Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable power levels

  1. Evolving an acceptable nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1986-10-01

    The following issues are examined: long-term safe nuclear power plant operation; acceptable nuclear waste management and, mainly, high-level waste management; and provision for long-term fissile fuel supply in a long-term nuclear fission economy. (LM)

  2. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-26

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control.

  3. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  4. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  5. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  6. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  7. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... competence in his or her current position, and the employee has not been given a performance rating in any... acceptable level of competence, the within-grade increase will be granted retroactively to the beginning...

  8. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. PMID:21977961

  9. Social Acceptance of Wind Power in the United States: Evaluating Stakeholder Perspectives (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.

    2009-05-01

    As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.

  10. PUREX SAMCONS uninterruptible power supply (UPS) acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-10-07

    This Acceptance Test Report for the PUREX Surveillance and Monitoring and Control System (SAMCONS) Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Acceptance Test Procedure validates the operation of the UPS, all alarming and display functions and the ability of the UPS to supply power to the SAMCONS as designed. The proper installation of the PUREX SAMCONS Trailer UPS components and wiring will be systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of the SAMCONS computer UPS will be verified by performance of a timed functional load test, and verification of associated alarms and trouble indications. This test procedure will be performed in the SAMCONS Trailer and will include verification of receipt of alarms at the SAMCONS computer stations. This test may be performed at any time after the completion of HNF-SD-CP-ATP-083, PUREX Surveillance and Monitoring and Control System (SAMCONS) Acceptance Test Procedure, when computer display and alarm functions have been proven to operate correctly.

  11. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  12. PUREX (SAMCONS) uninterruptible power supply (UPS) acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-09-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure for the PUREX Surveillance and Monitoring and Control System (SAMCONS) Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) provides for testing and verifying the proper operation of the control panel alarms and trouble functions, the 6roper functioning of the AC inverter, ability of the battery supply to maintain the SAMCONS load for a minimum of two hours , and proper interaction with the SAMCONS Video graphic displays for alarm displays.

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  14. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  15. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable across

  16. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  17. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  18. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Review and Approval § 300.20 Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates....

  19. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Review and Approval § 300.20 Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates....

  20. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Review and Approval § 300.20 Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates....

  1. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  2. 77 FR 281 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Waterbury Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power Corporation, 163 Acorn Lane,...

  3. Nuclear Power Acceptance Among University Staffs and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayder, G.; Rahim, M. S. Ab

    2016-03-01

    The need to consider alternative energy sources becomes very real. Nuclear has been identified as an alternative electricity source. However, media reports seem to indicate that there is a resistance among peoples with regards to harnessing nuclear for energy. This study was conducted to assess the acceptance level of university staff and students towards nuclear energy by asking them to answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed in a way to gauge their background knowledge on the energy situation of the country, the risks involved with regards to nuclear energy and also what aspects need to be improved in order to have a safe integration of nuclear energy into the national energy mix. The overall result of the questionnaire indicated high level of support for nuclear energy. The main areas of concerns however, were waste management, control and governance and also nuclear accidents. These should be identified as fields that require extra attention. However, the positive result obtained from this survey should not be construed as overall strong support in general. There might be different outcomes if the survey was conducted on to the general population as compared to the university students and staff that were involved in this research.

  4. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide direction for conducting performance acceptance testing for large power tower solar systems that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The recommendations have been developed under a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract and reviewed by stakeholders representing concerned organizations and interests throughout the concentrating solar power (CSP) community. An earlier NREL report provided similar guidelines for parabolic trough systems. These Guidelines recommend certain methods, instrumentation, equipment operating requirements, and calculation methods. When tests are run in accordance with these Guidelines, we expect that the test results will yield a valid indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. But these are only recommendations--to be carefully considered by the contractual parties involved in the Acceptance Tests--and we expect that modifications may be required to fit the particular characteristics of a specific project.

  5. 75 FR 12533 - The Power Company, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Power Company, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted... Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Damariscotta River Hydrokinetic Tidal...

  6. Nuclear power: levels of safety.

    PubMed

    Lidsky, L M

    1988-02-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the "nuclear establishment" itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired. PMID:3340728

  7. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER...

  8. 78 FR 44555 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing Soliciting..., 2013, and May 9, 2013 d. Applicant: Alabama Power Company e. Name of Project: Martin Dam Hydroelectric... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r) h. Applicant Contact: Amy Stewart, Alabama Power Company, 600...

  9. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  10. Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.E.

    2000-01-27

    This document comprises the Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer. This document presents the results of Acceptance Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzers (URSILLAs). Testing of the URSILLAs was performed in accordance with ATP-260-001, ''URSILLA Pre-installation Acceptance Test Procedure''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components function in accordance with design specifications and original equipment manufacturer's specifications.

  11. PVUSA procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is one in a series of PVUSA reports on PVUSA experiences and lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California, and from participating utility host sites. During the course of approximately 7 years (1988--1994), 10 PV systems have been installed ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW. Six 20-kW emerging module technology arrays, five on universal project-provided structures and one turnkey concentrator, and four turnkey utility-scale systems (200 to 500 kW) were installed. PVUSA took a very proactive approach in the procurement of these systems. In the absence of established procurement documents, the project team developed a comprehensive set of technical and commercial documents. These have been updated with each successive procurement. Working closely with vendors after the award in a two-way exchange provided designs better suited for utility applications. This report discusses the PVUSA procurement process through testing and acceptance, and rating of PV turnkey systems. Special emphasis is placed on the acceptance testing and rating methodology which completes the procurement process by verifying that PV systems meet contract requirements. Lessons learned and recommendations are provided based on PVUSA experience.

  12. Wind Power Siting: Public Acceptance and Land Use; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-06-17

    Suzanne Tegen presented this information as part of the June 17, 2015 WINDExchange webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III: Public Acceptance and Land Use. This presentation provides an overview of current NREL research related to wind energy deployment considerations, the DOE Wind Vision as it relates to public acceptance and land use, why public acceptance of wind power matters, where the U.S. wind resource is best, and how those rich resource areas overlay with population centers.

  13. 77 FR 52709 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing project is located on the Loup River, Loup...

  14. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Review and Approval § 300.20 Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. (a) Opportunity to comment. The Commission will publish in the Federal Register notice of any filing made...

  15. 78 FR 22537 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Applicant: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Project: Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project. f... U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mike Scarzello, Green Mountain Power Corporation,...

  16. 77 FR 35956 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: January 31, 2012. d. Applicant: Appalachian Power Company. e. Name of Project: London-Marmet and Winfield..., Appalachian Power Company, 40 Franklin Road, Roanoke, VA 24011; Telephone (540) 985-2861. i. FERC...

  17. Defining Acceptable Levels for Ecological Indicators: An Approach for Considering Social Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Robyn L.; Watzin, Mary C.; Manning, Robert E.

    2007-03-01

    Ecological indicators can facilitate an adaptive management approach, but only if acceptable levels for those indicators have been defined so that the data collected can be interpreted. Because acceptable levels are an expression of the desired state of the ecosystem, the process of establishing acceptable levels should incorporate not just ecological understanding but also societal values. The goal of this research was to explore an approach for defining acceptable levels of ecological indicators that explicitly considers social perspectives and values. We used a set of eight indicators that were related to issues of concern in the Lake Champlain Basin. Our approach was based on normative theory. Using a stakeholder survey, we measured respondent normative evaluations of varying levels of our indicators. Aggregated social norm curves were used to determine the level at which indicator values shifted from acceptable to unacceptable conditions. For seven of the eight indicators, clear preferences were interpretable from these norm curves. For example, closures of public beaches because of bacterial contamination and days of intense algae bloom went from acceptable to unacceptable at 7-10 days in a summer season. Survey respondents also indicated that the number of fish caught from Lake Champlain that could be safely consumed each month was unacceptably low and the number of streams draining into the lake that were impaired by storm water was unacceptably high. If indicators that translate ecological conditions into social consequences are carefully selected, we believe the normative approach has considerable merit for defining acceptable levels of valued ecological system components.

  18. 75 FR 143 - Lockhart Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... applicant proposes to install a single submersible turbine/generator unit in the hydro canal bank and... COMMISSION Lockhart Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene... Power Company. e. Name of Project: Lockhart Project. f. Location: The project is located on the...

  19. 77 FR 6556 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Birch Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On December 1, 2011, Birch Power Company filed an...

  20. 77 FR 14775 - Stoughton Water Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stoughton Water Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On December 7, 2011, the Stoughton Water Power...

  1. 77 FR 64330 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... d. Applicant: Upper Peninsula Power Company. e. Name of Project: Bond Falls Hydroelectric Project....

  2. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Vinicius R.; Oades, Lindsay G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412

  3. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  4. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  5. Waste acceptance product specifications for vitrified high-level waste forms. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Sproull, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 mandated that all high-level waste (HLW) be sent to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE published the Environmental Assessment in 1982 which identified borosilicate glass as the chosen HLW form.{sup 1} In 1985 the Department of Energy instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to assure that DWPF glass waste forms would be acceptable to such a repository. This assurance was important since production of waste forms will precede repository construction and licensing. As part of this Waste Acceptance Process, the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) formed the Waste Acceptance Committee (WAC). The WAC included representatives from the candidate repository sites, the waste producing sites and DOE. The WAC was responsible for developing the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) which defined the requirements the waste forms must meet to be compatible with the candidate repository geologies.

  6. Visual weld acceptance criteria: Volume 1, Visual weld acceptance criteria for structural welding at nuclear power plants (NCIG-01, Revision 2): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Nuclear Construction Issues Group (NCIG) was formed to resolve common problems being experienced at nuclear power plants in the assurance of hardware quality for which common solutions likely existed. The initial activity undertaken by this group was development of visual weld acceptance criteria and inspection guidance for structural welds. This report, Volume 1, documents the results of this NCIG activity in describing the visual weld acceptance criteria for structural welding at nuclear power plants (NCIG-01, Revision 2).

  7. A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

  8. 78 FR 7774 - Alaska Electric Light and Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Electric Light and Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 11, 2013, Alaska Electric...

  9. 76 FR 24472 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 8, 2011, Western...

  10. 76 FR 58837 - Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at Caballo Dam, Rio Grande Project, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation,...

  11. 77 FR 58821 - Alcoa Power Generating Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alcoa Power Generating Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... seven copies should be mailed to: Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street,...

  12. 76 FR 9340 - Mill Town Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mill Town Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...-generator unit with a capacity of 110 kilowatts; (6) a new 6- foot-wide, 10-foot-long tailrace; (7) a...

  13. Acceptable levels of dioxin contamination in an office building following a transformer fire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report assesses the health effects of dioxin in order to determine acceptable levels of exposures to dioxin in an office building that had a PCB transformer fire. The Committee concluded that short-term exposures to high concentrations of dioxins (especially 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) are associated with chloracne in humans. Studies concerning reproductive effects have not shown adverse effects among progeny of men who were exposed to dioxins. The results of human-cancer studies of exposure to dioxins are inconsistent, but in general the studies are of low power and inconclusive exposure assessment. The overall evidence from human studies does not indicate a greatly increased risk of cancer in association with exposures experienced. Studies in animals have shown increased risk of cancer, adverse reproductive effects, and alterations in immune function. Acute effects include body-weight loss, thymic atrophy, neurotoxicity, and liver effects. Various carcinogenic risk assessments were reviewed and the Committee decided that the approach taken by the New York State Health Department was most appropriate and adopted its exposure guidelines, i.e., 10 pg/cu m for air and 25 ng/sq m for surfaces.

  14. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796

  15. An objective method for 3D quality prediction using visual annoyance and acceptability level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Darya; Fournier, Jérôme; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes a new objective metric for video quality assessment. It predicts the impact of technical quality parameters relevant to visual discomfort on human perception. The proposed metric is based on a 3-level color scale: (1) Green - not annoying, (2) Orange - annoying but acceptable, (3) Red - not acceptable. Therefore, each color category reflects viewers' judgment based on stimulus acceptability and induced visual annoyance. The boundary between the "Green" and "Orange" categories defines the visual annoyance threshold, while the boundary between the "Orange" and "Red" categories defines the acceptability threshold. Once the technical quality parameters are measured, they are compared to perceptual thresholds. Such comparison allows estimating the quality of the 3D video sequence. Besides, the proposed metric is adjustable to service or production requirements by changing the percentage of acceptability and/or visual annoyance. The performance of the metric is evaluated in a subjective experiment that uses three stereoscopic scenes. Five view asymmetries with four degradation levels were introduced into initial test content. The results demonstrate high correlations between subjective scores and objective predictions for all view asymmetries.

  16. Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Objectives Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. Methods A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Results Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Conclusions Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. PMID:22436583

  17. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  19. Acceptance Noise Level: Effects of the Speech Signal, Babble, and Listener Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Azcona, Gabrielly; Buten, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acceptable noise level (ANL) measure has gained much research/clinical interest in recent years. The present study examined how the characteristics of the speech signal and the babble used in the measure may affect the ANL in listeners with different native languages. Method: Fifteen English monolingual, 16 Russian-English bilingual,…

  20. 76 FR 17413 - Kahawai Power 4, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Kekaha Waimea Water Power Project... Water Power Project would be 8.7 gigawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Daniel R. Irvin, Free Flow Power... Energy Regulatory Commission Kahawai Power 4, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

  1. Analytical methodology for determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements. [pilot workload and acceptance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic analytical approach to the determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements is formulated. The approach is based upon the hypothesis that pilot acceptance level or opinion rating of a given system is inversely related to the degree of pilot involvement in the control task. A nonlinear simulation of the helicopter approach to landing task incorporating appropriate models for UH-1H aircraft, the environmental disturbances and the human pilot was developed as a tool for evaluating the pilot acceptance hypothesis. The simulated pilot model is generic in nature and includes analytical representation of the human information acquisition, processing, and control strategies. Simulation analyses in the flight director mode indicate that the pilot model used is reasonable. Results of the simulation are used to identify candidate pilot workload metrics and to test the well known performance-work-load relationship. A pilot acceptance analytical methodology is formulated as a basis for further investigation, development and validation.

  2. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  3. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: The protoflight vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF), are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations are presented.

  4. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: the 'protoflight' vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF) are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations, are presented.

  5. The Effects of Speech Presentation Level on Acceptance of Noise in Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Plyler, Patrick N.; Thelin, James W.; Hedrick, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of speech presentation level on acceptance of noise in listeners with normal and impaired hearing. Method: Participants were listeners with normal (n = 24) and impaired (n = 46) hearing who were matched for conventional acceptable noise level (ANL). ANL was then measured at 8 fixed speech presentation levels (40,…

  6. 75 FR 75996 - Kahawai Power 2, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... November 15, 2010, Kahawai Power 2, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Makaweli River Water Power... Energy Regulatory Commission Kahawai Power 2, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

  7. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  8. Application of Improved PSO to Power Flow Control by TCSC for Maximum Acceptance of Requested Wheeled Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Kanai, Genshin

    Open access to electric power transmission networks has been carried out in order to foster generation competition and customer choice in the worldwide. When several PPSs request to simultaneously supply power to customers based on bilateral contracts, it is expected that transmission network accepts amounts of wheeled power requested by the PPSs as much as possible. It is possible to maximize total requested wheeled power by controlling power flow through transmission lines. It is well known that FACTS device is available to control line flow flexibly. In this paper, in order to maximize total wheeled power simultaneously requested by several PPSs, the authors propose an algorithm to determine the optimal reactance of TCSC (one of FACTS devices). The proposed algorithm is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), which is one of optimization methods based on swarm intelligence. In the proposed algorithm, PSO is improved to enhance ability of searching global minimum by giving different characteristic to behavior of each agent. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical results are shown for 6 and IEEE 30 bus system models.

  9. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  10. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed Central

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  11. Pathway analysis approach for determining acceptable levels of contamination of radionuclides in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J.E.; Moore, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    A methodology for determining acceptable levels for decontamination of soil containing radionuclides at waste sites is described. This methodology calculates the annual radiation dose that an individual receives while living on property that has been decommissioned and decontaminated. Pathways of exposure include direct radiation from ground surfaces, ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and drinking contaminated water. Results calculated using this methodology were compared with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for a southeastern U.S. site. There is good agreement between the two methods provided similar assumptions are used.

  12. 76 FR 26280 - Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted.... Date filed: March 31, 2010. d. Applicant: Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc. e. Name of Project... Marble Power Division of Omya Inc., 9987 Carver Road, Suite 300, Cincinnati, OH 45242; Telephone...

  13. 75 FR 76972 - Kahawai Power 1, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kahawai Power 1, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... November 12, 2010, Kahawai Power 1, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Hanalei...

  14. 77 FR 64973 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gilbert... to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). (2006). h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and...

  15. a User-Driven Selection of Vgi Based on Minimum Acceptable Quality Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Criscuolo, L.; Pepe, M.; Rampini, A.

    2015-08-01

    Despite Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities are now extremely helpful in a number of scientific applications, researchers and decision makers oppose some resistance to the usage of volunteered contributions, due to quality issues. Several methods and workflows have been proposed to face quality issues in different VGI projects, usually built ad-hoc for specific datasets, thus resulting neither extensible nor transferable. In order to overcome this weakness, the authors propose to perform an user-driven assessment on VGI items in order to filter only those that satisfy minimally acceptable quality levels defined according to their specific quality requirements and project goals. In the present work the users, i.e., information consumers, are seen as decision makers and are allowed to set the minimum acceptable quality levels Thus the approach proposes a user driven assessment of the fitness for use of VGI items. The paper first briefly presents a view on VGI components and suitable quality indices, then it describes a logic architecture for managing them and for enabling a querying mechanism to the datasets. The approach is finally exemplified with a case study simulation.

  16. DECOM: A pathway analysis approach for determining acceptable levels of contamination of radionuclides in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J.E.; Moore, R.E.

    1986-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to describe a method for determining acceptable levels for decontamination of soil containing radionuclides at waste sites located on the Savannah River Plant. This task was achieved through development of a computer program called ''DECOM.'' The DECOM code is written in BASIC, runs on an IBM microcomputer (AT, XT, or compatible), is interactive, and calculates the annual radiation dose that an individual receives while living on property that has been decommissioned and decontaminated. User selected pathways of exposure include direct radiation from ground surface, ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides, and drinking contaminated water. The program requires a minimum of knowledge in radiological assessment. Although default values have been provided for most parameters, the methodology requires the user to define an acceptable effective dose equivalent that the resident can receive. Other input data required to run the code include the concentration of radionuclides in soil and some site specific parameters relating to the characteristics of the area. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  18. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  19. The ground prototype processor: Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 in-orbit acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Dechoz, C.; Lachérade, S.; L'Helguen, C.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.; Picard, C.; Rolland, A.

    2015-10-01

    Jointly with the European Commission, the Sentinel-2 earth observation optical mission is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). Relying on a constellation of satellites put in orbit starting mid-2015, Sentinel-2 will be devoted to the monitoring of land and coastal areas worldwide thanks to an imagery at high revisit (5 days with two satellites), high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) with large swath (290km), and multi-spectral imagery (13 bands in visible and shortwave infra-red). In this framework, the French Space Agency (CNES: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) supports ESA on the activities related to Image Quality, defining the image products and prototyping the processing techniques. Scope of this paper is to present the Ground Prototype Processor (GPP) that will be in charge of Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Acceptance phase. GPP has been developed by a European industrial consortium composed of Advanced Computer Systems (ACS), Magellium and DLR on the basis of CNES technical specification of Sentinel-2 data processing and under the joint management of ESA-ESTEC and CNES. It will assure the generation of the products used for Calibration and Validation activities and it will provide the reference data for Sentinel-2 Payload Data Ground Segment Validation. At first, Sentinel-2 end-users products definition is recalled with the associated radiometric and geometric performances; secondly the methods implemented will be presented with an overview of the Ground Image Processing Parameters that need to be tuned during the In Orbit Acceptance phase to assure the required performance of the products. Finally, the complexity of the processing having been showed, the challenges of the production in terms of data volume and processing time will be highlighted. The first Sentinel-2 Level-1 products are shown.

  20. 76 FR 18756 - Kahawai Power 5, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kahawai Power 5, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 1, 2011, Kahawai Power 5, LLC filed an application...

  1. 77 FR 28371 - Lockhart Power Company, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...; (4) a powerhouse containing a single 1.24-megawatt turbine-generator unit; (5) a 510-foot-long...-hours annually. Lockhart Power Company, Inc. proposes to repair or upgrade the turbine unit and return... Energy Regulatory Commission Lockhart Power Company, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

  2. 75 FR 71429 - Clean River Power 15, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Project No. 13874-000 Clean River Power 15, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 22, 2010, Clean River Power 15, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  3. 75 FR 71427 - Clean River Power 11, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 11, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 11, LLC filed an application for ] a preliminary...

  4. 75 FR 71427 - Clean River Power 12, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 12, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 12, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  5. 75 FR 71428 - Clean River Power 14, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 14, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 15, 2010, Clean River Power 14, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  6. 75 FR 70226 - Clean River Power 16, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 16, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On October 22, 2010, Clean River Power 16, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  7. Social acceptability of Satellite Power Systems (SPS): the near-term outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Klineberg, S L

    1980-05-01

    It is important, at this early stage in the concept development and evaluation of Satellite Power Systems, to explore aspects of contemporary social change that may be expected to complicate the process of achieving the necessary support of the American public for this new technological venture. Current public attitudes make it appear unlikely that a consensus will evolve during the 1980s favoring costly efforts to develop vast new supplies of conventional energy. Opinion polls reveal a pervasive worry over inflation, a broadening of aspirations to encompass quality-of-life concerns, a growing distrust of central governments, large corporations, big science and technology, and a continuing commitment to environmental protection - all of which suggests a social environment that is likely to resist the development of a major new high-technology energy system such as the SPS. Opposition to satellite power will focus on the high front-end development costs, on environmental and technical uncertainties, and on a generalized distrust of large bureaucracies and esoteric technologies. The SPS concept is also likely to be viewed with skepticism by those with vested interests in the long-run uses of coal, shale, fission, fusion, or on-site solar technologies. The growing commitment to energy conservation and the spreading deployment of dispersed renewable-energy systems strongly suggest that the unmet US demand for centrally generated electricity is unlikely to grow sufficiently over the next twenty years to convince a reluctant public of the need for so large an investment of scarce resources in the SPS program. Satellite Power Systems will have a problem in the area of public acceptability.

  8. A Polio Immunization Pamphlet with Increased Appeal and Simplified Language Does Not Improve Comprehension to an Acceptable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…

  9. 77 FR 24941 - Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and Providing Direction on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... and August 8, 2011 filings were published in the Federal Register, 75 FR 81,600 (2010) and 77 FR 2518... Energy Regulatory Commission Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and... analysis filed by Vantage Wind Energy LLC (Vantage Wind). As discussed below, the Commission concludes...

  10. 76 FR 66052 - Northern States Power Company; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern States Power Company; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has...

  11. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... include the rupture opening. (3) Maximum hydrogen generation. The calculated total amount of...

  12. 76 FR 54751 - Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission, Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission, Intent To Waive Scoping, Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, Soliciting...

  13. 76 FR 22128 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the Granby Dam Outlet, a Feature of the Colorado-Big Thompson (C-BT) Project, Colorado...

  14. 76 FR 22143 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the Pueblo Dam River Outlet, a feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas Project...

  15. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. 50.60 Section 50.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of Licenses and Construction Permits...

  16. 76 FR 46840 - Time Extension To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... notice was originally published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2011 (76 FR 22143). The due date was... Bureau of Reclamation Time Extension To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for... proposals detailed in the Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract...

  17. Generic statements require little evidence for acceptance but have powerful implications

    PubMed Central

    Cimpian, Andrei; Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., “Birds lay eggs”) express generalizations about categories. In this paper, we hypothesized that there is a paradoxical asymmetry at the core of generic meaning, such that these sentences have extremely strong implications but require little evidence to be judged true. Four experiments confirmed the hypothesized asymmetry: Participants interpreted novel generics such as “Lorches have purple feathers” as referring to nearly all lorches, but they judged the same novel generics to be true given a wide range of prevalence levels (e.g., even when only 10% or 30% of lorches had purple feathers). A second hypothesis, also confirmed by the results, was that novel generic sentences about dangerous or distinctive properties would be more acceptable than generic sentences that were similar but did not have these connotations. In addition to clarifying important aspects of generics’ meaning, these findings are applicable to a range of real-world processes such as stereotyping and political discourse. PMID:21116475

  18. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a waveguide harmonic filter included.

