Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable pregnancy rates

  1. Social Acceptance; A Possible Mediator in the Association between Socio-Economic Deprivation and Under-18 Pregnancy Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debbie Michelle; Roberts, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the social acceptance of young (under-18) pregnancy by assessing people's acceptance of young pregnancy and abortion in relation to deprivation. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted in two relatively affluent and two relatively deprived local authorities in London (n=570). Contrary to previous findings, participants…

  2. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Generally Accepted Causes and Their Management.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Branch, D Ware

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), commonly defined as 3 consecutive losses <10 weeks gestation, affects up to 5% of couples. Well-accepted causes include uterine malformation, antiphospholipid syndrome, and parental chromosomal abnormalities; however, the majority of RPL cases are idiopathic (up to 75%). This chapter covers these accepted causes of RPL and provides diagnosis and management strategies for patients falling within the above categories.

  3. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  4. Acceptability of prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafri, H; Hewison, J; Sheridan, E; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess acceptability of prenatal testing (PNT) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) for a range of conditions in Pakistani parents with and without a child with a genetic condition. A structured questionnaire assessing acceptability of PNT and TOP for 30 conditions was completed by 400 Pakistani participants: 200 parents with a child with a genetic condition (100 fathers and 100 mothers) and 200 parents without an affected child (100 fathers and 100 mothers). There was a high level of interest in PNT, where over 80 % of parents in all four study groups would want PNT for the majority of the conditions. There was comparatively less interest in TOP for the same conditions (ranging from 5 to 70 % of parents, with mothers of an affected child being most interested). Parents were most likely to be interested in TOP for conditions at the serious end of the continuum. More than half of the participants in each group would consider TOP for anencephaly and quadriplegia. The interest in PNT and TOP for a range of conditions suggests that rapidly developing PNT technologies are likely to be acceptable in Pakistan, a low-middle income level and Muslim country. The comparatively lower level of interest in TOP for the same conditions highlights ethical dilemmas that such technologies are likely to raise. PMID:25081227

  5. RECURRENCE RATES OF OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Braakenburg, Arthur M.D.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Holland, Gary N.; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy among women of childbearing age. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (16–42 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incident rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk of recurrence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. Youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. Incident rate ratios for pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under two different approaches, but ratios were not significantly different from the null value (p-values of 0.16 and 0.55). Conclusions Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are likely not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. PMID:24412127

  6. Understanding factors influencing vaccination acceptance during pregnancy globally: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rose J; Paterson, Pauline; Jarrett, Caitlin; Larson, Heidi J

    2015-11-25

    Maternal vaccination has been evaluated and found to be extremely effective at preventing illness in pregnant women and new-borns; however, uptake of such programmes has been low in some areas. To analyse factors contributing to uptake of vaccines globally, a systematic review on vaccine hesitancy was carried out by The Vaccine Confidence Project in 2012. In order to further analyse factors contributing to uptake of maternal immunisation, a further search within the broader systematic review was conducted using the terms 'Pregnan*' or 'Matern*'. Forty-two articles were identified. Pregnancy-related articles were further screened to identify those focused on concerns, trust and access issues regarding maternal vaccination reported by pregnant women and healthcare workers. Thirty-five relevant articles were included which were then searched using the snowballing technique to identify additional relevant references cited in these articles. A search alert was also conducted from February to April 2015 in PubMed to ensure that no new relevant articles were missed. A total of 155 relevant articles were included. Most of the literature which was identified on hesitancy surrounding vaccination during pregnancy reports on determinants of influenza vaccine uptake in North America. Research conducted in low-income countries focused primarily on tetanus vaccine acceptance. The main barriers cited were related to vaccine safety, belief that vaccine not needed or effective, not recommended by healthcare worker, low knowledge about vaacines, access issues, cost, conflicting advice. From the point of view of healthcare workers, barriers included inadequate training, inadequate reimbursement and increased workload. Twenty-seven out of 46 (59%) articles mentioning ethnicity reported lower rates of coverage among ethnic minorities. Barriers to vaccination in pregnancy are complex and vary depending on context and population. There are wide gaps in knowledge regarding the attitudes of

  7. 105-KE Isolation Barrier Leak Rate Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, K.J.

    1995-06-14

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) contains the completed and signed Acceptance Procedure (ATP) for the 105-KE Isolations Barrier Leak Rate Test. The Test Engineer`s log, the completed sections of the ATP in the Appendix for Repeat Testing (Appendix K), the approved WHC J-7s (Appendix H), the data logger files (Appendices T and U), and the post test calibration checks (Appendix V) are included.

  8. Ectopic pregnancy and IUDs; incidence, risk rate and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Meirik, O; Nygren, K G

    1980-01-01

    During a period of 4 years, 1974-77, in Uppsala county; Sweden, 203 women underwent surgery for ectopic pregnancy with histological proof of the diagnosis. For the female population of fertile age this corresponds to 0.11 ectopics per 100 women 15-44 years of age, or 1.08 per 100 notified pregnancies, or 1.53 per 100 births. Fifty-five of the women with ectopic pregnancy were using an intrauterine device (IUD) (48 a copper-bearing IUD and 7 some other type of device), and 6 women used a low dose progestogen contraceptive. For users of copper-bearing IUDs the risk of an ectopic pregnancy was estimated to be 0.15 per 100 women years. When comparing this latter risk rate with the overall incidence rate of 0.11, it must be observed that the populations forming the denominator in these two rates differ with respect to some crucial characteristics. Nulliparity and predisposing factors were found statistically significantly more often in non-IUD-users with an ectopic pregnancy than in IUD-users. Such predisposing factors may be less prevalent in IUD-users, as in other populations. This may explain why ectopic pregnancy has been found to occur less frequently than theoretically expected among IUD-users. The "ectopic preventing" capacity of the IUD may therefore be considerably lower than has been previously claimed.

  9. Highlights of Trends in Pregnancies and Pregnancy Rates by Outcome: Estimates for the United States, 1976-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Mosher, William D.; Curtin, Sally C.; Abma, Joyce C.; Henshaw, Stanley

    1999-01-01

    This report presents key findings from a comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. The study incorporates birth, abortion, and fetal loss data to compile national estimates of pregnancy rates according to a variety of characteristics, including age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Data from the National…

  10. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    SANT’ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; de CAMPOS, Marinele R.; PASSANEZI, Selma Campos; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG – "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% significance level. Results No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Significant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Conclusions Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21552714

  11. PVUSA procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is one in a series of PVUSA reports on PVUSA experiences and lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California, and from participating utility host sites. During the course of approximately 7 years (1988--1994), 10 PV systems have been installed ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW. Six 20-kW emerging module technology arrays, five on universal project-provided structures and one turnkey concentrator, and four turnkey utility-scale systems (200 to 500 kW) were installed. PVUSA took a very proactive approach in the procurement of these systems. In the absence of established procurement documents, the project team developed a comprehensive set of technical and commercial documents. These have been updated with each successive procurement. Working closely with vendors after the award in a two-way exchange provided designs better suited for utility applications. This report discusses the PVUSA procurement process through testing and acceptance, and rating of PV turnkey systems. Special emphasis is placed on the acceptance testing and rating methodology which completes the procurement process by verifying that PV systems meet contract requirements. Lessons learned and recommendations are provided based on PVUSA experience.

  12. Intermittent Screening and Treatment versus Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: Provider Knowledge and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Smith Paintain, Lucy; Antwi, Gifty D.; Jones, Caroline; Amoako, Esther; Adjei, Rose O.; Afrah, Nana A.; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Tagbor, Harry; Webster, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is associated with increased risks of maternal and foetal complications. The WHO recommends a package of interventions including intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), insecticide-treated nets and effective case management. However, with increasing SP resistance, the effectiveness of SP-IPT has been questioned. Intermittent screening and treatment (IST) has recently been shown in Ghana to be as efficacious as SP-IPT. This study investigates two important requirements for effective delivery of IST and SP-IPT: antenatal care (ANC) provider knowledge, and acceptance of the different strategies. Structured interviews with 134 ANC providers at 67 public health facilities in Ashanti Region, Ghana collected information on knowledge of the risks and preventative and curative interventions against MiP. Composite indicators of knowledge of SP-IPT, and case management of MiP were developed. Log binomial regression of predictors of provider knowledge was explored. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with fourteen ANC providers with some knowledge of IST to gain an indication of the factors influencing acceptance of the IST approach. 88.1% of providers knew all elements of the SP-IPT policy, compared to 20.1% and 41.8% who knew the treatment policy for malaria in the first or second/third trimesters, respectively. Workshop attendance was a univariate predictor of each knowledge indicator. Qualitative findings suggest preference for prevention over cure, and increased workload may be barriers to IST implementation. However, a change in strategy in the face of SP resistance is likely to be supported; health of pregnant women is a strong motivation for ANC provider practice. If IST was to be introduced as part of routine ANC activities, attention would need to be given to improving the knowledge and practices of ANC staff in relation to appropriate treatment of MiP. Health worker support for

  13. Acceptance test procedure for the 105-KW isolation barrier leak rate

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, K.J.

    1995-05-19

    This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared in accordance with CM-6-1 EP 4.2, Standard Engineering Practices.

  14. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  15. What's behind the Good News: The Decline in Teen Pregnancy Rates during the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Christine

    Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy Rates and Racial Disparities in the Medicaid Population, 2004–08

    PubMed Central

    STULBERG, Debra B.; CAIN, Loretta R.; DAHLQUIST, Irma; LAUDERDALE, Diane S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess 2004–08 ectopic pregnancy rates among Medicaid recipients in 14 states and 2000–08 time trends in 3 states, and to identify differences in rate by race/ethnicity. Design Secondary analysis of Medicaid administrative claims data. Setting United States. Subjects Women ages 15–44 enrolled in Medicaid in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, or Texas in 2004–08 (n=19,135,106), and in California, Illinois and New York in 2000–03. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Number of ectopic pregnancies divided by the number of total pregnancies (spontaneous abortions, induced abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and all births). Results The 2004–08 Medicaid ectopic pregnancy rate for all 14 states combined was 1.40% of all reported pregnancies. Adjusted for age, the rate was 1.47%. Ectopic pregnancy incidence was 2.3 per 1,000 woman-years. In states for which longer-term data were available (California, Illinois and New York), the rate declined significantly 2000–08. In all 14 states, Black women were more likely to experience an ectopic pregnancy compared to whites (Relative Risk 1.46, 95% Confidence Interval 1.45–1.47). Conclusions Ectopic pregnancy remains an important health risk for women enrolled in Medicaid. Black women are at consistently higher risk than whites. PMID:25439806

  17. Pregnancy rates among U.S. women and their partners in 1994.

    PubMed

    Darroch, J E; Landry, D J; Oslak, S

    1999-01-01

    This study examines pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes among US women and their male partners in 1994. Sources of data include the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, the 1994-95 Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Patient Survey, and statistics records of the National Center for Health Statistics. Findings revealed that 9% of both men and women aged 15-44 were involved in conceiving a pregnancy in 1994. Pregnancy levels were highest among women aged 20-24 and among 25-29 year old male partners. In addition, men younger than age 20 and women were engaged in 9% and 18% of pregnancies, respectively. A significantly contrasting result was noted among men and women aged 35 and older; 19% of men and 9% of women were involved in pregnancies at these ages. Furthermore, the study indicated that 3 out of every 4 pregnancies in 1994 resulted in a birth. However, 47% of pregnancies involving men below 18 years resulted in abortion, compared with about 34% of those involving men aged 40 and older. In comparison, 31% of pregnancies among women below 18 years old ended up in abortion, while 39% of those among women aged 40 and older were terminated. Although there are similarities in the levels and distributions of pregnancies among both sexes, the findings indicate that among couples involved in pregnancy, it is common for men to be older than women.

  18. Prone position craniotomy in pregnancy without fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jean; Alexander, Ashish; Philip, Shoba; Thomas, Anoop

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant patient in second trimester scheduled for posterior fossa craniotomy in prone position is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Things to consider are physiological changes during pregnancy, non-obstetric surgery in pregnant patients, neuroanesthetic principles, effects of prone positioning, and need for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We have described the anesthetic management of this case and discussed intra-operative FHR monitoring including controversies about its role, indications, and various options available as per fetal gestational age. In our case we attempted intermittent intra-operative FHR monitoring to optimize maternal positioning and fetal oxygenation even though the fetus was pre-viable. However the attempt was abandoned due to practical difficulties with prone positioning. Patient made good neurological recovery following the procedure and delivered a healthy term baby 4 months later. Decisions regarding fetal monitoring should be individualized based on viability of the fetus and feasibility of emergency cesarean delivery. Good communication between a multidisciplinary team involving neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, obstetrician, and neonatologist is important for a successful outcome for mother and fetus. We conclude that prone position neurosurgery can safely be carried out in a pregnant patient with pre-viable fetus without FHR monitoring. PMID:27555144

  19. Maternal diet during early childhood, but not pregnancy, predicts diet quality and fruit and vegetable acceptance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Amy M; Collins, Clare E; Hure, Alexis J; Jensen, Megan; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Studies have identified prenatal flavour exposure as a determinant of taste preferences in infants; however, these studies have focused on relatively small samples and limited flavours. As many parents struggle with getting children to accept a variety of nutritious foods, a study of the factors influencing food acceptance is warranted. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to a wider variety of fruit and vegetables and overall higher diet quality in utero results in acceptance of a greater variety of these foods and better diet quality for offspring during childhood. This study is a secondary data analysis of pregnant women (n = 52) and their resulting offspring recruited for the Women and Their Children's Health study in NSW, Australia. Dietary intake of mothers and children was measured using food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality and vegetable and fruit variety were calculated using the Australian Recommended Food Score and the Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score. Associations between maternal and child diet quality and variety were assessed using Pearson's correlations and the total effect of in utero maternal pregnancy diet on childhood diet was decomposed into direct and indirect effect using mediation analysis. Maternal pregnancy and post-natal diet were both correlated with child diet for overall diet quality and fruit and vegetable variety (P < 0.001). Mediation analyses showed that the indirect effect of maternal pregnancy diet on child diet was mediated through maternal post-natal diet, particularly for fruit (P = 0.045) and vegetables (P = 0.055). Nutrition intervention should therefore be aimed at improving diet quality and variety in mothers with young children, in order to subsequently improve eating habits of offspring.

  20. Correlation of technical difficulty during embryo transfer with rate of clinical pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeta; Gupta, Prerna; Mittal, Suneeta; Malhotra, Neena

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To correlate the ease or difficulty of embryo transfer and blood at catheter tip with pregnancy rate when embryo transfer (ET) was performed by the same operator using soft catheter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 342 patients who underwent in vitro fertilization or ICSI cycle from January 2008 to December 2010 in a single centre was done. The type of transfer was divided into two groups: ‘easy’ or ‘difficult’. Transfer was considered difficult when additional instrumentation was required or firmer catheter was used or required changing of catheter. Patients undergoing cryo-preserved ET were excluded from the study. RESULTS: On the day of transfer in 284 (83%) patients, ET was easy and difficulty was encountered in 58 (17%) patients. Blood at catheter was seen in 101 (29.53%) patients. In the group of 58 difficult transfers, 10 pregnancies resulted with a clinical pregnancy rate of 17.2%, while 67 pregnancies resulted in 284 cycles of easy transfer with clinical pregnancy rate of 23.6% (P value = 0.045). While no significant difference was seen in pregnancies with blood on outer catheter and blood less transfer, there was significant reduction in pregnancy rate when blood was present on catheter tip compared to bloodless transfer (13.3% v/s 24.1; P value = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Reduction in clinical pregnancy rate is seen with difficult ETs, more when blood is present at the catheter tip. PMID:23531644

  1. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  2. Sustained Reduction in Adolescent Pregnancy Rates through School and Community-Based Education, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Murray; Drane, J. Wanzer; Joshi, Praphul; Shankarnarayan, Saikiran; Nimmons, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The resident population of Bamberg County, SC, has been exposed to multiples of public health information and education interventions since October 1982 with the intent to reduce the occurrence of unintended pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. Data analyses were conducted to compare 20 years of pregnancy rates among girls aged 14-17 years for…

  3. Pregnancy rates after ewes were treated with estradiol-17beta and oxytocin.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cervical dilation may improve transcervical sheep embryo-transfer procedures, if the cervical dilation method does not reduce pregnancy rates. This experiment was conducted to determine whether estradiol-17beta-oxytocin treatment, which dilates the cervix in luteal-phase ewes, affects pregnancy rat...

  4. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  5. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  6. Effect of Repeated Evaluation and Repeated Exposure on Acceptability Ratings of Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervakis, Jennifer; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on grammatical acceptability ratings for both acceptable and unacceptable sentence types. In Experiment 1, subjects in the Experimental group rated multiple examples of two ungrammatical sentence types (ungrammatical binding and double object with dative-only verb),…

  7. The Interrelationships between Ratings of Speech and Facial Acceptability in Persons with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinko, Garnet R.; Hedrick, Dona L.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty untrained young adult observers rated the speech and facial acceptablity of 20 speakers with cleft palate. The observers were reliable in rating both speech and facial acceptability. Judgments of facial acceptability were generally more positive, suggesting that speech is generally judged more negatively in speakers with cleft palate.…

  8. The Effects of Parental Involvement Laws and the AIDS Epidemic on the Pregnancy and Abortion Rates of Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman-Palm, Nancy; Tremblay, Carol Horton

    1998-01-01

    Explores the effects of legislation requiring parental consent for a minor's abortion and the risk of acquiring AIDS on adolescent pregnancy and abortion rates. Finds lower pregnancy and abortion rates for women 15-17 in states with parental involvement legislation, while abortion doubles and pregnancy rates decline with the incidence of AIDS.…

  9. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Hee; Hur, Junguk; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG) in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), large for gestational age (LGA) infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS). The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese), based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA) infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes and that

  10. The interrelationships between ratings of speech and facial acceptability in persons with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sinko, G R; Hedrick, D L

    1982-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine (a) if untrained observers could reliably rate the speech and facial acceptability of young adults with clefts of the lip and/or palate; and (b) if there were differences between the ratings of speech acceptability and facial acceptability according to sex of observer, presentation mode, or speaker effect. Thirty untrained young adult observers rated the speech and facial acceptability of 20 speakers with cleft palate using a 7-point bipolar adjective scale. Judgments of speech acceptability were made from an auditory-only stimulus and then from a combined audio-visual stimulus. Judgments of facial acceptability were made from a visual-only stimulus and then from a combined audio-visual stimulus. Multivariate analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, and a posteriori multiple range tests were used for data analyses. Results indicated that untrained observers were reliable in rating both speech and facial acceptability (r .65-.97). The effects of speaker and interaction between speaker and presentation mode were significant at .01 levels of confidence. Judgments made of facial acceptability were generally more positive, leading to the conclusion that speech is generally judged more negatively in speakers with cleft palate, at least by untrained observers. The interaction between speech and facial acceptability was not significant.

