of DM ranged from 24.0 to 26.2 kg/d, and it tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet; consequently, milk yield tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet. Cows fed the barley- or wheat-based diets had a lower milk fat content compared with those fed the corn-based diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were largely unaffected by the source of dietary carbohydrate, with similar ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations for the first 6 h after the morning feeding. Dietary treatment did not affect total tract apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber; however, total tract apparent digestibility of starch in cows fed the oats-based diet was higher compared with those fed the corn-and wheat-based diets. Nitrogen that was used for productive purposes (i.e., N secreted in milk + N apparently retained by the cow) tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with cows fed the barley-, corn-, or oats-based diets. Urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion was similar in cows fed the barley-, corn-, and wheat-based diets; however, purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed the barley-based diet compared with those fed the oats-based diet. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was

  2. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and DMI than Wagyu. Wagyu-sired calves had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P < 0.02) 12th-rib IMF and 6th-rib IMF than Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P < 0.05) LMA at the 6th rib. Steaks from Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P < 0.01) for Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  3. Determining Performance Acceptability of Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed to screen commercial electrochemical oxygen sensors to reduce the failure rate. There are three aspects to the method: First, the sensitivity over time (several days) can be measured and the rate of change of the sensitivity can be used to predict sensor failure. Second, an improvement to this method would be to store the sensors in an oxygen-free (e.g., nitrogen) environment and intermittently measure the sensitivity over time (several days) to accomplish the same result while preserving the sensor lifetime by limiting consumption of the electrode. Third, the second time derivative of the sensor response over time can be used to determine the point in time at which the sensors are sufficiently stable for use.

  4. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  5. Effects of chromium supplementation to feedlot steers on growth performance, insulin sensitivity, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kneeskern, S G; Dilger, A C; Loerch, S C; Shike, D W; Felix, T L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of chromium propionate supplementation on growth performance, insulin and glucose metabolism, and carcass characteristics of beef cattle. Steers ( = 34) were stratified by BW and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) no supplemental Cr (Cont) or 2) 3 mg supplemental Cr·steer·d (CrP). Both supplements, Cont and CrP, were delivered via 0.454 kg ground corn top-dressed on the basal diet. There was no effect ( ≥ 0.45) of CrP on ADG, DMI, G:F, or final BW. However, steers fed CrP needed more ( = 0.10) days on feed (DOF) to achieve the same carcass back fat (BF) as steers fed Cont. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.41) of CrP on HCW, BF, or KPH. Steers fed CrP had increased ( = 0.01) dressing percentage (DP) and tended to have a 4.21 cm greater LM area ( = 0.15), decreased marbling scores ( = 0.11), and decreased intramuscular fat ( = 0.11) compared to steers fed Cont. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.25) in quality or yield grade distributions. A glucose tolerance test was conducted early (21 DOF) and late (98 DOF) in the finishing phase. There was a feedlot treatment (FT) × time × DOF interaction ( = 0.08) for glucose concentrations, but no other interactions ( ≥ 0.21) for glucose or insulin concentrations. There were no FT × DOF interactions ( ≥ 0.21) for insulin area under the curve (iAUC), insulin:glucose ratio, insulin or glucose baseline, or peak insulin or glucose concentrations. At 21 DOF, steers fed CrP had decreased glucose area under the curve (gAUC; = 0.01), decreased glucose clearance rate (; = 0.02), and increased glucose half-life (T; = 0.07) compared to steers fed Cont; however, by 98 DOF, no differences were observed between treatments. At 98 DOF, all steers, regardless of treatment, had increased ( < 0.01) peak glucose and insulin, , iAUC, insulin:glucose ratio, and baseline insulin when compared to values at 21 DOF, but gAUC and T decreased ( < 0.01). Although steers fed CrP tended ( = 0.11) to have

  6. The effects of technology use in feedlot production systems on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C L; Bernhard, B C; O'Neill, C F; Wilson, B K; Hixon, C G; Haviland, C L; Grimes, A N; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feedlot production systems with and without the use of a β-adrenergic agonist compared to an all-natural production program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Crossbred beef steers ( = 336; initial BW = 379 ± 8 kg) were randomized to 1 of 3 treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD; 14 steers/pen; 8 pens/treatment). Treatments consisted of an all-natural treatment (NAT), a conventional treatment (CONV), and a conventional treatment with a β-agonist (CONV-Z). All treatments were fed the same basal diet with NAT cattle receiving no growth promoting technologies. The CONV and CONV-Z cattle were implanted with 40 mg of estradiol and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA) on d 0 and were fed 33 and 9 mg/kg of monensin and tylosin daily, respectively. The CONV-Z cattle were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) at 6.76 mg/kg (90% DM basis) for the last 20 days on feed (DOF) There was no effect of treatment on DMI ( = 0.83); however, CONV-Z steers gained 3.8% faster (1.64 vs. 1.58 kg/d; < 0.01) and were 5.3% more efficient (0.160 vs. 0.152; < 0.01) than CONV steers, and CONV steers gained 32.8% faster (1.58 vs. 1.19 kg/d; < 0.01) and were 26.7% more efficient (0.152 vs. 0.120; < 0.01) than NAT steers. There was a 35.7% improvement in estimated carcass gain (1.29 vs. 0.95 kg/d; < 0.01) and a 32.6% improvement in carcass efficiency (0.126 vs. 0.095; < 0.01) for CONV-Z steers compared to NAT steers. Hot carcass weight was increased by 8 kg for CONV-Z steers compared to CONV steers (394 vs. 386 kg; = 0.05) and 46 kg compared to NAT steers (394 vs. 348 kg; < 0.01). Longissimus muscle area was increased by 3.6 cm for CONV-Z steers compared to CONV steers (92.29 vs. 88.67 cm; = 0.02) and 12.1 cm for CONV-Z steers compared to NAT steers (92.29 vs. 80.16 cm; < 0.01), resulting in a 9.6% unit increase in USDA yield grade (YG) 1 (15.14 vs. 5.52%; < 0.05) and a 21.6% unit reduction in USDA YG 3 for

  7. Characteristics of Maximum Performance of Pedaling Exercise in Recumbent and Supine Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Morimasa; Tsutsumi, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurakane, Shizue; Chang, Hyukki

    2011-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of maximum pedaling performance in the recumbent and supine positions, maximum isokinetic leg muscle strength was measured in eight healthy male subjects during pedaling at three velocities (300°/s, 480°/s, and 660°/s), and maximum incremental tests were performed for each position. The maximum isokinetic muscle strength in the recumbent position was 210.0 ± 29.2 Nm at 300°/s, 158.4 ± 19.8 Nm at 480°/s, and 110.6 ± 13.2 at 660°/s. In contrast, the muscle strength in the supine position was 229.3 ± 36.7 Nm at 300°/s, 180. 7 ± 20.3 Nm at 480°/s, and 129.6 ± 14.0 Nm at 660°/s. Thus, the maximum isokinetic muscle strength showed significantly higher values in the supine position than in the recumbent position at all angular velocities. The knee and hip joint angles were measured at peak torque using a goniometer; the knee joint angle was not significantly different between both positions, whereas the hip joint angle was greater in the supine position than in the recumbent position (Supine position: 137.3 ± 9. 33 degree at 300°/s, 140.0 ± 11.13 degrees at 480°/s, and 141.0 ± 9.61 degrees at 660°/s. Recumbent position: 99.5 ± 12.21 degrees at 300°/s, 101.6 ± 12.29 degrees at 480°/s, and 105.8 ± 14.28 degrees at 660°/s). Peak oxygen uptake was higher in the recumbent position (50.3 ± 4.43 ml·kg-1·min-1) than in the supine position (48.7 ± 5.10 ml·kg-1·min-1). At maximum exertion, the heart rate and whole-body rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unaffected by position, but leg muscle RPE was higher in the supine position (19.5 ± 0.53 than in the recumbent position (18.8 ± 0.71). These results suggest that the supine position is more suitable for muscle strength exertion than the recumbent position, and this may be due to different hip joint angles between the positions. On the contrary, the endurance capacity was higher in the recumbent position than in the supine position. Since leg muscle RPE was