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  20. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  2. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION...

  3. 40 CFR 90.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 90.510 Section 90.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT...

  4. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  5. Measuring Levels of End-Users' Acceptance and Use of Hybrid Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibenderana, Prisca; Ogao, Patrick; Ikoja-Odongo, J.; Wokadala, James

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the adoption of Information Communication Technology (ICT) services in libraries. The study collected 445 usable data from university library end-users using a cross-sectional survey instrument. It develops, applies and tests a research model of acceptance and use of such services based on an existing UTAUT model by Venkatesh,…

  6. A Review of Research Instruments Assessing Levels of Student Acceptance of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection, called evolution for short, is perceived as a unifying theme in biology, forming a major part of all biology syllabuses. It is reported that student acceptance of evolution associates with conceptual understandings of biological contents, nature of science, as well as motivations to…

  7. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  8. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes. PMID:24858928

  9. 77 FR 58125 - American River Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ..., 2012, American River Power, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act proposing to study the feasibility of the Brookville Hydroelectric Water Power Project... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  10. 76 FR 48846 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...: Ramya Swaminathan, Free Flow Power Corporation, 239 Causeway Street, Boston, MA 02114; phone (978)...

  11. 76 FR 48845 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...: Ramya Swaminathan, Free Flow Power Corporation, 239 Causeway Street, Boston, MA 02114; phone (978)...

  12. 76 FR 39869 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...: Ramya Swaminathan, Free Flow Power Corporation, 239 Causeway Street, Boston, MA 02114; phone (978)...

  13. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  14. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  15. 19. Power plant engine pipinglower level plan, sheet 80 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Power plant engine piping-lower level plan, sheet 80 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. ELECTRICAL SWITCHBOARD IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL SWITCHBOARD IN UPPER LEVEL OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  17. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project.... Fergus Morrissey, Orange Cove Irrigation District, 1130 Park Boulevard, Orange Cove, CA 93646;...

  18. 77 FR 20382 - Whitestone Power and Communications; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... line; and (7) appurtenant facilities. The project is anticipated to operate from April until October... Energy Regulatory Commission Whitestone Power and Communications; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 5, 2012, Whitestone Power and Communications filed an application for a preliminary...

  19. Power Analysis in Two-Level Unbalanced Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on statistical power has discussed mainly single-level designs or 2-level balanced designs with random effects. Although balanced experiments are common, in practice balance cannot always be achieved. Work on class size is one example of unbalanced designs. This study provides methods for power analysis in 2-level unbalanced designs…

  20. 75 FR 5076 - American Hydro Power, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications January 22.... Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, competing applications (without notices of intent), or..., motions to intervene, notices of intent, and competing applications may be filed electronically via...

  1. 75 FR 57767 - Alaska Power and Telephone Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications September 16.... Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, competing applications (without notices of intent), or... applications and notices of intent must meet the requirements of 18 CFR 4.36. Comments, motions to...

  2. 77 FR 25163 - Stoughton Water Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stoughton Water Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, the Stoughton Water Power Company filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act proposing to study the feasibility of the proposed Stoughton Dam Water...

  3. Acceptability of entire male pork with various levels of androstenone and skatole by consumers according to their sensitivity to androstenone.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, M; Chevillon, P

    2012-02-01

    Consumer acceptability of entire male pork at eating was assessed in three experiments. The 140 consumers involved in each experiment were classified as insensitive (INSENS) to the odor of pure androstenone or sensitive perceiving it as pleasant (SENS-PLEA) or unpleasant (SENS-UNPL). Entire male pork with very low skatole and androstenone levels (LS-LA) was as well accepted as gilt pork, whatever the consumer category. Entire male pork with elevated levels in both skatole and androstenone (HS-HA) was clearly differentiated from LS-LA pork by SENS-UNPL, but not by SENS-PLEA or INSENS consumers. Whatever the consumer category, entire male pork with elevated levels of androstenone and very low levels of skatole (LS-HA and LS-HHA) were not significantly differentiated from LS-LA pork. The results suggest that, in the conditions of the present experiment, androstenone and skatole totally explain boar taint at eating and that the acceptability threshold for androstenone, in the absence of skatole, is in the range of 2-3 μg/g liquid fat. PMID:21862238

  4. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  5. Multi-level Full Virtualization of Power Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongpeng; Chi, Wanqing; Liu, Yongyan

    Virtual machine technique is employed to improve system utilization and energy efficiency. However, isolation effect of virtualization imposes challenges to power management. A multi-level power behavior statistic framework is introduced to support power profiling of virtual device, virtual machine and host. Power management mechanisms are virtualized to map power management operations between virtual device and physical device. The power consumption of a virtual device is virtualized according to its performance share from the physical device. The experiments demonstrated that our power management virtualization solution has negligible decline of system performance.

  6. High levels of acceptability of couples-based HIV testing among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The acceptability of couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has not been previously investigated among MSM in South Africa. Using online advertisements, data were collected from 486 MSM, who were 18 years of age or older with a current residence in South Africa and had at least one male sex partner in the previous 12 months. The analysis examined associations between individual characteristics and willingness to utilize CVCT services. The willingness to utilize CVCT services was compellingly high (89%) among this sample of mostly White/European African (89%) and HIV-negative (83%) men. MSM who reported higher numbers of completed school years were less likely to report willingness to use CVCT. Willingness did not vary significantly across other individual demographic or behavioral characteristics. Our results show an overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT services. Future studies should survey a more heterogeneous population of MSM, explore the complex nature of same-sex male relationships, and why respondents would or would not use these HIV testing services. PMID:22007940

  7. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  8. 78 FR 16489 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...: Smith Mountain Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: Headwaters of the Roanoke River, in Bedford, Campbell, Franklin, and Pittsylvania Counties, Virginia. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Frank Simms, American Electric Power Service Corporation, 40...

  9. 76 FR 51025 - Percheron Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Potholes East Canal Water Power Project... approximately 400-foot-long intake structure installed on the Potholes East Canal to divert flow from the canal... 75 feet wide before entering the powerhouse, and would include a 120- foot-wide, 15-foot-high...

  10. 76 FR 51024 - Percheron Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Scooteney Reservoir Outlet Water Power.... The proposed project would consist of the following: (1) An approximately 300-foot-long intake... powerhouse, and would include a 100- foot-wide, 15-foot-high intake grate and a 50-foot-wide,...

  11. 75 FR 59256 - Eastport Tidal Power LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Half Moon Cove Tidal Power Plant Project to be located in Half Moon Cove and Cobscook Bay, Washington County, Maine. The sole purpose of a.... The proposed project would consist of: (1) The existing 544-acre Half Moon Cove; (2) a new...

  12. Acceptance and Accuracy of Multiple Choice, Confidence-Level, and Essay Question Formats for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    The confidence level (information-referenced testing; IRT) design is an attempt to improve upon the multiple choice format by allowing students to express a level of confidence in the answers they choose. In this study, the author evaluated student perceptions of the ease of use and accuracy of and general preference for traditional multiple…

  13. 76 FR 54765 - Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... generating units installed in a matrix on the bottom of the river; (2) the total capacity of the installation would be up to 100,000 kilowatts; (3) shielded underwater cables would convey each matrix power to...

  14. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26224041

  15. Differential Use and Benefits of PowerPoint in Upper Level versus Lower Level Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Patricia V.; Trent-Brown, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The study examines whether college instructors use PowerPoint differently in upper level versus lower level courses and whether PowerPoint differentially affects the learning and behaviours of students in those courses. The authors surveyed 191 students from 14 psychology classes and found that instructors teaching higher level courses use…

  16. 77 FR 27757 - Whitestone Power and Communications; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... USC 791a-828c. h. Applicant Contact: Steven M. Selvaggio, Whitestone Power and Communications, P.O... issuances related to this or other pending projects. For assistance, contact FERC Online Support. n. Anyone... 31, 2012. Assessment (EA). Comments on EA August 30, 2012. p. Waiver of deadline to file...

  17. 78 FR 71595 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...: October 10, 2013. d. Applicant: Appalachian Power Company (licensee). e. Name of Project: Smith Mountain Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: The Smith Mountain Project is located on the Roanoke River in Bedford, Campbell, Franklin, and Pittsylvania Counties, Virginia. The project does not occupy any...

  18. 76 FR 40722 - Pacific Green Power, LLC; Notice Of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Two Girls Creek Hydroelectric Project (Two Girls Creek Project or project) to be located on Two Girls Creek, near Sweet Home, Linn County....0 megawatts; (4) a new 40-foot-long, 42-inch-diameter HDPE tailrace returning flows to Two...

  19. 78 FR 26345 - Brookfield Renewable Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...: Surrender of License. b. Project No.: 12187-017. c. Date Filed: February 22, 2013. d. Applicants: Brookfield.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jeffrey...: Mr. Ashish Desai, (202) 502-8370, Ashish.Desai@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing comments, motions...

  20. 77 FR 47618 - Algonquin Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ..., 2012. d. Applicant: Algonquin Power Company. e. Name of Project: Lower Beaver Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed project is located on the Beaver River in Lewis County, New York. g.... Description of Request: The licensee proposes to amend the license for the Lower Beaver Falls...

  1. Fast, Low-Power, Hysteretic Level-Detector Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arditti, Mordechai

    1993-01-01

    Circuit for detection of preset levels of voltage or current intended to replace standard fast voltage comparator. Hysteretic analog/digital level detector operates at unusually low power with little sacrifice of speed. Comprises low-power analog circuit and complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) digital circuit connected in overall closed feedback loop to decrease rise and fall times, provide hysteresis, and trip-level control. Contains multiple subloops combining linear and digital feedback. Levels of sensed signals and hysteresis level easily adjusted by selection of components to suit specific application.

  2. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2009-12-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students' views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  3. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño C., Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students’ views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  4. Visual weld acceptance criteria: Volume 3, Training manual for inspectors of structural welds at nuclear power plants using the acceptance criteria of NCIG-01 (NCIG-03, Revision 1): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Nuclear Construction Issues Group (NCIG) was formed to resolve common problems being experienced at nuclear power plants in the assurance of hardware quality for which common solutions likely existed. The initial activity undertaken by this group was development of visual weld acceptance criteria and inspection guidance for structural welds. This report documents the results of this NCIC - activity the discussion of a training manual for inspectors of structural welds at nuclear power plants using the acceptance criteria of NCIG-01 (NCIG-03, Revision 1).

  5. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  6. Peripheral cues and involvement level: influences on acceptance of a mammography message.

    PubMed

    Kirby, S D; Ureda, J R; Rose, R L; Hussey, J

    1998-01-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) suggests that some communication elements are processed differently depending on a receiver's involvement with the message topic. We hypothesized that women with high levels of breast cancer involvement would be more influenced by a mammography message's arguments than by the message's peripheral cues and, conversely, that women with low levels of involvement would be more influenced by a mammography message's peripheral cues than by the message's arguments. We exposed 89 low-income African American women aged 40 to 65 years to two repetitions of a mammography promotion public service announcement embedded as a commercial within a television talk show. We used a 2 (involvement level) x 2 (argument strength) x 2 (peripheral cue favorability) factorial posttest-only design. The analysis detected a significant main effect for involvement and an interaction between peripheral cue favorability and involvement. High-involvement women reported stronger intentions than did low-involvement women to seek additional mammography information, regardless of argument strength or cue favorability. Low-involvement women reported stronger intentions to seek more mammography information only when exposed to the favorable cue condition. The analysis detected no effect for argument strength in high- or low-involvement women. The ELM appears useful for designing mammography messages. As many women may have low involvement with breast cancer, mammography promotion messages that include favorable peripheral cues may be more likely to impact mammography information seeking than argument-based-only messages. PMID:10977249

  7. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  8. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    PubMed

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system. PMID:7341050

  9. Twitching motility and cAMP levels: signal transduction through a single methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein.

    PubMed

    Jansari, Vibhuti H; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Riddell, Geoff T; Bardy, Sonia L

    2016-06-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp chemosensory system regulates twitching motility, intracellular adenosine 3('') 5(')-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels and is postulated to be involved in directional twitching towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Because PilJ is the only methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) identified in the Chp system, we determined the role of PilJ in mediating signal transduction for the distinct outputs of this system. Mutants that lack the periplasmic domain of PilJ (pilJΔ74-273) showed lower levels of cAMP but retained directional twitching towards PE. While initial studies revealed reduced twitching motility by PilJΔ74-273, this was due to decreased cAMP levels. Our data illustrate the importance of the periplasmic domain of PilJ in regulating cAMP. This is the first time a defined domain within PilJ has been identified as having a distinct role in signal transduction. PMID:27190147

  10. Simulator study of minimum acceptable level of longitudinal stability for a representative STOL configuration during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Deal, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator study was conducted to determine the minimum acceptable level of longitudinal stability for a representative turbofan STOL (short take-off and landing) transport airplane during the landing approach. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom, and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. The primary piloting task was an instrument approach to a breakout at a 60-m (200-ft) ceiling.

  11. Progress toward regulatory acceptance of risk-informed inspection programs for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Owen F.; Cowfer, C. David

    1996-11-01

    This paper will describe work within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers committee responsible for rules for inservice inspection of nuclear power plants. Work is progressing with the objective of producing proposals for risk-informed inspection programs that will be incorporated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission into the Federal Regulations Governing the construction and inservice inspection of al domestic commercial power plants. The paper will describe in detail the two primary proposals now under development and review. Both are directed toward enhancing safety while reducing the expense of periodic examination of piping welds. The first proposal provides a sound technical basis for reducing the number of Class 1 piping weld examinations as much as 60 percent while improving or maintaining equivalent safety. This is accomplished by using risk-informed techniques to re-establish the most important areas to examine. The second is a broader approach addressing all piping systems considered to be important under risk-informed assessment techniques. Both proposals are based on recent insights into risk analysis techniques developed within the pressure vessel industry, and both require evaluation of theoretical analysis and inputs of practical experience related to a wide variety of detrimental conditions. These proposals are being supported by pilot programs in a number of operating nuclear power plants. The authors will also attempt to explain the institutional constraints inherent in the process of obtaining regulatory recognition of proposals developed cooperatively by industry and the regulatory agency.

  12. 75 FR 78236 - Pennamaquan Tidal Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... modular wall panel extending about 11 feet above mean sea level consisting of: (a) New concrete support columns; (b) a new boat lift; and (c) a new powerhouse with four reversible bulb generating units with...

  13. POWER HOUSE, INTERIOR, MEZZANINE LEVEL, EXCITER TO THE RIGHT, CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POWER HOUSE, INTERIOR, MEZZANINE LEVEL, EXCITER TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF TURBO-GENERATOR TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  15. 75 FR 21286 - Bowersock Mills and Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... operated in a run-of-river mode, where water levels in the reservoir would be maintained near the top of...) the existing 4.3-mile-long reservoir, having a normal water surface elevation of 813.5 feet mean sea... installed capacity of 4.6 MW; (6) a proposed 20-foot-wide roller gate; (7) a proposed intake flume...

  16. A Study to Develop a Scale for Determining the Social Acceptance Levels of Special-Needs Students, Participating in Inclusion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Erdinc; Sahbaz, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale of social acceptance for determining the social acceptance levels of special-needs students, participating in inclusion practices. The target population of the research is 8th grade students of all primary schools in the provincial center of Burdur in the 2008 to 2009 academic year and the target study…

  17. Ultrasonic level and temperature sensor for power reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.: Miller, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic waveguide employing torsional and extensional acoustic waves has been developed for use as a level and temperature sensor in pressurized and boiling water nuclear power reactors. Features of the device include continuous measurement of level, density, and temperature producing a real-time profile of these parameters along a chosen path through the reactor vessel.

  18. Power Consideration for Three-Level Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is extend previous methods by Raudenbush and Liu (2001) and Spybrook et al. (2011), and provide methods for power analysis of tests of treatment effects in studies of polynomial change with two levels of nesting (e.g., students and schools) where the treatment is either at the third level (e.g., school intervention) or at…

  19. The meaning of air quality and flue gas emission standards for public acceptance of new thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Barbalić, N; Marijan, G; Marić, M

    2000-06-01

    For the time being only 30-40% of the electric energy supply in Croatia comes from burning fossil fuel. New capacities of 800-1400 MW for the next decade will have to rely on the exclusive use of fossil fuels in thermal power plants (TPP). Public opinion will probably have a decisive influence on the issuing of construction permissions. The potential adverse effects on air seem to be the main argument against construction of TPPs. The priority is therefore to unambiguously state what air quality is warranted in the influenced area for the whole operation period of a TPP. It is important that the public should understand the real meaning of current air quality standards and emission limits. The only known way to do it today is through comparison with the corresponding standards and limits accepted worldwide. This paper discusses some important aspects of such comparison. PMID:11103526

  20. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  1. The degree of acceptability of swine blood values at increasing levels of hemolysis evaluated through visual inspection versus automated quantification.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gagliazzo, Laura; McCormick, Wanda; Gabai, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2015-05-01

    The pronounced fragility that characterizes swine erythrocytes is likely to produce a variable degree of hemolysis during blood sampling, and the free hemoglobin may then unpredictably bias the quantification of several analytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of acceptability of values obtained for several biochemical parameters at different levels of hemolysis. Progressively increased degrees of physical hemolysis were induced in 3 aliquots of 30 nonhemolytic sera, and the relative effects on the test results were assessed. To define the level of hemolysis, we used both visual estimation (on a scale of 0 to 3+) and analytical assessment (hemolytic index) and identified the best analytical cutoff values for discriminating the visual levels of hemolysis. Hemolysis led to a variable and dose-dependent effect on the test results that was specific for each analyte tested. In mildly hemolyzed specimens, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, β1-globulin, β2-globulin, α1-globulin, γ-globulin, sodium, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were not significantly biased, whereas α2-globulin, albumin, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, nonesterified fatty acids, bilirubin, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, lipase, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, unbound iron-binding capacity, and uric acid were significantly biased. Chloride and total protein were unbiased even in markedly hemolyzed samples. Analytical interference was hypothesized to be the main source of this bias, leading to a nonlinear trend that confirmed the difficulty in establishing reliable coefficients of correction for adjusting the test results. PMID:26038480

  2. Public acceptance activities for the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.B.; Scott, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    In the US, the states are responsible for providing disposal capability for commercial low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. Public acceptance of state activities toward developing this capability is a key factor in the ultimate success of state efforts. The states are using several different approaches to gain public acceptance for the location and development of new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This presentation describes state efforts to gain public acceptance for siting and developing activities and discusses the lessons learned from these state experiences.

  3. Seismic fragility levels of nuclear power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment used in nuclear power plants are discussed. The fragility level is defined as the vibration level corresponding to initiation of equipment malfunctions. The test response spectrum is used as a measure of this vibration level. The fragility phenomenon of an equipment is represented by a number of response spectra corresponding to various failure modes. Analysis methods are described for determination of the fragility level by use of existing test data. Useful conversion factors are tabulated to transform test response spectra from one damping value to another. Results are presented for switch-gears and motor control centers. The capacity levels of these equipment assemblies are observed to be limited by malfunctioning of contactors, motor starters, relays and/or switches. The applicability of the fragility levels, determined in terms of test response spectra, to Seismic Margin Studies and Probabilistic Risk Assessments is discussed and specific recommendations are provided.

  4. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  5. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  6. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  7. Mechanics and energetics of level walking with powered ankle exoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2008-05-01

    Robotic lower limb exoskeletons that can alter joint mechanical power output are novel tools for studying the relationship between the mechanics and energetics of human locomotion. We built pneumatically powered ankle exoskeletons controlled by the user's own soleus electromyography (i.e. proportional myoelectric control) to determine whether mechanical assistance at the ankle joint could reduce the metabolic cost of level, steady-speed human walking. We hypothesized that subjects would reduce their net metabolic power in proportion to the average positive mechanical power delivered by the bilateral ankle exoskeletons. Nine healthy individuals completed three 30 min sessions walking at 1.25 m s(-1) while wearing the exoskeletons. Over the three sessions, subjects' net metabolic energy expenditure during powered walking progressed from +7% to -10% of that during unpowered walking. With practice, subjects significantly reduced soleus muscle activity (by approximately 28% root mean square EMG, P<0.0001) and negative exoskeleton mechanical power (-0.09 W kg(-1) at the beginning of session 1 and -0.03 W kg(-1) at the end of session 3; P=0.005). Ankle joint kinematics returned to similar patterns to those observed during unpowered walking. At the end of the third session, the powered exoskeletons delivered approximately 63% of the average ankle joint positive mechanical power and approximately 22% of the total positive mechanical power generated by all of the joints summed (ankle, knee and hip) during unpowered walking. Decreases in total joint positive mechanical power due to powered ankle assistance ( approximately 22%) were not proportional to reductions in net metabolic power ( approximately 10%). The ;apparent efficiency' of the ankle joint muscle-tendon system during human walking ( approximately 0.61) was much greater than reported values of the ;muscular efficiency' of positive mechanical work for human muscle ( approximately 0.10-0.34). High ankle joint

  8. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray; Poston, David Irvin; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Reid, Robert Stowers

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  9. The relationship between hearing aid frequency response and acceptable noise level in patients with sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238

  10. Piloted Mars mission planning: NEP technology and power levels

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; Hack, K.J.; Dudzinski, L.A.; Gefert, L.P. ); Gilland, J.H. )

    1993-01-10

    This paper examines the strong interrelationship between assumed technology and mission performance requirements for NEP. Recent systems analysis efforts by NASA, DOE, and various contractors are used to project achievable system performance as a function of technological sophistication for two piloted Mars mission applications. Specific mass regimes for each collection of technologies are presented as a function of power level for piloted applications. Low thrust mission analyses are presented which relate these system performance projections to achievable mission performance. Mission performance maps'' are constructed which link prime mission figures-of-merit of time and initial mass with system requirements on power level and specific mass, and hence technology. Both opposition and conjunction class piloted Mars missions are presented for the 2016 opportunity, analogous to those proposed in the 90-Day Study'' and Synthesis'' architecture studies. Mass and time breakdowns are presented for 10 MWe piloted and 5 MWe cargo point designs.

  11. Launch vehicle and power level impacts on electric GEO insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) has been shown to increase net geosynchronous spacecraft mass when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion. The impact of launch vehicle selection and power level on the benefits of this approach were examined for 20 and 25 kW systems launched using the Ariane 5, Atlas IIAR, Long March, Proton, and Sea Launch vehicles. Two advanced on-board propulsion technologies, 5 kW ion and Hall thruster systems, were used to establish the relative merits of the technologies and launch vehicles. GaAs solar arrays were assumed. The analysis identifies the optimal starting orbits for the SEP orbit raising/plane changing while considering the impacts of radiation degradation in the Van Allen belts, shading, power degradation, and oblateness. This use of SEP to provide part of the orbit insertion results in net mass increases of 15 - 38% and 18 - 46% for one to two month trip times, respectively, over just using SEP for 15 years of north/south station keeping. SEP technology was shown to have a greater impact on net masses of launch vehicles with higher launch latitudes when avoidance of solar array and payload degradation is desired. This greater impact of SEP could help reduce the plane changing disadvantage of high latitude launch sites. Comparison with results for 10 and 15 kW systems show clear benefits of incremental increases in SEP power level, suggesting that an evolutionary approach to high power SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft is possible.

  12. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  13. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  14. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  15. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  16. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  17. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  18. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  19. Compliance with Waste Acceptance Criteria of WIPP and NTS for Vitrified Low-Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    A joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been established to evaluate vitrification as an option for the immobilization of waste within ORNL tank farms. This paper presents details of calculations based on current best available analyses of the Oak Ridge Tanks on the limits for waste loadings imposed by the waste acceptance criteria.