  11. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Esra; Halimoglu Caliskan, Ebru; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy. Method This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively), alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively), and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively). Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes) in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, also considered to be risky substances. A high incidence of smoking regularly during pregnancy was found in daily smokers. It is recommended that physicians should sensitively ask pregnant females presenting at clinics about all forms of substance use, including alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, and to include such questions in their routine enquiries. PMID:27785104

  12. Public acceptability of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breast feeding: a survey of the British public

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Sewel, Kate; Thomson, Gill; Bauld, Linda; Yi, Deokhee; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey public attitudes about incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and for breast feeding to inform trial design. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants British general public. Methods Seven promising incentive strategies had been identified from evidence syntheses and qualitative interview data from service users and providers. These were shopping vouchers for: (1) validated smoking cessation in pregnancy and (2) after birth; (3) for a smoke-free home; (4) for proven breast feeding; (5) a free breast pump; (6) payments to health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy targets and (7) breastfeeding targets. Ipsos MORI used area quota sampling and home-administered computer-assisted questionnaires, with randomised question order to assess agreement with different incentives (measured on a five-point scale). Demographic data and target behaviour experience were recorded. Analysis used multivariable ordered logit models. Results Agreement with incentives was mixed (ranging from 34% to 46%) among a representative sample of 1144 British adults. Mean agreement score was highest for a free breast pump, and lowest for incentives for smoking abstinence after birth. More women disagreed with shopping vouchers than men. Those with lower levels of education disagreed more with smoking cessation incentives and a breast pump. Those aged 44 or under agreed more with all incentive strategies compared with those aged 65 and over, particularly provider targets for smoking cessation. Non-white ethnic groups agreed particularly with breastfeeding incentives. Current smokers with previous stop attempts and respondents who had breast fed children agreed with providing vouchers for the respective behaviours. Up to £40/month vouchers for behaviour change were acceptable (>85%). Conclusions Women and the less educated were more likely to disagree, but men and women of childbearing age to agree, with incentives designed for their benefit

  13. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates after gamete intra-Fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    Rombauts, L; Dear, M; Breheny, S; Healy, D L

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) the Kaplan-Meier life table method was used to analyse a patient cohort treated with GIFT between 1991 and 1994. In a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine, 1628 women with a median age of 33 years and various causes of infertility were included to calculate cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates. Age and cause of infertility were main factor variables and the study was based on a total of 2941 consecutive GIFT cycles, leading to a first clinical pregnancy, and 3052 cycles, leading to a first live birth. The cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates were 49.6 and 38.8% respectively, after three initiated cycles and 64.1 and 52.0% respectively, after five initiated cycles. The multiple pregnancy rate was 22.6%. The implantation rate of 13.1% after GIFT demonstrates that the developing embryo benefits from a period of exposure within the environment of the Fallopian tube. The present results indicate that approximately 50% of couples will have at least one live baby after five initiated GIFT cycles. Advancing age was a major negative prognostic factor for the cumulative live birth rate because of higher cancellation rates, lower implantation rates and higher pregnancy failure rates. PMID:9222027

  14. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Funda; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Oktem, Mesut; Onur Karabacak, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8%) patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3%) miscarried and 10(12.7%) had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8%) pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3%) miscarried and 20(19.8%) resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05). There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI) treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959). PMID:24695882

  15. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... each trimester are described below. 1 First Trimester (Week 1 to Week 12) The events that lead to pregnancy begin ... and oxygen to the fetus. 2 Second Trimester (Week 13 to Week 28) At 16 weeks, and ...

  16. Dose dependent effect of GnRH analogue on pregnancy rate of repeat breeder crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Kharche, S D; Srivastava, S K

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treating repeat breeder dairy crossbred cows with different doses of GnRH analogue through i.m. at the time of artificial insemination, on pregnancy rates from their first service after treatment and overall pregnancy rates. One hundred and thirty seven crossbred dairy cows with a history of repeat breeding and eligible after 6-8 infertile services but clinically free of diseases were selected for the study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 55) cows were treated intramuscularly with each 20 microg Buserelin-acetate (Receptal, Hoechst Roussel Vet GmbH) at the time of artificial insemination. Group 2 (n = 40) cows were treated intramuscularly with each 10 microg Buserelin-acetate at the time of artificial insemination. Group 3 (n = 42) cows were treated intramuscularly with saline as control at the time of artificial insemination. The first service pregnancy rates in Groups 1-3 were 45, 25 and 17%, respectively. Similarly, the overall conception rates in Groups 1-3 were 87, 58 and 48%, respectively. The results indicated that the pregnancy rate in crossbred cows could be improved by the GnRH treatment. The higher dose of GnRH significantly increased (P < 0.05) the first service as well as overall pregnancy rate in a dose dependent manner in repeat breeder crossbred cow bred previously 6-8 times unsuccessfully. PMID:16787717

  17. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P < 0.04) explained by a logistic regression model that included the linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. The probability of each heifer to become pregnant according to DWG is explained by the follow equation: P(y = 1) = (Exp((-1.06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems. PMID:26431710

  18. Effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on acceptability ratings of sentences.

    PubMed

    Zervakis, Jennifer; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on grammatical acceptability ratings for both acceptable and unacceptable sentence types. In Experiment 1, subjects in the Experimental group rated multiple examples of two ungrammatical sentence types (ungrammatical binding and double object with dative-only verb), and two difficult to process sentence types [center-embedded (2) and garden path ambiguous relative], along with matched grammatical/non-difficult sentences, before rating a final set of experimental sentences. Subjects in the control group rated unrelated sentences during the exposure period before rating the experimental sentences. Subjects in the Experimental group rated both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences as more acceptable after repeated evaluation than subjects in the Control group. In Experiment 2, subjects answered a comprehension question after reading each sentence during the exposure period. Subjects in the experimental group rated garden path and center-embedded (1) sentences as higher in acceptability after comprehension exposure than subjects in the control group. The results are consistent with increased fluency of comprehension being misattributed as a change in acceptability.

  19. Effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on acceptability ratings of sentences.

    PubMed

    Zervakis, Jennifer; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on grammatical acceptability ratings for both acceptable and unacceptable sentence types. In Experiment 1, subjects in the Experimental group rated multiple examples of two ungrammatical sentence types (ungrammatical binding and double object with dative-only verb), and two difficult to process sentence types [center-embedded (2) and garden path ambiguous relative], along with matched grammatical/non-difficult sentences, before rating a final set of experimental sentences. Subjects in the control group rated unrelated sentences during the exposure period before rating the experimental sentences. Subjects in the Experimental group rated both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences as more acceptable after repeated evaluation than subjects in the Control group. In Experiment 2, subjects answered a comprehension question after reading each sentence during the exposure period. Subjects in the experimental group rated garden path and center-embedded (1) sentences as higher in acceptability after comprehension exposure than subjects in the control group. The results are consistent with increased fluency of comprehension being misattributed as a change in acceptability. PMID:23179954

  20. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  1. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs.

  2. Pregnancy rates with intrauterine insemination: comparing 1999 and 2010 World Health Organization semen analysis norms.

    PubMed

    Papillon-Smith, J; Baker, S E; Agbo, C; Dahan, M H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, The World Health Organization has serially measured norms for human sperm. In this study, 1999 and 2010 semen analysis norms as predictors of pregnancy were compared during intrauterine insemination (IUI). A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from the Stanford Fertility Center, between 2005 and 2007, with 981 couples undergoing 2231 IUI cycles. Collected semen was categorized according to total motile sperm counts (TMSC): 'normal (N.) 1999 TMSC', 'abnormal (AbN.) 1999/N. 2010 TMSC', or 'AbN. 2010 TMSC'. Sample comparison was also based on individual semen parameters: 'N. 1999 WHO', 'AbN. 1999/N. 2010 WHO', or 'AbN. 2010 WHO'. Pregnancy (defined by beta-HCG concentration) rates were calculated. Data were compared using correlation coefficients, t-tests and chi-squared tests, with and without adjusting for confounders. Pregnancy rate comparison based on TMSC ('N. 1999 TMSC', 'AbN. 1999/N. 2010 TMSC' and 'AbN. 2010 TMSC') showed a negative correlation (r = -0.41, P = 0.05). Pregnancy rate did not differ when comparisons were based on the presence of abnormal parameters, even when controlling for confounders. Therefore, TMSC based on the 1999 parameters shows best correlation with pregnancy rate for IUI; updating these norms in 2010 has little clinical implication in infertile populations.

  3. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Review and Approval § 300.20 Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. (a) Opportunity to comment. The Commission will publish in the Federal Register notice of any filing made...

  4. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be tired and need more rest. Your body will change as your baby grows during the nine months of your pregnancy. Don't hesitate to call your health care provider if you think you have a problem or something is bothering or worrying you.

  5. Stochastic optimization for the detection of changes in maternal heart rate kinetics during pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Barakat, R. O.; Cordente Martínez, C. A.; Sampedro Molinuevo, J.

    2011-03-01

    The stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV has been successfully applied to the problem of detecting possible changes in the maternal heart rate kinetics during pregnancy. For this reason, maternal heart rate data were recorded before, during and after gestation, during sessions of exercises of constant mild intensity; ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization was used to calculate the parameter values that optimally fit a dynamical systems model to the experimental data. The results not only demonstrate the effectiveness of ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization, but also have important implications in the area of exercise physiology, as they reveal important changes in the maternal cardiovascular dynamics, as a result of pregnancy.

  6. Reducing pregnancy and induced abortion rates in China: family planning with husband participation.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C C; Vittinghoff, E; Hua, L S; Yun, W H; Rong, Z M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effectiveness of a family planning intervention with and without husband's participation in reducing pregnancy and abortion rates in Shanghai, China. METHODS: In this 3-arm randomized trial among 1800 nonsterilized married women, educational interventions targeting both spouses and targeting the wife only were compared with usual family planning care. RESULTS: Among women not using intrauterine devices (IUDs), the intervention with husband's participation had an effect in reducing pregnancy rates (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12, 1.1) and abortion rates (adjusted OR = 0.29, CI = 0.09, 0.94) compared with control subjects, and a significant effect in reducing pregnancy rates (adjusted OR = 0.29, CI = 0.10, 0.85) and abortion rates (adjusted OR = 0.24, CI = 0.07, 0.77) compared with wife-only subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Family planning interventions involving husbands may reduce pregnancy and abortion rates among non-IUD users. PMID:9551010

  7. Effect of signs of oestrus, disease stressors and cow activity on pregnancy rate following artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Bijker, I; Christley, R M; Smith, R F; Dobson, H

    2015-04-18

    The objective was to examine (a) how pregnancy rate on one farm (500 cows) was affected by signs of oestrus and disease stressors and (b) whether pregnancy rate could be maximised by considering cow activity. The signs of oestrus and timings were recorded at artificial insemination (AI), and cow activity was monitored by neck collars. Pregnancy rate tended to be higher in animals that displayed standing oestrus (35 v 26 per cent; P=0.06) but was 10 per cent lower in those cows with an elevated somatic cell count (SCC; >200,000 cells/ml milk) within 0-4 or 4-8 weeks prior to AI (P=0.01 and 0.05, respectively), irrespective of the incidence of clinical mastitis prior to AI. Cow activity data were available for 525 inseminations (from a total of 1299). The mean interval from increased activity to AI in all cows (11 hours 32 minutes; 95 per cent CI 10 hours 40 minutes to 12 hours 24 minutes) was not different for cows that did or did not establish a pregnancy (P=0.90). The pregnancy rate improved to the average of unaffected cows if AI was delayed by about eight hours in animals with an elevated SCC 0-4 weeks prior to AI (P=0.025), indicating that, in cows with prior elevated SCC, AI could be repeated approximately eight hours later to achieve maximum pregnancy rates.

  8. Construct and Predictive Validity of Social Acceptability: Scores From High School Teacher Ratings on the School Intervention Rating Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…

  9. Effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri sorouri, Ziba; Asgharnia, Maryan; Gholampoor, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most appropriate and cost-effective methods in infertility treatment. Objective: We aimed to investigate effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after IUI. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten infertile women who were referred to Infertility Clinic of Alzahra Hospital by an indication of IUI during 2012-2013 were randomly assigned to receive 200 µg vaginal misoprostol (n=105) or vaginal placebo (n=105) after IUI. For detecting pregnancy, past 2 weeks, beta human chorionic gonadotropin evaluation was made and if positive, transvaginal sonography was done for evaluation of pregnancy 2-3 weeks later and clinical pregnancy was recorded. Results: Pregnancy had been noted in 24 patients in misoprotol (22.9%) and 27 patients in placebo (25.7%) groups that this difference was not significant (p=0.748). In misoprostol group, 3 case of nausea and vomiting (2.9%) had been observed. Conclusion: According to the results, administering 200 µg vaginal misoprostol after IUI doesn’t have significant effect on the success rate of IUI. PMID:25653670

  10. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  11. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study.

  12. Estimating the Attack Rate of Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis during a Large Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Maho; Routh, Janell A.; Klaber, Marigny; Gu, Weidong; Vanselow, Michelle S.; Jackson, Kelly A.; Sullivan-Chang, Loretta; Heinrichs, Gretchen; Jain, Neena; Albanese, Bernadette; Callaghan, William M.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Silk, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2011, a multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to contaminated cantaloupes raised concerns that many pregnant women might have been exposed to Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis during pregnancy can cause fetal death, premature delivery, and neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Little information is available to guide healthcare providers who care for asymptomatic pregnant women with suspected L. monocytogenes exposure. Methods. We tracked pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases using reportable diseases surveillance and enhanced surveillance for fetal death using vital records and inpatient fetal deaths data in Colorado. We surveyed 1,060 pregnant women about symptoms and exposures. We developed three methods to estimate how many pregnant women in Colorado ate the implicated cantaloupes, and we calculated attack rates. Results. One laboratory-confirmed case of listeriosis was associated with pregnancy. The fetal death rate did not increase significantly compared to preoutbreak periods. Approximately 6,500–12,000 pregnant women in Colorado might have eaten the contaminated cantaloupes, an attack rate of ~1 per 10,000 exposed pregnant women. Conclusions. Despite many exposures, the risk of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was low. Our methods for estimating attack rates may help during future outbreaks and product recalls. Our findings offer relevant considerations for management of asymptomatic pregnant women with possible L. monocytogenes exposure. PMID:25784782

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...

  14. Crossing beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss: pregnancy rate, calf survival, weaning age and rate.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W L; Bellows, R A; Urick, J J; Knapp, B W

    1986-07-01

    October pregnancy rate, calf survival to weaning, weaning age, weaning rate and actual kg of calf weaned/cow exposed were determined in a 4-yr study involving 880 matings of Angus (A), Hereford (H) and Charolais (C) sires to A, H, C and Brown Swiss (BS) dams. Cows were mated in single-sire herds for 45 or 60 d under pasture conditions; heifers were bred to produce their first calf at 3 yr of age. Pregnancy rate of lactating dams was 9.4% higher (P less than .01) than for non-lactating dams. Pregnancy rates for straightbred matings were 87.5%, 80.6% and 75.4%, respectively, for A, H and C groups (P less than .05). No differences (P greater than .10) due to sire breed were found for any of the traits studied except for calf age at weaning. Calves from C sires were younger (P less than .01) at weaning than calves from H and A sires. Breed-of-dam differences (P less than .05 to P less than .01) were found for all traits studied except calf survival rate. All BS dams produced crossbred calves and had lower pregnancy and weaning rates (both P less than .01), calves were younger at weaning (P less than .05), had lower kg of calf weaned/cow exposed (P less than .05) than for beef-breed dams producing crossbred calves. Crossbred calves from BS dams were 4.9, 11.0 and 3.4 d younger (P less than .05 to P less than .01) at weaning, respectively, than crossbred calves from H, A and C dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER...

  16. Long Cut Straw Provides Stable the Rates of Survival, Pregnancy and Live Birth for Vitrification of Human Blasotcysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Cha, Jeong-Ho; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seul-Ki; Cha, Hye-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Young; Pak, Kyung-Ah; Yoon, Ji-Sung; Park, Seo-Young; Park, Choon-keun

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor). The artificial shrinkage was conducted using 29-gauge needles. Ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.5% and 15% (v/v)) were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing and warming were conducted using the LCS tool. The cap of LCS was removed using the forceps in the liquid nitrogen (LN2) and then directly immersed into the first WS for 1 min at 37℃ (1 M sucrose). Only re-expanded blastocysts were transferred after it was cultured in sequential media for 18-20 h. A total of 294 blastocysts were warmed, and all were recovered (100%). Two hundred eighty-five embryos were survived (96.9%). The vitrifiedwarmed blastocysts of all patients were transferred without any cancellation. We were able to achieve a reasonable implantation (24.2%), following by clinical pregnancy (36.2%), which then continued to ongoing pregnancy (36.2%), and live birth (31.2%). Using LCS is achieved the acceptable rates of survival, pregnancy and live birth. Therefore, the LCS could be considered as a stable and simple tool for human embryo vitrificaton. PMID:27796003

  17. Pregnancy Rate after Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Intrauterine Insemination for the Treatment of Endometriosis following Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Keresztúri, Attila; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Daru, József; Pásztor, Norbert; Sikovanyecz, János; Zádori, János; Márton, Virág; Koloszár, Sándor; Szöllősi, János; Németh, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare pregnancy rate after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (COH-IUI) with no treatment in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility treated with laparoscopy. Design. A clinical cohort study. Setting. University-level tertiary care center. Patients. 238 women with various stages of endometriosis after laparoscopic treatment. Interventions. Either COH-IUI or follow-up for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. Predictive factors evaluated were female age, maternal BMI, and duration of infertility. Results. The pregnancy rate attained after the integrated laparoscopy–COH-IUI approach was 53.4%, while it was significantly lower (38.5%) in the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in live births (48.3% versus 34.2%). Patients with severe endometriosis were less likely to achieve pregnancy (38%) and live birth (35%) than their counterparts with milder forms (57% and 53%). Conclusions. In patients with endometriosis-based infertility, surgery followed by COH-IUI is more effective than surgery alone. PMID:26247014

  18. Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: insights from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-03-01

    Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health.

  19. Factors influencing pregnancy rate and late embryonic loss in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gábor, G; Tóth, F; Ozsvári, L; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs; Sasser, Rg

    2008-02-01

    This trial was conducted on three Hungarian dairy farms between March 2003 and April 2004. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of milk production and milk contents, the day after calving (DAC) and the sire for the pregnancy rate (PR) and late embryonic loss (LEL) in dairies. Five thousand three hundred and eighty insemination was carried out in this period. Pregnancies (n = 1969) were detected by BioPryn test from 3919 blood samples between 30-36 days post insemination (PI). Retention of pregnancy was determined by rectal palpation on Day 60. LEL has been determined by the optical density (OD) of blood samples/cutoff ratio and the serum progesterone (P4) concentration 30-36 days PI. According to serum progesterone concentration the authors predicted a presumed or possible embryonic loss or maintenance of the pregnancy. The efficiency of the artificial inseminations (AI) was significantly lower 60 days within post-partum. Significant positive correlation was found between the result of early and late PR and DAC and the milk protein/fat ratio. Significant negative correlation was detected between the early and late PR the milk protein and fat content. A later stage (60 days PI) of pregnancy the milk production has a negative effect for retaining of pregnancy. More data would be necessary to state that sires can influence the reproduction ability of their progenies. This is a really important issue, because the AI bulls have a great impact on the herds and the one-way selection may cause decreased fertility on breed level as well.

  20. Mental health, pregnancy and self-rated health in antenatal women attending primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Sonkusare, S; Adinegara; Hebbar, S

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the determinants of self rated health in the low-risk pregnant women of Melaka Tengah in Malaysia. A total of 387 subjects were analysed. The role of mental health, psychosocial stressors, support from husband, coping skills, socio-economic status and pregnancy characteristics in determining self- rated health were studied. Health items were taken from the Duke Health Profile. Bad obstetric history, poor mental health, stress from the family were found to be significantly associated with poor self - rated health whereas good support from the husband was related to good self - rated health. PMID:18705476

  1. Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L

    2011-08-01

    The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy

  2. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P < 0.05) in C (28.00%) and SC (55.56%) compared with W (69.57%) on Day 25 after first AI. Pregnancy rates reduced to 60.87%, 44.45%, and 16.00% in W, SC, and C, respectively, at Day 45 after insemination. Thus, the embryonic loss was 8.7%, 11.11%, and 12.00 % in W, SC, and C cows, respectively. Pregnancy rates decreased between 44.32% and 50.51% when mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P < 0.05) in W than SC and C cows starting at Day 9 postbreeding onward. Likewise, P4 concentrations on Days 9 through 25 after AI were greater (P < 0.05) in W cows as compared to SC and C cows. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) were found on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after AI between CL diameter and P4 concentrations. Similar trend was found among CL diameter, P4 concentrations, and pregnancy rate. Accordingly, incidence of mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. PMID:27177967

  3. Improving access to emergency contraception under the Scottish Sexual Health Strategy: can rates of unintended pregnancy be reduced?

    PubMed

    McGowan, James G

    2013-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a global sexual health problem. Outcomes of unintended pregnancy include unwanted childbirth and abortion, which may be associated with negative physical and psychosocial health implications for women. In Scotland, the Scottish Sexual Health Strategy has the stated goal of improving the sexual health of the people of Scotland. One aim of the Strategy is to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and one policy designed to achieve this is 'widening access to emergency contraception'. This paper examines the success of this policy with reference to the implicit link it makes between expanding access to emergency contraception and increasing its effective use, aiming thereby to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy. Since there is evidence that previous policies and strategies expanding access to emergency contraception have failed to reduce such rates, alternative approaches to achieve a reduction in unintended pregnancies are discussed.