  8. Moved through Music: The Effect of Experienced Emotions on Performers' Movement Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zijl, Anemone G. W.; Luck, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Do performers who feel sad move differently compared to those who express sadness? Although performers' expressive movements have been widely studied, little is known about how performers' experienced emotions affect such movements. To investigate this, we made 72 motion-capture recordings of eight violinists playing a melodic phrase in response…

  9. Flemish Primary Teachers' Use of School Performance Feedback and the Relationship with School Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhoof, Jan; Verhaeghe, Goedele; Van Petegem, Peter; Valcke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools are increasingly confronted with the challenges that information about school performance brings with it. It is common for schools' use of performance feedback to be limited. Equally, however, there are documented cases in which school performance feedback is meaningfully used. Purpose: This study looks at how Flemish primary…

  10. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  11. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  12. Impact of sorting before feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, F H; Hussey, E M; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Vander Pol, K J; Hutcheson, J P; Erickson, G E

    2015-05-01

    Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed -CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier ( P< 0.01) HCW than -CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than -CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between -CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for -CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that

  13. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  14. The Effects of Higher Education Programme Characteristics on the Allocation and Performance of the Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijke, Hans; Meng, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique European data-set, we investigated the significance of five higher education programme characteristics for the labour market position of the graduates: the academic versus discipline-specific character of the competencies generated; the standardization of these competencies; the combination of working and learning; the…

  15. Teacher Characteristics and Practices and Student Performance on Advanced Placement Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated AP U.S. History teacher characteristics, school and classroom context, instructional and assessment practices, and the relationship of all these variables with student achievement on the AP U.S. History Exam. The study sample consisted AP U.S. History teachers in the state of Georgia (N = 93) representing 14 of the state's…

  16. The general performance characteristics of a Stirling refrigerator with regenerative losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun

    1996-04-01

    The influence of finite-rate heat transfer and regenerative losses on the performance of a Stirling refrigerator using an ideal or Van der Waals gas as the working substance is investigated. The cooling rate and the coefficient of performance are derived. The optimal relation between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance is obtained. The maximum cooling rate and the corresponding coefficient of performance are determined for different cases. The problem of optimizing other parameters is also discussed. The results obtained here will be useful for the further understanding and the selection of the optimal operating conditions of a Stirling refrigerator.

  17. Characteristics of a silicon nanowires/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction and its effect on the solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhimin; Su, Mingze; Wang, Hao; Gong, Yuting; Xie, Fangyan; Gong, Li; Meng, Hui; Liu, Pengyi; Chen, Huanjun; Xie, Weiguang; Chen, Jian

    2015-03-18

    The interfacial energy-level alignment of a silicon nanowires (SiNWs)/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The potential difference and electrical distribution in the junction are systematically revealed. When the PEDOT:PSS layer is covered at the bottom of the SiNW array, an abrupt junction is formed at the interface whose characteristics are mainly determined by the uniformly doped Si bulk. When the PEDOT:PSS layer is covered on the top, a hyperabrupt junction localized at the top of the SiNWs forms, and this characteristic depends on the surface properties of the SiNWs. Because the calculation shows that the absorption of light from the SiNWs and the Si bulk are equally important, the bottom-coverage structure leads to better position matching between the depletion and absorption area and therefore shows better photovoltaic performance. The dependence of JSC and VOC on the junction characteristic is discussed.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

  19. A Correlational Study of the Relationship of Spirituality on College Students' Academic Performance and Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if a correlation exists between a college student's spirituality and his or her academic performance (GPA) or his or her academic achievement. An insignificant amount of literature has been published in which researchers explore spirituality and academic performance or achievement. This current study…

  20. Study of the Performance and Characteristics of U.S. Academic Research Institution Technology Commercialization (ARITC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to provide a better understanding of the technology licensing practices of academic research institutions. The study identifies time durations in licensing and incorporates these into a model to evaluate licensing performance. Performance is measured by the efficiency of an institution's technology licensing process and…

  1. Perceptions of Value: A Study of Worker Characteristics and Performance Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the need of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners to make the most cost-effective performance intervention decisions, introducing a new instrument, the Intervention Value Survey, as a possible tool to provide a clearer profile of an audience's perceptions of what provides them value. Using a mixed methods…

  2. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Characteristics and School-Level Performance Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    The relationship between selected contextual and socioeconomic variables and school-level results from a statewide performance-based student assessment system was studied using the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). KIRIS uses portfolios of student work, scores from on-demand assessments, and student performance on…

  3. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented.

  4. Corn and soybean Landsat MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T.; Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to fully utilize remote sensing to inventory crop production, it is important to identify the factors that affect the accuracy of Landsat classifications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of scene characteristics involving crop, soil, and weather variables on the accuracy of Landsat classifications of corn and soybeans. Segments sampling the U.S. Corn Belt were classified using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier on multitemporally registered data from two key acquisition periods. Field size had a strong effect on classification accuracy with small fields tending to have low accuracies even when the effect of mixed pixels was eliminated. Other scene characteristics accounting for variability in classification accuracy included proportions of corn and soybeans, crop diversity index, proportion of all field crops, soil drainage, slope, soil order, long-term average soybean yield, maximum yield, relative position of the segment in the Corn Belt, weather, and crop development stage.

  5. Organizations as Information Processing Systems. Environmental Characteristics, Company Performance, and Chief Executive Scanning: An Empirical Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    General Managers Really Do," Harvard Business Review, (November-December, 1982), pp. 156-167. Lawrnt’Ce, Paul R. and Jay W. Lorsch , Organizations and...tend to "fit" environmental characteristics (Tung, 1979; lawrence and Lorsch , 1967; Burns and Stalker, 1961; Lindsay and Rue, 1980; Javidan, 1984...Sciences, 15 (1984), pp. 197-220. Galbraith, Jay R., Designing Complex Organizations, Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley, 1973. Grinyer, P. H., and D

  6. Comparison of performance characteristics of three real-time reverse transcription-PCR test systems for detection and quantification of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Sábato, M Fernanda; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Langley, Michael R; Wilkinson, David S; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated the performance characteristics of three real-time reverse transcription-PCR test systems for detection and quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and performed a direct comparison of the systems on the same clinical specimens. Commercial HCV panels (genotype 1b) were used to evaluate linear range, sensitivity, and precision. The Roche COBAS TaqMan HCV test for research use only (RUO) with samples processed on the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche RUO-MPLC) and Abbott analyte-specific reagents (ASR) with QIAGEN sample processing (Abbott ASR-Q) showed a sensitivity of 1.0 log(10) IU/ml with a linear dynamic range of 1.0 to 7.0 log(10) IU/ml. The Roche ASR in combination with the High Pure system (Roche ASR-HP) showed a sensitivity of 1.4 log(10) IU/ml with a linear dynamic range of 2.0 to 7.0 log(10) IU/ml. All of the systems showed acceptable reproducibility, the Abbott ASR-Q being the most reproducible of the three systems. Seventy-six clinical specimens (50 with detectable levels of HCV RNA and various titers and genotypes) were tested, and results were compared to those of the COBAS Amplicor HCV Monitor v2.0. Good correlation was obtained for the Roche RUO-MPLC and Abbott ASR-Q (R(2) = 0.84 and R(2) = 0.93, respectively), with better agreement for the Abbott ASR-Q. However, correlation (R(2) = 0.79) and agreement were poor for Roche ASR-HP, with bias relative to concentration and genotype. Roche ASR-HP underestimated HCV RNA for genotypes 3 and 4 as much as 2.19 log(10) IU/ml. Our study demonstrates that Roche RUO-MPLC and Abbott ASR-Q provided acceptable results and agreed sufficiently with the COBAS Amplicor HCV Monitor v2.0.