  20. Technical basis for staffing levels at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.; Morisseau, D.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to provide a technical basis for the establishment of criteria for minimum staffing levels of licensed and non-licensed NPP shift personnel. Minimum staffing levels for the purpose of this study, are defined as those necessary for successful accomplishment of all safety and additional functions that must be performed in order for the licensee to meet applicable regulatory requirements. This project involves a multi-faceted approach to the investigation of the issue. Relevant NRC documentation was identified and reviewed. Using the information obtained from this documentation review, a test plan was developed to aid in the collection of further information regarding the adequacy of current shift staffing levels. The test plan addresses three different activities to be conducted to provide information to the NRC for use in the assessment of current minimum staffing levels. The first activity is collection of data related to industry shift staffing practices through site visits to seven nuclear power plants. The second activity is a simulator study, which will use licensed operator crews responding to a simulated event, under two different staffing levels. Finally, workload models will be constructed for both licensed and non-licensed personnel, using a priori knowledge of the simulator scenarios with data resulting from one of the staffing levels studied in the simulator, and the data collected from the site visits. The model will then be validated against the data obtained from the second staffing level studied in the simulator. The validated model can then be used to study the impact of changing staffing-related variables on the plant shift crew`s ability to effectively mitigate an event.

  1. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  2. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals. PMID:26190253

  3. 77 FR 34033 - American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...--Hydroelectric Water Power Project (Peoria Dam Project or project) to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power IX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  4. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14389, to be located at the existing Lower Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f)...

  5. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Water Power Project No. 14392, to be located at the existing La Grange Dam on the Illinois River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power VI, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  6. 77 FR 41782 - American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14391, to be located at the existing Upper Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VIII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  7. 77 FR 34032 - American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Water Power Project No. 14375, to be located at the existing Dillon Lake Dam on the Licking River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power III, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  8. 76 FR 58261 - American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Chute, Ohio--Water Power No. 14258 to be located at the existing Luke Chute Lock and Dam on the... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, American River Power I, LLC (American River) filed an application for a preliminary...

  9. 76 FR 58262 - American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ..., Ohio--Water Power Project No. 14257 to be located at the existing Ellis Ohio Lock Dam No. 11 on the... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, American River Power I, LLC (American River) filed an application for a preliminary...

  10. 78 FR 20101 - Free Flow Power Iowa 1, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Iowa 1, LLC; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... January 2, 2013, Free Flow Power Iowa 1, LLC (FFP Iowa) filed an application for a preliminary permit....4 gigawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Daniel Lissner, Free Flow Power Corporation, 239...

  11. 78 FR 58301 - Go With the Flow Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Go With the Flow Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Go with the Flow Hydro Power, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Go with the...

  12. Temporal variations in Global Seismic Stations ambient noise power levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Hutt, C.R.; McNamara, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent concerns about time-dependent response changes in broadband seismometers have motivated the need for methods to monitor sensor health at Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations. We present two new methods for monitoring temporal changes in data quality and instrument response transfer functions that are independent of Earth seismic velocity and attenuation models by comparing power levels against different baseline values. Our methods can resolve changes in both horizontal and vertical components in a broad range of periods (∼0.05 to 1,000 seconds) in near real time. In this report, we compare our methods with existing techniques and demonstrate how to resolve instrument response changes in long-period data (>100 seconds) as well as in the microseism bands (5 to 20 seconds).

  13. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cleeve, Amanda; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Mbona Tumwesigye, Nazarius; Atuhairwe, Susan; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians. Methods This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1) was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14–28 days following treatment. Analysis of women’s overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024. Results From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician). 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904) of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024 PMID:26872219

  14. Space Shuttle Main Engine Off-Nominal Low Power Level Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes Rocketdyne's successful analysis and demonstration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operation at off-nominal power levels during Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) evaluation tests. The nominal power level range for the SSME is from 65% rated power level (RPL) to 109% RPL. Off-nominal power levels incrementally demonstrated were: 17% RPL, 22% RPL, 27% RPL, 40% RPL, 45% RPL, and 50% RPL. Additional achievements during low power operation included: use of a hydrostatic bearing High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP), nominal High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) first rotor critical speed operation, combustion stability at low power levels, and refined definition of nozzle flow separation heat loads.

  15. 78 FR 22870 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    .... The proposed project would operate in a run-of-river mode and the water surface elevation of the...: Williams Dam Water Power Project. f. Location: At the existing Williams dam owned by the Indiana Department... proposed Williams Dam Water Power Project would be located in Lawrence County, Indiana at the...

  16. 77 FR 26541 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Request: Due to drought conditions in the Coosa River basin, Alabama Power proposes to release from Jordan.... d. Applicant: Alabama Power Company. e. Name of Project: Jordan Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Coosa River, in Elmore, Chilton and Coosa Counties, Alabama. g. Filed Pursuant to:...

  17. 75 FR 11150 - Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 3, 2010. On November 5, 2009, Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 23, LLC (FFP Qualified Hydro 23...-free 1-866-208-3372. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  18. 75 FR 11153 - Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... March 1, 2010. On November 05, 2009, Free Flow Power Qualified Hydro 22, LLC (FFP Qualified Hydro 22...-free 1-866-208-3372. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  19. 77 FR 5501 - City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... Filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: City of Hamilton, Ohio and American Municipal Power, Inc. e... serve a copy of the document on that resource agency. k. Description of Request: The City of...

  20. Cleaning level acceptance criteria and a high pressure liquid chromatography procedure for the assay of Meclizine Hydrochloride residue in swabs collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Lunn, M J; Keeley, F J; George, R C; Bodenmiller, J R

    1999-04-01

    A method using pharmacologically based and visual limit of detection criteria to determine the acceptable residue level for Meclizine Hydrochloride (MH) on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces after cleaning is described. A formula was used in order to determine the pharmacologically safe cleaning level for MH. This level was termed as specific residual cleaning Level (SRCL) and calculated to be 50 microg 100 cm(-2). The visual limit of detection (VLOD) was determined by spiking different levels of MH on stainless steel plates and having the plates examined by a group of observers. The lowest level that could be visually detected by the majority of the observers, 62.5 microg 100 cm(-2), was considered as the VLOD for MH. The lower of the SRCL and VLOD values, i.e. 50 microg 100 cm(-2), was therefore chosen as the cleaning acceptance criterion. A sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of MH in swabs used to test equipment surfaces. Using this method, the mean recoveries of MH from spiked swabs and '180-Grit' stainless steel plates were 87.0 and 89.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of +/- 3.3 and +/- 2.4%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the assay of actual swab samples collected from the equipment surfaces. The stability of MH on stainless steel plates, on cleaning swabs and in the extraction solution was investigated. PMID:10698538

  1. Application of the two-surface method for determining the sound power level of equipment in a power plant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nuspl, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The physical size and power requirements of some power plant equipment precludes any type of laboratory test for sound output, yet this information is often desired. Sound data usually is required on a free-field basis at some specified distance, or in terms of sound power level. As its name implies, the two-surface method of determining sound power level requires two enclosing measurement surfaces which are parallel to each other and are at some distance from the equipment under test. Average sound levels are determined from a series of grid measurements on each surface. These levels are derived using energy-averaging techniques and may represent overall, octave, or third-octave measurements. By calculating the difference in sound pressure levels and the area ratio of inner to outer surface, and by using information on hand (namely the inner surface area and average sound level on the inner surface), the sound power level can be calculated.

  2. 76 FR 62398 - Northern States Power Company; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Application: Amendment to License. b. Project No: 2567-041. c. Date Filed: August 23, 2011. d. Applicant: Northern States Power Company. e. Name of Project: Wissota Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project... include your name and contact information at the end of your comments. Please include the project...

  3. Evaluation and Application of the RD50 for Determining Acceptable Exposure Levels of Airborne Sensory Irritants for the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Yu; Alexeeff, George V.; Broadwin, Rachel; Salmon, Andrew G.

    2007-01-01

    Background The RD50 (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R2) between RD50s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). Objective The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RD50s and human sensory irritation responses in a quantitative manner, particularly for chemicals that produce burning sensation of the eyes, nose, or throat, based on lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) reported for human subjects. Methods We compared RD50s with LOAELs and acute reference exposure levels (RELs). RELs, developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, represent a level at which no adverse effects are anticipated after exposure. We collected RD50s from the published literature and evaluated them for consistency with ASTM procedures. We identified LOAELs for human irritation and found 25 chemicals with a corresponding RD50 in mice. Discussion We found the relationship between RD50s and LOAELs as log RD50 = 1.16 (log LOAEL) + 0.77 with an R2 value of 0.80. This strong correlation supports the use of the RD50 in establishing exposure limits for the public. We further identified 16 chemical irritants with both RD50s and corresponding acute RELs, and calculated the relationship as log RD50 = 0.71 (log REL) + 2.55 with an R2 value of 0.71. This relationship could be used to identify health protective values for the public to prevent respiratory or sensory irritation. Conclusion Consequently, we believe that the RD50 has benefits for use in setting protective levels for the health of both workers and the general population. PMID:18007993

  4. Power systems: Carbon negative at the regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Nico

    2015-03-01

    Modelling of the power system on the west coast of North America shows that including bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration technologies could enable the region to be carbon negative by 2050.

  5. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  6. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94... noise levels in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior noise level requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous noise sources such as motor vehicles...

  7. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94... noise levels in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior noise level requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous noise sources such as motor vehicles...

  8. A Procedure for Determination of Degradation Acceptance Criteria for Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Hahm, D.; Choi, I-K.

    2012-01-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory since 2007 to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This collaboration program aims at providing technical support to a five-year KAERI research project, which includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment: (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. The understanding and assessment of age-related degradations of structures, systems, and components and their impact on plant safety is the major goal of this KAERI-BNL collaboration. Four annual reports have been published before this report as a result of the collaboration research.

  9. A Comparison of Brayton and Stirling Space Nuclear Power Systems for Power Levels from 1 Kilowatt to 10 Megawatts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to assess the performance and mass of Brayton and Stirling nuclear power systems for a wide range of future NASA space exploration missions. The power levels and design concepts were based on three different mission classes. Isotope systems, with power levels from 1 to 10 kW, were considered for planetary surface rovers and robotic science. Reactor power systems for planetary surface outposts and bases were evaluated from 10 to 500 kW. Finally, reactor power systems in the range from 100 kW to 10 mW were assessed for advanced propulsion applications. The analysis also examined the effect of advanced component technology on system performance. The advanced technologies included high temperature materials, lightweight radiators, and high voltage power management and distribution.

  10. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  11. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  12. 10. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant (upper level) room #219E, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant (upper level) room #219E, station services room; showing air compressors which provide diesel generators with internal power kick-on - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. Power Analysis for Cross Level Mediation in CRTs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Ben

    2014-01-01

    A common design in education research for interventions operating at a group or cluster level is a cluster randomized trial (CRT) (Bloom, 2005). In CRTs, intact clusters (e.g., schools) are assigned to treatment conditions rather than individuals (e.g., students) and are frequently an effective way to study interventions because they permit…

  14. Effect of spatial distribution of dissipated power on modeling of SMR BAW resonators at high power levels.

    PubMed

    Tag, Andreas; Bader, Bernhard; Huck, Christian; Karolewski, Dominik; Pitschi, Maximilian; Weigel, Robert; Hagelauer, Amelie

    2015-10-01

    The modeling of bulk acoustic wave resonators at elevated power levels has been improved by taking the spatial distribution of the dominating loss mechanisms into account. The spatial distribution of the dissipated power enables more accurate modeling of the temperature increase caused by the applied power. Thus, it is also possible to more accurately model the frequency shifts of the resonators' impedance curves resulting from the temperature increase caused by the applied power. Simulation and measurement results for the temperatures and impedances of the resonators with different layerstacks at high power loads are presented. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement, confirming the presented modeling approach. Furthermore, the de-embedding procedure used to obtain vectorial scattering parameters of the resonators during high power loads, the according measurement setup, and the procedure for measuring absolute temperatures by infrared thermography are discussed. PMID:26470048

  15. Defining conditions where long-term glucocorticoid treatment has an acceptably low level of harm to facilitate implementation of existing recommendations: viewpoints from an EULAR task force.

    PubMed

    Strehl, Cindy; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; de Wit, Maarten; Boers, Maarten; Caeyers, Nele; Cutolo, Maurizio; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Dixon, William G; Geenen, Rinie; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kent, Alison; de Thurah, Annette Ladefoged; Listing, Joachim; Mariette, Xavier; Ray, David W; Scherer, Hans U; Seror, Raphaèle; Spies, Cornelia M; Tarp, Simon; Wiek, Dieter; Winthrop, Kevin L; Buttgereit, Frank

    2016-06-01

    There is convincing evidence for the known and unambiguously accepted beneficial effects of glucocorticoids at low dosages. However, the implementation of existing recommendations and guidelines on the management of glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases is lagging behind. As a first step to improve implementation, we aimed at defining conditions under which long-term glucocorticoid therapy may have an acceptably low level of harm. A multidisciplinary European League Against Rheumatism task force group of experts including patients with rheumatic diseases was assembled. After a systematic literature search, breakout groups critically reviewed the evidence on the four most worrisome adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy (osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia/diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and infections) and presented their results to the other group members following a structured questionnaire for final discussion and consensus finding. Robust evidence on the risk of harm of long-term glucocorticoid therapy was often lacking since relevant study results were often either missing, contradictory or carried a high risk of bias. The group agreed that the risk of harm is low for the majority of patients at long-term dosages of ≤5 mg prednisone equivalent per day, whereas at dosages of >10 mg/day the risk of harm is elevated. At dosages between >5 and ≤10 mg/day, patient-specific characteristics (protective and risk factors) determine the risk of harm. The level of harm of glucocorticoids depends on both dose and patient-specific parameters. General and glucocorticoid-associated risk factors and protective factors such as a healthy lifestyle should be taken into account when evaluating the actual and future risk. PMID:26933146

  16. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  17. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-05-14

    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  18. Guidelines for sound power level measurements for compressor station equipment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, M.J.; Raju, P.K.; Yang, S.B.

    1994-12-01

    These guidelines describe a method for in-situ determination of the sound power level of the noise sources in indoor or outdoor environments for gas compressor station equipment using sound intensity measurements. The guidelines contain information on instrumentation, installation and operation of the source, procedures for the selection of a measurement surface, procedures for the sampling of sound intensity on the measurement surface, procedures for the calculation of sound power level, and techniques that can be used to qualify the measurement environment. Typical results obtained for different types of equipment in a gas compressor station using these guidelines are summarized. Appendix A gives procedures to calculate A-weighted sound power level from octave or one-third octave band sound power levels. Appendix B gives descriptions about data quality indicators which are useful in making validity judgments for the sound power measurements. Appendix C describes sound power measurements using the sound pressure method. Appendix D describes sound power measurements at low frequency. Appendix E gives descriptions about sound power measurements on exhaust stacks with air flow. The Addendum to this report includes examples of the application of the guideline document to real field sound power measurements and examples of calculations of data quality indicators. It serves as a convenient and quick reference document with procedures and examples which are easy to follow in real field sound power measurement problems. Readers of the Addendum are assumed to be familiar with the detailed descriptions of the sound power measurement procedures contained in the main guideline document.

  19. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  20. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  1. Some improvements on the auto-gated power for low-light level image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Yan, Bo; Zhi, Qiang; Yao, Ze; Li, Jun-guo; Fu, Ling-yun; Yuan, Yuan; Deng, Guang-xu

    2014-09-01

    The basic principle and formation of the auto-gated power using hybrid automatic brightness control scheme were described in detail. The auto-gated power supply in the application process because the device precision and the low-light level image intensifier between individual differences, fall may cause some products in some cases the SNR and resolution, and decrease the consistency of the product. This paper puts forward the corresponding solutions to these problems. And through experiments on the improved auto gated power supply with automatic gated power has not been improved compared. Applications of the auto-gated power in military, police and civil area were forecasted.

  2. Procedural justice climate and group power distance: an examination of cross-level interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jixia; Mossholder, Kevin W; Peng, T K

    2007-05-01

    In this article, the authors extend research on the cross-level effects of procedural justice climate by theorizing and testing its interaction with group power distance. The results indicated that group power distance moderated the relationships between procedural justice climate and individual-level outcomes (organizational commitment and organization-directed citizenship behavior). More specifically, a larger group power distance was found to attenuate the positive cross-level effects of procedural justice climate. Implications for procedural justice climate research are discussed. PMID:17484550

  3. High efficiency Tm:YAG slab laser with hundred-watts-level output power.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pian; Jin, Lin; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    We report on a hundred-watts-level high power Tm:YAG slab laser system operating at room temperature. The laser has a threshold pump power of 46.7 W, benefiting from the good mode matching of an end-pumping scheme and the excellent heat-dissipation capability of our cooling system. At 350 W of incident pump power, 100 W of output power at ∼2015  nm has been generated, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 33.6% with respect to the incident pump power and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 28.6%. As far as we know, this is the highest optical-to-optical conversion efficiency so far achieved in a high power Tm:YAG laser system operating at a hundred-watts level. PMID:27139649

  4. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  5. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  6. Bidirectional Five-Level Power Processing Interface for Low Voltage Battery Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jain-Yi; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Wu, Kuen-Der; Lin, You-Si; Wu, Jinn-Chang

    A bidirectional five-level power processing interface for low voltage battery energy storage system (BESS) is developed in this paper. This BESS consists of a bidirectional five-level DC-AC converter, a bidirectional dual boost/buck DC-DC converter and a battery set. This five-level DC-AC converter includes a bidirectional full-bridge converter and a bidirectional dual buck DC-DC converter. The five-level power processing interface can charge power to the battery set form the utility or discharge the power from the battery set to the utility depending on the demanded operation of user. A hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of this BESS. Experimental results show the performance of the developed BESS is as expected.

  7. North Dakota Industrial Arts Teachers Handbook. Energy/Power Curriculum Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugan, Don

    This handbook provides teachers with support material to more fully implement the North Dakota Energy and Power Curriculum Guide, Level I. It first presents the body of knowledge for Energy/Power Technology as taken from the curriculum guide. The guide is then addressed unit by unit, topic by topic. These seven units are covered: Energy/Power…

  8. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  9. COMPARISON OF LEACHABLE TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN COAL GASIFIER ASH WITH LEVELS IN POWER PLANT ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal. The 1-year study was conducted at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia, comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-f...

  10. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  11. Metal clad active fibres for power scaling and thermal management at kW power levels.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jae M O; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W Andrew; Haub, John

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to high power fibre laser design, consisting of a polymer-free all-glass optical fibre waveguide directly overclad with a high thermal conductivity metal coating. This metal clad active fibre allows a significant reduction in thermal resistance between the active fibre and the laser heat-sink as well as a significant increase in the operating temperature range. In this paper we show the results of a detailed thermal analysis of both polymer and metal coated active fibres under thermal loads typical of kW fibre laser systems. Through several different experiments we present the first demonstration of a cladding pumped aluminium-coated fibre laser and the first demonstration of efficient operation of a cladding-pumped fibre laser at temperatures of greater than 400 °C. Finally, we highlight the versatility of this approach through operation of a passively (radiatively) cooled ytterbium fibre laser head at an output power of 405 W in a compact and ultralight package weighing less than 100 g. PMID:27505822

  12. Analog design optimization methodology for ultralow-power circuits using intuitive inversion-level and saturation-level parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eimori, Takahisa; Anami, Kenji; Yoshimatsu, Norifumi; Hasebe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive design optimization methodology using intuitive nondimensional parameters of inversion-level and saturation-level is proposed, especially for ultralow-power, low-voltage, and high-performance analog circuits with mixed strong, moderate, and weak inversion metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (MOST) operations. This methodology is based on the synthesized charge-based MOST model composed of Enz-Krummenacher-Vittoz (EKV) basic concepts and advanced-compact-model (ACM) physics-based equations. The key concept of this methodology is that all circuit and system characteristics are described as some multivariate functions of inversion-level parameters, where the inversion level is used as an independent variable representative of each MOST. The analog circuit design starts from the first step of inversion-level design using universal characteristics expressed by circuit currents and inversion-level parameters without process-dependent parameters, followed by the second step of foundry-process-dependent design and the last step of verification using saturation-level criteria. This methodology also paves the way to an intuitive and comprehensive design approach for many kinds of analog circuit specifications by optimization using inversion-level log-scale diagrams and saturation-level criteria. In this paper, we introduce an example of our design methodology for a two-stage Miller amplifier.

  13. Power enhancement of heat engines via correlated thermalization in a three-level "working fluid".

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Brumer, Paul; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    We explore means of maximizing the power output of a heat engine based on a periodically-driven quantum system that is constantly coupled to hot and cold baths. It is shown that the maximal power output of such a heat engine whose "working fluid" is a degenerate V-type three-level system is that generated by two independent two-level systems. Hence, level degeneracy is a thermodynamic resource that may effectively double the power output. The efficiency, however, is not affected. We find that coherence is not an essential asset in such multilevel-based heat engines. The existence of two thermalization pathways sharing a common ground state suffices for power enhancement. PMID:26394838

  14. Scalability of components for kW-level average power few-cycle lasers.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Hoffmann, Armin; Krebs, Manuel; Liem, Andreas; de Vries, Oliver; Plötner, Marco; Fabian, Simone; Schreiber, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the average power scalability of components that can be used for intense few-cycle lasers based on nonlinear compression of modern femtosecond solid-state lasers is investigated. The key components of such a setup, namely, the gas-filled waveguides, laser windows, chirped mirrors for pulse compression and low dispersion mirrors for beam collimation, focusing, and beam steering are tested under high-average-power operation using a kilowatt cw laser. We demonstrate the long-term stable transmission of kW-level average power through a hollow capillary and a Kagome-type photonic crystal fiber. In addition, we show that sapphire substrates significantly improve the average power capability of metal-coated mirrors. Ultimately, ultrabroadband dielectric mirrors show negligible heating up to 1 kW of average power. In summary, a technology for scaling of few-cycle lasers up to 1 kW of average power and beyond is presented. PMID:26974623

  15. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  16. The influence of optimum power level change on boration and dilution operations

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.S.; Andrade Oliveira, E. de . Programa de Engenharia Nuclear.)

    1993-08-01

    Xenon and samarium concentrations changes occur in a nuclear reactor as a consequence of power level variations. To compensate for the reactivity introduced by these isotopes, the boron concentration in the reactor coolant also needs to be changed. Boron concentration changes result from boration or dilution operations. Both boration and dilution operations have economic effects due to the cost of boric acid and the treatment of the effluent. A method is presented that finds the nuclear power level change that leads to an optimization of the boration and dilution operations. The use of the method for practical applications is demonstrated by comparing the absolute reactivity change for the optimum power ramp and a ramp of [plus minus]3%/h. The numerical calculations are very fast. Thus, the method may be implemented in the process computer of any nuclear power plant.

  17. Efficiencies of two-level weak dissipation quantum Carnot engines at the maximum power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jincan

    2013-04-01

    A weak-dissipation cycle model of two-level quantum Carnot engines is proposed by adopting a generic energy spectrum and the superposition effect of quantum systems. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the cycle are derived. The optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency is obtained and the optimally operating region of the cycle is determined. Moreover, analytical expression for the efficiency of the cycle at the maximum power output is deduced and the lower and upper bounds of the efficiency at the maximum power output are given. The results obtained are general and can be directly used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of several types of two-level quantum Carnot engines.

  18. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  19. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range.

  20. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1999-03-16

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range. 3 figs.

  1. A system-level mathematical model for evaluation of power train performance of load-leveled electric-vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purohit, G. P.; Leising, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    The power train performance of load leveled electric vehicles can be compared with that of nonload leveled systems by use of a simple mathematical model. This method of measurement involves a number of parameters including the degree of load leveling and regeneration, the flywheel mechanical to electrical energy fraction, and efficiencies of the motor, generator, flywheel, and transmission. Basic efficiency terms are defined and representative comparisons of a variety of systems are presented. Results of the study indicate that mechanical transfer of energy into and out of the flywheel is more advantageous than electrical transfer. An optimum degree of load leveling may be achieved in terms of the driving cycle, battery characteristics, mode of mechanization, and the efficiency of the components. For state of the art mechanically coupled flyheel systems, load leveling losses can be held to a reasonable 10%; electrically coupled systems can have losses that are up to six times larger. Propulsion system efficiencies for mechanically coupled flywheel systems are predicted to be approximately the 60% achieved on conventional nonload leveled systems.

  2. Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Å.; Stenström, K.; Adliene, D.; Adlys, G.; Dias, C.; Rääf, C.; Skog, G.; Zakaria, M.; Mattsson, S.