  4. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) < 20 × 106/ejaculated, and unexplained infertility if spermiogram is normal with normal female factor. The aim: of this study was to determine the predictive value of TMSC for spontaneous pregnancy (ST) and pregnancy after treatment with intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with male factor and unexplained infertility. What is known already: According to the WHO qualification system abnormal spermiogram can be diagnosed as oligozoospermia (O), asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl <3 x 106 / ejaculate and pregnancy after IUI, plus couples who have not achieved SP with TMSC> 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p <0.05) in the group A compared to group B. Couples with TMSC 1-5 × 106 ejaculate had significantly lower (9.8% vs. 22.2%, p <0.0001) rate of spontaneous pregnancy in comparison to couples after IUI treatment. Couples with unexplained infertility had significantly higher (56.8% vs. 29.9%, p <0.01) spontaneous pregnancy rate compared to couples after IUI treatment. Infertile couples had significant pregnancy rate with TMSC 5-10 x 106 / ejaculate (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.26-1.78, <0

  5. Acceptable bit-rates for human face identification from CCTV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifouti, Anastasia; Triantaphillidou, Sophie; Bilissi, Efthimia; Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to produce recommendations for acceptable bit-rates of CCTV footage of people onboard London buses. The majority of CCTV recorders on buses use a proprietary format based on the H.264/AVC video coding standard, exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy. Low bit-rates are favored in the CCTV industry but they compromise the image usefulness of the recorded imagery. In this context usefulness is defined by the presence of enough facial information remaining in the compressed image to allow a specialist to identify a person. The investigation includes four steps: 1) Collection of representative video footage. 2) The grouping of video scenes based on content attributes. 3) Psychophysical investigations to identify key scenes, which are most affected by compression. 4) Testing of recording systems using the key scenes and further psychophysical investigations. The results are highly dependent upon scene content. For example, very dark and very bright scenes were the most challenging to compress, requiring higher bit-rates to maintain useful information. The acceptable bit-rates are also found to be dependent upon the specific CCTV system used to compress the footage, presenting challenges in drawing conclusions about universal `average' bit-rates.

  6. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem.

  7. Follicle turnover and pregnancy rates following oestrus synchronization protocols in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, G A; Senatore, E M; De Santis, G; Bella, A

    2005-10-01

    An ultrasound assessment of follicle turnover following two different protocols for synchronization of oestrus and ovulation, as well as an assessment of achieved synchronization between ovulation and AI and conception rates in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes were carried out during months of increasing day length. Nulliparous buffaloes (n = 30) were subjected only to Ovsynch protocol whereas pluriparous buffaloes (n = 31) were assigned to Ovsynch (n = 14) or to PRID-pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) (n = 17) protocol according to the presence of functional CL confirming cyclic and acyclic conditions. Ultrasound examination of ovarian follicular dynamics at critical days in the course of synchronization treatments was employed to monitor the fate of the largest available follicles at the beginning of treatments. Such available dominant follicle would persist throughout the protocol as ovulating follicle (no-follicle shift) or would regress giving way to a new follicle to become dominant and ovulate (follicle shift). Furthermore, ultrasound monitoring would determine the degree of synchronization of ovulation and final outcome represented by pregnancy rates. Pregnancy rate following Ovsynch protocol was 40% (12/30) and 42.8% (6/14) in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (p = 0.8575). Most ovulations were synchronized and recorded at AI and the following day in nulliparous (24/30; 80%) and pluriparous (12/14; 85.7%) buffaloes respectively (p = 1.000). A follicle shift was recorded in 14 of 30 (46.6%) and 11 of 14 (78.5%) in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (p = 0.0466). Among established pregnancies: eight derived from follicle shift (66.6%) and four from no-follicle shift (33.3%) in nulliparous buffaloes, p = 0.0729 whereas in pluriparous buffaloes five (83.3%) derived from follicle shift and one from no-follicle shift (16.6%), p = 0.6154. Collectively, from 18 pregnancies in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes

  8. Follicle turnover and pregnancy rates following oestrus synchronization protocols in Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, G A; Senatore, E M; De Santis, G; Bella, A

    2005-10-01

    An ultrasound assessment of follicle turnover following two different protocols for synchronization of oestrus and ovulation, as well as an assessment of achieved synchronization between ovulation and AI and conception rates in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes were carried out during months of increasing day length. Nulliparous buffaloes (n = 30) were subjected only to Ovsynch protocol whereas pluriparous buffaloes (n = 31) were assigned to Ovsynch (n = 14) or to PRID-pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) (n = 17) protocol according to the presence of functional CL confirming cyclic and acyclic conditions. Ultrasound examination of ovarian follicular dynamics at critical days in the course of synchronization treatments was employed to monitor the fate of the largest available follicles at the beginning of treatments. Such available dominant follicle would persist throughout the protocol as ovulating follicle (no-follicle shift) or would regress giving way to a new follicle to become dominant and ovulate (follicle shift). Furthermore, ultrasound monitoring would determine the degree of synchronization of ovulation and final outcome represented by pregnancy rates. Pregnancy rate following Ovsynch protocol was 40% (12/30) and 42.8% (6/14) in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (p = 0.8575). Most ovulations were synchronized and recorded at AI and the following day in nulliparous (24/30; 80%) and pluriparous (12/14; 85.7%) buffaloes respectively (p = 1.000). A follicle shift was recorded in 14 of 30 (46.6%) and 11 of 14 (78.5%) in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes respectively (p = 0.0466). Among established pregnancies: eight derived from follicle shift (66.6%) and four from no-follicle shift (33.3%) in nulliparous buffaloes, p = 0.0729 whereas in pluriparous buffaloes five (83.3%) derived from follicle shift and one from no-follicle shift (16.6%), p = 0.6154. Collectively, from 18 pregnancies in nulliparous and pluriparous buffaloes

  9. The impact of progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination in patients developing a single follicle.

    PubMed

    Güven, Davut; Batıoğlu, Ali; Sari, Seher; Bakay, Kadir

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether progesterone support affects pregnancy rates in patients who develop a single follicle. This was a non-randomized prospective controlled study performed on 591 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles that developed a single follicle; 337 women received 100 mg oral progesterone daily. The pregnancy rate was 24.3%, or 82 out of 337, in the group receiving progesterone support compared with 14.96%, or 254 out of 591, in the group with no progesterone support. IUI luteal phase supplementation with oral progesterone may improve clinical pregnancy rates when begun the day after insemination. PMID:27321474

  10. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. Objective: The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. Results: In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. Conclusion: The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates. PMID:26494990

  11. Pages from a Sociometric Notebook: An Analysis of Nomination and Rating Scale Measures of Acceptance, Rejection, and Social Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie; Hoza, Betsy; Newcomb, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a conceptual and empirical analysis of the associations between the fundamental sociometric dimensions of acceptance, rejection, and social preference. Examines whether nomination and rating scale measures index the same constructs. Notes that sociometric ratings measure social preference, but can also yield indicators of acceptance and…

  12. Effect of early pregnancy diagnosis by per rectum amniotic sac palpation on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Romano, Juan E; Bryan, Kelsey; Ramos, Roney S; Velez, Juan; Pinedo, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of per rectal amniotic sac palpation (ASP) for pregnancy diagnosis during the late embryonic period on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled, randomized, blocked, blind experiment containing 680 lactating pregnant dairy cows with a viable embryo diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography was performed. Two dairy operation sites (farm A and farm B) were selected. At each farm, the cows were randomly divided into control (CON) and ASP groups. The CON group was not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via per rectum palpation. The ASP examinations were performed by one experienced veterinarian between Days 34 and 45 after breeding. All cows were reevaluated by transrectal ultrasonography only between 2 and 4 weeks later. Two calving rates were calculated: calving rate 1 (cows that calved from the initial number of pregnant cows) and calving rate 2 (cows that calved from cows pregnant at reexamination). In farm A, the percentages of early pregnancy loss were 11.5% (19 of 165) and 13.2% (24 of 182) for the CON and the ASP groups, respectively (P = 0.64). In farm B, the percentage of early pregnancy loss was 11.2% (19 of 170) for the CON group and 8.8% (14 of 159; P = 0.48) for the ASP group. In farm A, the percentage of late pregnancy loss was 7.6% (11 of 145) for the CON group and 5.5% (8 of 155; P = 0.39) for the ASP group. In farm B, the percentage of late pregnancy loss was 3.7% (5 of 137) for the CON group and 6.3% (8 of 127; P = 0.32) for the ASP group. In farm A, early pregnancy loss was higher than late pregnancy loss (12.4% vs. 6.3%; P = 0.01), and in farm B, the same tendency was detected (10.0% vs. 4.9%, for early and late pregnancy loss, respectively; P = 0.02). In farm A, calving rate 1 was 81.2% (134 of 165) for the CON group and 80.8% (147 of 182; P = 0.92) for the ASP group. Calving rate 2 for the same groups was 92.4% (134 of 145) and 94.8% (147 of 155

  13. Effect of increasing paternal body mass index on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Umul, M; Köse, S A; Bilen, E; Altuncu, A G; Oksay, T; Güney, M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possible effect of paternal obesity on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes on the basis of clinical pregnancy outcome. Antropometric measurements of 155 couples, referred to our infertility clinic and who underwent an ICSI cycle, have been evaluated. The study sample were divided into three groups with respect to paternal body mass index (BMI), as normal weight (BMI: 20-24.9), overweight (BMI: 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30). Results of conventional semen analysis were also analysed. Clinical pregnancy data, including fertilisation rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, were evaluated. Paternal obesity was a significant negative factor for sperm concentration and sperm motility (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease of clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate was associated with increased paternal BMI (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). We have not determined a significant difference among groups in terms of fertilisation rate and implantation rate. This study demonstrates that increasing paternal BMI has a negative influence on ICSI success, including clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. There is a need for further studies to point the importance of lifestyle changes in order to overcome the negative influence of paternal obesity on couple's fertility.

  14. Impact of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist addition on pregnancy rates in gonadotropin-stimulated intrauterine insemination cycles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shikha; Majumdar, Abha

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in improving clinical pregnancy rate in gonadotropin-stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in patients of unexplained infertility. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized case-controlled study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in the infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred twenty-seven women undergoing IUI following controlled ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins (recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone [r-FSH] 75 IU/day) were randomly divided into two groups. Women in Group I received GnRH antagonist (Cetrorelix 0.25 mg/day) in a multiple dose flexible protocol. Women in Group II received r-FSH alone. Ovulatory trigger was given with human chorionic gonadotropin 5000 IU when dominant follicle was ≥18 mm. IUI was performed within 44–48 h. Both groups received similar luteal phase support. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. The trial was powered to detect an absolute increase in clinical pregnancy rate by 13% from an assumed 20% clinical pregnancy rate in the control group, with an alpha error level of 0.05 and a beta error level of 0.20. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate in Groups I and II was 27.6% (n = 56) and 26.5% (n = 54), respectively (P=0.800). Ongoing pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rates were likewise similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of GnRH antagonist to gonadotropin-stimulated IUI cycles results in no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate. PMID:27803582

  15. Initial study of wild horse and burro demography: determination of pregnancy and lactation rates in various herds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, M.L.; Ellis, L.C.

    1982-11-30

    Blood serum concentrations of reproductive hormones were used to estimate pregnancy rates in 558 wild and free-roaming horses (Equus caballus) from Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming; and 165 burros from California. Levels of progesterone, pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG), and estradiol 17B were determined by radioimmunoassay procedures. Based on comparison with the results of pregnancy diagnosis from rectal palpations (n =124), the following endocrine concentrations were established as criteria sufficient to indicate pregnancy: progesterone, 0.05 ng/ml; and/or PMSG, 3.0 mg/ml; and/or estradiol, 300 pg/ml. Estimated accuracy of pregnancy diagnoses from endocrine criteria was 80 to 85 percent. The mean incidence of pregnancy among mares sampled from Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming was 58.4 percent, 69.2 percent, and 85.3 percent respectively.

  16. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

  17. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point. PMID:23212835

  18. Timing of hCG administration does not affect pregnancy rates in couples undergoing intrauterine insemination using clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Paul A.; Robins, Jared C.; Thomas, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic intrauterine insemination (IUI) combined with clomiphene citrate ovarian stimulation is widely used to improve pregnancy rates for a variety of disorders. The goal of this study was to elucidate whether hCG administration at 24 or 36 hours after clomiphene citrate stimulation impacts pregnancy rates. METHODS: The study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of 182 clomiphene citrate/IUI cycles in 90 women at the Center for Reproductive Health at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Comparisons were made between IUls performed at 24 hours versus 36 hours after hCG. Clinical variables included age of the female partner, semen concentration and motility, and infertility diagnosis. Outcomes were pregnancy rates and live birth rates. Data analysis was performed using Chi square for proportions and Student's t-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: The pregnancy rate was 7% in the 24-hour group and 15.9% in the 36-hour group (P=0.057). However, the live birth rate was 4.0% in the 24-hour group and 8.5% in the 36-hour group (P=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rates in couples utilizing clomiphene citrate and undergoing IUI, whether hCG is administered at 24 hours or 36 hours prior to the procedure. PMID:15586646

  19. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses potential management risk factors affecting the incidence of twin pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy. Possible factors affecting the twin pregnancy rate were analyzed through binary logistic regression procedures on 2015 pregnant cows from July 2010 to July 2011. Twin pregnancy was recorded in 361 of the 2015 pregnancy diagnoses made (17.9%). Twin pregnancy rates differed among herds (P < 0.001) and ranged from 12.4% to 23.9%. Based on the odds ratios, the risk of twin pregnancy was reduced by factors of 0.65 or 0.71 when AI was performed during the warm season or an increasing photoperiod, respectively and increased by a factor of 1.11 for each unit increase in lactation number; by factors of 4.57 or 6.33 in cows that received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 500 or 750 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 28 days before the pregnancy AI, respectively; by a factor of 2.39 in cows with an ovarian cyst diagnosed in the 14 days prior to AI and treated with prostaglandins (PG); by factors of 1.94 or 3.91 in cows that received two PG doses during the 14 days prior to AI or cows that following failed PRID treatment had received PG started over the 28 days prior to AI, respectively; and by a factor of 2.58 in cows that had previously delivered twins compared to cows delivering singletons. Our results indicate that cow factors, such as lactation number and previous twining, as well as environmental factors, such as photoperiod and season and management related to synchronization protocols affect significantly the incidence of twin pregnancies.

  20. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P<0.001). There was no effect of diet on plasma ammonia (P=0.12), plasma glucose (P=0.40), uterine pH (P=0.67), interval to estrus (P=0.54), duration of estrus (P=0.38), or pregnancy rate (P=0.83). There was no effect of diet (P>0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction. PMID:27609357

  1. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P<0.001). There was no effect of diet on plasma ammonia (P=0.12), plasma glucose (P=0.40), uterine pH (P=0.67), interval to estrus (P=0.54), duration of estrus (P=0.38), or pregnancy rate (P=0.83). There was no effect of diet (P>0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction.

  2. High Rates of Pregnancy among Vocational School Students: Results of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Survey in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Kilmarx, Peter H.; van Griensven, Frits; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchi; Uthaiworavit, Wat

    2003-01-01

    Examined prevalence of and factors associated with pregnancy and abortion among vocation school students in northern Thailand. Age, current contraceptive use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual coercion were associated with self or partner pregnancy. High rates of pregnancy and abortion indicate the need for…

  3. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish warmblood stallions and their relationship to pregnancy rates

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Jane M; Johannisson, Anders; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Hammar, Linda; Sandebert, Thomas; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination is not as widely used in horses as in other domestic species, such as dairy cattle and pigs, partly because of the wide variation in sperm quality between stallion ejaculates and partly due to decreased fertility following the use of cooled transported spermatozoa. Furthermore, predictive tests for sperm fertilising ability are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in ejaculates obtained from 11 warmblood breeding stallions in Sweden, and to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to pregnancy rates to investigate the possibility of using these tests predictively. Methods Aliquots from fortyone ejaculates, obtained as part of the normal semen collection schedule at the Swedish National Stud, were used for morphological analysis by light microscopy, whereas thirtyseven were used for chromatin analysis (SCSA) by flow cytometry. The outcome of inseminations using these ejaculates was made available later in the same year. Results Ranges for the different parameters were as follows; normal morphology, 27–79.5%; DNA-fragmentation index (DFI), 4.8–19.0%; standard deviation of DNA fragmentation index (SD_DFI) 41.5–98.9, and mean of DNA fragmentation index (mean_DFI), 267.7–319.5. There was considerable variation among stallions, which was statistically significant for all these parameters except for mean_DFI (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.2 respectively). There was a negative relationship between normal morphology and DFI (P < 0.05), between normal morphology and SD_DFI (P < 0.001), and between normal morphology and mean_DFI (P < 0.05). For specific defects, there was a direct relationship between the incidence of pear-shaped sperm heads and DFI (P < 0.05), and also nuclear pouches and DFI (P < 0.001), indicating that either morphological analysis or chromatin analysis was able to identify abnormalities in spermiogenesis that could compromise DNA

  4. The effect of endometrial injury on pregnancy rate in frozen-thawed embryo transfer: A randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Abbas; Baradaran Bagheri, Ramesh; Hosseinisadat, Robabe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implantation failure is one of the most important factors limiting success in IVF treatment. The majority of trials have demonstrated favorable effect of endometrial injury on implantation success rate especially in women with recurrent implantation failure, while some studies failed to detect any benefit. Objective: The purpose of our trial was to explore whether endometrial injury in luteal phase prior to frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles would improve pregnancy outcomes? Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial of 93 consecutive subjects at a research and clinical center for infertility. All women were undergone frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTE) cycles. Women in the experimental group underwent endometrial biopsy with a Pipelle catheter in luteal phase proceeding FET cycle. Primary outcomes were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates and secondary outcomes were chemical, ongoing and multiple pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Results: 45 subjects who underwent endometrial injury (EI) were compared with 48 control group which did not include any uterine manipulation. There were no significant differences in baseline and cycle characteristics between two groups. The difference in implantation rate was trend to statistically significance, 11.8% in EI group vs. 20.5% in control group (p=0.091). The chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were lower in EI group compared with control group but not statistically significant. The multiple pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate also were lower in EI group compared with control group. Conclusion: Based on results of this study, local injury to endometrium in luteal phase prior to FET cycle had a negative impact on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. PMID:27525329

  5. Chemical exposure of embryos during the preimplantation stages of pregnancy: mortality rate and intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Fabro, S; McLachlan, J A; Dames, N M

    1984-04-01

    Exposure of CD-1 mouse embryos at the eight- to 16-cell stage for 1 hour to methylmethanesulfonate (MMS; 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) produced DNA breakage and interfered with embryonic development in a dose-related manner. MMS-exposed blastocysts were transferred to oviducts of untreated recipient female mice, and the conceptuses were allowed to develop to term. MMS exposure resulted in an increased intrauterine death rate, although the number of implantation sites was not decreased. Surviving MMS-treated offspring showed intrauterine growth retardation, but there was no increase in the incidence of gross abnormalities. Intrauterine growth retardation, without an increase in gross abnormalities, was also observed in the offspring of pregnant New Zealand White rabbits dosed during the preimplantation stages of pregnancy with an "environmental cocktail" composed of ethanol, nicotine, caffeine, sodium salicylate, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT). When the compounds were tested individually, nicotine and DDT were the only two that produced intrauterine growth retardation. DDT-treated 8-day rabbit conceptuses were smaller than controls and showed abnormal persistence of preimplantation proteins in the yolk sac fluid. These results suggest that exposure to chemicals during the preimplantation stages of pregnancy may result in a cessation of growth and development before implantation or during later intrauterine development. Damage can be repaired but it may result in offspring that show intrauterine growth retardation without gross abnormalities. PMID:6711631

  6. User and Provider Acceptability of Intermittent Screening and Treatment and Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; Achieng, Florence; Ouma, Peter; L’lanziva, Anne; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Webster, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alongside long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) and case management for reducing the risks associated with malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate-to-high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to increasing Plasmodium falciparum resistance to SP, the search for alternative drugs or strategies to control malaria in pregnancy is a priority. We assessed the acceptability among pregnant women and health providers of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) and IPTp with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) as alternative strategies in the context of an un-blinded clinical trial. Methods Qualitative data were collected through ten focus group discussions with women participating in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate ISTp or IPTp with DP (multi-day regimen) versus IPTp with SP (single dose) in western Kenya. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 health providers working in the trial facilities and trial staff. Results Women appreciated the advantages of being tested with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) at every ANC visit (although a few women disliked finger pricks) and accepted that they would not receive any antimalarial when tested RDT-negative. There were differences in women’s experiences of the efficacy of antimalarials between the trial arms, with more women in the IPTp-SP arm reporting they had experienced malaria episodes. Side effects were experienced among women taking DP and SP. Although women and trial staff reported adherence to the full DP regimen within the trial, health providers were not confident that women would adhere to multi-day regimens in non-trial settings. Health providers recognized the advantages of ISTp in reducing unnecessary exposure to drugs, but lacked confidence in the reliability of RDTs compared to microscopy. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, within a

  7. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Hall, David W

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  8. Influence of UAS Pilot Communication and Execution Delay on Controller's Acceptability Ratings of UAS-ATC Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Morales, Gregory; Chiappe, Dan; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Jay; Buker, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Successful integration of UAS in the NAS will require that UAS interactions with the air traffic management system be similar to interactions between manned aircraft and air traffic management. For example, UAS response times to air traffic controller (ATCo) clearances should be equivalent to those that are currently found to be acceptable with manned aircraft. Prior studies have examined communication delays with manned aircraft. Unfortunately, there is no analogous body of research for UAS. The goal of the present study was to determine how UAS pilot communication and execution delays affect ATCos' acceptability ratings of UAS pilot responses when the UAS is operating in the NAS. Eight radar-certified controllers managed traffic in a modified ZLA sector with one UAS flying in it. In separate scenarios, the UAS pilot verbal communication and execution delays were either short (1.5 s) or long (5 s) and either constant or variable. The ATCo acceptability of UAS pilot communication and execution delays were measured subjectively via post trial ratings. UAS verbal pilot communication delay, were rated as acceptable 92% of the time when the delay was short. This acceptability level decreased to 64% when the delay was long. UAS pilot execution delay had less of an influence on ATCo acceptability ratings in the present stimulation. Implications of these findings for UAS in the NAS integration are discussed.