  7. Effect of feeding reduced crude protein and phosphorus diets on weaning-finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and bone characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hinson, R B; Schinckel, A P; Radcliffe, J S; Allee, G L; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T

    2009-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (control) or a low nutrient excretion (LNE) diet, formulated with reduced dietary CP and additional synthetic AA, low phytic acid corn, and phytase, on pig growth performance during the grower (BW=32 to 77 kg) and finisher (BW=78 to 126 kg) periods and on carcass and bone characteristics at slaughter. Pigs (32+/-1.3 kg of BW, Exp. 1; 6.7+/-0.27 kg of BW, Exp. 2) were blocked by sex and BW and randomly allotted to a control or LNE diet. Pigs were housed in 4 rooms during the nursery period and in 2 rooms during the grower and finisher periods, with individual and identical ventilation systems. Pigs were phase fed 3 nursery diets for 5 wk (Exp. 2) and phase fed 2 grower and 2 finisher diets for 16 wk (Exp. 1 and 2). Pigs were housed 4 or 5 pigs/pen with 9 pens x sex(-1) x treatment(-1) during the nursery period and 4 or 5 pigs/pen with 5 pens x sex(-1) x treatment(-1) in the grower phase and 2 or 3 pigs/pen in the finisher phase. Individual BW and pen feed disappearance were recorded weekly in the nursery period and every 2 wk in the grower-finisher period. Pigs were scanned ultrasonically at d 34 of the nursery period and wk 8 and 16 of the grower-finisher period to determine backfat depths and LM area. Ten pigs x sex(-1) x treatment(-1) were slaughtered at wk 16 of each experiment to determine carcass characteristics. Overall growth performance was not different during each experiment. However, nursery G:F (control=0.65; LNE=0.60), grower ADG (Exp. 1 and 2), and grower G:F (Exp. 2) were reduced (P<0.05) when the LNE diets were fed. Diet had no effect on 10th-rib carcass data in either experiment. Metatarsal bone ash percentage was reduced (P<0.05) when the LNE diets were consumed in both experiments. Feeding LNE diets resulted in the maintenance of overall growth performance, bone variables, and carcass characteristics. However, further refinements are still

  8. Trail Making Test A improves performance characteristics of the International HIV Dementia Scale to identify symptomatic HAND.

    PubMed

    Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Clifford, David; Paul, Robert H; Tipsuk, Somporn; Fletcher, James L K; Degruttola, Victor; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Hutchings, Nicholas; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-04-01

    Although HIV-associated dementia (HAD) occurs in less than 5 % of individuals with access to combination antiretroviral therapy, rates of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are much higher. We sought to define an optimal cut point for the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) in Thailand for the identification of symptomatic HAND, defined as both HAD and mild neurocognitive disorder. We then sought to determine if adding a simple test from a larger neuropsychological battery could improve the performance characteristics for identifying symptomatic HAND. In this study, subjects comprising 75 seropositive adults in Bangkok, Thailand, completed neuropsychological tests and underwent a full neurological assessment. HAND diagnoses were determined by consensus conference using the 2007 Frascati criteria, blinded to the IHDS results. The optimal IHDS cut point was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis with cross-validation. Individual neuropsychological tests were then evaluated and combined with the IHDS to test performance characteristics. The IHDS was poor at detecting symptomatic HAND at the optimized cut point of ≤ 10 (sensitivity, 53.3 %; specificity, 89.8 %). Trail Making Test A was most effective in improving performance characteristics when combined with the IHDS, with net sensitivity of 86 % and specificity of 79 %. In this setting, the IHDS performed poorly in identifying symptomatic HAND, but was substantially improved by the addition of Trail Making Test A, which typically requires less than 2 min to complete. This combination should be validated in a larger setting since it may address the critical need for HAND screening instruments in international settings.

  9. Trail Making Test A Improves Performance Characteristics of the International HIV-Dementia Scale to Identify Symptomatic HAND

    PubMed Central

    Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Clifford, David; Paul, Robert H; Tipsuk, Somporn; Fletcher, James L K; DeGruttola, Victor; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Hutchings, Nicholas; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    Although HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD) occurs in less than 5% of individuals with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), rates of milder forms of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) are much higher. We sought to define an optimal cut-point for the International HIV-Dementia Scale (IHDS) in Thailand for the identification of symptomatic HAND, defined as both HAD and Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MND). We then sought to determine if adding a simple test from a larger neuropsychological battery could improve the performance characteristics for identifying symptomatic HAND. In this study 75 seropositive adults in Bangkok, Thailand, subjects completed neuropsychological tests and underwent a full neurological assessment. HAND diagnoses were determined by consensus conference using the 2007 Frascati criteria, blinded to the IHDS results. The optimal IHDS cut-point was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis with cross-validation. Individual neuropsychological tests were then evaluated and combined with the IHDS to test performance characteristics. The IHDS was poor at detecting symptomatic HAND at the optimized cut-point of ≤10 (sensitivity: 53.3%, specificity: 89.8%). The Trail Making Test A was most effective in improving performance characteristics when combined with the IHDS, with net sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 79%. In this setting, the IHDS performed poorly in identifying symptomatic HAND, but was substantially improved by the addition of Trail Making Test A, which typically requires less than two minutes to complete. This combination should be validated in a larger setting since it may address the critical need for HAND screening instruments in international settings. PMID:23483520

  10. Clinical Performance Characteristics of the Adiana® System for Permanent Contraception: The First Year of Commercial Use

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Seth J; Evantash, Edward G

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Adiana® System for Permanent Contraception was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and became the second device on the market for hysteroscopic sterilization. This article outlines the basics of the Adiana procedure as it relates to the initial 12-month clinical experience following commercial launch. Safety, efficacy, and practical applications are explored to provide a better understanding of product performance characteristics in the first year of actual clinical use. PMID:21364847

  11. Magnetic field configurations on thruster performance in accordance with ion beam characteristics in cylindrical Hall thruster plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Holak; Choe, Wonho; Lim, Youbong; Lee, Seunghun; Park, Sanghoo

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic field configuration is critical in Hall thrusters for achieving high performance, particularly in thrust, specific impulse, efficiency, etc. Ion beam features are also significantly influenced by magnetic field configurations. In two typical magnetic field configurations (i.e., co-current and counter-current configurations) of a cylindrical Hall thruster, ion beam characteristics are compared in relation to multiply charged ions. Our study shows that the co-current configuration brings about high ion current (or low electron current), high ionization rate, and small plume angle that lead to high thruster performance.

  12. Combustion-chamber Performance Characteristics of a Python Turbine-propeller Engine Investigated in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Carl E

    1951-01-01

    Combustion-chamber performance characteristics of a Python turbine-propeller engine were determined from investigation of a complete engine over a range of engine speeds and shaft horsepowers at simulated altitudes. Results indicated the effect of engine operating conditions and altitude on combustion efficiency and combustion-chamber total pressure losses. Performance of this vaporizing type combustion chamber was also compared with several atomizing type combustion chambers. Over the range of test conditions investigated, combustion efficiency varied from approximately 0.95 to 0.99.

  13. Effects of anisotropy on the performance characteristics of an axially laminated anisotropic-rotor synchronous reluctance motor drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, F.N.; Arkadan, A.A.; Russell, A.A.; El-Antably, A.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, increased attention has been paid to the performance characterization and evaluation of the performance of synchronous reluctance machines. Extensive research has concentrated on different rotor structures in order to achieve high performance variable speed drives for applications such as electric vehicles. The effects of accounting for anisotropy on the performance characteristics of Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) rotor Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) drive systems are studied. These effects are evaluated from the simulations of a computer aided model. The model is based on the use of an iterative approach which indirectly couples a two dimensional (2D) nonlinear finite element (FE) model, which accounts for anisotropy, to a state space model describing the SynRM drive system. The simulation results are also validated by comparison to test data of a prototype ALA rotor SynRM drive system.