    2007-06-01

    Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina have been investigated. During 2001-2004, approximately 70 samples were collected and analysed using accelerator mass spectrometry. The study included samples of leaves, grass, moss, soil and aquatic plants, covering a distance up to 32 km from the power plant. The highest 14C specific activities were found in soil samples from moss-covered sites close to the power plant, probably indicating the release of particulate material. The results are compared with those from studies around other types of reactors also investigated within the project.

  3. Evolution de la notion d'acceptabilite a travers les niveaux de langue chez des enfants de 6 a 11 ans (Evolution of the Notion of Acceptability across Language Levels among Children Aged Six to Eleven).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Rene; de Pietro, Jean-Francois

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the child's capacity to judge the acceptability of French interrogative utterances on three levels--familiar, standard, and educated. A second objective was to consider the resulting observations in the light of certain sociocultural parameters. The test, one that had been used for adults in French second…

  4. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  5. Optimization of Electric Power Leveling Systems by using Taper-Off-Reflectance Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yohei; Fujii, Toshinori; Imai, Jun; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    Recently, it is desired to develop energy control technologies for environmental issues such as global warming and exhaustion of fossil fuel. Power fluctuations in large power consumers may cause the instability of electric power systems and increase the cost of the electric power facility and electricity charges. Developing the electric power-leveling systems (EPLS) to compensate the power fluctuations is necessary for future electric power systems. Now, EPLS with an SMES have been proposed as one of the countermeasures for the electric power quality improvement. The SMES is superior to other energy storage devices in response and storage efficiency. The authors proposed the EPLS based on fussy control with the SMES. For this practical implementation, optimizing control gain and SMES capacity is an important issue. This paper proposes a new optimization method of the EPLS. The proposed algorithm is novel particle swarm optimization based on taper-off reflectance (TRPSO). The proposed TRPSO optimizes the design variables of the EPLS efficiently and effectively.

  6. System-level power optimization for real-time distributed embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiong

    Power optimization is one of the crucial design considerations for modern electronic systems. In this thesis, we present several system-level power optimization techniques for real-time distributed embedded systems, based on dynamic voltage scaling, dynamic power management, and management of peak power and variance of the power profile. Dynamic voltage scaling has been widely acknowledged as an important and powerful technique to trade off dynamic power consumption and delay. Efficient dynamic voltage scaling requires effective variable-voltage scheduling mechanisms that can adjust voltages and clock frequencies adaptively based on workloads and timing constraints. For this purpose, we propose static variable-voltage scheduling algorithms utilizing criticalpath driven timing analysis for the case when tasks are assumed to have uniform switching activities, as well as energy-gradient driven slack allocation for a more general scenario. The proposed techniques can achieve closeto-optimal power savings with very low computational complexity, without violating any real-time constraints. We also present algorithms for power-efficient joint scheduling of multi-rate periodic task graphs along with soft aperiodic tasks. The power issue is addressed through both dynamic voltage scaling and power management. Periodic task graphs are scheduled statically. Flexibility is introduced into the static schedule to allow the on-line scheduler to make local changes to PE schedules through resource reclaiming and slack stealing, without interfering with the validity of the global schedule. We provide a unified framework in which the response times of aperiodic tasks and power consumption are dynamically optimized simultaneously. Interconnection network fabrics point to a new generation of power-efficient and scalable interconnection architectures for distributed embedded systems. As the system bandwidth continues to increase, interconnection networks become power/energy limited as

  7. Energy Use and Power Levels in New Monitors and Personal Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, Judy A.; Homan, Gregory K.; Mahajan, Akshay; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-07-23

    Our research was conducted in support of the EPA ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program, whose goal is to reduce the amount of electricity consumed by office equipment in the U.S. The most energy-efficient models in each office equipment category are eligible for the ENERGY STAR label, which consumers can use to identify and select efficient products. As the efficiency of each category improves over time, the ENERGY STAR criteria need to be revised accordingly. The purpose of this study was to provide reliable data on the energy consumption of the newest personal computers and monitors that the EPA can use to evaluate revisions to current ENERGY STAR criteria as well as to improve the accuracy of ENERGY STAR program savings estimates. We report the results of measuring the power consumption and power management capabilities of a sample of new monitors and computers. These results will be used to improve estimates of program energy savings and carbon emission reductions, and to inform rev isions of the ENERGY STAR criteria for these products. Our sample consists of 35 monitors and 26 computers manufactured between July 2000 and October 2001; it includes cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, Macintosh and Intel-architecture computers, desktop and laptop computers, and integrated computer systems, in which power consumption of the computer and monitor cannot be measured separately. For each machine we measured power consumption when off, on, and in each low-power level. We identify trends in and opportunities to reduce power consumption in new personal computers and monitors. Our results include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, well below the current ENERGY STAR criteria for sleep power consumption. These very low sleep power results mean that energy consumed when monitors are off or in active use has become more important in terms of contribution to the overall unit energy consumption (UEC

  8. Quantum cascade laser in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration with Watt-level optical output power.

    PubMed

    Hinkov, Borislav; Beck, Mattias; Gini, Emilio; Faist, Jérôme

    2013-08-12

    We present the design and realization of short-wavelength (λ = 4.53 μm) and buried-heterostructure quantum cascade lasers in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration. Watt-level, singlemode peak optical output power is demonstrated for typical non-tapered 4 μm wide and 5.25 mm long devices. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM(00)-mode with typical divergences of 25° and 27° in and perpendicular to growth direction, respectively. We demonstrate singlemode tuning over a range of 7.9 cm(-1) for temperatures between 263K and 313K and also singlemode emission for different driving currents. The side mode suppression ratio is measured to be higher than 20 dB. PMID:23938833

  9. Correlation of combustor acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1978-01-01

    Combustion chamber acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements are correlated with operating conditions and chamber geometries over a wide range. The variables include considerations of chamber design (can, annular, and reverse-flow annular) and size, number of fuel nozzles, burner staging and fuel split, airflow and heat release rates, and chamber inlet pressure and temperature levels. The correlated data include those obtained with combustion component development rigs as well as engines.

  10. Predicted and Measured Modal Sound Power Levels for a Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Refinements have been made to a method for estimating the modal sound power levels of a ducted fan ingesting distorted inflow. By assuming that each propagating circumferential mode consists only of a single radial mode (the one with the highest cut-off ratio), circumferential mode sound power levels can be computed for a variety of inflow distortion patterns and operating speeds. Predictions from the refined theory have been compared to data from an experiment conducted in the Advanced Noise Control Fan at NASA Glenn Research Center. The inflow to the fan was distorted by inserting cylindrical rods radially into the inlet duct. The rods were placed at an axial location one rotor chord length upstream of the fan and arranged in both regular and irregular circumferential patterns. The fan was operated at 2000, 1800, and 1400 rpm. Acoustic pressure levels were measured in the fan inlet and exhaust ducts using the Rotating Rake fan mode measurement system. Far field sound pressure levels were also measured. It is shown that predicted trends in circumferential mode sound power levels closely match the experimental data for all operating speeds and distortion configurations tested. Insight gained through this work is being used to develop more advanced tools for predicting fan inflow distortion tone noise levels.

  11. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  12. The Power of Mediating Artifacts in Group-Level Development of Mathematical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ares, Nancy; Stroup, Walter M.; Schademan, Alfred R.

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of networked classroom technology immerses students and teachers in the group-level construction of powerful mathematical and scientific concepts. We examine these networks from a sociocultural point of view as a new form of mediating artifact. We present a mixed-method, microgenetic analysis to characterize students'…

  13. Prospective Physics Teachers' Level of Understanding Energy, Power and Force Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective physics teachers' level of understanding of the concepts of energy and the related concepts of force and power. The study was carried out with the participation of 56 physics education department students at a university in Karadeniz region. All participants had previously taken an introductory…

  14. LPT. Low power test (TAN640) interior. Basement level. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Low power test (TAN-640) interior. Basement level. Camera facing north. Cable trays and conduit cross tunnel between critical experiment cell and critical experiment control room. Construction 93% complete. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: October 23, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5339 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94 Section 393.94 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE...

  16. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94 Section 393.94 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE...

  17. Estimating the vibration level of an L-shaped beam using power flow techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Mccollum, M.; Rassineux, J. L.; Gilbert, T.

    1986-01-01

    The response of one component of an L-shaped beam, with point force excitation on the other component, is estimated using the power flow method. The transmitted power from the source component to the receiver component is expressed in terms of the transfer and input mobilities at the excitation point and the joint. The response is estimated both in narrow frequency bands, using the exact geometry of the beams, and as a frequency averaged response using infinite beam models. The results using this power flow technique are compared to the results obtained using finite element analysis (FEA) of the L-shaped beam for the low frequency response and to results obtained using statistical energy analysis (SEA) for the high frequencies. The agreement between the FEA results and the power flow method results at low frequencies is very good. SEA results are in terms of frequency averaged levels and these are in perfect agreement with the results obtained using the infinite beam models in the power flow method. The narrow frequency band results from the power flow method also converge to the SEA results at high frequencies. The advantage of the power flow method is that detail of the response can be retained while reducing computation time, which will allow the narrow frequency band analysis of the response to be extended to higher frequencies.

  18. Effect of feeding crude red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and grain amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus) to hens on total lipids, cholesterol, PUFA levels and acceptability of eggs.

    PubMed

    Punita, A; Chaturvedi, A

    2000-01-01

    Eggs, though a very nutritious food, also have high amounts of cholesterol and hence are not recommended to be consumed regularly by persons having hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this context, an attempt was made in this study to reduce the cholesterol content of eggs by diet manipulation, using two naturally available and already proved hypocholesteromic agents [red palm oil (RPO) and grain amaranth]. Thirteen experimental rations using raw and popped grain Amaranth and RPO were fed to 24 weeks old hens for a period of 6 weeks, singularly and in combinations. Total lipids, cholesterol and PUFA contents were analyzed in the experimental and control eggs. The results showed that RPO and RPO + popped amaranth feeding resulted in a maximum reduction in total lipids and cholesterol contents. Significant increase was observed in linoleic acid content in RPO + popped amaranth; raw amaranth and RPO fed groups. Acceptability studies showed that the products made from lower cholesterol eggs were well accepted. PMID:10898484

  19. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  20. Design of kW level picosecond compressor of pump pulses for high power OPCPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakule, Pavel; Novák, Jakub; Kramer, Daniel; Strkula, Petr; Novák, Miroslav; Hřebíček, Jan; Koutris, Efstratios; Zervos, Charalampos; Baše, Radek; Batysta, František; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Green, Jonathan T.; Rus, Bedřich

    2013-05-01

    We present a design of a high average power vacuum compressor unit for 1 kHz repetition rate pump laser operating at 1030 nm. The unit comprises two compressors and two SHG units located in a common vacuum vessel. Both compressors are designed with GDD of -270.5 ps2 for compressing high energy, 1J, 500 ps pulses to 1.5 ps duration with efficiency that exceeds 88.5%. We also considered the feasibility of high efficiency, average power conversion to 515 nm in a range of nonlinear crystals in vacuum. The calculated temperature profiles in large aperture crystals are compared with temperature acceptance bandwidths for the second harmonic generation. It is concluded that in LBO and YCOB crystals the conversion efficiency can exceed 60%, thus allowing generation of 1 kHz train of 1.5 ps pulses at 515 nm with energy exceeding 0.5 J that will be used for pumping the high energy amplifier stages of a femtosecond OPCPA system.

  1. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.

    2014-08-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested.

  2. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  3. Low-power multi-chip module and board-level links for data transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.; Hardin, T.L.; Warren, M.E.; Lear, K.L.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Seigal, P.K.; Craft, D.C.; Enquist, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    Advanced device technologies such as Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive micro lenses can be obtained with novel packaging techniques to allow low-power interconnection of parallel optical signals. These interconnections can be realized directly on circuit boards, in a multi-chip module format, or in packages that emulate electrical connectors. For applications such as stacking of Multi-Chip Module (MCM) layers, the links may be realized in bi-directional form using integrated diffractive microlenses. In the stacked MCM design, consumed electrical power is minimized by use of a relatively high laser output from high efficiency VCSELs, and a receiver design that is optimized for low power, at the expense of dynamic range. Within certain constraints, the design may be extended to other forms such as board-level interconnects.

  4. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  5. A Transformer-less Partial Power Boost Converter for PV Applications Using a Three-Level Switching Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic architectures with distributed power electronics provide many advantages in terms of energy yield as well as system level optimization. As the power level of the solar farm increases it becomes more beneficial to increase the dc collection network voltage, which requires the use of power devices with higher voltage ratings, and thus making the design of efficient, low cost, distributed power converters more challenging. In this paper a simple partial power converter topology is proposed. The topology is implemented using a three-level switching cell, which allows the use of semiconductor devices with lower voltage rating; thus improving design and performance and reducing converter cost. This makes the converters suitable for use for medium to high power applications where dc-link voltages of 600V~1kV may be needed without the need for high voltage devices. Converter operation and experimental results are presented for two partial power circuit variants using three-level switching cells.

  6. A Polymer Optical Fiber Fuel Level Sensor: Application to Paramotoring and Powered Paragliding

    PubMed Central

    Montero, David Sánchez; Lallana, Pedro Contreras; Vázquez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost intensity-based polymer optical fiber (POF) sensor for fuel level measurements in paramotoring and powered paragliding is presented, exploiting the advantages of the optical fiber sensing technology. Experimental results demonstrate that the best option can be performed by stripping the fiber at the desired discrete points to measure the fuel level as well as with a gauge-shape fiber bending. The prototype has a good linearity, better than 4% full scale (F.S.), and sensitivity around 0.5 V per bend are obtained. Hysteresis due to residual fluid at the sensing points is found to be less than 9% F.S. PMID:22778637

  7. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match. PMID:27410104

  8. Sea level rise and tidal power plants in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelling, Holly E.; Mattias Green, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    The response of the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine to large-scale tidal power plants and future sea-level rise is investigated using an established numerical tidal model. Free stream tidal turbines were simulated within the Bay of Fundy by implementing an additional bed friction term, Kt. The present-day maximum tidal power output was determined to be 7.1 GW, and required Kt = 0.03. Extraction at this level would lead to large changes in the tidal amplitudes across the Gulf of Maine. With future SLR implemented, the energy available for extraction increases with 0.5-1 GW per m SLR. SLR simulations without tidal power extraction revealed that the response of the semidiurnal tides to SLR is highly dependent on how changes in sea level are implemented in the model. When extensive flood defenses are assumed at the present-day coast line, the response to SLR is far larger than when land is allowed to (permanently) flood. For example, within the Bay of Fundy itself, the M2 amplitude increases with nearly 0.12 m per m SLR without flooding, but it changes with only 0.03 m per m SLR with flooding. We suggest that this is due to the flooding of land cells changing the resonant properties of the basin.

  9. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  10. Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful

  11. The Relationship between Treatment Acceptability and Familism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have examined the acceptability of treatments for children with disruptive behaviors. However, few studies to date have tested the effects of home environment variables such as family support on treatment acceptability. In the current study, parents' level of familism was used to predict their willingness to accept several behavioral…

  12. Why weight? Modelling sample and observational level variability improves power in RNA-seq analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruijie; Holik, Aliaksei Z.; Su, Shian; Jansz, Natasha; Chen, Kelan; Leong, Huei San; Blewitt, Marnie E.; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Smyth, Gordon K.; Ritchie, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Variations in sample quality are frequently encountered in small RNA-sequencing experiments, and pose a major challenge in a differential expression analysis. Removal of high variation samples reduces noise, but at a cost of reducing power, thus limiting our ability to detect biologically meaningful changes. Similarly, retaining these samples in the analysis may not reveal any statistically significant changes due to the higher noise level. A compromise is to use all available data, but to down-weight the observations from more variable samples. We describe a statistical approach that facilitates this by modelling heterogeneity at both the sample and observational levels as part of the differential expression analysis. At the sample level this is achieved by fitting a log-linear variance model that includes common sample-specific or group-specific parameters that are shared between genes. The estimated sample variance factors are then converted to weights and combined with observational level weights obtained from the mean–variance relationship of the log-counts-per-million using ‘voom’. A comprehensive analysis involving both simulations and experimental RNA-sequencing data demonstrates that this strategy leads to a universally more powerful analysis and fewer false discoveries when compared to conventional approaches. This methodology has wide application and is implemented in the open-source ‘limma’ package. PMID:25925576

  13. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (leq 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  14. Characterization of and waste acceptance radionuclide to be reported for the 2nd macro-batch of high-level waste sludge being vitrified in the DWPF melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T.L.

    2000-01-26

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), is currently processing the second million gallon batch (Macro-Batch 2) of radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass for permanent geological disposal. To meet the reporting requirements as specified in the Department of Energy's Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), for the final glass product, the nonradioactive and radioactive compositions must be provided for a Macro-Batch of material. In order to meet this requirement, sludge slurry samples from Macro-Batch 2 were analyzed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). This information is used to complete the necessary Production Records at DWPF so that the final glass product, resulting from Macro Batch 2, may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. This paper describes the results obtained from the analyses of the sludge slurry samples taken from Macro-Batch 2 to meet the reporting requirements of the WAPS. Twenty eight elements were identified for the nonradioactive composition and thirty one for the radioactive composition. The reportable radioisotopes range from C-14 to Cm-246.

  15. Cardiac autonomic control in high level Brazilian power and endurance track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Abad, C C C; do Nascimento, A M; Gil, S; Kobal, R; Loturco, I; Nakamura, F Y; Mostarda, C T; Irigoyen, M C

    2014-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an important role in physical performance. However, the cardiac ANS activity in high-level track and field athletes has been poorly explored. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endurance and power athletes would present a markedly different cardiac autonomic control at rest. We analyzed the cardiac ANS by means of time and frequency domains heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and by symbolic analysis. Endurance athletes showed higher pulse interval than power athletes (1,265±126 vs. 1,031±98 ms respectively; p<0.05). No differences were found in time and frequency domains between the groups. However, the LF%, HF% and LF/HF ratio presented high effect sizes (1.46, 1.46 and 1.30, respectively). The symbolic analysis revealed that endurance athletes had higher 2V parasympathetic modulation (36±6.5) than power athletes (24±9.3; p<0.05). A reduced 0V sympathetic modulation was observed in endurance athletes (21±9.9) compared to power athletes (33±11; p<0.05 and ES=1.30). Our results suggest greater parasympathetic modulation and less sympathetic modulation in endurance athletes compared to power athletes. Additionally, the type of HRV analysis needs to be chosen with well-defined criteria and caution because their use in assessing cardiac autonomic modulation can interfere with the interpretation of results. In practical terms, symbolic analysis appears to better discriminate between cardiac autonomic activities of athletes with different training backgrounds than frequency domain analysis. PMID:24771131

  16. Effects on electrical distribution networks of dispersed power generation at high levels of connection penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Longrigg, P

    1983-07-01

    The advent and deployment of significant levels of photovoltaic and wind energy generation in the spatially dispersed mode (i.e., residential and intermediate load centers) may have deleterious effects upon existing protective relay equipment and its time-current coordination on radial distribution circuits to which power conditioning equipment may be connected for power sell-back purposes. The problems that may arise involve harmonic injection from power conditioning inverters that can affect protective relays and cause excessive voltage and current from induced series and parallel resonances on feeders and connected passive equipment. Voltage regulation, var requirements, and consumer metering can also be affected by this type of dispersed generation. The creation of islands of supply is also possible, particularly on rural supply systems. This paper deals mainly with the effects of harmonics and short-circuit currents from wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and photovoltaic (PV) systems upon the operating characteristics of distribution networks and relays and other protective equipment designed to ensure the safety and supply integrity of electrical utility networks. Traditionally, electrical supply networks have been designed for one-way power flow-from generation to load, with a balance maintained between the two by means of automatic generation and load-frequency controls. Dispersed generation, from renewables like WECS or PV or from nonrenewable resources, can change traditional power flow. These changes must be dealt with effectively if renewable energy resources are to be integrated into the utility distribution system. This paper gives insight into these problems and proposes some solutions.

  17. Measuring the sound power level of percussion drills. Report of Investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Occupational noise caused by the rock drills used in mining was investigated by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Using a large reverberation chamber and an automated drill test fixture (ADTF), the sound power levels of mining drills were measured to determine if there are types of drills that are advantageous from a noise production standpoint. Test results show that while there are not large variations among types of drills, there are still some choices that could produce a positive effect on overall noise exposure. It is also shown that lower noise exposures are possible using larger drills because of higher production rates and better operator positioning.

  18. A two-level structure for advanced space power system automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Chankong, Vira

    1990-01-01

    The tasks to be carried out during the three-year project period are: (1) performing extensive simulation using existing mathematical models to build a specific knowledge base of the operating characteristics of space power systems; (2) carrying out the necessary basic research on hierarchical control structures, real-time quantitative algorithms, and decision-theoretic procedures; (3) developing a two-level automation scheme for fault detection and diagnosis, maintenance and restoration scheduling, and load management; and (4) testing and demonstration. The outlines of the proposed system structure that served as a master plan for this project, work accomplished, concluding remarks, and ideas for future work are also addressed.

  19. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination.

  20. Computational analysis of the curvature distribution and power losses of metal strip in tension levellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinwender, L.; Kainz, A.; Krimpelstätter, K.; Zeman, K.

    2010-06-01

    Tension levelling is employed in strip processing lines to minimise residual stresses resp. to improve the strip flatness by inducing small elasto-plastic deformations. To improve the design of such machines, precise calculation models are essential to reliably predict tension losses due to plastic dissipation, power requirements of the driven bridle rolls (located upstream and downstream), reaction forces on levelling rolls as well as strains and stresses in the strip. FEM (Finite Element Method) simulations of the tension levelling process (based on Updated Lagrangian concepts) yield high computational costs due to the necessity of very fine meshes as well as due to the severely non-linear characteristics of contact, material and geometry. In an evaluation process of hierarchical models (models with different modeling levels), the reliability of both 3D and 2D modelling concepts (based on continuum and structural elements) was proved by extensive analyses as well as consistency checks against measurement data from an industrial tension leveller. To exploit the potential of computational cost savings, a customised modelling approach based on the principle of virtual work has been elaborated, which yields a drastic reduction of degrees of freedom compared to simulations by utilising commercial FEM-packages.

  1. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  2. The MyPEEPS randomized controlled trial: A pilot of preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a group-level, HIV risk reduction intervention for young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marco A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Hotton, Anna L.; Johnson, Amy K.; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An exigent need exists for HIV prevention intervention research targeting young men who have sex with men (MSM) – a group of young adults that, despite composing the highest and most racially disproportionate rates of HIV incidence, has been least often the focus of behavioral intervention research. This pilot study tested a group-based HIV primary prevention intervention for young MSM to evaluate its initial efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability. Participants were randomized (N=101; aged 16-20 years) to one of two group-level, HIV and STI education programs: controls participated in a non-interactive, lecture-based program while intervention participants took part in a highly interactive program tailored to young MSM aged 16-20. Sexual risk and social cognitive outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 6- and 12 weeks post-intervention. Over the entire follow-up period, intervention participants were less likely than controls to engage in any sexual behavior while under the influence of substances (p<0.05), and also observed in this group was a decreasing trend of unprotected anal sex while under the influence of substances (p=.08). Follow-up differences between groups on social cognitive outcomes favored the intervention group, though these differences were non-significant. Acceptability ratings were modest. A 6-session behavioral intervention tailored to young MSM, aged 16-20, is feasible, acceptable, and demonstrates evidence of preliminary efficacy in reducing sexual risk, specifically sexual risk while under the influence of substances. PMID:25135064

  3. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  4. What day-ahead reserves are needed in electric grids with high levels of wind power?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, Brandon; Apt, Jay; Carvalho, Pedro M. S.; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2013-09-01

    Day-ahead load and wind power forecasts provide useful information for operational decision making, but they are imperfect and forecast errors must be offset with operational reserves and balancing of (real time) energy. Procurement of these reserves is of great operational and financial importance in integrating large-scale wind power. We present a probabilistic method to determine net load forecast uncertainty for day-ahead wind and load forecasts. Our analysis uses data from two different electric grids in the US with similar levels of installed wind capacity but with large differences in wind and load forecast accuracy, due to geographic characteristics. We demonstrate that the day-ahead capacity requirements can be computed based on forecasts of wind and load. For 95% day-ahead reliability, this required capacity ranges from 2100 to 5700 MW for ERCOT, and 1900 to 4500 MW for MISO (with 10 GW of installed wind capacity), depending on the wind and load forecast values. We also show that for each MW of additional wind power capacity for ERCOT, 0.16-0.30 MW of dispatchable capacity will be used to compensate for wind uncertainty based on day-ahead forecasts. For MISO (with its more accurate forecasts), the requirement is 0.07-0.13 MW of dispatchable capacity for each MW of additional wind capacity.