  9. Rates of Fetal Polydrug Exposures in Methadone-Maintained Pregnancies from a High-Risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Delano, Kaitlyn; Gareri, Joey; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of MMT engagement in high-risk pregnant women in reducing polydrug use by objective laboratory examination of neonatal meconium. Patients and Methods Over a 29-month period, the Motherisk Laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto analyzed meconium samples as per request by social services and hospitals for drugs of abuse. Results Of the 904 meconium samples received, 273 were tested for methadone with 164 positive and 109 negative for methadone. Almost half of the methadone positive samples (46.34%) were also positive for at least one other opioid compound, which did not differ statistically from the methadone-negative control samples (46.79%; Chi square test, p=0.94). No differences were found between the methadone positive and negative groups in rates of concurrent amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol use indicating a similar risk of polydrug use between pregnant women taking or not taking methadone in this population. Discussion The high rates of additional opioid and other drug use in the MMT group, suggest that MMT is failing this population of patients. It is possible that methadone doses during pregnancy are not appropriately adjusted for changes in pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g. blood volume, renal function) during the second and third trimesters. This may result in sub-therapeutic dosing creating withdrawal symptoms leading to additional substance use. Alternatively, these results may be demonstrating a substantial lack in

  10. High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, MaLinda D.; Hankerson, Sarah J.; Siani, Jennifer M.; French, Jeffrey A.; Dietz, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with high rates of reproduction and successful infant rearing. The goal of this study was to re-assess monogyny in wild golden lion tamarin groups based upon pregnancy diagnoses that used non-invasive enzyme immunoassay for progesterone and cortisol, combined with weekly data on individual weight gain, bi-annual physical examinations noting pregnancy and lactation status and daily behavioral observations. We established quantitative and qualitative criteria to detect and determine the timing of pregnancies that did not result in the birth of infants. Pregnancy polygyny occurred in 83% of golden lion tamarin groups studied. The loss of 64% of subordinate pregnancies compared to only 15% by dominant females limited reproductive success mainly to dominant females, thus maintaining high reproductive skew in female golden lion tamarins. Pregnancy loss by subordinate adults did not appear to result from dominant interference in subordinate hormonal mechanisms, but more likely resulted from subordinate abandonment of newborn infants to mitigate dominant aggression. PMID:23454002

  11. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Madani, Tahereh; Movahedi, Mina; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Karimian, Leili; Mirzaagha, Elaheh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A) was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy. PMID:26644851

  12. Pregnancy rate and birth outcomes among women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Poda, Armel; Hema, Arsène; Konaté, Aina; Kaboré, Firmin; Zoungrana, Jacques; Kamboulé, Euloges; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouédraogo, Macaire; Meda, Nicolas; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies reported pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). This survey aims to estimate the incidence and outcomes of pregnancy in a cohort of HIV positive women initiating ART in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study. We selected women in childbearing age initiating ART and followed up in Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. The incidence of pregnancies during follow-up was calculated. Childbirth was defined by the expulsion of a fetus after 22 weeks of amenorrhea. Before this term, it is an abortion. Childbirth is said premature if it occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, to term if it occurs between the 38th and the 42nd week. The annual age-standardized fertility rates were calculated using the baseline population from the 2010 demographic and health survey (DHS) in Burkina Faso. Results A total of 1,763 women of childbearing age under ART were included in the study. They ranged between 18 and 48 years old with a median of 35 years old. A total of 222 pregnancies were observed during 4639 women-years of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence density of 5 pregnancies for 100 women-years (95% CI: 4.2-5.5). Among the 222 pregnancies recorded, 9(4.0%) ended with abortion, 205(92.4%) with childbirth (including 15 premature childbirths); the outcome of 8(3.6%) pregnancies were unknown abortion. Live birth and stillborn rates were 94.0% (193/205) and 6.0% respectively. The standard fertility rate in our cohort was 45 live births for 1,000 women-years. The general decrease in fertility rates was 66.0% among women infected with HIV compared to the overall population Conclusion This study shows a low pregnancy incidence among women initiating ART as compared to their peers from the general population. Pregnancies that occurred during ART generally end with live births. Care packages for HIV infected women of

  13. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in Ireland: methods and response rates.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Linda M; Kearney, Patricia M; Greene, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers' information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland. PMID:24912944

  14. Resuspending ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma after cryopreservation does not improve pregnancy rate in cervically inseminated ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, C M; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Duffy, P; Fair, S; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2007-04-15

    The role of seminal plasma (SP) components on the maintenance of motility, viability and fertilising ability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa is of considerable interest. However, differences observed in constituents of SP among males could explain differences in fertility obtained in vivo. Two experiments were designed to examine the effects of seminal plasma on fertility from cervically inseminated frozen-thawed semen. The objective of Experiment 1 was to investigate if source or type of SP influences pregnancy rate. Seminal plasma was collected from rams previously classified as having either High (HSP; n=3) or Low (LSP; n=3) fertility in vivo. Artificial SP (fructose/sodium solution with 10% BSA; ASP) was made. Frozen semen from the same 6 rams was thawed and inseminated (Control) or resuspended either in HSP, LSP or ASP (20% in semen) prior to insemination of ewes (n=284, over 2 farms). The overall pregnancy rate was 28.1%. Treatments (Control, ASP, HSP and LSP) were not significantly different (P>0.3). There was no difference between HSP and LSP (P>0.5), and no effect of using ASP compared to ram SP (P>0.7), on pregnancy rate. As there was no effect of SP on pregnancy rate a repeat experiment (Experiment 2) was designed to test the effect of washing and selecting motile sperm prior to resuspending in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing SP on pregnancy rate. Frozen-thawed semen from each of 2 rams was centrifuged through a density gradient, pellets were centrifuged through a wash medium and the sperm concentration/ram was counted. Sperm cells were resuspended in: (1) control PBS, (2) PBS containing 30% HSP or (3) PBS containing 30% LSP to give 100 x 10(6) motile sperm in 0.25 mL. Control straws were thawed and inseminated directly. Ewes (n=223 over 2 farms) were inseminated 57 h post-sponge withdrawal and those not returning to oestrus were slaughtered 29-50 days post-insemination for pregnancy determination. In Experiment 2, the pregnancy rate for Control

  15. Effect of pubertal status and number of estrous cycles prior to the breeding season on pregnancy rate in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate whether pubertal status prior to breeding influences pregnancy rate in beef heifers. Records were collected at West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte, NE from 2002 to 2011 (Exp. 1; n = 1,005) and Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman,...

  16. Prevalence Rates and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Depression in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotlib, Ian H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined prevalence of depression in 360 women during pregnancy and after delivery. At both assessments, approximately 25 percent reported elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. Ten percent met diagnostic criteria for depression during pregnancy; 6.8 percent were depressed postpartum. One-half of postpartum depression cases were new onset.…

  17. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. Methods A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. Results The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1–2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4–4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1–1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Conclusions Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used. PMID:26760299

  18. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors.

  19. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors. PMID:27651720

  20. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p < 0.0001) when entering pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the odds ratio of obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p < 0.0001). This study showed a strong association between maternal obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  1. Emergency contraception with a Copper IUD or oral levonorgestrel: an observational study of 1-year pregnancy rates

    PubMed Central

    Turok, David K.; Jacobson, Janet C.; Dermish, Amna I.; Simonsen, Sara E.; Gurtcheff, Shawn; McFadden, Molly; Murphy, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the one-year pregnancy rates for emergency contraception (EC) users who selected the copper T380 IUD or oral levonorgestrel (LNG) for EC. Study Design This prospective study followed women for 1 year after choosing either the copper T380 IUD or oral LNG for EC. The study was powered to detect a 6% difference in pregnancy rates within the year after presenting for EC. Results Of the 542 women who presented for EC, agreed to participate in the trial, and meet inclusion criteria, 215 (40%) chose the copper IUD and 327 (60%) chose oral LNG. In the IUD group, 127 (59%) were nulligravid. IUD insertion failed in 42 women (19%). The 1-year follow-up rate was 443/542 (82%); 64% of IUD users contacted at 1 year still had their IUDs in place. The 1-year cumulative pregnancy rate in women choosing the IUD was 6.5% vs. 12.2% in those choosing oral LNG (HR= 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29–0.97, p=0.041). By type of EC method actually received, corresponding values were 5.2% for copper IUD users vs. 12.3% for oral LNG users, HR 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20–0.85, p= 0.017). A multivariable logistic regression model controlling for demographic variables demonstrates that women who chose the IUD for EC had fewer pregnancies in the following year than those who chose oral LNG (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26–0.96, p=0.037). Conclusion One year after presenting for EC women choosing the copper IUD for EC were half as likely to have a pregnancy compared to those choosing oral LNG. PMID:24332433

  2. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  3. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    PubMed Central

    Signorini, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring. PMID:24639886

  4. Increased plasma cell-free DNA is associated with low pregnancy rates among women undergoing IVF-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Douvdevani, Amos; Levitas, Eliahu; Har-Vardi, Iris

    2013-01-01

    This prospective repeated measures study was designed to examine the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations during ovarian stimulation and the relationship between cfDNA concentration and pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF-embryo transfer. The study examined 37 women undergoing IVF treatment in an IVF unit in a university medical centre in southern Israel. cfDNA concentrations were measured by a direct fluorescence assay, pregnancy rates were identified by plasma β human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) concentrations and verified by vaginal ultrasound to determine gestational sac and fetal heart beats. Throughout the IVF cycle, at the three time points measured, the mean concentration of plasma cfDNA among all participants did not statistically significantly change. However, on the day of βHCG test in patients undergoing IVF-embryo transfer, plasma cfDNA concentrations were statistically significantly higher among women who did not conceive in comparison to those who conceived. Plasma cfDNA may reflect the presence of factors which interfere with embryo implantation. Further research is required to determine the usefulness of cfDNA as a biomarker of IVF outcome and to examine the underlying pathologies as potential sources for increased plasma cfDNA concentrations. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is particles of DNA which are released from the cell nucleus and are found in high concentrations during a variety of illnesses and injuries. This study was designed to examine the cfDNA concentrations during IVF treatment and the relationship between cfDNA concentration in the bloodstream and pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF. This study examined 37 women in treatment at the IVF unit of the University Medical Centre in southern Israel. cfDNA concentrations in the bloodstream were measured at three time points by a direct test. Pregnancy rates were identified by pregnancy hormone concentrations in the bloodstream and verified by vaginal ultrasound to determine a pregnancy

  5. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-07-03

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer.

  6. Low-dose growth hormone supplementation increases clinical pregnancy rate in poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Lattes, Karinna; Brassesco, Mario; Gomez, Manuel; Checa, Miguel A

    2015-07-01

    Poor ovarian response (POR) often means low success rates after in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We aim to study the impact of a low-dose growth hormone (GH) supplementation in pregnancy rates in poor responders in a prospective, self-controlled study of 64 poor responders to previous IVF cycles, who failed to achieve pregnancy and were supplemented with low-doses of GH in a subsequent cycle using the same gonadotropin dose and protocol. Our primary endpoint was the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), considering secondary endpoints, the number of retrieved oocytes, embryos, embryo quality and the proportion of cycles with embryo transfer. CPR in the GH group was 34.4%. Significant differences were observed for the GH group both in the number of top quality embryos (0.64 ± 0.88 versus 1.03 ± 1.17, p < 0.05) and cryopreserved embryos (0.3 ± 0.81 versus 0.85 ± 1.49, p < 0.05). This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical trial to use a low dose of GH as a supplement for IVF in POR patients. Despite this low dose, we achieved excellent success rates in patients with a very poor prognosis, at a reasonable cost and without side effects, which makes this a safe and cost-effective alternative.

  7. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  8. Has Roe v. Wade Reduced U.S. Crime Rates?: Examining the Link between Mothers' Pregnancy Intentions and Children's Later Involvement in Law-Violating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Carter; Evans, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Rates of serious crime in the United States dropped greatly throughout the 1990s for virtually all offenses. John Donohue and Steven Levitt have argued that this reduction relates strongly to the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision that legalized the abortion of unwanted pregnancies. If such pregnancies result in children with higher lifetime risks of…

  9. Changes in the rate of nicotine metabolism across pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah; Coleman, Tim; Cooper, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims Increased nicotine metabolism during pregnancy could explain why nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) appears to be less effective on smoking cessation in pregnancy than in non‐pregnant smokers, but little is known about nicotine metabolism across pregnancy. This study was conducted to determine when changes in nicotine metabolism occur during pregnancy and to describe the magnitude of these changes. Design Longitudinal cohort study of pregnant smokers' nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). Setting and Participants 101 pregnant smokers recruited from hospital antenatal clinics in Nottingham, UK were asked to provide saliva samples at 8–14 weeks (n = 98), 18–22 weeks (n = 65), 32–36 weeks gestation (n = 47), 4 weeks postpartum (n = 44) and 12 weeks postpartum (n = 47). Measurements Nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was measured using the ratio of cotinine to its primary metabolite trans‐3'‐hydroxycotinine. Multi‐level modelling was used to detect any overall difference in NMR between time points. The 12 week postpartum NMR was compared with the NMRs collected antenatally and 4 weeks postpartum. Findings NMR changed over time (p = 0.0006). Compared with NMR at 12 weeks postpartum, NMR was significantly higher at 18–22 weeks (26% higher, 95% CI 12% to 38%) and 32–36 weeks (23% higher, 95% CI 9% to 35%). There was no significant difference between the 8‐14 weeks gestation or 4 weeks postpartum NMR and 12 weeks postpartum. Conclusions Nicotine metabolism appears to be faster during pregnancy; this faster metabolism is apparent from 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy and appears to fall by 4 weeks after childbirth. PMID:26119134

  10. Influence of early pregnancy on reproductive rate in lines of mice selected for litter size.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1980-09-01

    The influence of male-induced early puberty on female reproductive rate was determined in three lines of mice differing in litter size and body weight. The lines originated from a single base population and had undergone 20 generations of selection for the following criteria: large litter size at birth (L(+)), large litter size and small 6-week body weight (L(+)W(-)), or small litter size and large 6-week body weight (L(-)W(+)). Females were paired with a mature intact male of the same line at 3, 5 or 7 weeks of age. Mean mating age, averaged over lines, was 26.5 ± .3, 38.3 ± .3 and 52.7 ± .3 days. Exposure to a mature male accelerated female sexual maturation in each line. When contrasted with their sibs mated at a later age, early-pregnant females from each line exhibited a decline in one or more component of reproductive performance, suggesting that the physiological state of the very young female was not optimum for normal pregnancy. In comparisons of early and later mating ages, all three lines showed a decreased littering rate at first mating, number born alive, and individual birth weight of progeny adjusted for litter size; L(+) and L(+)W(-) mice showed an increased perinatal mortality rate; L(+) and L(-)W(+) had a reduction in litter size at birth. When the L(+), L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) lines were compared with an unselected strain and a line selected for high postweaning gain in similar experiments, a genotype by environment interaction was apparent since all lines did not respond in a similar manner to early mating. The line ranking for litter size at birth for each age at male-exposure was L(+)>L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), despite the significant line by age interaction. When litter size was adjusted by covariance for body weight at mating, the significant effects of age at male-exposure and line by age interaction were eliminated. All fertile females were remated after they had weaned their first litter to obtain information on litter size in parity two. Line

  11. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  12. Progesterone supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition after artificial insemination improves conception rates in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Helguera, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Paso, V; Tuono, T; Ramon, A; Mur-Novales, R; Tutusaus, J; López-Gatius, F

    2016-04-15

    This study examines the possible effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition, from Days 15 to 17 post-artificial insemination (AI), on reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows. Cows in their 15th day post-AI were alternately assigned to a control, no-treatment group (C: n = 257) or treatment group (P4: n = 287) on a weekly rotational basis according to the chronologic order of their gynecologic visit. On the basis of the odds ratio, the interaction treatment × previous placenta retention had a significant effect (P = 0.02) on conception rate. Thus, cows in P4 that had not suffered a retained placenta were 1.6 times more likely to conceive 28 to 34 days post-AI than the remaining cows. In nonpregnant cows, treatment had no effect on subsequent return to estrus or AI interval and neither were any effects of treatment observed on twin pregnancy and early fetal loss rates. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of P4 supplementations during the time of pregnancy recognition after AI in cows without a clinical history of placenta retention.

  13. Progesterone supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition after artificial insemination improves conception rates in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Helguera, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Paso, V; Tuono, T; Ramon, A; Mur-Novales, R; Tutusaus, J; López-Gatius, F

    2016-04-15

    This study examines the possible effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition, from Days 15 to 17 post-artificial insemination (AI), on reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows. Cows in their 15th day post-AI were alternately assigned to a control, no-treatment group (C: n = 257) or treatment group (P4: n = 287) on a weekly rotational basis according to the chronologic order of their gynecologic visit. On the basis of the odds ratio, the interaction treatment × previous placenta retention had a significant effect (P = 0.02) on conception rate. Thus, cows in P4 that had not suffered a retained placenta were 1.6 times more likely to conceive 28 to 34 days post-AI than the remaining cows. In nonpregnant cows, treatment had no effect on subsequent return to estrus or AI interval and neither were any effects of treatment observed on twin pregnancy and early fetal loss rates. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of P4 supplementations during the time of pregnancy recognition after AI in cows without a clinical history of placenta retention. PMID:26786244

  14. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n...

  15. State Variation in Rates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Blumenthal, Connie; Sugland, Barbara W.; Hyatt, Byoung-gi; Snyder, Nancy O.; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Recent declines in funding for contraceptive services have led to questions regarding the role of contraceptive services and social policy in shaping adolescent reproductive behavior. This 2-year study examined the impact of state-level policies on adolescent pregnancy and fertility. Data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the…

  16. Effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on follicle recruitment and pregnancy rate in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E J; Drost, M; Diaz, T; Roomes, C; Thatcher, W W

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether a GnRH agonist eliminated a potentially persistent first-wave dominant follicle (PDF) and recruited a new dominant follicle with improved fertility upon ovulation. In Exp. 1, five nonlactating Holstein cows were treated on d 7 (d 0 = estrus) with a norgestomet implant and PGF2 alpha (25 mg); a GnRH agonist was injected on d 9. On d 16, the norgestomet implant was removed and PGF2 alpha was injected. The corpus luteum (CL) regressed (5/5 cows), and plasma progesterone (P4) decreased (P < .01) from d 7 (P4 = 10.4 +/- .3) to 9 (P4 = 1.0 +/- .3 ng/mL). The GnRH agonist induced ovulation of the first-wave dominant follicle. New dominant follicles emerged by d 12 +/- 1. In all cows, removal of norgestomet implants and injection of PGF2 alpha on d 16 caused regression (P < .01) of the CL induced by the GnRH agonist. The GnRH agonist-recruited dominant follicles were highly estrogenic on d 17 (estradiol = 19.6 +/- .8 pg/mL) and ovulated on d 19.8 +/- .2 (5/5). In Exp. 2, 147 heifers at a synchronized estrus were assigned disproportionally but randomly to two treatments (GnRHa, n = 94; PDF, n = 53). On d 7, a used controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR-B) device was inserted into the vagina and PGF2 alpha was injected. On d 9, heifers in GnRHa were injected with GnRH agonist. The CIDR-B devices were removed and PGF2 alpha was injected into all heifers on d 16. Within 4 d after removal of CIDR-B devices, 96.8 and 94.3% of heifers in GnRHa and PDF were detected in estrus and inseminated. Pregnancy rates were GnRHa = 60.6% > PDF = 43.4% (P < .05). In summary, fertility after ovulation of a persistent first-wave dominant follicle is reduced, whereas induction of a new dominant follicle following injection of a GnRH agonist results in greater fertility.