  14. Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Ruptured Fetal Membranes: Improved Diagnostic Performance Characteristics with a Monoclonal/Polyclonal Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda C.; Scott, Laurie; Block, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of membranes (ROM) is imperative to allow for gestational age-specific interventions. This study compared the diagnostic performance characteristics between two methods used for the detection of ROM as measured in the same patient. METHODS Vaginal secretions were evaluated using the conventional fern test as well as a point-of-care monoclonal/polyclonal immunoassay test (ROM Plus®) in 75 pregnant patients who presented to labor and delivery with complaints of leaking amniotic fluid. Both tests were compared to analytical confirmation of ROM using three external laboratory tests. Diagnostic performance characteristics were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. RESULTS Diagnostic performance characteristics uniformly favored ROM detection using the immunoassay test compared to the fern test: sensitivity (100% vs. 77.8%), specificity (94.8% vs. 79.3%), PPV (75% vs. 36.8%), NPV (100% vs. 95.8%), and accuracy (95.5% vs. 79.1%). CONCLUSIONS The point-of-care immunoassay test provides improved diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ROM compared to fern testing. It has the potential of improving patient management decisions, thereby minimizing serious complications and perinatal morbidity. PMID:27199579

  15. Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Charles E.; Pettijohn, Linda S.; d'Amico, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 15 automobile salespeople indicated that job satisfaction increased when performance appraisals provided clear criteria that met workers' approval and when appraisals were fair and used to determine rewards. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

  16. A Preliminary Axial Fan Design Method with the Considerat ion of Performance and Noise Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan; Kil, Hyun Gwon

    2010-06-01

    Presented in this paper are a fan's aero-acoustic performance method and its computation procedure which combines aerodynamic flow field data, performances and noise levels of fan. The internal flow field and the performance of fan are analyzed by the through-flow modeling, inviscid pitch-averaged quasi-3D flow analysis combined with flow deviation and pressure loss distribution models. Based on the predicted internal flow field dada by the trough-flow modeling, fan noise is predicted by two models for the discrete frequency noise due to rotating steady aerodynamic thrust and blade interaction and for the broadband noise due to turbulent boundary layer and wake vortex shedding. The present predictions of the flow distribution, the performance and the noise level of fan are well agreed with actual test results.

  17. Parametric performance studies on fluidized-bed heat exchangers. Task 1: Fouling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1982-09-01

    Analyses and experiments are being performed to investigate the heat transfer performance of single and multistage shallow fluidized beds for application to the recovery of heat from sources such as waste heat, and coal combustion or coal gasification. Tests were conducted to investigate the effects of liquid condensate fouling on fluidized bed heat exchanger performance. Liquid condensates used in these tests were water and glycerol (which is more viscous than water). The tests showed that fluidized bed heat exchanger performance is degraded by condensation within the bed and the degradation is caused by bed particles adhering to the heat exchanger surface, not by particle agglomeration. Liquid condensate did not continuously build up within the bed. After a period of dry out, heat transfer equal to that obtained prior to condensation was again obtained.

  18. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  19. Performance characteristics of nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed on the F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Gowadia, N. S.; Wooten, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has conducted an experimental program on a model of the F-18 airplane to determine the performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles relative to the aircraft's baseline axisymmetric nozzle. The performance of a single expansion ramp (ADEN) and two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2-D C-D) nozzle were compared to the baseline axisymmetric nozzles. The effects of vectoring and reversing were also studied. Performance of a modified YF-17 airplane with the ADEN nozzle was also estimated. The results of this investigation indicate that nonaxisymmetric nozzles can be installed on a twin engine fighter airplane with equal or better performance than axisymmetric nozzles. The nonaxisymmetric nozzles also offer potential for innovative and improved aircraft maneuver through thrust vectoring and reversing. The YF-17/ADEN flown as a technology demonstrator would have reduced performance compared to an unmodified YF-17. However, on an equal aircraft weight basis, performance would essentially be equivalent. This study also showed that the YF-17 can serve as a testbed to validate nonaxisymmetric nozzle technology.

  20. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    PubMed

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability.

  1. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher values in upper (+21.2%) and lower (+27.11%) limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421

  2. Effects of feeding whole cottonseed and cottonseed products on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cranston, J J; Rivera, J D; Galyean, M L; Brashears, M M; Brooks, J C; Markham, C E; McBeth, L J; Krehbiel, C R

    2006-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of whole cottonseed or cottonseed products on performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 beef steers (initial BW = 381 +/- 31.7 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets with 10% (DM basis) basal roughage, and whole cottonseed or individual cottonseed components (cottonseed hulls, meal, and oil). Over the entire feeding period, ADG did not differ (P = 0.95), but DMI increased (P = 0.07) and G:F decreased (P = 0.06) for steers fed the cottonseed diets compared with the control diet. Dressing percent (P = 0.02) and marbling scores (P = 0.02) of carcasses from steers fed the cottonseed diets were less than for steers fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, 150 beef steers (initial BW = 364 +/- 9.9 kg) were used to determine the effects of whole cottonseed or pelleted cottonseed (PCS) on performance and carcass characteristics. Cattle were fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets in which whole cottonseed or PCS replaced all of the dietary roughage, supplemental fat, and supplemental natural protein of the control diet. Over the entire feeding period, steers fed the cottonseed diets had lower (P = 0.04) DMI and greater (P < 0.01) G:F than steers fed the control diet. Carcass characteristics did not differ (P = 0.16 to 0.96) among dietary treatments. In Exp. 3, 150 beef heifers (initial BW = 331 +/- 17.1 kg) were used to determine the effects of PCS or delinted, whole cottonseed (DLCS) on performance and carcass characteristics. Heifers were fed rolled corn-based finishing diets in which cottonseed replaced the dietary roughage, supplemental fat, and all or part of the supplemental natural protein of the control diet. Over the entire feeding period, ADG, DMI, and G:F of heifers fed the control diet did not differ (P = 0.19 to 0.80) from those of the cottonseed diets; however, heifers fed the diets containing PCS had greater ADG (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.09) than heifers fed

  3. Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: an initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    The use of neurocognitive testing in the assessment of professional athletes sustaining sports-related concussions has become widespread over the past decade. Baseline neurocognitive testing is now a requirement for athletes in the National Football League (NFL). We present preliminary normative data on a computer based neurocognitive test (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; ImPACT) for 159 NFL athletes. Also included are summary data on basic biopsychosocial characteristics, including medical, psychiatric, chemical dependency, concussion, learning disability/attention deficit disorder, and symptom variables, and the relevance of each to baseline neurocognitive test scores.

  4. Physical and performance characteristics of instruments selected for global change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-09-01

    The following appendix (appendix B) lists the instruments chosen for the Global Change Monitoring program. The instruments are described according to the following categories: (1) Title; (2) Measurement; (3) Contact; (4) Instrument Type; (5) Dimensions; (6) Mass; (7) Average Operational Power; (8) Data Rate; (9) Spectral/Frequency Range; (10) Number of Channels/Frequencies; (11) Viewing Field; (12) Scanning Characteristics; (13) Resolution (Horizontal/Vertical); (14) Swath Width; (15) Satellite Application; and (16) Technology Status. A technical drawing of each instrument is also provided.

  5. Performance and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1993-01-01

    The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experimental results are given at chamber pressures of 1070 and 3070 kPa, and over a mixture ratio range of 0.3 to 1.0. Experimental C efficiency was between 95 and 96.5 percent. Heat transfer results are discussed both as a function of mixture ratio and axial distance in the chamber. They are also compared to a Nusselt number correlation for fully developed turbulent flow.