  5. Results from cascade thrust reverser noise and suppression experiments. [sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, O. A.; Stone, J. R.; Friedman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results from experimental work on model scale cascade reversers with cold airflow are presented. Sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics for cascade reversers are reported. Effect of cascade exit area ratio, vane profile shape, and emission arc are discussed. Model equivalent diameters varied from 3 to 5 inches, pressure ratios range from 1.15 to 3.0. Depending on the reverser type, acoustic power was proportional to the 4 1/2 to 6th power of ideal jet velocity. Reverser noise peaked at higher frequency and was more omnidirectional than nozzle-alone jet noise. Appreciable reduction in sideline noise was obtained from plane shields. Airfoil-vaned cascades were the most aerodynamically efficient and least noisy reversers. Scaling of cascade reverser data to example aircraft engines showed all cascades above the 95 PNdB sideline goal from STOL aircraft. However, the airfoil-vaned reverser has a good potential for meeting this goal for high-bypass (low pressure ratio) exhausts.

  6. Default operational intervention levels (OILs) for severe nuclear power plant or spent fuel pool emergencies.

    PubMed

    McKenna, T; Kutkov, V; Vilar Welter, P; Dodd, B; Buglova, E

    2013-05-01

    Experience and studies show that for an emergency at a nuclear power plant involving severe core damage or damage to the fuel in spent fuel pools, the following actions may need to be taken in order to prevent severe deterministic health effects and reduce stochastic health effects: (1) precautionary protective actions and other response actions for those near the facility (i.e., within the zones identified by the International Atomic Energy Agency) taken immediately upon detection of facility conditions indicating possible severe damage to the fuel in the core or in the spent fuel pool; and (2) protective actions and other response actions taken based on environmental monitoring and sampling results following a release. This paper addresses the second item by providing default operational intervention levels [OILs, which are similar to the U.S. derived response levels (DRLs)] for promptly assessing radioactive material deposition, as well as skin, food, milk and drinking water contamination, following a major release of fission products from the core or spent fuel pool of a light water reactor (LWR) or a high power channel reactor (RBMK), based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's guidance. PMID:23532075

  7. Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research

  8. Power Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a power technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  9. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  10. A longitudinal examination of positive parenting following an acceptance-based couple intervention.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V

    2016-02-01

    Positive parenting practices have been shown to be essential for healthy child development, and yet have also been found to be particularly challenging for parents to enact and maintain. This article explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the impact of improved relational acceptance after a couple intervention on mother's and father's positive parenting. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, controlled, acceptance-based, intervention study. Data indicated that both women and men experienced significantly greater felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC intervention, treatment women demonstrated greater positive parenting 2 weeks after the intervention, and all treatment participants' positive parenting was better maintained than control couple's 6 months later. Importantly, although mothers' positive parenting was not influenced by different levels of felt acceptance, changes in father's positive parenting were positively associated with changes in felt acceptance. As men felt more accepted by their wives, their levels of positive parenting changed in kind, and this effect on positive parenting was found to be mediated by felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC. Overall, findings supported the potential benefits of targeting couple acceptance to generate positive cascades throughout the larger family system. PMID:26551659

  11. Investigation of low level neutron radiation on tantalum alloys for radioisotope power system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklay, Chadwick Douglas

    2007-12-01

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) as structural materials for space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) since the 1960s. The thrust of this thesis research is to investigate the effects of low-level neutron radiation on the mechanical and microstructural properties of two tantalum alloys, Ta-10%W and T-111 (Ta-8%W-2%Hf), which have been used to encapsulate radioactive fuel for space nuclear power systems. Ta-10%W and T-111 test specimens were exposed to a neutron fluence level (1.2 x 1015 nvt) at temperatures less than <0.2 Tm, which is equivalent to the cumulative fluence associated with the 30-year mission life of a RTG. This fluence level resulted in an atomic displacement damage of approximately 3.0 x 10-7 dpa in both alloys. In T-111 test specimens, this level of atomic displacement damage produced an approximate 6.6% reduction in the tensile ductility, an approximate two-order of magnitude increase in the stress rupture time, and a two-order of magnitude reduction in steady state creep rate. These observations are statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Through the employment of Transmission Electron Microscopy it was determined that the interaction of the defects produced by atomic displacement damage with moving ao/2<111> screw dislocations increased the magnitude of cross-slip of the screw dislocations, thus leading to a five-fold increase in dislocation density and a pronouncement of the ordering of dislocations into mosaic patterns of cellular or subgranular arrangements at the boundaries of cells/subgrains. In addition, the experimental results determined that an atomic displacement damage of approximately 3.0 x 10-7 dpa did not produce a statistically significant effect on the mechanical or microstructural properties of Ta-10%W when subjected to a strain rate of 0.0017 s-1. The culmination of this research is the development of a phenomenological model based

  12. Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-01-01

    Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to

  13. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhixiong, Ren; Kefeng, Zhang; Lanqi, Liu; Cong, Li; Xiaofei, Chen; Dongsheng, Liu; Zhenglin, Liu; Xuecheng, Zou

    2015-09-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076030).

  14. A General Framework for Power Analysis to Detect the Moderator Effects in Two- and Three-Level Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo; Spybrook, Jessaca; Kelcey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a general framework for power analyses to detect the moderator effects in two- and three-level cluster randomized trials (CRTs). The study specifically aims to: (1) develop the statistical formulations for calculating statistical power, minimum detectable effect size (MDES) and its confidence interval to…

  15. 75 FR 24755 - DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... quality of the human environment as documented in Federal Register (FR) notice 75 FR 20867, April 21, 2010... COMMISSION DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste... and holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-9 issued for Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit...

  16. Fourier Power Spectrum Characteristics of Face Photographs: Attractiveness Perception Depends on Low-Level Image Properties

    PubMed Central

    Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks – but not veridical face photographs – affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess – compared to face images – a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope – in contrast to the other tested image properties – did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis. PMID:25835539

  17. Managing autonomy levels in the SSM/PMAD testbed. [Space Station Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that when autonomous operations are mixed with those of a manual nature, concepts concerning the boundary of operations and responsibility become clouded. The space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) automation testbed has the need for such mixed-mode capabilities. The concept of managing the SSM/PMAD testbed in the presence of changing levels of autonomy is examined. A knowledge-based approach to implementing autonomy management in the distributed SSM/PMAD utilizing a centralized planning system is presented. Its knowledge relations and system-wide interactions are discussed, along with the operational nature of the currently functioning SSM/PMAD knowledge-based systems.

  18. Power dissipation and stress levels on faults in the upper crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.

    1980-11-01

    Rock deformation textures from deeply exhumed fault zones in quartzo-feldspathic crust are considered in relation to likely rates of energy dissipation and hence the levels of shear resistance operative during seismic slip in the upper, factional regimes of major crustal dislocations. Available evidence suggests that both low-stress (τ ≤100 bars) and, less commonly, high-stress (τ≥1 kbar) faulting occur, depending on local conditions of which the most important is the ratio of fluid to overburden pressure. The higher stresses are usually associated with immature fault systems, especially reverse faults developed in crystalline host rocks. As a result of initial power dissipation at the onset of slip, feedback mechanisms involving either friction melting or the creation of high transient fluid pressures may drastically diminish kinetic shear resistance over all or part of the rupture surface, the effects becoming more pronounced the greater the initial shear stress. For shallow strike slip earthquakes, values of radiant flux (the wave power radiated per unit area of a fault) range from 0.1 to 10 MW/m2. This suggests that there are considerable variations in seismic efficiency and/or total energy release, even for events of similar magnitude occurring on faults of the same type.

  19. Efficiency at maximum power of a heat engine working with a two-level atomic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2013-04-01

    We consider the finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine whose working substance is composed of a two-level atomic system. The engine cycle, consisting of two quantum adiabatic and two quantum isochoric (constant-frequency) processes and working between two heat reservoirs at temperatures T(h) and T(c)(power output with respect to two frequencies, we obtain the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) and analyze numerically the effects of the times taken for two adiabatic and two isochoric processes on the EMP. In the absence of internally dissipative friction, we find that the EMP is bounded from the upper side by a function of the Carnot efficiency η(C), η(+)=η(C)(2)/[η(C)-(1-η(C))ln(1-η(C))], with η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). This analytic expression is confirmed by our exact numerical result and is identical to the one derived in an engine model based on a mesoscopic or macroscopic system. If the internal friction is included, we find that the EMP decreases as the friction coefficient increases. PMID:23679385

  20. Self-induced bio-potential and graphite electron accepting conditions enhances petroleum sludge degradation in bio-electrochemical system with simultaneous power generation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-10-01

    Bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) documented effective degradation of real field petroleum sludge over the conventional anaerobic treatment (AnT). BET (41.08%) operation showed enhanced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal over AnT (20.72%). Aromatic fraction visualized higher removal (75.54%) compared to other TPH fractions viz., aliphatics, asphaltenes and NSO (nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen) during BET operation. Higher ring aromatics (5-6) documented easy degradation in BET, while AnT was limited to lower ring (2-3) compounds. Voltammetric analysis evidenced simultaneous redox behavior during BET operation due to presence of graphite electrode as electron acceptor, while AnT showed extended reduction behavior only. Self-induced primary and secondary oxidation reactions and capacitive-deionization might have enhanced the degradation capability of BET. BET documented higher charge/capacitance (2810 mJ/1120 mF) than AnT (450 mJ/180 mF). Power output corroborated well with observed results supporting BET performance as fuel cell. Electrodes offer a potential alternative electron acceptor for promoting the degradation of organic contaminants. PMID:21865036

  1. Results and insights from the low power and shutdown Level 1 PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.W.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Darby, J.; Miller, S.; Forester, J.; Yakle, J.

    1993-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has undertaken a two-phase project to analyze the frequencies, consequences, and risk of accidents occurring during modes of operation other than full power (i.e., low power and shutdown (LP&S) conditions). The Phase 1 work represented a ``coarse screening`` of all identified modes of operation. The results were used to identify which set of plant operating conditions would be subjected to a detailed analysis during Phase 2. This paper presents an overview of the results from the current Phase 2 effort to identify and quantify the various accident sequences that can lead to severe core damage. This overview encompasses the detailed analysis of potential accidents that could occur at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Power Plant while in the Cold Shutdown Phase [Plant Operational State (POS) 5] of a refueling outage.

  2. Power enhancement of heat engines via correlated thermalization in a three-level “working fluid”

    PubMed Central

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Brumer, Paul; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    We explore means of maximizing the power output of a heat engine based on a periodically-driven quantum system that is constantly coupled to hot and cold baths. It is shown that the maximal power output of such a heat engine whose “working fluid” is a degenerate V-type three-level system is that generated by two independent two-level systems. Hence, level degeneracy is a thermodynamic resource that may effectively double the power output. The efficiency, however, is not affected. We find that coherence is not an essential asset in such multilevel-based heat engines. The existence of two thermalization pathways sharing a common ground state suffices for power enhancement. PMID:26394838

  3. Dose estimation for nuclear power plant 4 accident in Taiwan at Fukushima nuclear meltdown emission level.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mei-Ling; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Kuo, Pei-Hsuan

    2016-05-01

    An advanced Gaussian trajectory dispersion model is used to evaluate the evacuation zone due to a nuclear meltdown at the Nuclear Power Plant 4 (NPP4) in Taiwan, with the same emission level as that occurred at Fukushima nuclear meltdown (FNM) in 2011. Our study demonstrates that a FNM emission level would pollute 9% of the island's land area with annual effective dose ≥50 mSv using the meteorological data on 11 March 2011 in Taiwan. This high dose area is also called permanent evacuation zone (denoted as PEZ). The PEZ as well as the emergency-planning zone (EPZ) are found to be sensitive to meteorological conditions on the event. In a sunny day under the dominated NE wind conditions, the EPZ can be as far as 100 km with the first 7-day dose ≥20 mSv. Three hundred sixty-five daily events using the meteorological data from 11 March 2011 to 9 March 2012 are evaluated. It is found that the mean land area of Taiwan in becoming the PEZ is 11%. Especially, the probabilities of the northern counties/cities (Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County and Ilan County) to be PEZs are high, ranging from 15% in Ilan County to 51% in Keelung City. Note that the total population of the above cities/counties is as high as 10 million people. Moreover, the western valleys of the Central Mountain Range are also found to be probable being PEZs, where all of the reservoirs in western Taiwan are located. For example, the probability can be as high as 3% in the far southern-most tip of Taiwan Island in Pingtung County. This shows that the entire populations in western Taiwan can be at risk due to the shortage of clean water sources under an event at FNM emission level, especially during the NE monsoon period. PMID:26913979

  4. Plasma levels of miRNA-155 as a powerful diagnostic marker for dedifferentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Boro, Aleksandar; Bauer, David; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Atypic lipomatous tumors (ALT) and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLS) are closely related liposarcoma subtypes, often difficult to distinguish but they exhibit an entirely different clinical outcome. Recently discovered regulatory functions of miRNAs in liposarcoma progression prompted us to investigate miRNAs as potential diagnostic biomarkers in liposarcoma with a main focus on circulating miRNAs for fast and reliable differential diagnosis. Tumor and blood samples of 35 patients with lipomatous lesions collected between June 2011 and September 2014 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. They included 10 lipomas, 7 ALT, 5 DDLS and 13 myxoid liposarcomas (MLS). Ten samples of normal fat tissue and blood from 20 healthy volunteers were used as controls. A meta-analysis of public data on miRNA expression in liposarcoma revealed 9 miRNAs with potential diagnostic power. Out of these, miRNA-155 was found significantly elevated in the circulation of DDLS patients as compared to the plasma levels detected in all other liposarcoma subtypes and in healthy subjects. miRNA-155 levels in the plasma samples correlated significantly (r=0.41, p=0.02) with those in corresponding tumor extracts. This correlation was even more pronounced in an analysis of plasma and tumor extracts of malignant liposarcoma subtypes alone (r=0.51, p=0.02). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that plasma miRNA-155 levels have a high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing DDLS from healthy subjects (AUC=0.91, p=0.005) and from lipomas (AUC=0.86, p=0.02), MLS (AUC=0.92, p=0.006) and most importantly ALT (AUC=0.91, p=0.01) patients. In conclusion, this study identified miRNA-155 as a first blood biomarker for the differential diagnosis of DDLS. PMID:27186423

  5. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  6. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  7. FBC: Gaining acceptance. [Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    This article addresses the growing acceptance of fluidized bed combustion as a technology appropriate for use in dual-purpose power plants. The article reviews projects for cogeneration in California, a demonstration plant sponsored by the US Department of Energy in Ohio (this plant also incorporates combined cycle operation), and an electric power/greenhouse project in Pennsylvania.

  8. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.F.; Bailey, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NO{sub x} in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NO{sub x} emissions while also reducing SO{sub 2} emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NO{sub x} reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NO{sub x} emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NO{sub x} titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds.

  9. Deconstructing the power resistance relationship for squats: A joint-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Farris, D J; Lichtwark, G A; Brown, N A T; Cresswell, A G

    2016-07-01

    Generating high leg power outputs is important for executing rapid movements. Squats are commonly used to increase leg strength and power. Therefore, it is useful to understand factors affecting power output in squatting. We aimed to deconstruct the mechanisms behind why power is maximized at certain resistances in squatting. Ten male rowers (age = 20 ± 2.2 years; height = 1.82 ± 0.03 m; mass = 86 ± 11 kg) performed maximal power squats with resistances ranging from body weight to 80% of their one repetition maximum (1RM). Three-dimensional kinematics was combined with ground reaction force (GRF) data in an inverse dynamics analysis to calculate leg joint moments and powers. System center of mass (COM) velocity and power were computed from GRF data. COM power was maximized across a range of resistances from 40% to 60% 1RM. This range was identified because a trade-off in hip and knee joint powers existed across this range, with maximal knee joint power occurring at 40% 1RM and maximal hip joint power at 60% 1RM. A non-linear system force-velocity relationship was observed that dictated large reductions in COM power below 20% 1RM and above 60% 1RM. These reductions were due to constraints on the control of the movement. PMID:26103786

  10. Leveling the Field: Negotiating Positions of Power as a Preservice Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark; Schieble, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Set in an undergraduate Secondary English Education Program, this qualitative study draws on theories of power, positioning, and identity to explore how positions of power affect teacher identity construction. Drawn from a larger study, the authors examine how one preservice teacher negotiated positions of power with students in ways that enabled…

  11. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. Pursuant to FAR 11.103, the HCA or designee at a level not lower than the BPC has the...

  12. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  13. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  14. Comparison of Mental Toughness and Power Test Performances in High-Level Kickboxers by Competitive Success

    PubMed Central

    Slimani, Maamer; Miarka, Bianca; Briki, Walid; Cheour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Background Kickboxing is a high-intensity intermittent striking combat sport, which is characterized by complex skills and tactical key actions with short duration. Objectives The present study compared and verified the relationship between mental toughness (MT), countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball throw (MBT) power tests by outcomes of high-level kickboxers during National Championship. Materials and Methods Thirty two high-level male kickboxers (winner = 16 and loser = 16: 21.2 ± 3.1 years, 1.73 ± 0.07 m, and 70.2 ± 9.4 kg) were analyzed using the CMJ, MBT tests and sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ; based in confidence, constancy and control subscales), before the fights of the 2015 national championship (16 bouts). In statistical analysis, Mann-Withney test and a multiple linear regression were used to compare groups and to observe relationships, respectively, P ≤ 0.05. Results The present results showed significant differences between losers vs. winners, respectively, of total MT (7(7;8) vs. 11(10.2;11), confidence (3(3;3) vs. 4(4;4)), constancy (2(2;2) vs. 3(3;3)), control (2(2;3) vs. 4(4;4)) subscales and MBT (4.1(4;4.3) vs. 4.6(4.4;4.8)). The multiple linear regression showed a strong associations between MT results and outcome (r = 0.89), MBT (r = 0.84) and CMJ (r = 0.73). Conclusions The findings suggest that MT will be more predictive of performance in those sports and in the outcome of competition. PMID:27625755

  15. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hötzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-06-01

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for 210Pb and 210Po in soil samples of several grams had to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the 210Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g -1 for 210Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g -1 for 226Ra. The distribution patterns of 210Po and 210Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of 226Ra. The highest 210Pb/ 226Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant releases.

  16. Effect of ambient levels of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, C.F.; House, D.E.; Benane, S.G.; Joines, W.T.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were exposed continuously during their 21-day incubation period to either 50- or 60-Hz sinusoidal electric fields at an average intensity of 10 Vrms/m. The exposure apparatus was housed in an environmental room maintained at 37 degrees C and 55-60% relative humidity (RH). Within 1.5 days after hatching, the chickens were removed from the apparatus and tested. The test consisted of examining the effect of 50- or 60-Hz electromagnetic fields at 15.9 Vrms/m and 73 nTrms (in a local geomagnetic field of 38 microT, 85 degrees N) on efflux of calcium ions from the chicken brain. For eggs exposed to 60-Hz electric fields during incubation, the chicken brains demonstrated a significant response to 50-Hz fields but not to 60-Hz fields, in agreement with the results from commercially incubated eggs. In contrast, the brains from chicks exposed during incubation to 50-Hz fields were not affected by either 50- or 60-Hz fields. These results demonstrate that exposure of a developing organism to ambient power-line-frequency electric fields at levels typically found inside buildings can alter the response of brain tissue to field-induced calcium-ion efflux. The physiological significance of this finding has yet to be established.

  17. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  18. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  19. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  20. Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression at high average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey fiber.

    PubMed

    Südmeyer, T; Brunner, F; Innerhofer, E; Paschotta, R; Furusawa, K; Baggett, J C; Monro, T M; Richardson, D J; Keller, U

    2003-10-15

    We demonstrate that nonlinear fiber compression is possible at unprecedented average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey (microstructured) fiber and a passively mode-locked thin disk Yb:YAG laser operating at 1030 nm. We broaden the optical spectrum of the 810-fs pump pulses by nonlinear propagation in the fiber and remove the resultant chirp with a dispersive prism pair to achieve 18 W of average power in 33-fs pulses with a peak power of 12 MW and a repetition rate of 34 MHz. The output beam is nearly diffraction limited and is linearly polarized. PMID:14587786

  1. Statistical properties of radiation power levels from a high-gain free-electron laser at and beyond saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Fawley, William M.; Esarey, Eric

    2002-09-24

    We investigate the statistical properties (e.g., shot-to-shot power fluctuations) of the radiation from a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) operating in the nonlinear regime. We consider the case of an FEL amplifier reaching saturation whose shot-to-shot fluctuations in input radiation power follow a gamma distribution. We analyze the corresponding output power fluctuations at and beyond first saturation, including beam energy spread effects, and find that there are well-characterized values of undulator length for which the fluctuation level reaches a minimum.

  2. An advanced static var compensator based on a three level IGBT inverter modelling analysis and active power filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draou, Azeddine

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the dynamic performance analysis of an Advanced Static Var Compensator (ASVC) using three-level neutral point-clamped voltage source inverter. The paper presents the principles of operating and the method of reference currents generation. The dynamic behaviour of the system is further analysed using Matlab/Simulink with SimPower Systems toolbox through a set of simulation tests. The results obtained have been applied to an active power filter which might lead to the design of a robust controller for current harmonics and reactive power applications

  3. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  4. Social Acceptance of Wind: A Brief Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses concepts and trends in social acceptance of wind energy, profiles recent research findings, and discussions mitigation strategies intended to resolve wind power social acceptance challenges as informed by published research and the experiences of individuals participating in the International Energy Agencies Working Group on Social Acceptance of Wind Energy

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  6. A multi-level watershed discretisation in the POWER hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, I.; Braud, I.; Chen, T.; Gandola, F.; Haverkamp, R.; Vachaud, G.; Varado, N.

    2003-04-01

    Within a distributed hydrological modelling, the discretisation of the watershed is often performed using a regular rectangular grid, which is not appropriated for correctly representing the surface heterogeneities and the hydrological processes that take place at different spatial and temporal scales. To better take into account the surface and subsurface properties of the catchment, two discretisation levels have been implemented in the POWER (Planner Oriented Watershed model for Environmental Responses) hydrological model. First, the watershed is divided into a series of elementary independent sub-basins (the Representative Elementary Watersheds-REWs), on the basis of a Digital Terrain Model analysis, using the Strahler (1957) order. Following the approach of Reggiani et al. (1998,1999 and 2000), the conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy are averaged within each REW. Each REW is considered to be the basic unit for modelling the stream flow network and the regional aquifer. For the modelling of the unsaturated/saturated water flow, a subsequent discretisation is performed by subdividing each REW into a series of irregular vertical columns (the Representative Elementary Columns-RECs). The RECs are determined by the classification of a series of superimposed GIS layers such as land use, soil texture and infrastructure maps. They constitute irregular volumes, subdivided into a fixed number of soil layers with different textural and/or structural properties. Infiltration, soil evaporation, plant transpiration and interception, surface ponding, leaching and groundwater movement are modelled at the REC scale using a modified, efficient and accurate solution of the Richards’ equation proposed by Ross (2003). The same routine is applied to calculate the lateral surface and subsurface fluxes between adjacent RECs and the vertical water content redistribution within a REC. The link between RECs and REWs is provided by a weighted average of the RECs fluxes

  7. Coherent Power Analysis in Multi-Level Studies Using Design Parameters from Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current practice for conducting power analyses in hierarchical trials using survey based ICC and effect size estimates may be misestimating power because ICCs are not being adjusted to account for treatment effect heterogeneity. Results presented in Table 1 show that the necessary adjustments can be quite large or quite small. Furthermore, power…

  8. Long pulse H- beam extraction with a rf driven ion source on a high power level.

    PubMed

    Kraus, W; Fantz, U; Franzen, P

    2010-02-01

    IPP Garching is investigating the applicability of rf driven negative ion sources for the neutral beam injection of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The setup of the tested source was improved to enable long pulses up to 100 kW rf power. The efficiency of negative ion production decreases at high power. The extracted H(-) currents as well as the symmetry of the plasma density close to the plasma grid and of the beam divergence depend on the magnetic filter field. The pulse duration is limited by the increase in coextracted electrons, which depends on the rf power and the caesium conditions on the plasma grid. PMID:20192417

  9. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of applications. 50.8 Section 50.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will...