  17. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies.

  18. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  19. Supplementation with sunflower seed increases circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts on the pregnancy rates in Bos indicus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mariângela B; Peres, Mariana S; de Souza, Johnny M; Gaspar, Pércio; Barbiere, Fausto; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Filho, Milton Maturana; Dinardi, Robson N; Nogueira, Guilherme P; Mesquita, Fernando S; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Martins, Thiago; Binelli, Mario; Membrive, Claudia M B

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with sunflower seed on blood concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol and on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) and timed embryo transfer (TET). In experiment 1, cows were received 22-day supplements containing (sunflower, n = 66) sunflower seed or not (control, n = 67) immediately after a progesterone/estradiol-based TAI protocol (Day 0). The cholesterol concentration on Day 21 and the pregnancy rate were greater (P < 0.03) in the sunflower group (148.2 ± 6.1 mg/dL and 66.7%) than those in the control group (116.0 ± 6.4 mg/dL and 47.8%). In experiment 2, heifers received an in vitro-produced embryo 7 days after the expected time of the synchronized ovulation. Heifers were separated into two supplementation groups (sunflower, n = 106 and control, n = 111) for 22 days. The plasma progesterone concentration on Day 7 was not different between the groups. However, on Day 19, the plasma progesterone concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) in the sunflower group (5.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL) than that in the control group (3.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL). A greater (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentration was observed in the sunflower group than that in the control group on Days 7 (306.0 ± 11.6 vs. 277.1 ± 11.9 mg/dL, respectively) and 19 (260.5 ± 8.0 vs. 232.0 ± 8.0 mg/dL, respectively). The pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.01) in the sunflower-treated heifers (55.7%) than that in control-treated heifers (36.9%). Results indicate that sunflower seed supplementation increases the circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts the pregnancy rate in suckled beef cattle subjected to TAI or TET. PMID:25772849

  20. Green tea polyphenols added to IVM and IVC media affect transcript abundance, apoptosis, and pregnancy rates in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengguang; Fu, Chunquan; Yu, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) during IVM and IVC on apoptosis and relative transcript abundance (RA) of three genes controlling antioxidant enzymes, as well as subsequent pregnancy rates. In experiment 1, oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 10, 15, or 25 μM GTP for 24 hours. The GTP dose applied to IVM medium was followed by the same dose supplemented to IVC medium, so oocytes and embryos of a given group were cultured in similar conditions. This resulted in a total of four groups (three experimental groups and the control). After IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in medium containing 0 to 25 μM GTP for 8 days. The addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC increased RA of SOD1, CAT, and GPX genes in blastocysts compared with the control (P < 0.05). Increase in GTP doses from 15 to 25 μM did not further increase the transcript level. In experiment 2, effects of GTP doses on apoptosis were investigated in bovine blastocysts. Two of the applied GTP doses (10 and 15 μM) decreased the apoptotic index (AI) in blastocysts (7.4% and 6.2% respectively) compared with the control (9.3%; P < 0.05). However, the highest GTP dose used (25 μM) caused an increase in AI compared with a dose of 15 μM (P < 0.05). Considering the results of experiment 1 and 2, the effects of 15 μM GTP treatment during IVM and IVC on pregnancy rate was evaluated after embryo transfer in experiment 3. Cows receiving embryos treated with 15 μM GTP had higher pregnancy rates on Day 30 (34.8% vs. 28.6%) and Day 60 (34.8% vs. 23.9%) than those receiving control embryos (P < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC improved pregnancy rates; this improvement seemed to be associated with the increase of RA of antioxidant enzyme genes and the decrease in AI in bovine blastocysts.

  1. Comparison of pregnancy rate between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers following ICSI treatment

    PubMed Central

    Basirat, Zahra; Adib Rad, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Hajian- Tilaki, Karimollah; Pasha, Hajar; Ghofrani, Faeze

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is increasing in the world. The rate, efficacy and safety of ART are very different among countries. There is an increase in the use of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), single fresh embryo transfer (ET) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Objective: The objective of this study was to compare pregnancy rate in fresh ET and FET. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study 1014 ICSI-ET cycles (426 fresh ET and 588 FET) from 753 women undergoing ICSI treatment referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center in Babol, Iran from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Results: There were no significant differences between biochemical pregnancy rate (23% versus 18.8%, OR 1.301; 95% CI .95-1.774), gestational sac (95.6% versus 100% in FET, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.54-0.67), and fetal heart activity (87.2% versus 93.6% OR .46; 95% CI .16-1.32) in fresh ET and FET cycles, respectively. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all measures. Conclusion: Although, the result showed no significantly difference between the fresh ET and the FET cycles, however the embryos are able to be stored for subsequent ART. Therefore, we recommend FET cycles as an option alongside the fresh ET. PMID:27141547

  2. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with daughter pregnancy rate for prediction of genetic merit for reproduction in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 69 SNPs in genes previously related to fertility and production traits for relationship to daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), cow conception rate (CCR) and heifer conception rate (HCR) in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped according to their predicted transmitting ability for DP...

  3. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ectopic Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Ectopic Pregnancy Page ... Ectopic Pregnancy FAQ155, August 2011 PDF Format Ectopic Pregnancy Pregnancy What is an ectopic pregnancy? Who is ...

  4. Comparison of organic versus inorganic trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn and Mn in either a methionine chelated form (ORG) or the same trace minerals in a SO4 form. The experimental design utilized 3 ranches, each having 2 replicati...

  5. Comparison of methionine chelated versus sulfate trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelated trace minerals (CTM; provided as MINTREX) or the same trace minerals in SO4 form. The experimental...

  6. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03). PMID:25981675

  7. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  8. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations. PMID:15036962

  9. Pregnancy rates in angus cross beef cows bred at observed oestrus with or without second GnRH administration in fixed-time progesterone-supplemented Ovsynch and CO-Synch protocols.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Hall, J B; Currin, J F; Inman, B; Rudolph, J S; Whittier, W D

    2010-06-01

    Crossbred cows (n = 1073) from five locations had oestrous cycles synchronized with 100 microg of GnRH IM and insertion of controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) on Day 0 followed by 25 mg of PGF(2alpha) IM and CIDR removal on Day 7. Kamar patches were placed on all cows at CIDR removal. Cows were observed three times daily for oestrus after PGF(2alpha) administration. In the Ovsynch-CIDR group, cows detected in oestrus (n = 193) within 48 h after PGF(2alpha) were inseminated using the AM-PM rule. Among these cows, 80 received and 113 did not receive a second GnRH at 48 h after PGF(2alpha). Cows (n = 345) not detected in oestrus received a second GnRH at 48 h after PGF(2alpha) on Day 9, and fixed-time AI 16 h after the GnRH on Day 10. In the CO-Synch-CIDR group, cows detected in oestrus (n = 224) within 48 h after PGF(2alpha) were inseminated using the AM-PM rule. Among these cows, 79 received and 145 did not receive a second GnRH at 64 h after PGF(2alpha). Cows (n = 311) not detected in oestrus received a second GnRH on Day 10 at the time of AI, 64 h after PGF(2alpha). The AI pregnancy rates were not different between the Ovsynch-CIDR and CO-Synch-CIDR groups (p = 0.48). There were no differences in the AI pregnancy rates for cows inseminated at a fixed time (p = 0.26) or at detected oestrus (p = 0.79) between the treatment groups. Among cows inseminated in oestrus, there were no differences in the AI pregnancy rates between cows that received or did not receive the second GnRH (p = 0.47). In conclusion, acceptable AI pregnancy rates can be achieved with or without inclusion of oestrus detection in the Ovsynch-CIDR and CO-Synch-CIDR protocols. Among cows detected in oestrus, cows that received a second GnRH yielded similar pregnancy rates when compared with cows that did not receive the second GnRH.

  10. Intrafollicular levels of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in patients with polycystic ovaries are not associated with pregnancy rate during IVF cycle.

    PubMed

    Baka, Stavroula; Zourla, Konstantina; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne; Makrakis, Evangelos; Kaparos, George; Demeridou, Stella; Moustakarias, Theodore; Tzanakaki, Despoina; Hassiakos, Dimitris; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, in the follicular fluid of 35 patients with polycystic ovaries, compare them with the levels found in 35 normally ovulating women enrolled in their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and then correlate them with pregnancy rates in these two groups. Levels of MMP-9 were found significantly increased in women with polycystic ovaries when compared with the controls, while MMP-2 levels were higher in women with polycystic ovaries without reaching statistical significance. The two groups did not differ in age, in the number of embryos transferred or in pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the results indicated an increased gelatinolytic activity in patients with polycystic ovaries after ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment without detecting any association between levels of MMP-2 and 9 and IVF pregnancy rates. PMID:19368130

  11. A longitudinal study of diurnal variation in baseline fetal heart rate in one dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Muro, M; Shono, H; Shono, M; Ito, Y; Iwasaka, T

    2001-06-01

    A longitudinal study to analyse the diurnal variations in baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) and sustained fetal tachycardia (SFT) in twin pregnancy was performed on one dichorionic twin. Twenty-four hour FHR recordings on twins were made at 32, 34 and 36 weeks of gestation simultaneously. Significant diurnal variations were found in both twins in all gestational weeks. The diurnal variations in baseline FHR of twins were highly correlated with no phase-lag. No coincidence was recognized in the appearance of SFT between twins. These results suggest the maternal influence equally affects FHR in each fetus of dichorionic twin since 32 weeks of gestation, while the appearance of SFT might be independent from maternal influence.

  12. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on fetal heart rate and variability: A randomized clinical trial☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, K.M.; Carlson, S.E.; Colombo, J.; Yeh, H.-W.; Shaddy, D.J.; Li, S.; Kerling, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) supplementation during infancy has been associated with lower heart rate (HR) and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. We hypothesized that maternal DHA supplementation would improve fetal cardiac autonomic control and newborn neurobehavior. Pregnant women were randomized to 600 mg/day of DHA or placebo oil capsules at 14.4 (+/−4) weeks gestation. Fetal HRand HRV were calculated from magnetocardiograms (MCGs) at 24, 32 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA). Newborn neurobehavior was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Postpartum maternal and infant red blood cell (RBC) DHA was significantly higher in the supplemented group as were metrics of fetal HRV and newborn neurobehavior in the autonomic and motor clusters. Higher HRV is associated with more responsive and flexible autonomic nervous system (ANS). Coupled with findings of improved autonomic and motor behavior, these data suggest that maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy may impart an adaptive advantage to the fetus. PMID:23433688

  13. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Ectopic Pregnancy Print A A ... lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ...

  14. Comparison of Rates of and Charges from Pregnancy Complications in Users of Extended and Cyclic Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) Regimens: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Brandon; Trussell, James; Grubb, ElizaBeth; Lage, Maureen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate pregnancy complication rates and related charges in users of 84/7, 21/7, and 24/4 combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Study Design Data were obtained from the i3 InVision Data Mart™ retrospective claims database. Subjects were aged 15–40 years; first prescribed a COC between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011; and continuously insured for ≥1 year. 84/7 users were matched 1:1 to 21/7 and 24/4 users. Results Pregnancy-related complication rates and associated charges were significantly lower with 84/7 vs. 21/7 and 24/4 regimens. Conclusion Preliminary data suggest 84/7 regimens may be associated with fewer pregnancy complications and lower related charges. PMID:24457060

  15. Determining the Optimal Duration of Progesterone Supplementation prior to Transfer of Cryopreserved Embryos and Its Impact on Implantation and Pregnancy Rates: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Abha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the optimal duration of progesterone supplementation prior to transfer of cryopreserved embryos and its impact on implantation and pregnancy rates. Study Design. Prospective randomised study. Materials and Methods. In an IVF unit of a tertiary centre, sixty-six patients undergoing cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were included. Endometrial preparation was done with estradiol valerate. Once it reached a minimum of 7 mm, patients were allocated randomly into group I (n = 39) and group II (n = 27). Injectable progesterone 100 mg daily was then started for 3 and 4 days, respectively. This was followed by transfer of at least one thawed cleavage stage day 2 embryo of good quality. Groups I and II were compared in terms of clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. Results. In group I (3-day progesterone) and group II (4-day progesterone) the pregnancy rates were 41.02% (16/39) and 18.51% (5/27), respectively. On the other hand, the implantation rates were 16.82% (18/107) and 7.69% (6/78), respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p values 0.0172 and 0.0386, resp.). Conclusion. Progesterone supplementation for three days before the transfer of cleavage stage (day 2) cryopreserved embryos has significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates, as compared to four-day supplementation. PMID:27752538

  16. A formula for scoring human embryo growth rates in in vitro fertilization: its value in predicting pregnancy and in comparison with visual estimates of embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Cummins, J M; Breen, T M; Harrison, K L; Shaw, J M; Wilson, L M; Hennessey, J F

    1986-10-01

    Two systems for measuring embryo development in vitro were evaluated. One was a 1-4 scale based on a subjective evaluation of embryo quality (EQ) from microscopic appearance. In addition, a formula for scoring embryo growth rate in vitro was developed. The embryo development rating (EDR) was based on the ratio between the time at which embryos were observed at a particular stage after insemination and the time at which they would be expected to reach that stage in a hypothetical "ideal" growth rate with a cell cycle length of 11.9 hr. Using this scoring system, "normally" growing embryos scored 100. This approach was aimed at partially normalizing the data and allowed all embryos to be analyzed similarly regardless of the time of observation. Analysis of 1539 embryo replacements resulting in 232 clinical pregnancies showed that both EDR and embryo-quality scores were of value in predicting success, with clinical pregnancy most likely to eventuate from a combination of moderate to good EQ scores (2-4) coupled with average or above-average growth rates (EDR scores from 90 to 129). Poor-quality and very slowly or very rapidly growing embryos were underrepresented in cycles that proceeded to pregnancy. These inferences were based on all embryos transferred (mean, 2.73 per transfer cycle), and they were substantiated by an analysis of 33 pregnancies resulting from replacement of a single embryo and from 18 pregnancies in which all embryos scored the same with both systems. EQ and EDR were significantly associated with each other and together provide a valuable guide in predicting pregnancy, in selecting embryos for freezing, and in monitoring day-to-day performance in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) program.

  17. Postterm pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Galal, M.; Symonds, I.; Murray, H.; Petraglia, F.; Smith, R.

    2012-01-01

    Postterm pregnancy is a pregnancy that extends to 42 weeks of gestation or beyond. Fetal, neonatal and maternal complications associated with this condition have always been underestimated. It is not well understood why some women become postterm although in obesity, hormonal and genetic factors have been implicated. The management of postterm pregnancy constitutes a challenge to clinicians; knowing who to induce, who will respond to induction and who will require a caesarean section (CS). The current definition and management of postterm pregnancy have been challenged in several studies as the emerging evidence demonstrates that the incidence of complications associated with postterm pregnancy also increase prior to 42 weeks of gestation. For example the incidence of stillbirth increases from 39 weeks onwards with a sharp rise after 40 weeks of gestation. Induction of labour before 42 weeks of gestation has the potential to prevent these complications; however, both patients and clinicians alike are concerned about risks associated with induction of labour such as failure of induction and increases in CS rates. There is a strong body of evidence however that demonstrates that induction of labour at term and prior to 42 weeks of gestation (particularly between 40 & 42 weeks) is associated with a reduction in perinatal complications without an associated increase in CS rates. It seems therefore that a policy of induction of labour at 41 weeks in postterm women could be beneficial with potential improvement in perinatal outcome and a reduction in maternal complications. PMID:24753906

  18. Maternal metabolic changes with dietary intake of blueberry during pregnancy and lactation predispose adult progeny to lower mammary tumor growth rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown lower growth rates of tumors that developed from Wnt1-transgenic (Tg) offspring of dams consuming whole blueberry powder (3% BB) during pregnancy and lactation, compared to those of control (Casein) dams. Dietary exposure at post-weaning through lifetime did not mimic the effects of ea...

  19. Comparison of methionine hydroxy analogue chelated versus sulfate forms of copper, zinc, and manganese on growth performance and pregnancy rates in yearling beef replacement heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to compare growth performance and pregnancy rates of heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either methionine hydroxy analog chelate (provided as MINTREX) or in the S04 form. The experiment used 3 ranches, each having 2 replicate pens per treatment. Performance data were ana...

  20. The metabolic clearance rate of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate. III. The effect of thiazide diuretics in normal and future pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Gant, N F; Madden, J D; Siteri, P K; MacDonald, P C

    1975-09-15

    The present study reports that the metabolic clearance rate of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate (MCRDS) is decreased by thiazide diuretics during normal and future pre-eclamptic pregnancies. This observation supports the thesis that diuretics represent a potential hazard to the fetus by decreasing placental perfusion.

  1. The acceptance rate of young wasps by alien colonies depends on colony developmental stages in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia paulista von ihering (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Kudô, Kazuyuki; Hozumi, Satoshi; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    In social insects, newly emerged individuals learn the colony-specific chemical label from their natal comb shortly after their emergence. These labels help to identify each individual's colony of origin and are used as a recognition template against which individuals can discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates. Our previous studies with Polybia paulista von Ihering support this general pattern, and the acceptance rate of young female and male wasps decreased as a function of their age. Our study also showed in P. paulista that more than 90% of newly emerged female wasps might be accepted by conspecific unrelated colonies. However, it has not been investigated whether the acceptance rate of newly emerged female wasps depends on colony developmental stage of recipient colonies. We introduced newly emerged female wasps of P. paulista into different colony developmental stags of recipient colonies, i.e., worker-producing and male-producing colonies. We found that the acceptance rate of newly emerged female wasps by alien colonies was pretty lower by male-producing colonies than worker-producing colonies. This is the first study to show that the acceptance rate of young female wasps depends on stages of recipient colonies.