  6. Contribution of strength characteristics to change of direction and agility performance in female basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Nimphius, Sophia; Hart, Nicolas H; Specos, Christina; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newton, Robert U

    2014-09-01

    Research has often examined the relationship between 1 or 2 measures of strength and change of direction (COD) ability reporting inconsistent relationships to performance. These inconsistencies may be the result of the strength assessment used and the assumption that 1 measure of strength can represent all "types" of strength required during a COD task. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between several lower-body strength and power measures, COD, and agility performance. Twelve (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat, isometric midthigh pull, eccentric and concentric only back squat, and a countermovement jump, followed by 2 COD tests (505 and T-test) and a reactive agility test. Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression analysis were performed on all variables. The percentage contribution of each strength measure to an athletes total strength score was also determined. Our results demonstrated that both COD tests were significantly correlated to maximal dynamic, isometric, concentric, and eccentric strength (r = -0.79 to -0.89), with eccentric strength identified as the sole predictor of COD performance. Agility performance did not correlate with any measure of strength (r = -0.08 to -0.36), whereas lower-body power demonstrated no correlation to either agility or COD performance (r = -0.19 to -0.46). These findings demonstrate the importance of multiple strength components for COD ability, highlighting eccentric strength as a deterministic factor of COD performance. Coaches should aim to develop a well-rounded strength base in athletes; ensuring eccentric strength is developed as effectively as the often-emphasized concentric or overall dynamic strength capacity.

  7. High-power, high-repetition-rate performance characteristics of β-BaB₂O₄ for single-pass picosecond ultraviolet generation at 266 nm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Chaitanya; Casals, J Canals; Wei, Junxiong; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2015-10-19

    We report a systematic study on the performance characteristics of a high-power, high-repetition-rate, picosecond ultraviolet (UV) source at 266 nm based on β-BaB2O4 (BBO). The source, based on single-pass fourth harmonic generation (FHG) of a compact Yb-fiber laser in a two-crystal spatial walk-off compensation scheme, generates up to 2.9 W of average power at 266 nm at a pulse repetition rate of ~80 MHz with a single-pass FHG efficiency of 35% from the green to UV. Detrimental issues such as thermal effects have been studied and confirmed by performing relevant measurements. Angular and temperature acceptance bandwidths in BBO for FHG to 266 nm are experimentally determined, indicating that the effective interaction length is limited by spatial walk-off and thermal gradients under high-power operation. The origin of dynamic color center formation due to two-photon absorption in BBO is investigated by measurements of intensity-dependent transmission at 266 nm. Using a suitable theoretical model, two-photon absorption coefficients as well as the color center densities have been estimated at different temperatures. The measurements show that the two-photon absorption coefficient in BBO at 266 nm is ~3.5 times lower at 200°C compared to that at room temperature. The long-term power stability as well as beam pointing stability is analyzed at different output power levels and focusing conditions. Using cylindrical optics, we have circularized the generated elliptic UV beam to a circularity of >90%. To our knowledge, this is the first time such high average powers and temperature-dependent two-photon absorption measurements at 266 nm are reported at repetition rates as high as ~80 MHz.

  8. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  9. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom-level contributors to an acceptance of diversity in publicly supported pre-kindergarten classrooms across 11 states. Classroom composition, process quality, and teacher characteristics were examined as predictors of diversity-promoting practices as measured by the ECERS-R, acceptance of diversity construct. Findings…

  10. On the performance and flow characteristics of jet pumps with multiple orifices.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Timmer, Michael A G; Bühler, Simon; van der Meer, Theo H; Wilcox, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    The design of compact thermoacoustic devices requires compact jet pump geometries, which can be realized by employing jet pumps with multiple orifices. The oscillatory flow through the orifice(s) of a jet pump generates asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects, which result in a time-averaged pressure drop that can counteract Gedeon streaming in traveling wave thermoacoustic devices. In this study, the performance of jet pumps having 1-16 orifices is characterized experimentally in terms of the time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. Upon increasing the number of orifices, a significant decay in the jet pump performance is observed. Further analysis shows a relation between this performance decay and the diameter of the individual holes. Possible causes of this phenomenon are discussed. Flow visualization is used to study the differences in vortex ring interaction from adjacent jet pump orifices. The mutual orifice spacing is varied and the corresponding jet pump performance is measured. The orifice spacing is shown to have less effect on the jet pump performance compared to increasing the number of orifices.

  11. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  12. Performance characteristics of a one-third-scale, vectorable ventral nozzle for SSTOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esker, Barbara S.; Mcardle, Jack G.

    1990-01-01

    Several proposed configurations for supersonic short takeoff, vertical landing aircraft will require one or more ventral nozzles for lift and pitch control. The swivel nozzle is one possible ventral nozzle configuration. A swivel nozzle (approximately one-third scale) was built and tested on a generic model tailpipe. This nozzle was capable of vectoring the flow up to + or - 23 deg from the vertical position. Steady-state performance data were obtained at pressure ratios to 4.5, and pitot-pressure surveys of the nozzle exit plane were made. Two configurations were tested: the swivel nozzle with a square contour of the leading edge of the ventral duct inlet, and the same nozzle with a round leading edge contour. The swivel nozzle showed good performance overall, and the round-leading edge configuration showed an improvement in performance over the square-leading edge configuration.

  13. Performance characteristics of bio-inspired metal nanostructures as surface-enhanced Raman scattered (SERS) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I.; Kravchenko, Ivan; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.; De Jesus, Marco A.

    2016-08-26

    The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas. The work presented here describes the nanofabrication process for a series of 40 µm × 40 µm bio-inspired arrays classified as asymmetric fractals (sunflower seeds and romanesco broccoli), bilaterally symmetric (acacia leaves and honeycombs), and radially symmetric (such as orchids and lily flowers) using electron beam lithography. In addition, analytical capabilities were evaluated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, the substrate characterization and SERS performance of the developed substrates as the strategies to assess the design performance are presented and discussed.

  14. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGES

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  15. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P < 0.01) and some physical performance measures in strength and speed (P < 0.05). The lack of significant interaction effects revealed that during the three years of the study the elite players did not improve their physical performance more rapidly than the non-elites. Furthermore, they had a similar anthropometric profile to the non-elites. Elite players performed better on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test (P < 0.01; on average 24.0 in the youngest group and 25.2% in the oldest group over the three years) and on the speed and coordination items (P < 0.05; shuttle run: 3.6 and 5.1%; cross hopping: 11.0 and 14.8%, handball-specific shuttle run: 7.6 and 7.7%; slalom dribble test: 10.7 and 8.9%; sprint 30 m: 4.9 and 3.9%). Additionally, Yo-Yo performance and coordination with and without a ball were the most discriminating factors between the playing levels. In conclusion, youth coaches and scouts within team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  16. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  17. Performance characteristics of advanced volume phase holographic gratings for operation in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are proven dispersing elements in astronomical spectrographs over the visible spectrum. VPH gratings have also been successfully deployed for use at cryogenic temperatures. Recent advances in production technology now permit the production of gratings for use in the near infrared up to 2450 nm at cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the requirements of VPH gratings for use in the H (wavelengths from 1500 nm to 1800 nm) and K (wavelengths from 1950 nm to 2450 nm) bands, gives the theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances on the production gratings

  18. Assessing the role of mini-applications in predicting key performance characteristics of scientific and engineering applications

    DOE PAGES

    Barrett, R. F.; Crozier, P. S.; Doerfler, D. W.; ...