  10. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of applications. 50.8 Section 50.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will...

  11. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  12. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  13. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  14. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  15. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  16. Contribution of power and desalination plants to the levels of volatile liquid hydrocarbons in the nearby coastal areas of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Khordagui, H.; Al-Hashash, H.

    1999-07-01

    The levels and distribution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons (VLHs) were determined in Kuwait`s coastal areas in the vicinity of outlets of power and desalination plants. About 230 samples were collected from the selected sampling locations over the 4 seasons. The VLHs in the samples were analyzed using Grob`s closed-loop stripping technique and GC with FID and confirmed by GC/MS. The results showed that significant levels of VLHs were present. The levels ranged from 307 to 6,500 ng/L and from 2,880 to 7,811 ng/L in Kuwait Bay and Sulaibekhat Bay, respectively. The annual average for VLHs near Al-Zor power plant ranged from 465 to 4,665 ng/L. Benzenoids formed the bulk (about 80%) of the VLHs present. Comparison with the levels in the outlets indicated that Doha West power plant contributed much higher levels of VLHs to the coastal areas than Al-Zor plant.

  17. Effect of Voltage Level on Power System Design for Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents study results quantifying the benefits of higher voltage, electric power system designs for a typical solar electric propulsion spacecraft Earth orbiting mission. A conceptual power system architecture was defined and design points were generated for system voltages of 28-V, 50-V, 120-V, and 300-V using state-of-the-art or advanced technologies. A 300-V 'direct-drive' architecture was also analyzed to assess the benefits of directly powering the electric thruster from the photovoltaic array without up-conversion. Fortran and spreadsheet computational models were exercised to predict the performance and size power system components to meet spacecraft mission requirements. Pertinent space environments, such as electron and proton radiation, were calculated along the spiral trajectory. In addition, a simplified electron current collection model was developed to estimate photovoltaic array losses for the orbital plasma environment and that created by the thruster plume. The secondary benefits of power system mass savings for spacecraft propulsion and attitude control systems were also quantified. Results indicate that considerable spacecraft wet mass savings were achieved by the 300-V and 300-V direct-drive architectures.

  18. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, S. O.; Ulyanova, Y. V.; Figueroa-Teran, R.; Bhatt, K. H.; Singhal, S.; Atanassov, P.

    2016-01-01

    An NAD+-dependent enzymatic sensor with biofuel cell power source system for non-invasive monitoring of lactate in sweat was designed, developed, and tested. The sensor component, based on lactate dehydrogenase, showed linear current response with increasing lactate concentrations with limits of detection from 5 to 100 mM lactate and sensitivity of 0.2 µA.mM−1 in the presence of target analyte. In addition to the sensor patch a power source was also designed, developed and tested. The power source was a biofuel cell designed to oxidize glucose via glucose oxidase. The biofuel cell showed excellent performance, achieving over 80 mA at 0.4 V (16 mW) in a footprint of 3.5 × 3.5 × 0.7 cm. Furthermore, in order to couple the sensor to the power source, system electronic components were designed and fabricated. These consisted of an energy harvester (EH) and a micropotentiostat (MP). The EH was employed for harvesting power provided by the biofuel cell as well as up-converting the voltage to 3.0 V needed for the operation of the MP. The sensor was attached to MP for chronoamperometric detection of lactate. The Sensor Patch System was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. PMID:27375962

  19. Working together versus working autonomously: a new power-dependence perspective on the individual-level of analysis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Simon B

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that it is important to investigate the interaction between task interdependence and task autonomy because this interaction can affect team effectiveness. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted and those studies focused solely on the team level of analysis. Moreover, there has also been a dearth of theoretical development. Therefore, this study develops and tests an alternative theoretical perspective in an attempt to understand if, and if so why, this interaction is important at the individual level of analysis. Based on interdependence theory and power-dependence theory, we expected that highly task-interdependent individuals who reported high task autonomy would be more powerful and better performers. In contrast, we expected that similarly high task-interdependent individuals who reported less task autonomy would be less powerful and would be weaker performers. These expectations were supported by multi-level and bootstrapping analyses performed on a multi-source dataset (self-, peer-, manager-ratings) comprised of 182 employees drawn from 37 teams. More specifically, the interaction between task interdependence and task autonomy was γ =.128, p <.05 for power and γ =.166, p <.05 for individual performance. The 95% bootstrap interval ranged from .0038 to .0686. PMID:25012811

  20. Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-09

    Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

  1. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  2. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  3. Implantable Self-Powered Low-Level Laser Cure System for Mouse Embryonic Osteoblasts' Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Jingjing; Zheng, Qiang; Yan, Lin; Wang, Jiangxue; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment is usually a long-term process. It is highly desirable to speed up the process for effective medical treatment. In this work, a self-powered low-level laser cure system for osteogenesis is developed using the power generated by the triboelectric nanogenerator. It is found that the system significantly accelerated the mouse embryonic osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation, which is essential for bone and tooth healing. The system is further demonstrated to be driven by a living creature's motions, such as human walking or a mouse's breathing, suggesting its practical use as a portable or implantable clinical cure for bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment. PMID:26161869

  4. Megawatt-level peak-power from a passively Q-switched hybrid fiber-bulk amplifier and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Axel; Bdzoch, Juraj; Höfer, Sven; Scholz-Riecke, Sina; Seitz, Daniel; Kugler, Nicolas; Genter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A novel laser system with optical parameters that fill the gap between Q-switched and modelocked lasers has been developed. It consists of a high gain hybrid fiber-bulk amplifier seeded by a low power SESAM Q-switched oscillator. The mW level output power of the seed oscillator is preamplified by a single mode fiber which is limited by SRS effects. The final amplification stage is realized by a longitudinal pumped Nd:YVO4 crystal in a double pass setup. This MOPA configuration delivers sub-300ps pulses at repetition rates up to 1 MHz with an output power exceeding 60W. Nonlinear frequency conversion to 532nm and 355nm is achieved with efficiencies of >75% and >45%, respectively. Due to the high peak power, high repetition rate and high beam quality of this system, applications formerly only addressable at lower pulse repetition frequencies or with complex modelocked laser systems are now possible with high speed and lower cost of ownership. Application results that take benefit from these new laser parameters will be shown. Furthermore, the reduction of the pulse duration to sub-100ps and power scaling to output powers <100W by the use of the Innoslab concept are being presented.

  5. Low-power chip-level optical interconnects based on bulk-silicon single-chip photonic transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Hyundai; Joo, Jiho; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi

    2016-03-01

    We present new scheme for chip-level photonic I/Os, based on monolithically integrated vertical photonic devices on bulk silicon, which increases the integration level of PICs to a complete photonic transceiver (TRx) including chip-level light source. A prototype of the single-chip photonic TRx based on a bulk silicon substrate demonstrated 20 Gb/s low power chip-level optical interconnects between fabricated chips, proving that this scheme can offer compact low-cost chip-level I/O solutions and have a significant impact on practical electronic-photonic integration in high performance computers (HPC), cpu-memory interface, 3D-IC, and LAN/SAN/data-center and network applications.

  6. Reconfigurable, Bi-Directional Flexfet Level Shifter for Low-Power, Rad-Hard Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGregorio, Kelly; Wilson, Dale G.

    2009-01-01

    Two prototype Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet Level Shifters (ReBiLS) have been developed, where one version is a stand-alone component designed to interface between external low voltage and high voltage, and the other version is an embedded integrated circuit (IC) for interface between internal low-voltage logic and external high-voltage components. Targeting stand-alone and embedded circuits separately allows optimization for these distinct applications. Both ReBiLS designs use the commercially available 180-nm Flex fet Independently Double-Gated (IDG) SOI CMOS (silicon on insulator, complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Embedded ReBiLS circuits were integrated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder using CMOS Ultra-Low-Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) double-gated digital logic circuits. The scope of the project includes: creation of a new high-voltage process, development of ReBiLS circuit designs, and adjustment of the designs to maximize performance through simulation, layout, and manufacture of prototypes. The primary technical objectives were to develop a high-voltage, thick oxide option for the 180-nm Flexfet process, and to develop a stand-alone ReBiLS IC with two 8-channel I/O busses, 1.8 2.5 I/O on the low-voltage pins, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O on the high-voltage pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10-pF external loads. Another objective was to develop an embedded, rad-hard ReBiLS I/O cell with 0.5-V low-voltage operation for interface with core logic, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. A third objective was to develop a 0.5- V Reed-Solomon Encoder with embedded ReBilS I/O: Transfer the existing CULPRiT RS encoder from a 0.35-micron bulk-CMOS process to the ASI 180-nm Flexfet, rad-hard SOI Process. 0.5-V low-voltage core logic. 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins. 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. The stand

  7. The Impact of Covariates on Statistical Power in Cluster Randomized Designs: Which Level Matters More?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments with nested structures are becoming increasingly common, especially designs that assign randomly entire clusters such as schools to a treatment and a control group. In such large-scale cluster randomized studies the challenge is to obtain sufficient power of the test of the treatment effect. The objective is to maximize power…

  8. Teachers, School Boards, and the Power of Money: How the Right Wins at the Local Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Eleni B.; Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines national conservative political advocacy groups' growing interest in local politics, and analyzes how they form alliances and gain political power. Following efforts to restrict collective bargaining for Wisconsin public employees, Kenosha school board members' attempts to legally protect teachers' rights provoked concern…

  9. A More Powerful Test in Three-Level Cluster Randomized Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments that involve nested structures frequently assign treatment conditions to entire groups (such as schools). A key aspect of the design of such experiments includes knowledge of the clustering effects that are often expressed via intraclass correlation. This study provides methods for constructing a more powerful test for the…

  10. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  11. MS2 virus inactivation by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma using different gas carriers and power levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Liang, Yongdong; Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-02-01

    In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2 [2%, vol/vol], and He-O2 [2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R(2) > 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2 and He-O2 gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity. PMID:25416775

  12. MS2 Virus Inactivation by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Using Different Gas Carriers and Power Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Liang, Yongdong; Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2 [2%, vol/vol], and He-O2 [2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R2 > 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2 and He-O2 gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity. PMID:25416775

  13. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  14. A post-MI power struggle: adaptations in cardiac power occur at the sarcomere level alongside MyBP-C and RLC phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sikkel, Markus B.; Caorsi, Valentina; Vydyanath, Anupama; Torre, Iratxe; Copeland, O'Neal; Lyon, Alexander R.; Marston, Steven B.; Luther, Pradeep K.; Macleod, Kenneth T.; West, Timothy G.; Ferenczi, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial remodeling in response to chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) progresses through two phases, hypertrophic “compensation” and congestive “decompensation.” Nothing is known about the ability of uninfarcted myocardium to produce force, velocity, and power during these clinical phases, even though adaptation in these regions likely drives progression of compensation. We hypothesized that enhanced cross-bridge-level contractility underlies mechanical compensation and is controlled in part by changes in the phosphorylation states of myosin regulatory proteins. We induced CMI in rats by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. We then measured mechanical performance in permeabilized ventricular trabecula taken distant from the infarct zone and assayed myosin regulatory protein phosphorylation in each individual trabecula. During full activation, the compensated myocardium produced twice as much power and 31% greater isometric force compared with noninfarcted controls. Isometric force during submaximal activations was raised >2.4-fold, while power was 2-fold greater. Electron and confocal microscopy demonstrated that these mechanical changes were not a result of increased density of contractile protein and therefore not an effect of tissue hypertrophy. Hence, sarcomere-level contractile adaptations are key determinants of enhanced trabecular mechanics and of the overall cardiac compensatory response. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) increased and remained elevated post-MI, while phosphorylation of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) was initially depressed but then increased as the hearts became decompensated. These sensitivities to CMI are in accordance with phosphorylation-dependent regulatory roles for RLC and MyBP-C in crossbridge function and with compensatory adaptation in force and power that we observed in post-CMI trabeculae. PMID:27233767

  15. A post-MI power struggle: adaptations in cardiac power occur at the sarcomere level alongside MyBP-C and RLC phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Toepfer, Christopher N; Sikkel, Markus B; Caorsi, Valentina; Vydyanath, Anupama; Torre, Iratxe; Copeland, O'Neal; Lyon, Alexander R; Marston, Steven B; Luther, Pradeep K; Macleod, Kenneth T; West, Timothy G; Ferenczi, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial remodeling in response to chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) progresses through two phases, hypertrophic "compensation" and congestive "decompensation." Nothing is known about the ability of uninfarcted myocardium to produce force, velocity, and power during these clinical phases, even though adaptation in these regions likely drives progression of compensation. We hypothesized that enhanced cross-bridge-level contractility underlies mechanical compensation and is controlled in part by changes in the phosphorylation states of myosin regulatory proteins. We induced CMI in rats by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. We then measured mechanical performance in permeabilized ventricular trabecula taken distant from the infarct zone and assayed myosin regulatory protein phosphorylation in each individual trabecula. During full activation, the compensated myocardium produced twice as much power and 31% greater isometric force compared with noninfarcted controls. Isometric force during submaximal activations was raised >2.4-fold, while power was 2-fold greater. Electron and confocal microscopy demonstrated that these mechanical changes were not a result of increased density of contractile protein and therefore not an effect of tissue hypertrophy. Hence, sarcomere-level contractile adaptations are key determinants of enhanced trabecular mechanics and of the overall cardiac compensatory response. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) increased and remained elevated post-MI, while phosphorylation of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) was initially depressed but then increased as the hearts became decompensated. These sensitivities to CMI are in accordance with phosphorylation-dependent regulatory roles for RLC and MyBP-C in crossbridge function and with compensatory adaptation in force and power that we observed in post-CMI trabeculae. PMID:27233767

  16. Megahertz-level, high-power picosecond Nd:LuVO4 regenerative amplifier free of period doubling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Lin, Hua; Li, Jinfeng; Guo, Jie; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-27

    We report on a high repetition rate, high-power picosecond Nd:LuVO4 regenerative amplifier. Period doubling caused energy instability was eliminated at megahertz-level repetition rate with the modified seeding source. A multi-pass cell was used to improve the seed pulse energy to achieve complete suppression of the onset of bifurcation. At a maximum repetition rate of 1.43 MHz, the system produced 7.0-ps-long pulses with an average output power of 25.1 W, corresponding to a pulse energy of 17.6 μJ. At 100 kHz, the pulse energy increased to 205 μJ with an average power of 20.5 W. Moreover, the injected pulses with pulse duration of 5.1 ps broadened to 8.9 ps because of gain narrowing in the amplifier. PMID:27410559

  17. Enhancing stance phase propulsion during level walking by combining FES with a powered exoskeleton for persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kevin H; Quintero, Hugo A; Farris, Ryan J; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a cooperative controller that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton to provide enhanced hip extension during the stance phase of walking in persons with paraplegia. The controller utilizes two sources of actuation: the electric motors of the powered exoskeleton and the user's machine (FSM), a set of FES. It consists of a finite-state machine (FSM), a set of proportional-derivative (PD) controllers for the exoskeleton and a cycle-to-cycle adaptive controller for muscle stimulation. Level ground walking is conducted on a single subject with complete T10 paraplegia. Results show a 34% reduction in electrical power requirements at the hip joints during the stance phase of the gait cycle with the cooperative controller compared to using electric motors alone. PMID:23365900

  18. Enhancing Stance Phase Propulsion during Level Walking by Combining FES with a Powered Exoskeleton for Persons with Paraplegia*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kevin H.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Goldfarb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a cooperative controller that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton to provide enhanced hip extension during the stance phase of walking in persons with paraplegia. The controller utilizes two sources of actuation: the electric motors of the powered exoskeleton and the user’s hamstrings activated by FES. It consists of a finite-state machine (FSM), a set of proportional-derivative (PD) controllers for the exoskeleton and a cycle-to-cycle adaptive controller for muscle stimulation. Level ground walking is conducted on a single subject with complete T10 paraplegia. Results show a 34% reduction in electrical power requirements at the hip joints during the stance phase of the gait cycle with the cooperative controller compared to using electric motors alone. PMID:23365900

  19. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  20. Spent fuel acceptance scenarios devoted to shutdown reactors: A preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.W.; Plummer, A.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Short, S.M.; Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH . Office of Transportation Systems and Planning; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA )

    1989-10-01

    Spent fuel acceptance schedules and the allocation of federal acceptance capacity among commercial nuclear power reactors have important operational and cost consequences for reactor operators. Alternative allocation schemes were investigated to some extent in DOE's MRS Systems Study. The current study supplements these analyses for a class of acceptance schemes in which the acceptance capacity of the federal radioactive waste management system is allocated principally to shutdown commercial power reactors, and extends the scope of analysis to include considerations of at-reactor cask loading rates. The operational consequences of these schemes for power reactors, as measured in terms of quantity of spent fuel storage requirement above storage pool capacities and number of years of pool operations after last discharge, are estimated, as are the associated utility costs. This study does not attempt to examine the inter-utility equity considerations involved in departures from the current oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation rule as specified in the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste.'' In the sense that the alternative allocations are more economically efficient than OFF, however, they approximate the allocations that could result from free exchange of acceptance rights among utilities. Such a process would result in the preservation of inter-utility equity. 13 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Photon pair generation from compact silicon microring resonators using microwatt-level pump powers.

    PubMed

    Savanier, Marc; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-02-22

    Microring resonators made from silicon are becoming a popular microscale device format for generating photon pairs at telecommunications wavelengths at room temperature. In compact devices with a footprint less than 5 × 10-4 mm2, we demonstrate pair generation using only a few microwatts of average pump power. We discuss the role played by important parameters such as the loss, group-velocity dispersion and the ring-waveguide coupling coefficient in finding the optimum operating point for silicon microring pair generation. Silicon photonics can be fabricated using deep ultraviolet lithography wafer-scale fabrication processes, which is scalable and cost-effective. Such small devices and low pump power requirements, and the side-coupled waveguide geometry which uses an integrated waveguide, could be beneficial for future scaled-up architectures where many pair-generation devices are required on the same chip. PMID:26906993

  2. Self-stabilization techniques for intermediate power level in stacked-Vdd integrated circuits using DC-balanced coding methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohara, Yusuke; Kubo, Naoya; Nishiyama, Tomofumi; Koizuka, Taiki; Alimudin, Mohammad; Rahmat, Amirul; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamanokuchi, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Two new parallel bus coding methods for generating a DC-balanced code with additional bits are proposed to achieve the self-stabilization of the intermediate power level in Stacked-Vdd integrated circuits. They contribute to producing a uniform switching current in parallel inputs and outputs (I/Os). Type I coding minimizes the difference in the number of switchings between the upper and lower CMOS I/Os by 8B/10B coding followed by toggle conversion. Type II coding, in which the multi-value running disparity control feature is integrated into the bus-invert coding, requires only one redundant bit for any wider bus. Their DC-balanced feature and the stability effect of the intermediate power level in the Stacked-Vdd structure were experimentally confirmed from the measurement results obtained from the developed test chips.

  3. The level of residual dispersion variation and the power of differential expression tests for RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) has been widely adopted for quantifying gene expression changes in comparative transcriptome analysis. For detecting differentially expressed genes, a variety of statistical methods based on the negative binomial (NB) distribution have been proposed. These methods differ in the ways they handle the NB nuisance parameters (i.e., the dispersion parameters associated with each gene) to save power, such as by using a dispersion model to exploit an apparent relationship between the dispersion parameter and the NB mean. Presumably, dispersion models with fewer parameters will result in greater power if the models are correct, but will produce misleading conclusions if not. This paper investigates this power and robustness trade-off by assessing rates of identifying true differential expression using the various methods under realistic assumptions about NB dispersion parameters. Our results indicate that the relative performances of the different methods are closely related to the level of dispersion variation unexplained by the dispersion model. We propose a simple statistic to quantify the level of residual dispersion variation from a fitted dispersion model and show that the magnitude of this statistic gives hints about whether and how much we can gain statistical power by a dispersion-modeling approach. PMID:25849826

  4. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  5. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  6. System level design and power analysis of architectures for SATD calculus in the H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimo, Conti; Coppari, Francesco; Orcioni, Simone; Vece, Giovanni B.

    2005-06-01

    The new generation of video coding standards (H.264/MPEG Advanced Video Codec) addresses the requirements of a network-friendly and scalable video representation, and increasing by a factor of two the compression efficiency of the current technology. The H.264 uses the SATD metric for the calculus of the prediction error. The SATD procedure may be called about 1 million times during the visualization of a 352x288 pixel video sequence of 10 seconds. Therefore the accurate design of a dedicated hardware for the SATD is relevant in the performance of the complete codec. This paper presents four architectures described in SystemC for the VLSI implementation of the calculus of the SATD metric. The performances of the architectures in terms of signal to noise ratio and power dissipation have been evaluated using a new SystemC library developed by the authors for the estimation of power consumption in a SystemC description of the architecture. Comparisons have been performed for different values of the number of bits of the internal representation for the four architectures. Four standard video sequences (Akiyo, Stefan, Mobile&calendar, Container) have been used to test the performance of the architectures.

  7. The importance of combined cycle generating plants in integrating large levels of wind power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Puga, J. Nicolas

    2010-08-15

    Integration of high wind penetration levels will require fast-ramping combined cycle and steam cycles that, due to higher operating costs, will require proper pricing of ancillary services or other forms of compensation to remain viable. Several technical and policy recommendations are presented to help realign the generation mix to properly integrate the wind. (author)

  8. Potential impact of tidal power plants and future sea-level rise on the dynamics of the European Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mattias; Pelling, Holly

    2010-05-01

    Tidal power is a potential renewable energy source internationally, although financial and technical limitations to tidal power have been addressed. There is also a dynamical aspect of the extraction of tidal energy from shallow shelf seas: what will happen with the tidal dynamics on the shelf if energy is extracted at point sources? The tidal currents and the dissipation of tidal energy control the location of shelf sea fronts and thereby the seasonal stratification. Any change in the tides may thus have far-reaching implications for the biogeochemical and physical systems on the shelf, e.g. primary production, draw-down of atmospheric CO2, and sediment transport. Here we suggest ways to implement tidal power plants in dynamic tidal models, and we investigate how the tidal dynamics of the European shelf changes if we extract large amounts of tidal energy during both present and future climate-change scenarios. With a 1 m future sea-level rise the results show significantly modified tidal amplitudes with up to 20% in certain areas, and the effects may reach the global ocean. These changes are attributed to modifications of the resonant properties of the ocean, which induce a shift in the location of the amphidromic points. During present day conditions the addition of a large-scale Severn barrage induces amplitude changes of 10-20% of the regional tide in several locations. Significant changes can be found at locations far from the barrage itself, i.e. on the Northwest coast of Scotland and in the English Channel, again due to movement of the amphidromic points. However, the back effects on the open ocean tides from tidal power plants are negligible. The combination of a 1 m sea-level rise and a Severn barrage show even larger modifications with effects at large distances from the shelf and the power plant itself. The conclusion is that care must be taken in the implementation of tidal power plants to ensure that the full impact of the power extraction is

  9. DC-pass filter design with notch filters superposition for CPW rectenna at low power level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, J.; Douyère, A.; Alicalapa, F.; Luk, J.-D. Lan Sun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the challenging coplanar waveguide direct current (DC) pass filter is designed, analysed, fabricated and measured. As the ground plane and the conductive line are etched on the same plane, this technology allows the connection of series and shunt elements to the active devices without via holes through the substrate. Indeed, this study presents the first step in the optimization of a complete rectenna in coplanar waveguide (CPW) technology: key element of a radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting system. The measurement of the proposed filter shows good performance in the rejection of F0=2.45 GHz and F1=4.9 GHz. Additionally, a harmonic balance (HB) simulation of the complete rectenna is performed and shows a maximum RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 37% with the studied DC-pass filter for an input power of 10 µW at 2.45 GHz.