  2. Respondent-driven sampling to assess mental health outcomes, stigma and acceptance among women raising children born from sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Rouhani, Shada; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Kuwert, Philipp; Hacker, Michele R; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Assess mental health outcomes among women raising children from sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs) in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and stigma toward and acceptance of women and their children. Design Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Setting Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo in 2012. Participants 757 adult women raising children from SVRPs were interviewed. A woman aged 18 and older was eligible for the study if she self-identified as a sexual violence survivor since the start of the conflict (∼1996), conceived an SVRP, delivered a liveborn child and was currently raising the child. A woman was ineligible for the study if the SVRP ended with a spontaneous abortion or fetal demise or the child was not currently living or in the care of the biological mother. Intervention Trained female Congolese interviewers verbally administered a quantitative survey after obtaining verbal informed consent. Outcome measures Symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and suicidality were assessed, as well as stigma toward the woman and her child. Acceptance of the woman and child from the spouse, family and community were analysed. Results 48.6% met symptom criteria for major depressive disorder, 57.9% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 43.3% for anxiety and 34.2% reported suicidality. Women who reported stigma from the community (38.4%) or who reported stigma toward the child from the spouse (42.9%), family (31.8%) or community (38.1%) were significantly more likely to meet symptom criteria for most mental health disorders. Although not statistically significant, participants who reported acceptance and acceptance of their children from the spouse, family and community were less likely to meet symptom criteria. Conclusions Women raising children from SVRPs experience symptoms of mental health disorders. Programming addressing stigma and acceptance following sexual violence may

  3. Hypertension in diabetic pregnancy: impact and long-term outlook.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, Antonietta; Loguercio, Valentina; Mattei, Luca; Trappolini, Massimo; Festa, Camilla; Stoppo, Michela; Napoli, Angela

    2010-08-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy can be chronic, pregestational or just diagnosed before the 20th week, or newly diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. Any type of hypertension is more frequent in diabetic pregnancies with a different distribution among different types of diabetes. Most of the evidence is for pre-eclampsia associated with a marked increase in primary caesarean section, preterm birth and more need for neonatal intensive care. Different risk factors and pregnancy outcomes would support the hypothesis that pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension might be largely separate entities, but this position is not unanimously accepted. Chronic hypertension increases with age and duration of diabetes, predicting increased rates of prematurity and neonatal morbidity, especially when associated with superimposed pre-eclampsia. Long-term consequences are observed in women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertension such as chronic hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20832742

  4. Pregnancy rate in women with adenomyosis undergoing fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycles following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Hye; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the preferred regimen for women with adenomyosis undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared the IVF outcomes of fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycles with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist pretreatment and of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles following GnRH agonist treatment. Methods This retrospective study included 241 IVF cycles of women with adenomyosis from January 2006 to January 2012. Fresh ET cycles without (147 cycles, group A) or with (105 cycles, group B) GnRH agonist pretreatment, and FET cycles following GnRH agonist treatment (43 cycles, group C) were compared. Adenomyosis was identified by using transvaginal ultrasound at the initial workup and classified into focal and diffuse types. The IVF outcomes were also subanalyzed according to the adenomyotic region. Results GnRH agonist pretreatment increased the stimulation duration (11.5±2.1 days vs. 9.9±2.0 days) and total dose of gonadotropin (3,421±1,141 IU vs. 2,588±1,192 IU), which resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (10.0±8.2 vs. 7.9±6.8, p=0.013) in group B than in group A. Controlled ovarian stimulation for freezing resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (14.3±9.2 vs. 10.0±8.2, p=0.022) with a lower dose of gonadotropin (2,974±1,112 IU vs. 3,421±1,141 IU, p=0.037) in group C than in group B. The clinical pregnancy rate in group C (39.5%) tended to be higher than those in groups B (30.5%) and A (25.2%) but without a significant difference. Conclusion FET following GnRH agonist pretreatment tended to increase the pregnancy rate in patients with adenomyosis. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to confirm this result. PMID:27689040

  5. Pregnancy rate in women with adenomyosis undergoing fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycles following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Hye; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the preferred regimen for women with adenomyosis undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared the IVF outcomes of fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycles with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist pretreatment and of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles following GnRH agonist treatment. Methods This retrospective study included 241 IVF cycles of women with adenomyosis from January 2006 to January 2012. Fresh ET cycles without (147 cycles, group A) or with (105 cycles, group B) GnRH agonist pretreatment, and FET cycles following GnRH agonist treatment (43 cycles, group C) were compared. Adenomyosis was identified by using transvaginal ultrasound at the initial workup and classified into focal and diffuse types. The IVF outcomes were also subanalyzed according to the adenomyotic region. Results GnRH agonist pretreatment increased the stimulation duration (11.5±2.1 days vs. 9.9±2.0 days) and total dose of gonadotropin (3,421±1,141 IU vs. 2,588±1,192 IU), which resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (10.0±8.2 vs. 7.9±6.8, p=0.013) in group B than in group A. Controlled ovarian stimulation for freezing resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (14.3±9.2 vs. 10.0±8.2, p=0.022) with a lower dose of gonadotropin (2,974±1,112 IU vs. 3,421±1,141 IU, p=0.037) in group C than in group B. The clinical pregnancy rate in group C (39.5%) tended to be higher than those in groups B (30.5%) and A (25.2%) but without a significant difference. Conclusion FET following GnRH agonist pretreatment tended to increase the pregnancy rate in patients with adenomyosis. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to confirm this result.

  6. Effect of GnRH antagonists on clinical pregnancy rates in ovulation induction protocols with gonadotropins and intrauterine insemination

    PubMed Central

    Dansuk, Ramazan; Gonenc, Ali Ihsan; Sudolmus, Sinem; Yucel, Oguz; Sevket, Osman; Köroğlu, Nadiye

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intrauterine insemination (IUI) after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) was applied to selected infertile patients to determine the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in IUI cycles, in which recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) had been used for COH. METHODS This study was conducted between April 1, 2009 and June 10, 2009, and involved a total of 108 patients. These patients had primary or secondary infertility, which resulted in an indication for IUI, and they each received two cycles of ovarian stimulation treatment with clomiphene citrate. The patients were randomised into two groups – patients in group A received rFSH + GnRH antagonist (n = 45), while those in group B received only rFSH (n = 63). RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 31.84 ± 3.73 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.40 ± 1.88 kg/m2. The mean age and BMI of the patients in groups A and B were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the mean total rFSH dose administered (988.33 IU in group A and 871.83 IU in group B). When compared to group B, the mean number of follicles that were > 16 mm on the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) trigger day was significantly higher in group A (1.58 and 1.86, respectively; p < 0.05). When the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of cancelled cycles due to premature luteinisation (none in group A vs. two in group B) and the rate of clinical pregnancy (8.9% in group A vs. 7.9% in group B). CONCLUSION No significant improvement in the clinical pregnancy rates was observed when GnRH antagonists were used in COH + IUI cycles, despite the significant increase in the number of follicles that were > 16 mm on HCG trigger day. PMID:25532515

  7. Increasing Incidence Rate of Cervical Cerclage in Pregnancy in Australia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Corrine; Lim, Boon; Robson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Data published from the United States have demonstrated that the use of cervical cerclage has fallen in the period 1998–2013. This is in contrast to recommendations in Australia. We examined this trend using data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Study design: Retrospective population-based study. Methods: Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare procedural database were used to determine the total number of cervical cerclage sutures inserted during the period 2004 to 2013. Population datasets were used to calculate age-stratified incidence rates of cerclage. Findings: There was a significant increase in the rate of cervical cerclage in women aged 25 to 34 years and in the 35 years and older age group. The incidence of preterm birth was stable for gestations of 32 to 36 weeks, but slightly increased in the 20 to 27 week and 28 to 31 week gestational age groups. Further research into cervical cerclage and the use of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth would be valuable. PMID:27626455

  8. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  9. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murdock, N H

    1998-03-01

    Pregnancy among women under age 15 years is unusual, but not rare. About one third of the approximately 3 million total pregnancies which occur each year in the US are to teenagers. However, only about 30% of all pregnant adolescents receive adequate prenatal care, even though it is women in that age group who most need such care. Teen mothers have a higher rate of anemia and pregnancy-induced hypertension, most probably related to diet. Infants born to teen mothers are more likely to be premature and of low birth weight. Infants born to teen mothers are also more predisposed to mental retardation, brain damage, and birth injuries. Teen mothers are more likely to have poor weight gain, premature labor, abruptio placentae, and preeclampsia. The psychosocial reasons why teenage women become pregnant are considered, as well as the relevant media influences. While teenage pregnancy remains a major problem in the US, 1996 statistics indicate an overall 4% decline to 54.7 births/1000 among women aged 15-19 years. Teenage women need to be taught that there are many options in life other than pregnancy.

  10. Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether acupuncture improves rates of pregnancy and live birth when used as an adjuvant treatment to embryo transfer in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Cochrane Central, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Database, hand searched abstracts, and reference lists. Review methods Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials that compared needle acupuncture administered within one day of embryo transfer with sham acupuncture or no adjuvant treatment, with reported outcomes of at least one of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, or live birth. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility; assessed methodological quality; and extracted outcome data. For all trials, investigators contributed additional data not included in the original publication (such as live births). Meta-analyses included all randomised patients. Data synthesis Seven trials with 1366 women undergoing in vitro fertilisation were included in the meta-analyses. There was little clinical heterogeneity. Trials with sham acupuncture and no adjuvant treatment as controls were pooled for the primary analysis. Complementing the embryo transfer process with acupuncture was associated with significant and clinically relevant improvements in clinical pregnancy (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.14; number needed to treat (NNT) 10 (7 to 17); seven trials), ongoing pregnancy (1.87, 1.40 to 2.49; NNT 9 (6 to 15); five trials), and live birth (1.91, 1.39 to 2.64; NNT 9 (6 to 17); four trials). Because we were unable to obtain outcome data on live births for three of the included trials, the pooled odds ratio for clinical pregnancy more accurately represents the true combined effect from these trials rather than the odds ratio for live birth. The results were robust to sensitivity analyses on study validity variables. A prespecified subgroup analysis restricted to the three trials with the higher rates

  11. Ectopic pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal pregnancy; Cervical pregnancy; Tubal ligation - ectopic pregnancy ... In most pregnancies, the fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube to the womb (uterus). If the movement of the egg ...

  12. Are acceptance rates of a national preventive home visit programme for older people socially imbalanced?: a cross sectional study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preventive home visits are offered to community dwelling older people in Denmark aimed at maintaining their functional ability for as long as possible, but only two thirds of older people accept the offer from the municipalities. The purpose of this study is to investigate 1) whether socioeconomic status was associated with acceptance of preventive home visits among older people and 2) whether municipality invitational procedures for the preventive home visits modified the association. Methods The study population included 1,023 community dwelling 80-year-old individuals from the Danish intervention study on preventive home visits. Information on preventive home visit acceptance rates was obtained from questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was measured by financial assets obtained from national registry data, and invitational procedures were identified through the municipalities. Logistic regression analyses were used, adjusted by gender. Results Older persons with high financial assets accepted preventive home visits more frequently than persons with low assets (adjusted OR = 1.5 (CI95%: 1.1-2.0)). However, the association was attenuated when adjusted by the invitational procedures. The odds ratio for accepting preventive home visits was larger among persons with low financial assets invited by a letter with a proposed date than among persons with high financial assets invited by other procedures, though these estimates had wide confidence intervals. Conclusion High socioeconomic status was associated with a higher acceptance rate of preventive home visits, but the association was attenuated by invitational procedures. The results indicate that the social inequality in acceptance of publicly offered preventive services might decrease if municipalities adopt more proactive invitational procedures. PMID:22656647

  13. Efficacy of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium on implantation and pregnancy rates in fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers in Korean women with previous implantation failure

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sungwook; Seo, Jung Eun; Rim, Yun Jeung; Joo, Jae Hong; Lee, Yong Chan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium on pregnancy and implantation rates in fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers in Korean women with previous implantation failure. Methods This retrospective study included 283 blastocyst transfers in patients with previous embryo transfer failure at a private fertility clinic. In the study group (n=88), blastocyst transfers were performed using an hyaluronan-rich transfer medium prior to transfer, whereas blastocyst transfers without any treatment served as controls (n=195). According to the type of transfer (fresh elective or frozen-thawed), all the blastocyst transfers were divided into two study and two control groups. Results The patient's mean age, serum anti-Müllerian hormone level, causes of infertility, embryo quality, and the number of transferred embryos were comparable between the study and control groups. There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (45.5% vs. 43.1%), implantation rate (28.9% vs. 28.8%), and clinical abortion rate (10.0% vs. 8.3%) between the two groups, and these findings were not changed after subgroup analysis according to the type of transfer. Conclusion The use of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium in the blastocyst transfer does not appear to have any significant effect on the implantation and pregnancy rates in patients with previous implantation failure. PMID:27200310

  14. The effect of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation on embryo recovery and pregnancy rate in the mare.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Mateu-Sánchez, S; Aguilar, J J; Nielsen, J M; Etcharren, V; Vettorazzi, M L; Newcombe, J R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the interval from induced luteolysis to ovulation on fertility of mares from two different farms. At farm 1, 215 mares were inseminated with frozen/thawed semen during 513 estrous cycles over seven consecutive breeding seasons. Estrus was induced with analogues of PGF2α in 179 cycles. At farm 2, 375 embryo flushings were performed in 65 donor mares inseminated with fresh semen; of which, 327 were performed following artificial insemination after PGF-induced luteolysis. In both farms, the intervals from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) data were divided into three interval groups: less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days. A mixed regression model was created to determine the effect of different factors on the pregnancy rate (PR) and embryo recovery rate (ERR). Of all factors analyzed, the ITO was the only one that significantly influenced the PR and ERR (P < 0.05). In farm 1, the PR of mares with an ITO of less than 6 days, 6 to 8 days, and greater than 8 days was 26.6%, 39.4%, and 55.9%, respectively (P = 0.01). The PR for mares inseminated after spontaneous luteolysis (without PGF) was 42.5%. In farm 2, the ERR of donor mares for the same ITO groups was 55.0%, 62.6%, and 73.7%, respectively (P = 0.02). The ERR for mares flushed after a previous spontaneous estrus was 75.0%. In conclusion, the ITO had a significant effect on the PR and ERR in the mare. Fertility was reduced as the ITO became shorter.

  15. Interstitial pregnancy management and subsequent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Keidar, Ran; Kerner, Ram; Golan, Abraham

    2013-11-01

    We report on management and subsequent fertility outcome of interstitial pregnancy in a retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3) at a university affiliated teaching hospital. Of 706 women with extrauterine pregnancy, 14 consecutive women with interstitial pregnancy were treated by methotrexate, laparotomy or laparoscopy between 1997 and 2007. The first four women, with significant hemoperitoneum, were treated by laparotomy. Of the next 10 women, four were selected for medical treatment with methotrexate. Only one case was treated successfully. The other six women had laparoscopic treatment. Of nine laparoscopies, one was converted to laparotomy due to excessive blood loss during the procedure. Of nine women desiring a child, three were infertile, whereas six conceived with an intrauterine pregnancy. A change from diagnosis later in pregnancy and laparotomy to more conservative treatment, mainly by laparoscopy, suggests a possibly better subsequent pregnancy rate.

  16. Serum hormone profiles, pregnancy rates, and offspring performance of Rambouillet ewes treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin before breeding.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L E; Benavidez, J M; Hallford, D M

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine effects of bovine ST (bST) on serum hormone concentrations, pregnancy rates, and offspring performance. Before initiation of a fall breeding period, 75 Rambouillet ewes (68.8 ± 1.5 kg) received an intravaginal insert containing 0.3 g of progesterone (P4) to synchronize onset of estrus. After 12 d, inserts were removed (d 0), and ewes (stratified by BW and age) received either 0 (control, n = 37) or 250 (n = 38) mg of recombinant bST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO, subcutaneously). Ewes were joined with fertile rams 24 h after insert removal. Blood samples were collected from 12 ewes in each treatment group daily from d 0 to 20 after insert removal. Serum IGF-I concentrations were 315 and 437 (± 58) ng/mL in control and bST-treated ewes 2 d after receiving bST (P = 0.02) and remained increased (P < 0.03) in bST-treated ewes throughout the 13-d period (P < 0.05). Serum prolactin (P > 0.10) and estradiol (P = 0.65) were similar between treatments. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were similar (P > 0.20) between treatments from d 0 through 8. Controls had greater (P < 0.04) serum T3 and T4 concentrations than treated ewes did until d 18. Serum P4 was similar (P > 0.10) in control and bST-treated ewes from d 0 through 3 but was increased (P < 0.05) from d 4 to 8 in control ewes. Serum P4 was again similar (P > 0.10) between treatments from d 9 to 20. Serum insulin concentrations were 0.44 and 1.74 (± 0.19) ng/mL in control and bST-treated ewes, respectively, 1 d after receiving bST (P < 0.001) and remained increased (P < 0.03) in bST-treated ewes through d 9 (P < 0.03). Serum glucose was increased (P = 0.003) from d 0 to 10 in bST-treated ewes compared with controls. Thirty-three of 37 (89%) control ewes were pregnant, whereas 27 of 38 (71%) bST-treated ewes were pregnant (P = 0.05). As a percentage of ewes lambing, 61% and 39% of control ewes produced single and twin lambs, respectively, compared

  17. Hypopituitarism and successful pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xue; Yuan, Qing; Yao, Yanni; Li, Zengyan; Zhang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by the deficiency of one or more of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism patients may present the symptoms of amenorrhea, poor pregnancy potential, infertility, and no production of milk after delivery. Successful pregnancy in hypopituitarism patient is rare because hypopituitarism is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abruption, premature birth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Hypopituitarism during pregnancy and perinatal period should be managed carefully. The hormone levels should be restored to normal before pregnancy. GH and HMG-hCG are combined to improve follicular growth and the success rate of pregnancy. Hypopituitary patients must be closely monitored as changes may need to be made to their medications, and serial ultrasound measurements are also necessary for fetal growth assessment. PMID:25663963

  18. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P < 0.05), but not in dairy heifers or beef cows. Conception rates did not differ in dairy cows at < or =100 days in milk (DIM), but were improved in cows treated with rbST after 100 DIM (64.3% versus 25.8%; P < 0.05). Retention of pregnancy to approximately 60 days and sizes of CL, diameter of follicles > or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  19. A modified gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol failed to increase clinical pregnancy rates in comparison with the long GnRH protocol.

    PubMed

    Loutradis, Dimitris; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Drakakis, Peter; Milingos, Spyridon; Antsaklis, Aris; Michalas, Stylianos

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare stimulation characteristics and IVF outcomes of the standard long GnRH agonist protocol for ovarian stimulation with a modified GnRH antagonist protocol. Starting GnRH antagonist in a flexible protocol according to the size of the leading follicle, with simultaneous augmentation of 75 IU recombinant FSH, failed to increase clinical pregnancy rates.

  20. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P < 0.05), but not in dairy heifers or beef cows. Conception rates did not differ in dairy cows at < or =100 days in milk (DIM), but were improved in cows treated with rbST after 100 DIM (64.3% versus 25.8%; P < 0.05). Retention of pregnancy to approximately 60 days and sizes of CL, diameter of follicles > or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM. PMID:16183219

  1. Effect of oestrus synchronization methods on oestrus behaviour, timing of ovulation and pregnancy rate during the breeding and low breeding seasons in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Channa, Aijaz Ali; Ahmad, Nasim

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oestrous synchronization methods on oestrous behaviour, timing of ovulation and pregnancy rate during the breeding and low breeding seasons in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. In Experiment 1, oestrous behaviour and timing of ovulation were determined from (n=34) oestruses. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) time of ovulation after the onset of standing oestrus was greater (P<0.05) in PGF(2alpha)-induced luteolysis (30.6+/-1.5h) compared to Ovsynch buffaloes (15.0+/-0.8h). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rates were compared between two methods of synchronization (detected oestrus and Ovsynch protocol) during the breeding and low breeding seasons. Pregnancy rates of buffaloes bred at detected oestrus (62.5%) or by the Ovsynch protocol (36.3%) during the breeding season did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from those which were inseminated during the low breeding season (55.5%) and (30.4%), respectively. This study demonstrates clearly that (1) timing of ovulation in Nili-Ravi buffalo is about 30h after the onset of standing oestrus and (2) buffaloes can be successfully synchronized with optimum fertility using either PGF(2alpha) alone (detected oestrus) or using (Ovsynch protocol) during low breeding season, to calve during the period when milk availability is short.

  2. Sensory evaluation ratings and melting characteristics show that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

    PubMed

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Costantino, Amanda C; Gunn, Laura H

    2006-04-01

    Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products as acceptable. All ratings were similar among the products except for the aftertaste rating, which was significantly lower for chocolate frozen dairy dessert containing 100% milk-fat replacement with okra gum compared with the control (0% milk-fat replacement) (P<0.05). Whereas melting points of all products were similar, melting rates slowed significantly as milk-fat replacement with okra gum increased, suggesting that okra gum may increase the stability of frozen dairy desserts (P<0.05). Overall, this study shows that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

  3. Water-balance uncertainty in Honduras: a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation using a time-variant rating curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Beven, K.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.-C.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    The climate of Central America is highly variable both spatially and temporally; extreme events like floods and droughts are recurrent phenomena posing great challenges to regional water-resources management. Scarce and low-quality hydro-meteorological data complicate hydrological modelling and few previous studies have addressed the water-balance in Honduras. In the alluvial Choluteca River, the river bed changes over time as fill and scour occur in the channel, leading to a fast-changing relation between stage and discharge and difficulties in deriving consistent rating curves. In this application of a four-parameter water-balance model, a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation was used within the General Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The limits of acceptability were determined for discharge alone for each time step, and ideally a simulated result should always be contained within the limits. A moving-window weighted fuzzy regression of the ratings, based on estimated uncertainties in the rating-curve data, was used to derive the limits. This provided an objective way to determine the limits of acceptability and handle the non-stationarity of the rating curves. The model was then applied within GLUE and evaluated using the derived limits. Preliminary results show that the best simulations are within the limits 75-80% of the time, indicating that precipitation data and other uncertainties like model structure also have a significant effect on predictability.

  4. Comparison of four different mobile devices for measuring heart rate and ECG with respect to aspects of usability and acceptance by older people.