    2014-09-28

    Computational science and engineering application programs are typically large, complex, and dynamic, and are often constrained by distribution limitations. As a means of making tractable rapid explorations of scientific and engineering application programs in the context of new, emerging, and future computing architectures, a suite of miniapps has been created to serve as proxies for full scale applications. Each miniapp is designed to represent a key performance characteristic that does or is expected to significantly impact the runtime performance of an application program. In this paper we introduce a methodology for assessing the ability of these miniapps to effectively representmore » these performance issues. We applied this methodology to four miniapps, examining the linkage between them and an application they are intended to represent. Herein we evaluate the fidelity of that linkage. This work represents the initial steps required to begin to answer the question, ''Under what conditions does a miniapp represent a key performance characteristic in a full app?''« less

  19. Performance Characteristics of a Micro Air Grinder Operated by a Two-Stages Axial-Type Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Choi, Sang-Kyu

    Performance characteristics are experimentally studied with various nozzles, stators and rotors on a partially admitted small axial-type turbine, which could be applied to a driver of micro air grinders. When air tools adopt axial-type turbines as a driver, they could operate without friction and abrasion because the turbine rotor does not make contact with the casing. In order to maintain these merits on a small axial-type turbine without reducing power, performance characteristics are examined through measuring the specific output power with eight different stators and three different rotors and nozzles. The tested turbine consists of two-stages and its mean radius of flow passage is 9.2mm. The experimental results show that the output power improvement on the first stage is significant comparing with that on the second stage because partially admitted flow is fully diffused in the second stage. Meanwhile, the output power is increased to 16-22% by changing the nozzle blade angle from 60° to 70° because the first stage performance is directly affected by the flow spouted from the nozzle. These results indicate that blade angles greatly influence the performance of a micro turbine operating in partial admission. When an appropriate stator and rotor that are designed in accordance with the flow spouted from the nozzle are installed in the rotating part, the output power is increased up to 38% depending on the blade angle.

  20. Explaining Performance on Military Tasks in the Canadian Armed Forces: The Importance of Morphological and Physical Fitness Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tingelstad, Hans Christian; Theoret, Daniel; Spicovck, Michael; Haman, Francois

    2016-11-01

    Several occupations apply physical fitness tests to assess occupational physical performance to confirm that their employees meet minimum physical employment standards. Knowledge about factors affecting performance on these physical fitness tests could provide valuable information concerning mode of training. The main purpose of this study was to determine which morphological and/or physiological characteristics could explain overall performance outcome on six complex military tasks used to measure Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members' occupational fitness. Measures of morphology (height, weight, and body composition) and physical fitness (grip strength, shuttle run time, and plank time etc.), together with performance on six common military tasks were recorded from female (n = 127) and male (n = 294) CAF members. Results showed large differences in both morphology and physical fitness between top and bottom performers in both the male and female group. Despite large differences in morphology, multiple linear regression analyses showed that measures of upper body strength and aerobic capacity could explain a large part of the performance variability in both the male and female group. This study showed that total performance on the CAF military physical fitness test is dependent on physical fitness rather than morphology.

  1. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TURBULENT MIXING CONDENSATION NUCLEI COUNTER. (R826654)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and optimization of operation parameters of a Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nuclei Counter (TMCNC) are discussed as well as its performance using dibutylphthalate (DBP) as the working fluid. A detection limit of 3 nm has been achieved at a flow rate of 2.8 lmin-1<...

  2. Computer Analysis of the Auditory Characteristics of Musical Performance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Jack J.; Campbell, Warren C.

    The purpose of this research was to perform computer analysis and modification of complex musical tones and to develop models of perceptual and learning processes in music. Analysis of the physical attributes of sound (frequency, intensity, and harmonic content, versus time) provided necessary information about the musical parameters of…

  3. Predicting Students' Academic Performance Based on School and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Tamara; Singleton, Alexander; Pope, Daniel; Stanistreet, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Students' trajectories into university are often uniquely dependent on school qualifications though these alone are limited as predictors of academic potential. This study endorses this, examining associations between school grades, school type, school performance, socio-economic deprivation, neighbourhood participation, sex and academic…

  4. Elucidation of the surface characteristics and electrochemistry of high-performance LiNiO2

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Jing; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; ...

    2016-02-25

    Phase pure LiNiO2 was prepared using a solid-state method and the optimal synthesis conditions led to a remarkably high capacity of 200 mA h g$-$1 with excellent retention. The combination of bulk and surface characterization elucidated an essential role of the excess Li in phase formation during synthesis and the subsequent electrochemical performance.

  5. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  6. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24...

  7. Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. )

    1993-11-01

    1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

  8. Relationship of Academic Job Involvement To Biographical Data, Personal Characteristics, and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jack E.; Waters, L. K.

    1980-01-01

    A job involvement measure adapted to reflect course involvement was unrelated to age, sex, class rank, and tested verbal ability. However, it was significantly and positively related to achievement motivation, locus of control, Protestant ethic attitudes, academic satisfaction, and performance. (Author/CP)

  9. High-performance resistive switching characteristics of programmable metallization cell with oxidized Cu-Ti electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Liao, Chan-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2013-09-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) memory devices with oxidized Cu-Ti alloy films as the bottom electrodes have been shown to exhibit a superior on/off state current ratio (memory window) of as high as 103 and endurance of 3000 cycles as compared to conventional pure copper and unoxidized Cu-Ti alloy electrodes. It was conjectured that the Cu-Ti alloy electrodes could obtain the appropriate amount of copper atoms to format and rupture the conductive filaments in the resistive switching layer. Furthermore, the oxidized Cu-Ti alloys could control the Cu cations from the Cu and Cu2O to the appropriate amountto achieve the most favorable PMC characteristics.

  10. Steam-zone electrical characteristics for geodiagnostic evaluation of steamflood performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J. ); Meldau, R.F. )

    1990-09-01

    An essential part of the development of electrical geodiagnostic techniques for mapping thermal recovery processes is understanding the relationship of formation resistivity to the thermal recovery process. As a result of laboratory measurements of a ID steamflood, a preliminary understanding of some of the mechanisms of the electrical resistivity change has been gained. The theory of electrical resistivity of a steamflood is reviewed and used to evaluate the resistivity changes expected. A conceptual electrical model of a steamflood porous reservoir, based on a qualitative description of the fluid zones of an ideal heavy-oil steamflood, is presented. The model assumes that salinity, temperature, and saturation are the important factors controlling resistivity changes and that Archie's law applies. The authors found that the characteristics of each individual reservoir must be considered before the in-situ resistivity changes are predicted and that in-situ resistivity can either increase as a result of steamflooding.

  11. Prebiotic Low Sugar Chocolate Dairy Desserts: Physical and Optical Characteristics and Performance of PARAFAC and PCA Preference Map.

    PubMed

    Morais, E C; Esmerino, E A; Monteiro, R A; Pinheiro, C M; Nunes, C A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of prebiotic and sweeteners in chocolate dairy desserts opens up new opportunities to develop dairy desserts that besides having a lower calorie intake still has functional properties. In this study, prebiotic low sugar dairy desserts were evaluated by 120 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, in relation to the attributes of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking. Internal preference map using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the consumer data. In addition, physical (texture profile) and optical (instrumental color) analyses were also performed. Prebiotic dairy desserts containing sucrose and sucralose were equally liked by the consumers. These samples were characterized by firmness and gumminess, which can be considered drivers of liking by the consumers. Optimization of the prebiotic low sugar dessert formulation should take in account the choice of ingredients that contribute in a positive manner for these parameters. PARAFAC allowed the extraction of more relevant information in relation to PCA, demonstrating that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes. Multiple factor analysis reported Rv value of 0.964, suggesting excellent concordance for both methods.

  12. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Moss, Samantha Louise; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Twist, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 years) in non-elite (n = 47), elite (n = 37) and top-elite players (n = 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P < 0.05). Sum of skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P < 0.05), although maximal and repeated 10 m sprints were similar between playing standards (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players only in throwing velocity. The findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in a few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.

  13. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm{sup 3}. The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  14. VINE-A NUMERICAL CODE FOR SIMULATING ASTROPHYSICAL SYSTEMS USING PARTICLES. II. IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-10-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose 'GRAPE' hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  15. Vine—A Numerical Code for Simulating Astrophysical Systems Using Particles. II. Implementation and Performance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-10-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose "GRAPE" hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  16. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  17. Noise and static performance characteristics of a STOL aircraft jet flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkonen, D. L.; Mcbride, J. F.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Static noise and performance tests were conducted on a 1/4-scale jet flap model with a multilobe nozzle of array area ratio of 2.7. The model nozzle and flap tested were a two-dimensional section of a distributed blowing system similar to previously investigated augmentor wing systems without the upper shroud and intake door. Noise data were measured with the nozzle alone and also during attached flow conditions with the flap at two turning angles representing takeoff and approach conditions. The noise data are scaled to a 200,000-lb TOGW four-engine airplane and are presented in terms of perceived noise level and one-third octave band sound pressure level. Comparisons are made with the noise levels produced by an augmentor wing airplane fitted with a three-element acoustically lined augmentor flap. The static performance is presented in terms of thrust recovery and effective turning angle.