  10. A three-dimensional electret-based micro power generator for low-level ambient vibrational energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Liu, Shuwei; Woh Lye, Sun; Miao, Jianmin; Hu, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) electret-based micro power generator with multiple vibration modes has been developed, which is capable of converting low-level ambient kinetic energy to electrical energy. The device is based on a rotational symmetrical resonator which consists of a movable disc-shaped seismic mass suspended by three sets of spiral springs. Experimental analysis shows that the proposed generator operates at an out-of-plane direction at mode I of 66 Hz and two in-plane directions at mode II of 75 Hz and mode III of 78.5 Hz with a phase difference of about 90°. A corona localized charging method is also proposed that employs a shadow mask and multiple discharge needles for the production of micro-sized electret array. From tests conducted at an acceleration of 0.05 g, the prototype can generate a maximum power of 4.8 nW, 0.67 nW and 1.2 nW at vibration modes of I, II and III, respectively. These values correspond to the normalized power densities of 16 µW cm-3 g-2, 2.2 µW cm-3 g-2 and 4 µW cm-3 g-2, respectively. The results show that the generator can potentially offer an intriguing alternative for scavenging low-level ambient energy from 3D vibration sources.

  11. Assessment of electromagnetic field levels from surrounding high-tension overhead power lines for proposed land use.

    PubMed

    Al-Bassam, E; Elumalai, A; Khan, A; Al-Awadi, L

    2016-05-01

    The surrounding outdoor environment for new development has a big effect on the indoor quality of life. The main aim of this work was to determine the suitability of the area for building new schools with reference to electromagnetic field (EMF) effects. The specific objective of this study was to detect the safe distance from the EMF posed by the high-tension overhead power lines in the vicinity of the specified area. The measurements were taken for both the electric and magnetic fields in different months in order to detect the highest EMF levels during the peak power load season. EMDEX II with E-probe and EMDEX II with Linda were used for the measurements. These instruments were all calibrated by ENERTECH Company in USA. The EMF associated with high tension transmission lines that surrounded the proposed site has to be below 0.2 μT (Italian EMF regulations are the most suitable regulations for the establishment of schools in Kuwait). The safety clearance distance from the existing 300-kV high-tension power line has been assigned as 200 m and from other existing 132-kV high-tension power line was 50 m. The proposed site with its predefined boundaries has a magnetic field below the Italian EMF regulations for the establishment of new schools. PMID:27129598

  12. ASME PTC 46 -- Acceptance test code for overall plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Yost, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    ASME published PTC 46 in 1996 after five years of development. PTC 46 is the first industry standard providing explicit procedures for conducting acceptance tests to determine the overall thermal performance and output of power generating units. It is applicable to any heat cycle power generating unit. This survey paper provides an overview of PTC 46 and discusses how PTC 46 can be used for acceptance testing of new combined cycle and fossil steam power generating units. Several technical papers have been previously presented that provide more detailed information and discussion on the use of PTC 46 in acceptance testing.

  13. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied. PMID:25705676

  14. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied. PMID:25705676

  15. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  16. Modelling and control of a seven level NPC voltage source inverter. Application to high power induction machine drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheraia, H.; Berkouk, E. M.; Manesse, G.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, we study a new kind of continuous-alternating converters: a seven-level neutral point clamping (NPC) voltage source inverter (VSI). We propose this inverter for applications in high voltage and high power fields. In the first part, we develop the knowledge and the control models of this inverter using the connections functions of the semi-conductors. After that, we present two pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms to control this converter using its control model. We propose these algorithms for digital implementation. This multilevel inverter is associated to the induction machine. The performances obtained are full of promise to use it in the high voltage and high power fields of electrical traction.

  17. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  18. Daytime edema levels with plus powered low and high water content hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    La Hood, D

    1991-11-01

    Eleven unadapted contact lens wearers wore a high (74%) water content hydrogel lens (Permaflex, CooperVision) of oxygen transmissibility Dk/Lav 14 x 10(-9) in one eye and a low (43%) water content hydrogel lens (Aquaflex Superthin) of Dk/Lav 4 x 10(-9) in the other eye under open-eye conditions for 8 h. After 8 h, average corneal edema for the lower water content lens was 7.9 +/- 2.6%, which was significantly more than that for the higher water content lens, 1.7 +/- 1.6%. Significantly fewer corneal striae and folds were also seen in the eyes wearing the higher water content lens. Subjective ratings of lens comfort were significantly better for the higher water content lens. Low water content positive power hydrogel lenses of the thicknesses used in this study place unacceptable hypoxic stress on the cornea and therefore should not be used for all-day wear. PMID:1766650

  19. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  20. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  1. Effects of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis on kinetic loading of the unaffected leg during level-ground walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People with a lower-extremity amputation that use conventional passive-elastic ankle-foot prostheses encounter a series of stress-related challenges during walking such as greater forces on their unaffected leg, and may thus be predisposed to secondary musculoskeletal injuries such as chronic joint disorders. Specifically, people with a unilateral transtibial amputation have an increased susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis, especially in their unaffected leg. Previous studies have hypothesized that the development of this disorder is linked to the abnormally high peak knee external adduction moments encountered during walking. An ankle-foot prosthesis that supplies biomimetic power could potentially mitigate the forces and knee adduction moments applied to the unaffected leg of a person with a transtibial amputation, which could, in turn, reduce the risk of knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that compared to using a passive-elastic prosthesis, people with a transtibial amputation using a powered ankle-foot prosthesis would have lower peak resultant ground reaction forces, peak external knee adduction moments, and corresponding loading rates applied to their unaffected leg during walking over a wide range of speeds. Methods We analyzed ground reaction forces and knee joint kinetics of the unaffected leg of seven participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation and seven age-, height- and weight-matched non-amputees during level-ground walking at 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 m/s. Subjects with an amputation walked while using their own passive-elastic prosthesis and a powered ankle-foot prosthesis capable of providing net positive mechanical work and powered ankle plantar flexion during late stance. Results Use of the powered prosthesis significantly decreased unaffected leg peak resultant forces by 2-11% at 0.75-1.50 m/s, and first peak knee external adduction moments by 21 and 12% at 1.50 and 1.75 m/s, respectively. Loading rates were not

  2. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  3. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-03-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  4. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  5. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  6. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  7. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  8. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Douglas

    2005-05-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.

  9. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm2. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/-0.28 LSB and 0.29/-0.20 LSB, respectively.

  10. An ultra-low power self-timed column-level ADC for a CMOS pixel sensor based vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, M.

    2014-11-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) is a detector concept for the future linear collider experiment. The vertex detector is the key tool to achieve high precision measurements for flavor tagging, which puts stringent requirements on the CMOS pixel sensors. Due to the cooling systems which deteriorate the material budget and increase the multiple scattering, it is important to reduce the power consumption. This paper presents an ultra-low power self-timed column-level ADC for the CMOS pixel sensors, aiming to equip the outer layers of the vertex detector. The ADC was designed to operate in two modes (active and idle) adapted to the low hit density in the outer layers. The architecture employs an enhanced sample-and-hold circuit and a self-timed technique. The total power consumption with a 3-V supply is 225μW during idle mode, which is the most frequent situation. This value rises to 425μW in the case of the active mode. It occupies an area of 35 × 590μm2.

  11. [Transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of nuclear power station in closed water body].

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Zong-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of Xianning nuclear power station in the closed water body Fushui Reservoir are simulated using the EFDC model. Six nuclides concentration distribution with different half-lives in the reservoir are analyzed under the condition of 97% guarantee rate incoming water and four-running nuclear power units. The results show that the nuclides concentration distribution is mainly affected by the flow field of the reservoir and the concentration is decided by the half-lives of nuclide and the volume of incoming water. In addition, the influence region is enlarged as increasing of half-life and tends to be stable when the half-life is longer than 5 years. Moreover, the waste water discharged from the outlet of the nuclear power plant has no effect on the water-intake for the outlet located at the upstream of the water-intake and the flow field flows to the dam of the reservoir. PMID:23002624

  12. Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

  13. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (<4 years AFL experience), 22 sub-elite senior, and 21 elite junior AF players were assessed for anthropometric profile (fat-free soft tissue mass [FFSTM], fat mass, and bone mineral content) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, upper-body strength (bench press and bench pull), and lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump with 20 kg). A 1-way analysis of variance assessed differences between the playing levels in these measures, whereas relationships between anthropometry and performance were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The elite senior and sub-elite senior players were older and heavier than the elite junior players (p ≤ 0.05). Both elite playing groups had greater total FFSTM than both the sub-elite and junior elite players; however, there were only appendicular FFSTM differences between the junior elite and elite senior players (p < 0.001). The elite senior playing groups were stronger and had greater CMJ performance than the lower level players. Both whole-body and regional FFSTM were correlated with bench press (r = 0.43-0.64), bench pull (r = 0.58-0.73), and jump squat performance measures (r = 0.33-0.55). Australian Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players. PMID:25226309

  14. Calculated in-air leakage spectra and power levels for the ANSI standard minimum accident of concern. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This document represents Phase I of a two-phase project. The entire project consists of determining a series of minimum accidents of concern and their associated neutron and photon leakage spectra that may be used to determine Criticality Accident Alarm compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3. The inadvertent assembly of a critical mass of material presents a multitude of unknown quantities. Depending on the particular process, one can make an educated guess as to fissile material. In a gaseous diffusion cascade, this material is assumed to be uranyl fluoride. However, educated assumptions cannot be readily made for the other variables. Phase I of this project is determining a bounding minimum accident of concern and its associated neutron and photon leakage spectra. To determine the composition of the bounding minimum accident of concern, work was done to determine the effects of geometry, moderation level, and enrichment on the leakage spectra of a critical assembly. The minimum accident of concern is defined as the accident that may be assumed to deliver the equivalent of an absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad at a distance of 2 meters from the reacting material within 60 seconds. To determine this dose, an analyst makes an assumption and choose an appropriate flux to dose response function. The power level required of a critical assembly to constitute a minimum accident of concern depends heavily on the response function chosen. The first step in determining the leakage spectra was to attempt to isolate the effects of geometry, after which all calculations were conducted on critical spheres. The moderation level and enrichment of the spheres were varied and their leakage spectra calculated. These spectra were then multiplied by three different response functions: the Henderson Flux to Dose conversion factors, the ICRU 44 Kerma in Air, and the MCNP Heating Detector. The power level required to produce a minimum accident of concern was then calculated for each combination.

  15. Carbon-14 in low-level radioactive waste from two nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J E

    1986-01-01

    The amount of 14C in low-level radioactive wastes is important for determining the future impacts of their disposal. New regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 61 (10 CFR 61) require quantitation of 14C and other radionuclides in such wastes not amenable to measurement by gamma spectroscopy. Sampling was done of major waste streams at the Palisades pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) to determine quantities of 14C in the waste streams for comparison with other reported studies. Analyses were performed by releasing all 14C constituents in the waste samples in the form of 14CO2 by chemical processing or by heating the samples in a tube furnace containing CuO2 catalyst and trapping the evolved gas in a liquid scintillator for counting. The largest amounts of 14C were found in the resins and filters used for reactor water cleanup, a result which is similar to those of the available studies. From these data, the annual amounts of 14C in wastes from nominal PWRs and BWRs were estimated to be 4.7 and 0.5 Ci/GW(e)-yr, respectively. PMID:3943974

  16. Sound power and pressure level measurements in the inlet and outlet of an HRSG duct

    SciTech Connect

    Jungbauer, D.E.; Unruh, J.F.; Pantermuehl, P.J.; Rose, S.

    1995-04-01

    The ever-increasing size of cogeneration facilities has mandated the need for noise abatement in the design stage. Many noise projection models are available to the industry for predicting noise levels in an adjacent to new installations. However, the models all require accurate source noise information if valid noise predictions are to be expected. As a consequence of designing one of the world`s largest cogeneration installations involving eight Model W-701 turbine units and their Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs), it became apparent that the attention between the exhaust of the Generators (HRSGs), it became apparent that the attention between the exhaust of the turbine and the outlet of the HRSGs was not well known. Not having this information posed potentially expensive noise abatement modifications during the design and construction phases. In order to verify the adequacy of scaling studies from a W-501 turbine and HRSG to the W-701 system, a comprehensive field test of an existing W-501 installation was conducted. This paper describes the design of an acoustic intensity and sound pressure probe to operate inside the high-temperature ductwork, the access engineering required, data acquisition, and final results concerning noise attenuation across the HRSG.

  17. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  18. Experimental and analytical study of loss-of-flow transients in EBR-II occurring at decay power levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Betten, P.R.; Planchon, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    A series of eight loss-of-flow (LOF) tests have been conducted in EBR-II to study the transition between forced and natural convective flows following a variety of loss-of-primary-pumping power conditions from decay heat levels. Comparisons of measurements and pretest/posttest predictions were made on a selected test. Good agreements between measurements and predictions was found prior to and just after the flow reaching its minimum, but the agreement is not as good after that point. The temperatures are consistent with the flow response and the assumed decay power. The measured results indicate that the flows of driver and the instrumented subassemblies are too much in the analytical model in the natural convective region. Although a parametric study on secondary flow, turbulent-laminar flow transition, heat transfer ability of the intermediate heat exchange at low flow and flow mixing in the primary tank has been performed to determine their effects on the flow, the cause of the discrepancy at very low flow level is still unknown.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  1. Accepted Peer Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Comp.

    For the purpose of raising the level of safety, encouraging educational institutions and training programs to develop leaders, providing information for programs, establishing a base for communication with land use agencies, and providing information for school and agency custodians of potential students, the manual outlines "Accepted Peer…

  2. Acceptance test report 2721-Z upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-02-03

    This test procedure provides instructions for acceptance testing of modifications to the 2721-Z diesel-generator system made by Project C-189. The modifications include (1) replacing the generator NUMA-LOGIC controller with connection to the PFP distributed control system (DCS), (2) replacing ATSI with a breaker switching scheme for 2736-ZB backup power and (3) providing a method for generator load and system testing.

  3. Alpha spectral power and coherence in the patients with mild cognitive impairment during a three-level working memory task*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lei-lei; Jiang, Zheng-yan; Yu, En-yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The functional relationship between calculated alpha band spectral power and inter-/intra-hemispheric coherence during a three-level working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was investigated. Methods: Subjects included 35 MCI patients according to the DSM-IV criteria (mean age: 62.3, SD: 6.5) and 34 healthy controls (mean age: 57.4, SD: 4.0) were selected from the community at large. All subjects performed a simple calculation and recall task with three levels of working memory load while electroencephalograph (EEG) signal was recorded. The spectral EEG power was computed over alpha1 (8.0~10.0 Hz) and alpha2 (10.5~13.0 Hz) frequency bands and was compared between rest stage and working memory processing stage by two-way ANOVA. Post hoc testing analyzed the differences between each two levels of working memory load during task processing. The inter-hemisphere EEG coherence of frontal (F3-F4), central (C3-C4), parietal (P3-P4), temporal (T5-T6) as well as occipital (O1-O2) was compared between MCI patients and normal controls. The EEG signals from F3-C3, F4-C4, C3-P3, C4-P4, P3-O1, P4-O2, T5-C3, T6-C4, T5-P3 and T6-P4 electrode pairs resulted from the intra-hemispheric action for alpha1 and alpha2 frequency bands. Result: There was significantly higher EEG power from MCI patients than from normal controls both at rest and during working memory processing. Significant differences existed between rest condition and three-level working memory tasks (P<0.001). The inter- and intra-hemispheric coherence during working memory tasks showed a “drop to rise” tendency compared to that at rest condition. There was significantly higher coherence in MCI patients than in the controls. When task difficulties increased, the cortical connectivity of intra-hemispheric diminished while the inter-hemispheric connectivity dominantly maintained the cognitive processing in MCI patients. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that

  4. A low-power inverter-based CMOS level-crossing analog-to-digital converter for low-frequency biosignal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Suiki; Niitsu, Kiichi; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Low-power analog-to-digital conversion is a key technique for power-limited biomedical applications such as power-limited continuous glucose monitoring. However, a conventional uniform-sampling analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is not suitable for nonuniform biosignals. A level-crossing ADC (LC-ADC) is a promising candidate for low-power biosignal processing because of its event-driven properties. The LC-ADC acquires data by level-crossing sampling. When an input signal crosses the threshold level, the LC-ADC samples the signal. The conventional LC-ADC employs a power-hungry comparator. In this paper, we present a low-power inverter-based LC-ADC. By adjusting the threshold level of the inverter, it can be used as a threshold-fixed window comparator. By using the inverter as an alternative to a comparator, power consumption can be markedly reduced. As a result, the total power consumption is successfully reduced by 90% of that of previous LC-ADC. The inverter-based LC-ADC was found to be very suitable for use in power-limited biomedical devices.

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  6. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown. Results A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86%) agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients). Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2%) was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%). The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556) to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427). Conclusion The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. PMID:26316719

  7. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  8. An Approach for the Cooperative Control of FES With a Powered Exoskeleton During Level Walking for Persons With Paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kevin H; Murray, Spencer A; Goldfarb, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a hybrid system that combines a powered lower limb exoskeleton with functional electrical stimulation (FES) for gait restoration in persons with paraplegia. The general control structure consists of two control loops: a motor control loop, which utilizes joint angle feedback control to control the output of the joint motor to track the desired joint trajectories, and a muscle control loop, which utilizes joint torque profiles from previous steps to shape the muscle stimulation profile for the subsequent step in order to minimize the motor torque contribution required for joint angle trajectory tracking. The implementation described here incorporates stimulation of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles, such that the hip joints are actuated by the combination of hip motors and the hamstrings, and the knee joints are actuated by the combination of knee motors and the quadriceps. In order to demonstrate efficacy, the control approach was implemented on three paraplegic subjects with motor complete spinal cord injuries ranging from levels T6 to T10. Experimental data indicates that the cooperative control system provided consistent and repeatable gait motions and reduced the torque and power output required from the hip and knee motors of the exoskeleton compared to walking without FES. PMID:25915961

  9. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  10. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Morrow; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO{sub 2} emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO{sub 2} mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO{sub 2} mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation.

    PubMed

    Morrow, William R; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO2) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO2 emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO2 mitigated,with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO2 mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs. PMID:18546680

  12. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  13. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  14. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  15. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  16. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p<0.05), negative experiences with health care providers (p<0.05) and anticipated difficulties procuring insurance (p<0.01). Men were concerned that the vaccine would weaken the immune system (p<0.005) or would affect their HIV test results (p<0.05). Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p<0.10) and support from their spouse/significant other for being vaccinated (p<0.10). Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p<0.05) and social influence from friends to get vaccinated (p<0.005). Family support for HIV immunization was a motivator for both men and women (p<0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears

  17. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  18. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  19. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

  20. Nuclear power system

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules.

  1. Community-level determinants of obesity: harnessing the power of electronic health records for retrospective data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and overweight are multifactorial diseases that affect two thirds of Americans, lead to numerous health conditions and deeply strain our healthcare system. With the increasing prevalence and dangers associated with higher body weight, there is great impetus to focus on public health strategies to prevent or curb the disease. Electronic health records (EHRs) are a powerful source for retrospective health data, but they lack important community-level information known to be associated with obesity. We explored linking EHR and community data to study factors associated with overweight and obesity in a systematic and rigorous way. Methods We augmented EHR-derived data on 62,701 patients with zip code-level socioeconomic and obesogenic data. Using a multinomial logistic regression model, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) for community-level factors associated with overweight and obese body mass index (BMI), accounting for the clustering of patients within zip codes. Results 33, 31 and 35 percent of individuals had BMIs corresponding to normal, overweight and obese, respectively. Models adjusted for age, race and gender showed more farmers’ markets/1,000 people (0.19, 0.10-0.36), more grocery stores/1,000 people (0.58, 0.36-0.93) and a 10% increase in percentage of college graduates (0.80, 0.77-0.84) were associated with lower odds of obesity. The same factors yielded odds ratios of smaller magnitudes for overweight. Our results also indicate that larger grocery stores may be inversely associated with obesity. Conclusions Integrating community data into the EHR maximizes the potential of secondary use of EHR data to study and impact obesity prevention and other significant public health issues. PMID:24886134

  2. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  3. Improved sampling and analytical techniques for characterization of very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-11-01

    This paper summarizes the unique sampling methods that were utilized in a recently completed project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to perform accurate and precise radiological characterizations of several very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations. The waste types characterized during this project included dry active waste (DAW), oil, secondary-side ion exchange resin, and soil. Special precautions were taken to insure representative sampling of the DAW. This involved the initial direct, quantitative gamma spectrometric analyses of bulk quantities (208-liter drums) of DAW utilizing a specially constructed barrel scanner employing a collimated intrinsic germanium detector assembly. Subsamples of the DAW for destructive radiochemical analyses of the difficult-to-measure 10CF61 radionuclides were then selected which had the same isotopic composition (to within {+-}25%) as that measured for the entire drum of DAW. The techniques for accomplishing this sampling are described. Oil samples were collected from the top, middle and bottom sections of 208-liter drums for radiochemical analyses. These samples were composited to represent the entire drum of oil. The accuracy of this type of sampling was evaluated by comparisons with direct, quantitative assays of a number of the drums using the barrel scanning gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy of sampling drums of spent secondary-side ion exchange resin was evaluated by comparing the radionuclide contents of grab samples taken from the tops of the drums with direct assays performed with the barrel scanner. The results of these sampling evaluations indicated that the sampling methods used were generally adequate for providing a reasonably representative subsample from bulk quantities of DAW, oil, and resin. The study also identified a number of potential pitfalls, in sampling of these materials.

  4. 49 CFR 41.120 - Acceptable model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptable model codes. 41.120 Section 41.120 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.120 Acceptable model codes. (a) This... of this part. (b)(1) The following are model codes which have been found to provide a level...

  5. 49 CFR 41.120 - Acceptable model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptable model codes. 41.120 Section 41.120 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.120 Acceptable model codes. (a) This... of this part. (b)(1) The following are model codes which have been found to provide a level...

  6. Peer Acceptance of Highly Gifted Children in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The variables associated with peer acceptance and rejection have been the subject of considerable investigation over the past few years, therefore, the present study was designed to answer three questions: (1) How socially accepted are highly gifted children in the elementary-school classroom? (2) What is the intellectual level of the children…

  7. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom-level contributors to an acceptance of diversity in publicly supported pre-kindergarten classrooms across 11 states. Classroom composition, process quality, and teacher characteristics were examined as predictors of diversity-promoting practices as measured by the ECERS-R, acceptance of diversity construct. Findings…

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. A new method for both harmonic voltage and harmonic current suppression and power factor correction in industrial power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Yorino, Naoto

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes a new method for designing a group of single tuned filters for both harmonic current injection suppression and harmonic voltage distortion reduction and power factor correction. The proposed method is based on three purposes: (1) reduction of harmonic voltage distortion in the source terminals to an acceptable level, (2) suppression of harmonic current injection in the source terminals to an acceptable level, (3) improvement of power factor at the source terminals. To determine the size of the capacitor in a group of single tuned filters, three new NLP mathematical formulations will be introduced. The first is to suppress harmonic current injection within an acceptable level. The second is to minimize the fundamental reactive power output while reducing harmonic voltage distortion to an acceptable level. The third is to determine an optimal assignment of reactive power output based on the results of harmonic voltage reduction and power factor correction. This new method has been demonstrated for designing a group of single tuned filters and its validity has been successfully confirmed through numerical simulation in a 35 KV industrial power system. The proposed method can efficiently provide an optimal coordination in a group of single tuned filters relating to suppressing harmonic current injection, reducing harmonic voltage distortion and improving power factor.

  11. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K.; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public’s attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies. PMID:24248341

  12. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  13. QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Lewicki, Rafał; Razeghi, Manijeh; Tittel, Frank K

    2013-01-14

    An ultra-sensitive and selective quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor platform was demonstrated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This sensor used a state-of-the art 4.61 μm high power, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6) CO absorption line, located at 2169.2 cm(-1), a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 1.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at atmospheric pressure was achieved with a 1 sec acquisition time and the addition of 2.6% water vapor concentration in the analyzed gas mixture. For the N2O detection, a MDL of 23 ppbv was obtained at an optimum gas pressure of 100 Torr and with the same water vapor content of 2.6%. In both cases the presence of water vapor increases the detected CO and N2O QEPAS signal levels as a result of enhancing the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of both target gases. Allan deviation analyses were performed to investigate the long term performance of the CO and N2O QEPAS sensor systems. For the optimum data acquisition time of 500 sec a MDL of 340 pptv and 4 ppbv was obtained for CO and N2O detection, respectively. To demonstrate reliable and robust operation of the QEPAS sensor a continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels for a period of 5 hours were performed. PMID:23388995

  14. Feedback circuit design of an auto-gating power supply for low-light-level image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Yan, Bo; Zhi, Qiang; Ni, Xiao-bing; Li, Jun-guo; Wang, Yu; Yao, Ze

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces the basic principle of auto-gating power supply which using a hybrid automatic brightness control scheme. By the analysis of current as image intensifier to special requirements of auto-gating power supply, a feedback circuit of the auto-gating power supply is analyzed. Find out the reason of the screen flash after the auto-gating power supply assembled image intensifier. This paper designed a feedback circuit which can shorten the response time of auto-gating power supply and improve screen slight flicker phenomenon which the human eye can distinguish under the high intensity of illumination.