    PubMed

    Ehmen, Hilko; Haesner, Marten; Steinke, Ines; Dorn, Mario; Gövercin, Mehmet; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    In the area of product design and usability, most products are developed for the mass-market by technically oriented designers and developers for use by persons who themselves are also technically adept by today's standards. The demands of older people are commonly not given sufficient consideration within the early developmental process. In the present study, the usability and acceptability of four different devices meant to be worn for the measurement of heart rate or ECG were analyzed on the basis of qualitative subjective user ratings and structured interviews of twelve older participants. The data suggest that there was a relatively high acceptance concerning these belts by older adults but none of the four harnesses was completely usable. Especially problematic to the point of limiting satisfaction among older subjects were problems encountered while adjusting the length of the belt and/or closing the locking mechanism. The two devices intended for dedicated heart rate recording yielded the highest user ratings for design, and were clearly preferred for extended wearing time. Yet for all the devices participants identified several important deficiencies in their design, as well as suggestions for improvement. We conclude that the creation of an acceptable monitoring device for older persons requires designers and developers to consider the special demands and abilities of the target group.

  5. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  6. Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production, and pregnancy rates from a large-scale commercial program using Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Pontes, J H F; Melo Sterza, F A; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Sanches, B V; Rubin, K C P; Seneda, M M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with < 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean ± SEM) 30.84 ± 0.88 and 23.35 ± 0.7 (average of 8.1 ± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 ± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 ± 2.04, 32.61 ± 0.50, 22.13 ± 0.50, and 10.26 ± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates.

  7. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  8. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  9. The unwanted pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Diggory, P

    1977-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a measure of contraceptive failure - either method failure, motivation failure, or contraceptive inaccessibility. Unwanted pregnancies can end in criminal abortion, therapeutic abortion, forced marriage, or illegitimate birth. Figures for these occurrences in Great Britain in 1969 are cited. The figures make no allowance for unsuccessful attempts at self-abortion and unwanted but accepted pregnancies within marriage. It is estimated that approximately 1/4 of all British and American women married more than 10 years have at least 1 unwanted child. Contraception must be provided by the British National Health Service.

  10. Nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Carlson, M

    2000-03-01

    Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted. PMID:10719409

  11. Estimating Rates of Multiple Gestation Pregnancies: Sample Size Calculation from the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Michael P.; Mitwally, Mohamed; Casper, Robert; Ager, Joel; Legro, Richard S.; Brzyski, Robert; Casson, Peter; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2013-01-01

    Infertility afflicts fifteen percent of couples who wish to conceive. Despite intensive evaluation of both male and female partners, the etiology may remain unknown leading to a diagnosis of unexplained infertility. For such couples, treatment often entails ovulation induction (OI) with fertility medications coupled with intrauterine insemination. Complications of this therapy include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and creation of multiple gestation pregnancies, which can be complicated by preterm labor and delivery, and the associated neonatal morbidity and expense of care for preterm infants. The Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) study is designed to assess whether OI in couples with unexplained infertility with an aromatase inhibitor produces mono-follicular development in most cycles, thereby reducing multiple gestations while maintaining a comparable pregnancy success rate to that achieved by OI with either gonadotropins or clomiphene citrate. These results will provide future guidance of therapy for couples with unexplained infertility, and if comparable pregnancy rates are achieved with a substantial reduction in multiple gestations, the public health benefit will be considerable. PMID:21787883

  12. Factors affecting pregnancy rates after ovum pick up-derived embryo transfer in lactating Holstein recipients under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High milk production, heat, physiological status and management impair reproduction in Holstein cows. The use of in vivo-produced embryos has been reported as an alternative to enhance pregnancy outcome in the tropics; however there are several limitations for its production, especially from variati...

  13. Ultrasound pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; Placenta previa - ultrasound; Multiple ...

  14. Hypertensive Emergencies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Olson-Chen, Courtney; Seligman, Neil S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing. The etiology and pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hypertension decreases the incidence of severe hypertension, but it does not impact rates of preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Several antihypertensive medications are commonly used in pregnancy, although there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Severe hypertension should be treated immediately to prevent maternal end-organ damage. Appropriate antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum management is important in caring for patients with hypertensive disorders. PMID:26600442

  15. Hypertensive Emergencies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Olson-Chen, Courtney; Seligman, Neil S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing. The etiology and pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hypertension decreases the incidence of severe hypertension, but it does not impact rates of preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Several antihypertensive medications are commonly used in pregnancy, although there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Severe hypertension should be treated immediately to prevent maternal end-organ damage. Appropriate antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum management is important in caring for patients with hypertensive disorders.

  16. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Hans, Liesel; Scheer, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  17. Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue improves the in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rate with both transvaginal and laparoscopic oocyte recovery.

    PubMed

    Dor, J; Ben-Shlomo, I; Lipitz, S; Levran, D; Etchin, A; Rudak, E; Mashiach, S

    1990-12-01

    The relative impact of ovarian stimulation protocol and oocyte retrieval technique on success rates of in vitro fertilization program was studied in 200 patients. Sixty-three patients received gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), and 137 received hMG only. The GnRHa + hMG protocol resulted in higher pregnancy rates than the hMG-only protocol (19.0 vs 9.5%, respectively; P less than 0.01) despite a lower cleavage rate. Oocyte retrieval was performed via laparoscopy in 100 patients and transvaginally in 100 patients. The number of oocytes recovered per cycle was 6.1 +/- 3.9 with laparoscopy and 7.0 +/- 3.1 transvaginally. Pregnancy rates were similar for both retrieval techniques (13 and 12%, respectively). A breakdown of these results showed that the advantage for the GnRHa + hMG protocol was not affected by the oocyte retrieval technique. A comparison of simultaneous blood and follicular fluid pH measured every 10 min during laparoscopy and transvaginal oocyte recovery revealed a constant decline in follicular fluid pH during laparoscopy, while no changes were observed during the vaginal procedure. We conclude that the improvement in in vitro fertilization results during the period of our study is due primarily to the introduction of GnRHa + hMG protocol rather than the method of oocyte retrieval.

  18. Nutritional supplementation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under natural grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Rodríguez, G; De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Scaramuzzi, R J; Malpaux, B; Delgadillo, J A

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if nutritional supplementation improved ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under grazing conditions and submitted to the male effect. In Experiment 1, one group of does did not receive nutritional supplementation, while the other group was supplemented daily for 7 days starting at the time when the males were introduced to the females. The ovulation rate at the second male-induced ovulation was greater (P<0.05) in supplemented (2.0+/-0.1) than in non-supplemented (1.6+/-0.1) does. For Experiment 2, female goats were supplemented for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days, starting 9 days following buck introduction. The proportion of does that were pregnant in the group supplemented for 28 days was greater (P<0.05) than in the non-supplemented group, but did not differ from 14-day and the 7-day supplemented groups. The proportion of pregnant does was greater (P<0.05) in the group supplemented for 14 days compared to the group supplemented for 7 days and the non-supplemented group. These latter two groups did not differ (P>0.05). In conclusion, feed supplementation for 7 days, starting at the time when males were introduced increased ovulation rate and feed supplementation for 14 or 28 days starting 9 days after males were introduced improved pregnancy rates in goats managed under grazing conditions and exposed to males.

  19. Effect of prostaglandin F2alpha at the time of AI on progesterone levels and pregnancy rate in synchronized Italian Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Neglia, G; Natale, A; Esposito, G; Salzillo, F; Adinolfi, L; Campanile, G; Francillo, M; Zicarelli, L

    2008-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of an intravenous or intramuscular PGF2alpha analogue administration on the day of estrus on progesterone concentration and pregnancy rate in buffaloes undergoing artificial insemination (AI). To this end, two experiments were carried out. The first study was performed on 72 Mediterranean buffaloes synchronized by the Ovsynch-TAI Program. On the day of estrus only animals considered in heat were divided into four groups: Groups IVC and IMC received, respectively, an intravenous or intramuscular injection of cloprostenol (0.524 mg), whereas control Groups IVS and IMS received the same injections of saline. Milk samples were collected daily from each animal to assess progesterone concentration in the whey by RIA method. In addition on alternate days, buffaloes underwent transrectal ultrasound analysis. The second study was carried out on 385 buffaloes synchronized by the Ovsynch-TAI Program. On the day of AI, animals were divided in four groups, as described in experiment 1. Pregnancy rate was evaluated either on day 26 or day 45 and embryonic mortality rate was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and chi2 test. A higher (P<0.05) progesterone concentration was recorded on day 11 (Day 0=estrus day) in Groups IVC and IMC compared to Groups IVS and IMS (351.6+/-129.7 and 355.8+/-112.2 pg ml(-1) vs. 239.8+/-81.1 and 243.6+/-90.5 pg ml(-1), respectively). Furthermore, a larger CL was recorded on the same day in treated vs. control groups (1.25+/-0.15 and 1.27+/-0.17 cm, respectively, in Groups IVC and IMC vs. 1.08+/-0.14 and 1.05+/-0.13 cm in IVS and IMS). In the second study, a higher pregnancy rate was observed in treated (IVC+IMC) vs. control (IVS+IMS) groups (46.7% vs. 30.7%; P<0.01), while no differences were recorded between treated groups. From these data, it can be concluded that either intravenous or intramuscular administration of PGF2alpha at the time of AI can enhance progesterone levels and

  20. Improvement of Superovulatory Response and Pregnancy Rate after Transfer of Embryos Recovered from Japanese Black Cows Fed Rumen Bypass Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; SAWADA, Kumiko; KAWATE, Noritoshi; INABA, Toshio; TAMADA, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feeding rumen bypass polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) affects to Japanese Black cows affects their reproduction, though its influence on superovulatory response in donor cows and conception in recipient cattle has not been well studied. Here, we investigated the effects of feeding PUFA to Japanese Black cows on blood biochemistry, the numbers of ova and embryos or transferable embryos and pregnancy rate following embryo transfer (ET) to recipient Holstein heifers. PUFA (40% linoleic acid) was fed at 300 g/day in the experimental group from the last day of estrus until the day of artificial insemination for superovulatory treatment. Blood was collected on the first day of follicle-stimulating hormone administration. Total cholesterol level was significantly higher in the 15- to 19-day feeding group (117.4 mg/dl) than in the control group (95.0 mg/dl). The numbers of ova and embryos or transferable embryos were significantly higher in the 15- to 19-day feeding group than in the control group. The numbers of transferable embryos in the 15- to 19-day feeding group were significantly higher than in the 10- to 14-day feeding group. The pregnancy rate at day 60 was significantly higher in the experimental group (66.7 and 57.1%) than in the control group (51.1 and 44.0%) after transfer of fresh and frozen-thawed embryos, respectively. In conclusion, the numbers of ova and embryos or transferable embryos after superovulatory treatment increased, and the pregnancy rate after ET was higher in Japanese Black cows fed PUFA than in the control group. PMID:23877792

  1. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment.

  2. Comparison of the Effect of Clomiphene- Estradiol Valerate vs Letrozole on Endometrial Thickness, Abortion and Pregnancy Rate in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seyedoshohadaei, Fariba; Zandvakili, Farnaz; Rashadmanesh, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clomiphene citrate is the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). This drug binds and blocks estrogen receptors and thought to have an anti estrogenic effect on endometrium volume, thus may have adverse effect on fertility. Aim This study aimed to compare the effect of Clomiphene citrate plus Estradiol Valerate with Letrozole on endometrial thickness, abortion and pregnancy rate in infertile women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction. Materials and Methods This was a randomized double blind clinical trial study on 100 women with PCOS, with an endometrial thickness less than 7mm in spite of follicles greater than 18mm after administration of Clomiphene citrate 100mg/d from 3th to 7th day of menstruation. They were randomly divided in two groups. Group A received 100mg Clomiphene citrate from day 3 to day 7 of menstruation and 4 mg Estradiol Valerate after the 8th day of menstruation until 14th day. Group B treated by 5mg Letrozole from day 3 to 7 of menstruation with placebo from 8th to 14th day of menstruation. In both groups endometrial thickness was measured by transvaginal sonography in the 14th day of menstruation. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver.18.0. Results The mean age was 30.34 years in group A and 29.62 years in group B (p=0.381). The number of infertility years in group A was 3.73 years and in group B was 3.85 years. There was no significant relationship statistically between the two groups in terms of mean age and infertility years (p=0.99). Endometrial thickness in group A was 7.26mm and in group B was 8.17 mm. Pregnancy rates in group A and group B was 32% and 16% respectively. There was significant relationship statistically between the two groups in terms of endometrial thickness and pregnancy rates (p=0.021 and p=0.05). There was no abortion in group A and 5 cases had abortion in group B, there was a significant relationship between the two groups statistically (p=0.028). Conclusion

  3. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, and status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous MgSO(4) is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  4. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, and status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous MgSO(4) is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  5. Adolescent substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Henggeler, S W; Felice, M E; Reynoso, T; Williams, N M; Sheets, R

    1993-04-01

    Substance use during pregnancy may be a key mediator of the association between adolescent childbearing and poor newborn outcome. Substance use during pregnancy was evaluated for 50 teens who were consecutive patients at an inner-city university clinic. Although teens reported typical lifetime rates of substance use, self-reports and two urine assays indicated minimal substance use throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that the adolescents exercised judicious decision making in light of the known health risks of substance use during pregnancy.

  6. Non-insulin pharmacological therapy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Sarita

    2016-09-01

    During pregnancy, when glycaemic levels remain uncontrolled, despite lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy is advised, usually insulin which has been the gold standard for treatment. Recent studies however suggest that certain oral anti diabetic agents (OADs) may be safe and acceptable alternatives. There may be potential advantages for the use of metformin over insulin in GDM with respect to maternal weight gain and neonatal outcomes. However, as metformin crosses the placenta, its use during pregnancy raises concerns regarding potential adverse effects on the mother and foetus. Glibenclamide, a second generation sulfonylurea, more effective in glycaemic control in women with GDM has a lower treatment failure rate than metformin but there is lack of long term follow up data. Even though generally well tolerated, some studies report higher rates of preeclampsia, macrosomia, neonatal jaundice, neonatal hypoglycaemia and longer stay in neonatal care unit. PMID:27582151

  7. Influence of temperament score and handling facility on stress, reproductive hormone concentrations, and fixed time AI pregnancy rates in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Assay, M; Kasimanickam, V; Moore, D A; Gay, J M; Whittier, W D

    2014-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2-point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance-P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub-population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance-P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5-day CO-Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley-way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley-way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley-way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p < 0.05). The cattle handling facility design by temperament group interactions significantly influenced progesterone (p = 0.01), cortisol (p = 0.01), prolactin (p = 0.02) and substance-P (p = 0.04) both at the initiation of

  8. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  9. Observations on the effects of vibration and noise on plasma ACTH and zinc levels, pregnancy and respiration rate in the guineapig.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K J; Stephens, D B; Delaney, C E

    1986-04-01

    The responses of female guineapigs to vibration and noise were examined with the use of an apparatus designed to simulate transport. Peak levels of plasma ACTH and zinc concentrations were attained after 4 min of exposure to vibration and 80-90 dB of noise. The respiration rate, normally around 90/min, was increased to 103/min when the animals were moved (while still in their cages) to the experimental area; it rose to 129/min when the apparatus was switched on to expose the animals to vibration and noise. Those left adjacent to the apparatus and exposed to noise alone elevated their respiration rates to 115/min. Respiration rates returned to normal within 2.5 h. There was no apparent effect on the maintenance of pregnancy, gestation length, litter size or post-partum growth of the young born to guineapigs exposed to this vibration and noise for a period of 1 h at mid-term.

  10. Beef x beef and dairy x beef females mated to Angus and Charolais sires. I. Pregnancy rate, dystocia and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L A; Beavers, G D

    1982-06-01

    Pregnancy rate of 310 females and birth weight, dystocia score and percentage of assisted births among 910 calves born from 1972 through 1977 were examined. Dams were 2 to 7 yr old and of Angus x Hereford (AH), Charolais x Hereford (CH), straightbred Hereford (HH) and Brown Swiss x Hereford (SH) breed types. Females were exposed to A and C bulls. Breed of dam affected (P less than .01) dystocia score (DS), percentage of assisted births and birth weight. When adjusted for birth weight of calf and dam's postcalving weight, CH and SH dams generally differed (P less than .01) from AH and HH dams in percentage of assisted births and DS. The AH and HH dams were not different (P greater than .01) in percentage of assisted births, DS or birth weight of calf. C-sired calves had higher birth weights (P less than .01) and their dams had higher DS (P less than .05). However, there was no difference between C- and A-sired calves in percentage of assisted births when data were adjusted for effects of birth weight of calf and weight of dam. Calf sex affected birth weight (P less than .01) but had little influence on DS or percentage of assisted births when birth weight was held constant. Male calves were 1.7 kg heavier at birth than females. Two-year-old dams had higher (P less than .01) DS and percentage of assisted births than did dams in all other age groups. Age of dam influenced birth weight (P less than .01), with paired comparisons of age classes showing differences between all age groups except 4- and greater than or equal to 5-yr-old cows. Year of birth was a source of variation (P less than .05) for all traits measured. In 1972, there was a higher mean DS and a higher percentage of assisted births (P less than .05) than in any other year. However, all calves born in 1972 were from 2-yr-old cows. Percentage difficulty and DS increased linearly (P less than .01) with birth weight. Each 1-kg increment in birth weight increased percentage difficulty by 2.6 percentage points

  11. Teen pregnancy: progress meets politics.

    PubMed

    Saul, R

    1999-06-01

    Recent data demonstrate the continuation of a trend of declining teen pregnancy rates in the US. Between 1995 and 1996, the national teenage pregnancy rate fell 4% to 97.3 pregnancies/1000 women aged 15-19 years, contributing to a 17% decline since the rate peaked in 1990. Birth and abortion rates also fell during the same time period. Pregnancy rates declined for younger and older teens, Blacks, Whites, and throughout the country during the first half of this decade. However, rates vary widely by state, and the pregnancy rates among Hispanic teens increased during 1990-92, and then fell off slightly. While these new data are encouraging, the US still has one of the developed world's highest teen pregnancy rates, with almost 1 million pregnancies occurring each year among women aged 15-19 years. Most of the observed decline in teen pregnancy rates in the US is due to the somewhat more consistent and significantly more effective use of contraception among sexually active teens, although about 20% of the decline can be attributed to increased abstinence and the delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Sexually active teens' access to a range of contraceptive methods has been key to their avoiding pregnancy. The conservatives' threat to minors' access to contraceptives, teens and the need for confidentiality, and public policy implications are considered.

  12. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Design Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Setting Scotland and North West England. Participants Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Methods Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Results Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; p<0.001). Net agreement for provider incentives for breastfeeding targets was 44.1% (219/497) and net disagreement was 38.6% (192/497). Agreement was more likely for women (compared with men): OR 1.81 (1.09 to 3.00; p=0.023) and health visitors/maternity staff (compared with doctors): OR 2.54 (95% CI 1.65 to 3.91; p<0.001). Key emergent themes were ‘moral tensions around acceptability’, ‘need for incentives’, ‘goals’, ‘collective or divisive action’ and ‘monitoring and proof’. While provider incentives can focus action and resources, tensions around the impact on relationships raised concerns. Pressure, burden of proof, gaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were

  13. Pregnancy rate in dairy cows treated with progesterone for six days during estrus synchronization with PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M; Gutiérrez, C G; López, R; Aguilar, C; Roque, C; Hernández-Cerón, J

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of progesterone supplementation during a double PGF2α injection synchronization protocol on pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) and on the incidence of twin births. Seven hundred and eighty three dairy cows were synchronized with two injections of PGF2α 14 days apart, starting on day 35 postpartum for their first postpartum insemination. Six days before the second PGF2α injection, cows were treated either with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID-Delta) and an intramuscular injection of 500mg of progesterone (n=387) or served as control (n=396) and did not receive progesterone treatment. Cows were inseminated 12h after being detected in estrus. Pregnancy was diagnosed 40-45 days later by transrectal palpation. Progesterone administration improved (P<0.05) the percentage of cows detected in estrus in multiparous [(192/255) 75% vs (161/267) 60%], but not in primiparous cows [93/132 (70%) vs 90/129 (70%)]. Progesterone treatment increased P/AI in multiparous [53/192 (28%) vs 27/161 (17%)] but not in primiparous cows [25/93 (27%) vs 29/90 (32%)]. The incidence of twin births tended to be lower (P=0.09) in cows treated with progesterone [1/74 (1%)] than in the control group [4/53 (7%)]. It is concluded that progesterone administration during estrus synchronization with two PGF2α injections in dairy cows improves estral response and increases P/AI in multiparous, but not in primiparous cows, and tended to decrease the incidence of twin births.