  18. Characteristics and performance of a superconducting bumpy-torus magnet facility for plasma research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Holmes, A. D.; Keller, T. A.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Lewis bumpy-torus facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 T on its axis. The coils are equally spaced around a toroidal array with a major diameter of 1.52 m; they are mounted with the major axis of the torus vertical in a single vacuum tank 2.6 m in diameter. Tests of the facility mapped out its magnetic, cryogenic, vacuum, mechanical, and electrical performance. The design value of the maximum magnetic field on the magnetic axis, 3.0 T, was reached and exceeded. A maximum magnetic field of 3.23 T was held for a period of 60 minutes. When the coils were charged to a maximum magnetic field of 3.35 T, the coil system went normal without apparent damage or degradation of performance.

  19. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Papastergiou, C.

    1992-12-31

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  20. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Papastergiou, C. )

    1992-01-01

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  1. Performance and Operational Characteristics for a Dual Brayton Space Power System With Common Gas Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul K.; Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical evaluation on the operation and performance of a dual Brayton common gas system. The NASA Glenn Research Center in-house computer program Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS) was used to construct a model of two identical 50 kWe-class recuperated closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion units that share a common gas inventory and single heat source. As operating conditions for each CBC change, the total gas inventory is redistributed between the two units and overall system performance is affected. Several steady-state off-design operating points were analyzed by varying turbine inlet temperature and turbo-alternator shaft rotational speed to investigate the interaction of the two units.

  2. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible regeneration magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, GuoXing

    2012-02-01

    A model of the irreversible regenerative Brayton refrigeration cycle working with paramagnetic materials is established, in which the regeneration problem in two constant-magnetic field processes and the irreversibility in two adiabatic processes are considered synthetically. Expressions for the COP, cooling rate, power input, the minimum ratio of the two magnetic fields, etc., are derived. It is found that the influence of the irreversibility and the regeneration on the main performance parameters of the magnetic Brayton refrigerator is remarkable. It is important that we have obtained several optimal criteria, which may provide some theoretical basis for the optimal design and operation of the Brayton refrigerator. The results obtained in the paper can provide some new theoretical information for the optimal design and performance improvement of real Brayton refrigerators.

  3. Sorghum and wheat differentially affect caecal microbiota and associated performance characteristics of meat chickens

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Mark S.; Hughes, Robert J.; Moore, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of wheat- and sorghum-based diets on broiler chickens. The growth performance and caecal microbial community of chickens were measured and correlations between productivity and specific gut microbes were observed. Cobb broilers 15 days of age were individually caged and two dietary treatments were used, one with a wheat-based diet (n = 48) and another one with a sorghum-based diet (n = 48). Growth performance measurements were taken over a 10 day period and samples for microbiota analysis were taken at the end of that period. Caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA gene amplicons. Overall, the results indicated that a sorghum-based diet produced higher apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and body-weight gain (BWG) values in chickens, compared to a wheat-based diet. Nevertheless, sorghum-fed birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) values than wheat-fed birds, possibly because of some anti-nutritional factors in sorghum. Further analyses showed that caecal microbial community was significantly associated with AME values, but microbiota composition differed between dietary treatments. A number of bacteria were individually correlated with growth performance measurements. Numerous OTUs assigned to strains of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lachnospiraceae, which were prevalent in sorghum-fed chickens, were correlated with high AME and BWG values, respectively. Additionally, a number of OTUs assigned to Clostridiales that were prevalent in wheat-fed chickens were correlated with low FCR values. Overall, these results suggest that between-diet variations in growth performance were partly associated with changes in the caecal microbiota. PMID:28286717

  4. Integrating Occupational Characteristics into Human Performance Models: IPME Versus ISMAT Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    classroom environment, a simulator or an office, normally located near the flight line. This job applies to Development Period 2.” Physical Effort...topic or a body of knowledge 2 the level of proficiency normally required to perform duties and tasks under normal supervision the level of...Contact 2), which at the time is conducting normal fishing activities. In the second segment, the crew workload increases. The CP-140 crew starts a

  5. Performance characteristics of a thermal energy storage module - A transient PCM/forced convection conjugate analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y.; Faghri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a thermal energy storage module is simulated numerically. The change of phase of the phase-change material (PCM) and the transient forced convective heat transfer for the transfer fluid with low Prandtl numbers are solved simultaneously as a conjugate problem. A parametric study and a system optimization are conducted. The numerical results show that module geometry is crucial to the design of a space-based thermal energy storage system.

  6. Relationships of Type A Behavior with Biographical Characteristics and Training Performance of Air Traffic Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Helmreich, Beane , predictive of performance in the Academy screen and Lucker (1980), using the Jenkins Activity Survey, program. demonstrated that...Making it without losing it: Type A, achievement Matthews, K. A., Helmreich, R. L., Beane , W. F., & motivation, and scientific attainment revisited. Lucker...Aviation Medicine Report, the new aptitude testing procedures for selection DOT/ FAVA /A I-78-39. of FAA air traffic control specialists. In Schroeder, D. J

  7. Sorghum and wheat differentially affect caecal microbiota and associated performance characteristics of meat chickens.

    PubMed

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of wheat- and sorghum-based diets on broiler chickens. The growth performance and caecal microbial community of chickens were measured and correlations between productivity and specific gut microbes were observed. Cobb broilers 15 days of age were individually caged and two dietary treatments were used, one with a wheat-based diet (n = 48) and another one with a sorghum-based diet (n = 48). Growth performance measurements were taken over a 10 day period and samples for microbiota analysis were taken at the end of that period. Caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA gene amplicons. Overall, the results indicated that a sorghum-based diet produced higher apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and body-weight gain (BWG) values in chickens, compared to a wheat-based diet. Nevertheless, sorghum-fed birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) values than wheat-fed birds, possibly because of some anti-nutritional factors in sorghum. Further analyses showed that caecal microbial community was significantly associated with AME values, but microbiota composition differed between dietary treatments. A number of bacteria were individually correlated with growth performance measurements. Numerous OTUs assigned to strains of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lachnospiraceae, which were prevalent in sorghum-fed chickens, were correlated with high AME and BWG values, respectively. Additionally, a number of OTUs assigned to Clostridiales that were prevalent in wheat-fed chickens were correlated with low FCR values. Overall, these results suggest that between-diet variations in growth performance were partly associated with changes in the caecal microbiota.

  8. Individual Characteristics and Unit Performance: A Review of Research and Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    structure, group processe , and team training techniques. Because unit performance is to b~rodly defined, much of the research yielded ambiguous or seeming,,y...f.- .. f t. f . . . .. ft f f ft tf fbft ttf f . .. . f _tftft• i • , •: • • + , xii VI. GROUP PROCESSES ......................... 64 Group...division) is analyzed in a framework that postulates that any living system engages in two types of processes -those dealing with the physical world

  9. Numerical Study on the Influence of Material Characteristics on Ni-Ti Endodontic Instrument Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, Lorenza; Necchi, Silvia; Taschieri, Silvio; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    Ni-Ti rotary endodontic instruments ( files) are used in dentistry during the endodontic treatment to shape the root canal of the tooth while removing the pulp when infected. Up to now, the studies for evaluating their performances and drawbacks were mainly limited to experimental tests on product flexural and torsional resistance. This work exploits computational analyses for investigating the effects of materials with different mechanical properties on the behavior of rotary endodontic instruments. The aim is to understand the appropriate material choice to reduce the criticality of the treatment in particular clinical conditions. In particular, the interaction between an accurately modeled rotating file and differently shaped root canals during the clinical procedure was studied performing finite element analyses. Strains induced by the treatment on a file made of a “standard” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by average properties of the pseudoelastic behavior), a “long” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by wide transformation region), a “super” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by an extended Hookian behavior without transformation region), and stainless steel were compared. The results accurately show the advantages of the use of Ni-Ti alloy with respect to stainless steel and the better performance of the “long” alloy in all the tested case.