  15. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  16. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  17. Power and area efficient 4-bit column-level ADC in a CMOS pixel sensor for the ILD vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, Ch; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A 48 × 64 pixels prototype CMOS pixel sensor (CPS) integrated with 4-bit column-level, self triggered ADCs for the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (VTX) was developed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation. The ADCs accommodating the pixel read out in a rolling shutter mode complete the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. The design was optimised for power saving at sampling frequency. The prototype sensor is currently at the stage of being started testing and evaluation. So what is described is based on post simulation results rather than test data. This 4-bit ADC dissipates, at a 3-V supply and 6.25-MS/s sampling rate, 486 μW in its inactive mode, which is by far the most frequent. This value rises to 714 μW in case of the active mode. Its footprint amounts to 35 × 545 μm2.

  18. Measures of nonclassicality for a two-level atom interacting with power-law potential field under decoherence effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Khalek, S.; Berrada, K.; Alkhateeb, Sadah A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a useful quantum system to perform different tasks of quantum information and computational technologies. We explore the required optimal conditions for this system that are feasible with real experimental realization. We present an active way to control the variation of some measures of nonclassicality considering the time-dependent coupling and photon transition effects under a model that closely describes a realistic experimental scenario. We investigate qualitatively the quantum measures for a two-level atom system interacting with a quantum field initially defined in a coherent state in the framework of power-law potentials (PLPCSs). We study the nonlocal correlation in the whole system state using the negativity as a measure of entanglement in terms of the exponent parameter, number of photon transition, and phase damping effect. The influences of the different physical parameters on the statistical properties and purity of the field are also demonstrated during the time evolution. The results indicate that the preservation and enhancement of entanglement greatly benefit from the combination of the choice of the physical parameters. Finally, we explore an interesting relationship between the different quantum measures of non-classicality during the time evolution in the absence and presence of time-dependent coupling effect.

  19. State-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Morrow; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a linear programming (LP) methodology for estimating the cost of reducing a state's coal-fired power plant carbon dioxide emissions by cofiring switchgrass and coal. LP modeling allows interplay between regionally specific switchgrass production forecasts, coal plant locations, and individual coal plant historic performance data to determine an allocation of switchgrass minimizing cost or maximizing carbon reduction. The LP methodology is applied to two states, Pennsylvania (PA) and Iowa (IA), and results are presented with a discussion of modeling assumptions, techniques, and carbon mitigation policy implications. The LP methodology estimates that, in PA, 4.9 million tons of CO{sub 2}/year could be mitigated at an average cost of less than $34/ton of CO{sub 2} and that, in IA, 7 million tons of CO{sub 2}/year could be mitigated at an average cost of mitigation of $27/ton of CO{sub 2}. Because the factors determining the cofiring costs vary so much between the two states, results suggest that cofiring costs will also vary considerably between different U.S. regions. A national level analysis could suggest a lowest-cost cofiring region. This paper presents techniques and assumptions that can simplify biomass energy policy analysis with little effect on analysis conclusions. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Effect of ambient levels of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, C.F.; House, D.E.; Benane, S.G.; Joines, W.T.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were exposed continuously during their 21-day incubation period to either 50 or 60-Hz sinusoidal electric fields at an average intensity of 10 Vrms/m. Within 1.5 days after hatching, the chickens were removed from the apparatus and tested. The test consisted of examining the effect of 50- or 60-Hz electromagnetic fields at 15.9 Vrms/m and 73 nTrms (in a local geomagnetic field of 38 uT, 85 deg N) on efflux of calcium ions from the chicken brain. For eggs exposed to 60-Hz electric fields during incubation, the chicken brains demonstrated a significant response to 50-Hz fields but not to 60-Hz fields, in agreement with the results from commercially incubated eggs. In contrast, the brains from chicks exposed during incubation to 50-Hz fields were not affected by either 50- or 60-Hz fields. These results demonstrate that exposure of a developing organism to ambient power-line-frequency electric fields at levels typically found inside buildings can alter the response of brain tissue to radiation-induced calcium-ion efflux.

  1. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  2. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    control over exposure as low. Slightly more than half believe that risk reduction should be balanced against cost. We also found that distrust of DOE and its contractors exists, primarily due to the perception that site managers do not share public values; hence, the public is generally unwilling to defer to DOE in its decision-making. The concomitant belief of inefficacy confounds distrust by generating frustration that DOE does not care. Moreover, the public is split with respect to trust of each other, primarily because of the belief that citizens lack technical competence. With respect to bioremediation support, we found that more than 40% of the public has no opinion. However, of those who do, 3 of 4 are favorably disposed – particularly among those who believe that risk is lower and who are more trusting of site management. We presented survey respondents with four alternative participation strategies based on the results of the Q analysis and asked their judgments of each. The public prefers strategies that shifts power to them. The least empowered strategy (feedback) was supported by 46%; support grew as public power increased, reaching 66% support for independently facilitated deliberation. More DOE distrust generates more support for high power strategies. We offer the following recommendations to enhance public acceptance. First, and perhaps most importantly, site managers should pursue robust trust-building efforts to gain public confidence in DOE risk management that meets public expectations. Public trust decreases risk perception, which increases public willingness to defer to site managers’ discretion in decision-making, which in turn increases public acceptance of the decisions that result. Second, site managers should address public concerns about bioremediation such as its effectiveness in reducing risk, performance compared to other remediation alternatives, costs compared against benefits, time required to start and complete remediation, level of

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    SciTech Connect

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  4. Hierarchical control design challenge problems for optimal VAR planning and real time voltage control in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    To optimize VAR sources on a power system, system planners must identify the location, size, and type of all available reactive power devices. The Control Design Challenge problem is to determine the least-costly VAR expansion pattern that will enable large power system to maintain acceptable voltage levels in all conditions.

  5. Near-Field Acoustic Power Level Analysis of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Cruise Conditions, Technical Report II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  6. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, K.; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

  7. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Jose R.; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, H. Javier

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  8. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity. PMID:27177121

  9. (14)C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hastie, Helen; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C W; Tripney, Brian G; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for (14)C. The (14)C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg(-1) C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg(-1) C in the 2014 ring. During the periods 1971-1976 and 2011-2014, the (14)C specific activities are indistinguishable from the ambient background values. However, compared with the ambient atmospheric levels, the (14)C specific activities between 1977 and 2010 are significantly elevated, clearly indicating (14)C discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess (14)C specific activities were <36 Bq kg(-1) C, corresponding to an additional annual effective dose of <2 μSv via the food ingestion pathway in the study location. The primary wind direction is east-southeast/southeast with a frequency of ∼30%, in comparison to ∼20% frequency for the direction of the site under study (north-northeast/northeast). This would tend to indicate a similar magnitude of additional effective dose and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric (14)C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no (14)C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited (14)C release from the damaged reactors during the accident or that the prevailing wind during the short period of release (11th-25th March 2011) was not in the direction of Okuma. PMID:27023156

  10. Power Analysis to Detect the Effects of a Continuous Moderator in 2-Level Simple Cluster Random Assignment Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2014-01-01

    For intervention studies involving binary treatment variables, procedures for power analysis have been worked out and computerized estimation tools are generally available. The purpose of this study is to: (1) develop the statistical formulations for calculating statistical power, minimum detectable effect size (MDES) and its confidence interval,…

  11. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535. [Concerning the impact of power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality.

  12. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  13. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  14. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  15. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  16. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and <0.003 to 0.78 mg/g, respectively. These results were used to estimate daily exposure to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. PMID:26743740

  17. 18 CFR 156.6 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptance for filing or rejection of application. 156.6 Section 156.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ORDERS UNDER SECTION 7(a) OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT § 156.6 Acceptance for filing or rejection...

  18. 18 CFR 156.6 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance for filing or rejection of application. 156.6 Section 156.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ORDERS UNDER SECTION 7(a) OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT § 156.6 Acceptance for filing or rejection...

  19. 18 CFR 156.6 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance for filing or rejection of application. 156.6 Section 156.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ORDERS UNDER SECTION 7(a) OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT § 156.6 Acceptance for filing or rejection...

  20. 18 CFR 156.6 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance for filing or rejection of application. 156.6 Section 156.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ORDERS UNDER SECTION 7(a) OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT § 156.6 Acceptance for filing or rejection...

  1. 18 CFR 156.6 - Acceptance for filing or rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance for filing or rejection of application. 156.6 Section 156.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ORDERS UNDER SECTION 7(a) OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT § 156.6 Acceptance for filing or rejection...

  2. What is meant by the term acceptance of technology and locating the acceptance of the CCS Technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Mario; Vesper, Anton

    2013-04-01

    resolution of a difference of opinion means either acceptance of the standpoint about CCS, non-acceptance (rejection) of the standpoint about CCS or partly (non-)acceptance of the standpoint about CCS. In the resolution through four pragma-dialectical stages acceptance can be found in any stage. Observing the complex inner structure of critical discussion with regards to acceptance innovative findings are presented: in a critical discussion of a standpoint about CCS the (non-/ partly) acceptance of the objectives of the stages of critical discussion hints at the (non-) resolution of the initial difference of opinion. That brings about the practical relevance of the research. The ideal model itself seems to be equipped with diagnostic power with regards to everyday problem-solving discussions about the CCS technology. It can tell where (non-/ partly) acceptance is about to occur. Besides (non-/ partly) acceptance of the objectives of the stages of critical discussion helps arguers orientate on their way to terminate the discussion. Moreover (non-/ partly) acceptance of the objectives of the stages of critical discussion has a feedback function for arguers in problem-solving discussions. For an analyst (non-/ partly) acceptance of the objectives of the stages of critical discussion about a standpoint on CCS reveals to which common ground the arguers can be considered to be committed, i.e. what counts as accepted. Finally (non-/ partly) acceptance of the objectives of the stages of critical discussion can be used in the practice of mediation by providing cornerstones in resolving differences of opinion about standpoints which deal with the CCS technology.

  3. Web-Based Learning Enhancements: Video Lectures through Voice-Over PowerPoint in a Majors-Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lents, Nathan H.; Cifuentes, Oscar E.

    2009-01-01

    This study is an experimental introduction of web-based lecture delivery into a majors-level introductory biology course. Web-based delivery, achieved through the use of prerecorded Voice-Over PowerPoint video lectures, was introduced on a limited basis to an experimental section while a control group, with the same instructor, received standard…

  4. Records of wells and water-level fluctuations in the Aberdeen-Springfield area, Bingham and Power counties, Idaho in 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisco, Harold G.

    1955-01-01

    This report contains records of observation wells and water-level fluctuations for the calendar year 1954 in the Aberdeen-Springfield area, Bingham and Power Counties, Idaho.  Systematic observations in the Aberdeen-Springfield area were begun by the Geological Survey in 1952. Each year a progress report is issued and this report is number 3 in the series.

  5. Validation of the Predicted Circumferential and Radial Mode Sound Power Levels in the Inlet and Exhaust Ducts of a Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Fan inflow distortion tone noise has been studied computationally and experimentally. Data from two experiments in the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan rig have been used to validate acoustic predictions. The inflow to the fan was distorted by cylindrical rods inserted radially into the inlet duct one rotor chord length upstream of the fan. The rods were arranged in both symmetric and asymmetric circumferential patterns. In-duct and farfield sound pressure level measurements were recorded. It was discovered that for positive circumferential modes, measured circumferential mode sound power levels in the exhaust duct were greater than those in the inlet duct and for negative circumferential modes, measured total circumferential mode sound power levels in the exhaust were less than those in the inlet. Predicted trends in overall sound power level were proven to be useful in identifying circumferentially asymmetric distortion patterns that reduce overall inlet distortion tone noise, as compared to symmetric arrangements of rods. Detailed comparisons between the measured and predicted radial mode sound power in the inlet and exhaust duct indicate limitations of the theory.

  6. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  7. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  8. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  9. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  10. Technical basis for acceptance criteria on the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for establishing acceptance criteria on the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The effort is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed with the application of digital instrumentation and controls systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic voltage levels, thereby leading to the risk of susceptibility when spurious interference is misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant`s electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Then, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced.

  11. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  12. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  13. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument: Flight Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) Acceptance Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Grob, Eric; Swanson, Ted; Nikitkin, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two loop heat pipes (LHPs) are to be used for tight thermal control of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, planned for flight in late 2001. The LHPs are charged with Propylene as a working fluid. One LHP will be used to transport 110 W from a laser to a radiator, the other will transport 160 W from electronic boxes to a separate radiator. The application includes a large amount of thermal mass in each LHP system and low initial startup powers. The initial design had some non-ideal flight design compromises, resulted in a less than ideal charge level for this design concept with a symmetrical secondary wick. This less than ideal charge was identified as the source of inadequate performance of the flight LHPs during the flight thermal vacuum test in October of 2000. We modified the compensation chamber design, re-built and charged the LHPs for a final LHP acceptance thermal vacuum test. This test performed March of 2001 was 100% successful. This is the last testing to be performed on the LHPs prior to instrument thermal vacuum test. This sensitivity to charge level was shown through varying the charge on a Development Model Loop Heat Pipe (DM LHP) and evaluating performance at various fill levels. At lower fills similar to the original charge in the flight units, the same poor performance was observed. When the flight units were re-designed and filled to the levels similar to the initial successful DM LHP test, the flight units also successfully fulfilled all requirements. This final flight Acceptance test assessed performance with respect to startup, low power operation, conductance, and control heater power, and steady state control. The results of the testing showed that both LHPs operated within specification. Startup on one of the LHPs was better than the other LHP because of the starter heater placement and a difference in evaporator design. These differences resulted in a variation in the achieved superheat prior to startup. The LHP with

  14. Limits to Tidal Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

  15. Relationship between acceptance of background noise and hearing aid use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Burchfield, Samuel B.; Webster, Joanna D.

    2003-04-01

    Background noise produces complaints among hearing-aid users, however speech-perception-in-noise does not predict hearing-aid use. It is possible that hearing-aid users are complaining about the presence of background noise and not about speech perception. To test this possibility, acceptance of background noise is being investigated as a predictor of hearing-aid use. Acceptance of background noise is determined by having subjects select their most comfortable listening level (MCL) for a story. Next, speech-babble is added and the subjects select the maximum background noise level (BNL) which is acceptable while listening to and following the story. The difference between the MCL and the BNL is the acceptable noise level (ANL), all in dB. ANLs are being compared with hearing-aid use, subjective impressions of benefit (APHAB), speech perception in background noise (SPIN) scores, and audiometric data. Individuals who accept higher levels of background noise are more successful users than individuals who accept less background noise. Mean ANLs are 7.3 dB for full-time users (N=21), 12.6 dB for part-time users (N=44), and 13.8 dB for rejecters (N=17). ANLs are not related to APHAB, SPIN, or audiometric data. Results for about 120 subjects will be reported. [Work supported by NIDCD (NIH) RO1 DC 05018.

  16. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-05-30

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet.

  17. Truncated Power Laws Reveal a Link between Low-Level Behavioral Processes and Grouping Patterns in a Colonial Bird

    PubMed Central

    Jovani, Roger; Serrano, David; Ursúa, Esperanza; Tella, José L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Departures from power law group size frequency distributions have been proposed as a useful tool to link individual behavior with population patterns and dynamics, although examples are scarce for wild animal populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a population of Lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) breeding in groups (colonies) from one to ca. 40 breeding pairs in 10,000 km2 in NE Spain. A 3.5 fold steady population increase occurred during the eight-year study period, accompanied by a geographical expansion from an initial subpopulation which in turn remained stable in numbers. This population instability was mainly driven by first-breeders, which are less competitive at breeding sites, being relegated to breed solitarily or in small colony sizes, and disperse farther than adults. Colony size frequency distributions shifted from an initial power law to a truncated power law mirroring population increase. Thus, we hypothesized that population instability was behind the truncation of the power law. Accordingly, we found a power law distribution through years in the initial subpopulation, and a match between the power law breakpoint (at ca. ten pairs) and those colony sizes from which the despotic behavior of colony owners started to impair the settlement of newcomers. Moreover, the instability hypothesis was further supported by snapshot data from another population of Lesser kestrels in SW Spain suffering a population decline. Conclusions/Significance Appropriate analysis of the scaling properties of grouping patterns has unraveled the link between local agonistic processes and large-scale (population) grouping patterns in a wild bird population. PMID:18431479

  18. Planar wire array dynamics and radiation scaling at multi-MA levels on the Saturn pulsed power generator.

    SciTech Connect

    Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Rudakov, Leonid I.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Jones, Michael C.

    2008-08-01

    Planar wire arrays are studied at 3-6 MA on the Saturn pulsed power generator as potential drivers of compact hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion studies. Comparison with zero-dimensional modeling suggests that there is significant trailing mass. The modeled energy coupled from the generator cannot generally explain the energy in the main x-ray pulse. Preliminary comparison at 1-6 MA indicates sub-quadratic scaling of x-ray power in a manner similar to compact cylindrical wire arrays. Time-resolved pinhole images are used to study the implosion dynamics.

  19. Planar Wire Array Dynamics and Radiation Scaling at Multi-MA Levels on the Saturn Pulsed Power Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ampleford, D. J.; Coverdale, C. A.; Waisman, E. M.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, M. C.; Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.

    2009-01-21

    Planar wire arrays are studied at 3-6 MA on the Saturn pulsed power generator as potential drivers of compact hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion studies. Comparison with zero-dimensional modeling suggests that there is significant trailing mass. The modeled energy coupled from the generator cannot generally explain the energy in the main x-ray pulse. Preliminary comparison at 1-6 MA indicates sub-quadratic scaling of x-ray power in a manner similar to compact cylindrical wire arrays. Time-resolved pinhole images are used to study the implosion dynamics.

  20. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ningle; Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingjiang; Fan, Xiangyong; Xu, Xiaosan; Wang, Furu

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China. Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted. Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables. Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power. Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently. PMID:22811610

  1. Testing the feasibility and acceptability of using the Nintendo Wii in the home to increase activity levels, vitality and well-being in people with multiple sclerosis (Mii-vitaliSe): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sarah; Fazakarley, Louise; Thomas, Peter W; Brenton, Sarah; Collyer, Sarah; Perring, Steve; Scott, Rebecca; Galvin, Kathleen; Hillier, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) have been recognised. However, exercise regimens can be difficult to maintain over the longer term and pwMS may face unique barriers to physical activity engagement. Pilot research suggests the Nintendo Wii can be used safely at home by pwMS with minimal mobility/balance issues and may confer benefits. We have developed a home-based physiotherapist supported Wii intervention (‘Mii-vitaliSe’) for pwMS that uses commercial software. This is a pilot study to explore the feasibility of conducting a full scale clinical and cost-effectiveness trial of Mii-vitaliSe. Methods and analysis 30 ambulatory, relatively inactive pwMS will be randomised to receive Mii-vitaliSe immediately, or after 6 months. Outcomes, measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months later, will include balance, gait, mobility, hand dexterity and self-reported physical activity levels, fatigue, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life. Interviews conducted on a purposive sample of participants will explore experiences of participation in the study and barriers and facilitators to using the Wii. Mean recruitment, adherence rate and standard deviations (SDs) of potential primary outcomes for the full trial will be estimated and precision summarised using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interview transcripts will be thematically analysed using a generic qualitative approach. Ethics and dissemination National Health Service (NHS; ref 12/SC/0420) and university ethical approvals have been obtained as has NHS Research and Development permission from the relevant trust. A home risk assessment will be undertaken for all potential participants. All adverse events will be closely monitored, documented and reported to the study Safety Monitoring Committee. At least one publication in a peer reviewed journal will be produced and research findings presented at a national and international conference. With service users, we

  2. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  3. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  4. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  5. A review of water use in the U.S. electric power sector: insights from systems-level perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermoelectric power production comprised 41% of total freshwater withdrawals in the U.S., surpassing even agriculture. This review highlights scenarios of the electric sector’s future demands for water, including scenarios that limit both CO2 and water availability. A number o...

  6. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  7. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  8. An Investigation of Iranian EFL Learners' Use of Politeness Strategies and Power Relations in Disagreement across Different Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnam, Biook; Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    The speech act of disagreement has been one of the speech acts that receives the least attention in the field of pragmatics. This study investigates the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. In order to determine whether and to what extent the realization of the speech act of disagreeing and the of appropriate…

  9. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  10. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  11. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  13. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3... Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance officer shall, within 15 days, complete and send the contractor a DD Form 1637, Notice of Acceptance...

  14. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  15. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  17. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  18. Estimating shallow water sound power levels and mitigation radii for the R/V Marcus G. Langseth using an 8 km long MCS streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, Timothy J.; Tolstoy, Maya; Carton, Helene

    2014-10-01

    seismic surveys in shallow-water environments, the complexity of local geology and seafloor topography can make it difficult to accurately predict associated sound levels and establish appropriate mitigation radii required to ensure the safety of local marine protected species. This is primarily because necessary detailed information regarding the local seafloor topography and subseafloor geology is often unavailable before a survey begins. One potential solution to this problem is to measure received levels using the ship's multichannel seismic (MCS) streamer, which could allow for the dynamic real-time determination of sound levels and mitigation radii while a survey is underway. We analyze R/V Langseth streamer data collected on the shelf and slope near the Washington coast during the Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects (COAST) and Ridge2Trench projects to measure received levels up to a distance of approximately 8 km from the sound source array. We establish methods to filter, clean, and process streamer data to accurately determine received power levels and confidently establish mitigation radii. We show that in shallow water measured power levels can fluctuate due to the influence of seafloor topographic features, but that the use of the streamer for the establishment of dynamic mitigation radii is feasible and should be further pursued. The establishment of mitigation radii based on local conditions may help to maximize the safety of marine protected species while also maximizing the ability of researchers to conduct seismic studies.

  19. Acceptability of the modified mucus method: study of the psychosocial factors affecting acceptance.

    PubMed

    Dorairaj, K

    1988-01-01

    A three-phase study designed to study the acceptability and use-effectiveness of the modified mucus method covered a sample of 2,601 poor rural migrant women living in eight low-income areas--villages and resettlement slum colonies. In phase I, the women were exposed to NFP awareness, i.e., the modified mucus method, and 61.6% of the women accepted the method, and agreed to learn and use it. The learning phase is three cycles. Of these acceptors, 83.7% were fertile. A large percentage of the acceptors are Hindus. The low acceptance by the Sikhs was who were non pregnant, menstruating cohabiting. 15.3% were nonmenstruating owing to pregnancy or breast feeding; 0.9% were menstruating, but not cohabitating; 35.4% of the women were not interested in learning or using the method. A comparative study of the acceptance and nonacceptance for the selected sociodemographic and family planning variables is analysed. The acceptors of NFP differed significantly from the acceptors of sterilization and IUD in their occupation, educational levels, duration of marriage, number of living children, number of living sons, knowledge of family planning, and previous use of family planning. PMID:2902034

  20. Type-II vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with Watt level output powers at 1.2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, C.; Fuchs, C.; Berger, C.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Koch, M.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.; Stolz, W.

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor laser characteristics based on type-II band-aligned quantum well heterostructures for the emission at 1.2 μm are presented. Ten "W"-quantum wells consisting of GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs are arranged as resonant periodic gain in a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser. Its structure is analyzed by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and reflectance measurements. The laser's power curves and spectra are investigated. Output powers at Watt level are achieved, with a maximum output power of 4 W. It is confirmed that laser operation only involves the type-II transition. A blue shift of the material gain is observed while the modal gain exhibits a red shift.