  10. Dietary probiotic supplementation and resulting effects on performance, health status, and microbial characteristics of primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, B M; Kramer, W; Roth-Maier, D A

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment with 33 first-litter sows from day 90 of pregnancy to day 28 of lactation, the influence of a probiotic supplementation on weight performance, feed intake, litter sizes, litter weights, health status and microbiological profile was tested. Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 was supplemented in a concentration of 5 x 10(8) CFU/kg feed to the gestation and lactation diets of gilts. The supplemented sows showed a significant higher improvement of feed intake (4.16 vs. 3.71 kg/day), litter size (9.2 vs. 7.7 piglets) and weight performance. The average live weight of the probiotic sows at day 28 of lactation was 11 kg higher than of the controls. The bacterial counts/g faeces (lactobacilli, Gram-positive anaerobes, Gram-negative anaerobes, Escherichia coli and enterococci) and the incidence of adhesive and haemolytic E. coli organisms revealed no significant differences between the sows of the two groups or their piglets. While the litter size cannot necessarily be assumed as a primary effect of the probiotic supplementation, the significantly better feed intake and weight performance might be partly due to the probiotic use and can prevent "starvation sterility" of young sows after their first litter caused by reduced feed intake during lactation with high mobilization of body tissue accompanied with lack of energy.

  11. Heat transfer performance characteristics of hybrid nanofluids as coolant in louvered fin automotive radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar

    2016-12-01

    Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.

  12. Performance characteristics of bio-inspired metal nanostructures as surface-enhanced Raman scattered (SERS) substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I.; Kravchenko, Ivan; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; ...

    2016-08-26

    The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas. The work presented here describes the nanofabrication process for a series of 40 µm × 40 µm bio-inspired arrays classified as asymmetric fractals (sunflower seeds and romanesco broccoli), bilaterally symmetric (acacia leavesmore » and honeycombs), and radially symmetric (such as orchids and lily flowers) using electron beam lithography. In addition, analytical capabilities were evaluated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here, the substrate characterization and SERS performance of the developed substrates as the strategies to assess the design performance are presented and discussed.« less

  13. Fluid and solute transfer characteristics in a dialyzer with a high-performance membrane.

    PubMed

    Mineshima, Michio

    2011-01-01

    To date, many types of high-flux dialyzers with high-performance membranes have been developed. They seem to have a higher internal filtration flow rate (Q(IF)) because of a higher ultrafiltration coefficient. In the health reimbursement system in Japan, commercially available dialyzers are categorized into five types based on their β(2)-microglobulin clearance (K(BMG)) values. Although the K(BMG) value was not correlated strongly with the Q(IF) value for 26 types of commercially available dialyzers, almost all the dialyzers with a higher Q(IF) value had a higher KBMG value. These dialyzers seem to have a higher convective transport because of internal filtration in addition to diffusive transport. We measured the blood flow velocity in a cross-sectional plane of the dialyzer using pulse Doppler ultra-sonography to evaluate QIF. It is a useful method for the bedside monitoring because it is noninvasive to the patient and produces reliable data with a higher reproducibility. On the other hand, membrane fouling occurs more easily in higher Q(IF) dialyzers, compared with conventional dialyzers, because of the higher degree of membrane fouling. Internal filtration-enhanced hemodialysis (IFEHD) using these dialyzers, therefore, has the advantage of increasing solute removal efficiency by enhancing convective transport and the simultaneous disadvantage of decreasing solute removal efficiency by causing membrane fouling. Thus, IFEHD treatment should be performed using a dialyzer with a high-performance membrane to ensure that the advantage is superior to the disadvantage.

  14. Spectrum splitting metrics and effect of filter characteristics on photovoltaic system performance.

    PubMed

    Russo, Juan M; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2014-03-10

    During the past few years there has been a significant interest in spectrum splitting systems to increase the overall efficiency of photovoltaic solar energy systems. However, methods for comparing the performance of spectrum splitting systems and the effects of optical spectral filter design on system performance are not well developed. This paper addresses these two areas. The system conversion efficiency is examined in detail and the role of optical spectral filters with respect to the efficiency is developed. A new metric termed the Improvement over Best Bandgap is defined which expresses the efficiency gain of the spectrum splitting system with respect to a similar system that contains the highest constituent single bandgap photovoltaic cell. This parameter indicates the benefit of using the more complex spectrum splitting system with respect to a single bandgap photovoltaic system. Metrics are also provided to assess the performance of experimental spectral filters in different spectrum splitting configurations. The paper concludes by using the methodology to evaluate spectrum splitting systems with different filter configurations and indicates the overall efficiency improvement that is possible with ideal and experimental designs.

  15. Performance Characteristics of Bio-Inspired Metal Nanostructures as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattered (SERS) Substrates.

    PubMed

    Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I; Kravchenko, Ivan; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A

    2016-09-01

    The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas. The work presented here describes the nanofabrication process for a series of 40 µm × 40 µm bio-inspired arrays classified as asymmetric fractals (sunflower seeds and romanesco broccoli), bilaterally symmetric (acacia leaves and honeycombs), and radially symmetric (such as orchids and lily flowers) using electron beam lithography. In addition, analytical capabilities were evaluated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The substrate characterization and SERS performance of the developed substrates as the strategies to assess the design performance are presented and discussed.

  16. Performance and Stability Characteristics of a Uni-Element Swirl Injector for Oxygen-Rich Stage Combustion Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Kalitan, D.; Woodward, R. D.; Santoro, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    A uni-element liquid propellant combustion performance and instability study for liquid RP-1 and hot oxygen-rich pre-burner products was conducted, at a chamber pressure of about 1000 psi. using flush and recessed swirl injectors. High-frequency pressure transducer measurements were analyzed to yield the characteristic frequencies which were compared to expected frequencies of the chamber. Modes, which were discovered to be present within the main chamber included, the first longitudinal, detected at approximately 1950 Hz, and the second longitudinal mode at approximately 3800 Hz. An additional first longitudinal quarter wave mode was measured at a frequency of approximately 23000 Hz for the recessed swirl injector configuration. The characteristic instabilities resulting from these experiments were relatively weak averaging 0.2% to 0.3% of the chamber pressure.

  17. A high-performance nanobridged MoO3 UV photodetector based on nanojunctions with switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qinghong; Huang, Jin; Yang, Haiyang; Chen, Yanqin

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet photodetectors (UVPDs) were fabricated via the in situ growth of orthorhombic MoO3 nanobelts among interdigital electrodes. Two types of nanojunction, touching and interpenetration, were formed between neighboring nanobelts at different growth conditions. The photoresponse mechanism of the UVPDs greatly depends on the type of nanojunction. Nanojunctions formed with touching nanobelts possess switching characteristics due to the barrier height variation along with the UV illumination. The UVPD with the touching structure exhibits low noise, high UV sensitivity and fast speed, having a dark current of 1.4 nA, an on/off ratio of over 100 and a response time of below 1 s, at an applied voltage of 10 V. The enhanced performance can be attributed to the switching characteristics of the touching nanojunction.

  18. Whole grains in the finishing of culled ewes in pasture or feedlot: Performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte

    2016-03-01

    In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.

  19. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball.

    PubMed

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-02-01

    Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p < 0.001) than backcourt players (94.7 ± 7.1 kg, 191.9 ± 5.4 cm) and pivots (99.4 ± 6.2 kg, 194.8 ± 3.6 cm). In conclusion, modern male elite team handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance

  20. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880