  14. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  15. Effect of temporary meiosis block during prematuration of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes on pregnancy rates in a commercial setting for in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Guemra, Samuel; da Silva Santo, Eriko; Zanin, Renato; Monzani, Paulo Sergio; Sovernigo, Tobias Canan; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Verde Leal, Cláudia Lima; Adona, Paulo Roberto

    2014-04-15

    Ovum pick up (OPU) associated with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos has been shown as an important tool in cattle breeding to increase the number of descendants from animals of high genetic value. In herds maintained distant from the laboratory, collecting cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and transporting them to the laboratory may take several hours and decrease COCs viability, representing a challenge for commercial settings. In this study, a prematuration culture to induce temporary meiosis block was evaluated in a commercial scale IVP setting as a strategy to transport bovine OPU-derived COCs from Nelore and Brangus donors. Effects on embryo yield and pregnancy rates were assessed. Viable COCs from each donor were destined to one of the experimental groups (control, blocks 1 and 2). Control group COCs were placed in cryotubes with 1 mL TCM199-HEPES. In block groups (1 and 2), COCs were placed in cryotubes with 300 μL TCM 199 + 12 μM butyrolactone I (block medium). All groups were gassed and kept in a thermos bottle for 4 hours at 36 °C. Next, COCs in the control group were transferred to IVM medium and block 1 group to block medium, and cultured for 22 hours and 15 hours, respectively, at 38.5 °C and 5% CO2 in air. Block 2 COCs were kept in the cryotubes and in the thermos bottle for another 15 hours at 36 °C to simulate long-term transport conditions. After meiosis block in prematuration culture, blocks 1 and 2 COCs were matured in vitro for 22 hours as for the control group. After IVM, COCs in all groups were submitted to IVF and IVC, and blastocyst rates were evaluated on day 7. Embryos were transferred and pregnancy rates evaluated at 60 days of gestation. The mean total number of COCs retrieved by OPU did not differ between Nelore and Brangus donors (16.8 and 17.2, respectively, P > 0.05), but Nelore donors produced more viable COCs than Brangus (10.1 and 7.6, respectively, P < 0.05) and more embryos/cow (3.8 and 2.7, respectively, P

  16. Medical approaches to termination of early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Van Look, P. F.; Bygdeman, M.

    1989-01-01

    Termination of early pregnancy by vacuum aspiration is a well-established technique. The procedure is highly effective and has a low complication rate, particularly when performed during the first few weeks after missed menses. However, this parasurgical method requires skilled health care personnel, and attempts have therefore been made to find medical alternatives. Prostaglandins were the first agents to be used successfully for this purpose, but the high incidence of mainly gastrointestinal side-effects has limited their widespread use. More recently, attention has focused on antiprogestational steroids, i.e., compounds that prevent the action of progesterone either by inhibiting its biosynthesis or by preventing it from binding to the cellular receptors in target organs. Current experience indicates that these compounds, particularly when used in combination with a low dose of a synthetic prostaglandin analogue, have the potential to become a safe, effective, and acceptable medical method for the termination of early pregnancy. PMID:2692870

  17. Comparison of pregnancy rates in beef cattle after a fixed-time AI with once- or twice-used controlled internal drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Muth-Spurlock, A M; Poole, D H; Whisnant, C S

    2016-02-01

    The use of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) provides producers with numerous benefits including the use of superior genetics, shorter breeding and calving seasons, and a more uniform calf crop. However, the cost of implementing FTAI protocols is one of the several drawbacks hindering their use in the beef industry. Potential injection-site lesions from intramuscular injections of the hormones necessary for estrus synchronization are also a cause of concern for carcass quality. The objectives of this experiment were to (1) determine whether or not a twice-used controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device would be effective in an FTAI protocol without adversely affecting pregnancy rate and (2) whether or not the subcutaneous administration of PGF2α affects pregnancy rate. Nulliparous females (n = 99) between 13 and 27 months of age and multiparous cows (n = 43) between 48 and 74 months of age were synchronized for estrus using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. The females were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments: (1) a once-used CIDR (control) or (2) a twice-used CIDR device (treatment) incorporated into their synchronization protocol. The females were also randomly assigned to have their injection of PGF2α administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Blood was taken in a random subset of nulliparous females (n = 52) just before device removal and assayed for concentration of progesterone. The concentration of progesterone was higher (P = 0.01) in the animals that received once-used CIDR devices than that in those received twice-used CIDR devices (3.4 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL, respectively). There was no significant effect of parity (P = 0.82), artificial insemination technician (P = 0.60), PGF2α administration (P = 0.83), or treatment (P = 0.67) on pregnancy rates to artificial insemination which were 75.4 ± 6.0% and 71.7 ± 6.4%, for animals that received once- and twice-used CIDR devices, respectively. This study provides

  18. Thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex; Pearce, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The thyroid gland is substantially challenged during pregnancy. Total T(3) and T(4) levels increase by 50% during pregnancy owing to a 50% increase in thyroxine-binding globulin levels. Serum TSH levels decrease in the first trimester and increase in the second and third trimesters; however, not to prepregnancy levels. Hypothyroidism is present in up to 3% of all pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased rate of miscarriage and preterm delivery, and a decrease in the IQ of the child. Overt hyperthyroidism is present in less than 1% of pregnant women but is linked to increased rates of miscarriage, preterm delivery and maternal congestive heart failure. In women who are euthyroid, thyroid autoantibodies are associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage and preterm delivery. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in 5.4% of all women following pregnancy; moreover, 50% of women who are euthyroid in the first trimester of pregnancy but test positive for thyroid autoantibodies will develop postpartum thyroiditis. The need for the essential nutrient iodine increases during pregnancy and in women who are breastfeeding, and the effect of treatment of mild iodine deficiency on maternal and fetal outcomes is consequently being evaluated in a prospective study. The debate regarding the pros and cons of universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy is ongoing. PMID:23007317

  19. Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhuri Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Scar ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and has been increasingly diagnosed all over the world. This is a life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of embryo within the myometrium and fibrous tissues in a previous scar on the uterus, especially following caesarean section. With the increasing rate of caesarean section, there is a substantial increase in this condition with better understanding of this disease. The early and accurate diagnosis with timely management can prevent pregnancy complications such as haemorrhage, uterine rupture and can preserve fertility.

  20. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Background What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. Material/Methods The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients’ desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. Results The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. Conclusions Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504

  1. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. MATERIAL AND METHODS The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients' desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. RESULTS The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. CONCLUSIONS Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504

  2. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed; Moustafa M., Zeitoun

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows) of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C) control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L) cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H) cows were given high dose (1800 IU) of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm) and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm) disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10) among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01) reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml) cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml) and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml) cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60%) compared with C cows (20%). However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU) of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate. PMID:27536029

  3. Progesterone change in the late follicular phase affects pregnancy rates both agonist and antagonist protocols in normoresponders: a case-controlled study in ICSI cycles

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Berfu; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Guvenir, Altay; Yerebasmaz, Neslihan; Altinbas, Sadiman; Dilbaz, Berna; Dilbaz, Serdar; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the presented study is to investigate the impact of progesterone change in the late follicular phase on the pregnancy rates of both agonist and antagonist protocols in normoresponders. Study design: A total of 201 normoresponder patients, who underwent embryo transfer were consecutively selected. 118 patients were stimulated using a long luteal GnRH agonist protocol and 83 using a flexible antagonist protocol. The level of change in late follicular phase progesterone was calculated according to the progesterone levels on the hCG day and pre-hCG day (1 or 2 days prior to hCG day) measurement. Results: Clinical pregnancy rates were comparable between long luteal and antagonist group (35.6 and 41%, respectively). The incidence of progesterone elevation on the hCG day was 11% in long luteal and 18% in antagonist group (p = 0.16). In pregnant cycles, p levels both on the hCG day and pre-hCG day measurement were significantly higher in antagonist than agonist cycles (p = 0.029, p = 0.038, respectively). The change of p level was statistically significant in non-pregnant cycles both for the agonist (-0.17 ± 0.07; 95% CI: −0.29 to −0.37) and antagonist groups (−0.18 ± 0.07; 95%CI: −0.31 to −0.04). Conclusions: Late follicular phase progesterone levels were stable during the cycles of pregnant patients irrespective of the protocols and were shown to be higher in pregnant patients in antagonist cycles when compared to agonist cycles. PMID:26654315

  4. Use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives to increase response rates among African Americans in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Dykema, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Kniss, Chad; Kvale, Katherine; González, Kim; Cautley, Eleanor

    2012-05-01

    From 2009 to 2010, an experiment was conducted to increase response rates among African American mothers in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Sample members were randomly assigned to groups that received a prepaid, cash incentive of $5 (n = 219); a coupon for diapers valued at $6 (n = 210); or no incentive (n = 209). Incentives were included with the questionnaire, which was mailed to respondents. We examined the effects of the incentives on several outcomes, including response rates, cost effectiveness, survey response distributions, and item nonresponse. Response rates were significantly higher for the cash group than for the coupon (42.5 vs. 32.4%, P < .05) or no incentive group (42.5 vs. 30.1%, P < .01); the coupon and no incentive groups performed similarly. While absolute costs were the highest for the cash group, the cost per completed survey was the lowest. The incentives had limited effects on response distributions for specific survey questions. Although respondents completing the survey by mail in the cash and coupon groups exhibited a trend toward being less likely to have missing data, the effect was not significant. Compared to a coupon or no incentive, a small cash incentive significantly improved response rates and was cost effective among African American respondents in Wisconsin PRAMS. Incentives had only limited effects, however, on survey response distributions, and no significant effects on item nonresponse. PMID:21509432

  5. Metabolizable protein supply alters pregnancy and subsequent retention rate during heifer development while grazing dormant winter forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type of heifer development system can have major impact on the future productivity and retention rate of the cowherd. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine growth, reproductive performance, retention rate, and economic efficiency of heifer’s developed in a range raised (with ...

  6. Preventing unintended teenage pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Peckham, S

    1993-03-01

    A review of the literature on unplanned and teenage pregnancies was undertaken for four District Health Authorities. This work was carried out within a national context of increasing conception rates for teenage women aged 16 and under and in the knowledge that pregnant teenagers and their children tend to have poor life chances. The Health of the Nation White Paper has now focused attention on this by the inclusion of a target to reduce pregnancies to under 16-year-old women by half. To achieve this, health authorities need some understanding of the types of services which might be effective. Whilst there is limited evaluative work on the effectiveness of services for young people in this country, international comparisons suggest that some methods for reducing unintended teenage pregnancies may be more effective than others. The specific service issues identified are the need for advice and support pre-conceptually, during pregnancy and after abortion/birth; the need for easier access to contraception; the need for improved information on risky behaviour--particularly relating to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS and substance abuse, and the need for improved medical and social care for pregnant teenage women. The most effective approaches for preventing unintended teenage pregnancy would appear to be the development of comprehensive advisory and family planning services, including sex education and the commitment by central and local government to tackle the adverse socio-economic factors which are associated with teenage pregnancy.

  7. Teenage Pregnancy in Canada and Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith; Forget, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, there were 36 694 known pregnancies in Canada among women aged 15 to 19. Although the Canadian teenage pregnancy rate decreased from 1980 to 1987, it remains three times higher than that of the industrialized country with the lowest rate. Health professionals, social workers, and educators can have an important role in preventing teenage pregnancy. PMID:21229025

  8. A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhleen; Swarankar, M. L.; Maheshwari, Manju; Acharya, Veena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0%) compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33%) (P < 0.01). Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies. PMID:25395745

  9. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yovich, John L; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Conceicao, Jason L; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women <40 years with 24% requiring rFSH dosages <150 IU. Applying both specific algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for 79.1% of patients and for 30.1% of those receiving the very lowest rFSH dosages (≤75 IU). Only 0.3% patients were diagnosed with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, all deemed avoidable due to definable breaches from the protocols. The live birth productivity rates exceeded 50% for women <35 years and was 33.2% for the group aged 35-39 years. Routine use of both algorithms led to only 11.6% of women generating >15 oocytes

  10. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yovich, John L; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Conceicao, Jason L; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women <40 years with 24% requiring rFSH dosages <150 IU. Applying both specific algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for 79.1% of patients and for 30.1% of those receiving the very lowest rFSH dosages (≤75 IU). Only 0.3% patients were diagnosed with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, all deemed avoidable due to definable breaches from the protocols. The live birth productivity rates exceeded 50% for women <35 years and was 33.2% for the group aged 35–39 years. Routine use of both algorithms led to only 11.6% of women generating >15 oocytes

  11. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Gourabi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC)/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX) at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1). PMID:27441060

  12. Triptans in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Dahlin, Julia; O’Mara, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The triptans are a class of tryptamine-based drugs indicated for in the treatment of migraine headaches. The triptans act as serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine) (5-HT) agonists by binding to various serotonin receptors, causing vasoconstriction and neuronal inhibition to alleviate migraines. There are 7 types of triptans currently available on the U.S. market: almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. The objective of this study was to examine the use and effects of triptans in pregnancy. Although three of the triptans have pregnancy registries maintained by the manufacturer, triptan use in pregnancy has not been extensively studied. Information on the use of sumatriptan during pregnancy is relatively more abundant, because it has been on the market longer than the other triptans and may also have a higher percentage of the market share. There are no data to suggest teratogenicity for any of the triptans, although preterm birth rates appear to be elevated. PMID:18223456

  13. Metabolizable protein supply while grazing dormant winter forage during heifer development alters pregnancy and subsequent in-herd retention rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of post-weaning management of British crossbred heifers on growth and reproduction. In Exp. 1, 239 spring-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by weaning BW and allotted randomly to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments were fed at rate equivalent to 1.1 k...

  14. The cost-effectiveness and consumer acceptability of taxation strategies to reduce rates of overweight and obesity among children in Australia: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a recognised public health problem and around 25% of Australian children are overweight or obese. A major contributor is the obesogenic environment which encourages over consumption of energy dense nutrient poor food. Taxation is commonly proposed as a mechanism to reduce consumption of poor food choices and hence reduce rates of obesity and overweight in the community. Methods/Design An economic model will be developed to assess the lifetime benefits and costs to a cohort of Australian children by reducing energy dense nutrient poor food consumption through taxation mechanisms. The model inputs will be derived from a series of smaller studies. Food options for taxation will be derived from literature and expert opinion, the acceptability and impact of price changes will be explored through a Citizen’s Jury and a discrete choice experiment and price elasticities will be derived from the discrete choice experiment and consumption data. Discussion The health care costs of managing rising levels of obesity are a challenge for all governments. This study will provide a unique contribution to the international knowledge base by engaging a variety of robust research techniques, with a multidisciplinary focus and be responsive to consumers from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:24330325

  15. Improving the Response Rate to a Street Survey: An Evaluation of the "But You Are Free to Accept or to Refuse" Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueguen, Nicolas; Pascual, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The "but you are free to accept or to refuse" technique is a compliance procedure in which someone is approached with a request by simply telling him/her that he/she is free to accept or to refuse the request. This semantic evocation leads to increased compliance with the request. Furthermore, in most of the studies in which this technique was…

  16. Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  17. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Louise E.; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question. PMID:26633369

  18. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Louise E; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question.

  19. Rethinking mandatory HIV testing during pregnancy in areas with high HIV prevalence rates: ethical and policy issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051

  20. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with daughter pregnancy rate for prediction of genetic merit for reproduction in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M S; Denicol, A C; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated 69 SNPs in genes previously related to fertility and production traits for their relationship to daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), cow conception rate (CCR) and heifer conception rate (HCR) in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped according to their predicted transmitting ability (PTA) [≤-1 (n = 1287) and ≥1.5 (n = 1036)] for DPR. Genotyping was performed using Sequenom MassARRAY(®) . There were a total of 39 SNPs associated with the three fertility traits. The SNPs that explained the greater proportion of the genetic variation for DPR were COQ9 (3.2%), EPAS1 (1.0%), CAST (1.0%), C7H19orf60 (1.0%) and MRPL48 (1.0%); for CCR were GOLGA4 (2.4%), COQ9 (1.8%), EPAS1 (1.1%) and MRPL48 (0.8%); and for HCR were HSD17B7 (1.0%), AP3B1 (0.8%), HSD17B12 (0.7%) and CACNA1D (0.6%). Inclusion of 39 SNPs previously associated with DPR in the genetic evaluation system increased the reliability of PTA for DPR by 0.20%. Many of the genes represented by SNPs associated with fertility are involved in steroidogenesis or are regulated by steroids. A large proportion of SNPs previously associated with genetic merit for fertility in Holstein bulls maintained their association in a separate population of cows. The inclusion of these genes in genetic evaluation can improve reliabilities of genomic estimates for fertility. PMID:26923315

  1. Hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Patil-Sisodia, Komal; Cooper, David S

    2013-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common pregnancy-related thyroid disorder, affecting 3-5% of all pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more common than is overt hypothyroidism, and is usually defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration greater than the pregnancy-specific reference range for each laboratory value, or by serum TSH concentrations greater than 2·5 mIU/L in the first trimester and greater than 3 mIU/L in the second and third trimesters. Some authors have defined subclinical hypothyroidism as a serum TSH between 5 and 10 mIU/L, and overt hypothyroidism as a serum TSH greater than 10 mIU/L, but this is not the commonly accepted definition. Once overt hypothyroidism is diagnosed, treatment with levothyroxine should be started to achieve serum TSH concentrations within the reference ranges for pregnancy as soon as possible. For patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, recommendations for therapy differ between various professional groups as a result of inconsistent data from both observational studies and clinical trials regarding the benefits for the mother or the child. Similarly, because benefits of therapy are still uncertain, universal screening of all pregnant women for subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity is not recommended by most professional groups. During gestation, an increase in levothyroxine dose is required in more than 50% of women with previously diagnosed hypothyroidism, and can be managed by increasing the levothyroxine dose by 30% when pregnancy is confirmed.

  2. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases not unique to pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. Few challenges arise in reaching an accurate diagnosis in light of such physiological changes. Laboratory test results should be carefully interpreted and the knowledge of what normal changes to expect is prudent to avoid clinical misjudgment. Other challenges entail the methods of treatment and their safety for both the mother and the baby. This review summarizes liver diseases that are not unique to pregnancy. We focus on viral hepatitis and its mode of transmission, diagnosis, effect on the pregnancy, the mother, the infant, treatment, and breast-feeding. Autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson’s disease, Budd Chiari and portal vein thrombosis in pregnancy are also discussed. Pregnancy is rare in patients with cirrhosis because of the metabolic and hormonal changes associated with cirrhosis. Variceal bleeding can happen in up to 38% of cirrhotic pregnant women. Management of portal hypertension during pregnancy is discussed. Pregnancy increases the pathogenicity leading to an increase in the rate of gallstones. We discuss some of the interventions for gallstones in pregnancy if symptoms arise. Finally, we provide an overview of some of the options in managing hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma during pregnancy. PMID:24282352

  3. Liver diseases in pregnancy: diseases not unique to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-11-21

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. Few challenges arise in reaching an accurate diagnosis in light of such physiological changes. Laboratory test results should be carefully interpreted and the knowledge of what normal changes to expect is prudent to avoid clinical misjudgment. Other challenges entail the methods of treatment and their safety for both the mother and the baby. This review summarizes liver diseases that are not unique to pregnancy. We focus on viral hepatitis and its mode of transmission, diagnosis, effect on the pregnancy, the mother, the infant, treatment, and breast-feeding. Autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson's disease, Budd Chiari and portal vein thrombosis in pregnancy are also discussed. Pregnancy is rare in patients with cirrhosis because of the metabolic and hormonal changes associated with cirrhosis. Variceal bleeding can happen in up to 38% of cirrhotic pregnant women. Management of portal hypertension during pregnancy is discussed. Pregnancy increases the pathogenicity leading to an increase in the rate of gallstones. We discuss some of the interventions for gallstones in pregnancy if symptoms arise. Finally, we provide an overview of some of the options in managing hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma during pregnancy.

  4. During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Preventing Problems Genetics and Family History Other Concerns Things to Think About Before ...

  5. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  6. Pregnancy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hCG. hCG is made when a fertilized egg implants in the uterus. This usually happens about ... conception (when the man's sperm fertilizes the woman's egg). 1 Some home pregnancy tests are more sensitive ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... chills, fever, sweats UTIs are treated with antibiotics . Yeast infection An infection caused by an overgrowth of bacteria normally found in the vagina . Yeast infections are more common during pregnancy than in ...

  8. Denied pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko

    2010-06-01

    Two cases of non-psychotic denied pregnancy are presented and discussed. Following obstetric expertise, the forensic-criminal evaluation should investigate the reported crimes of denied pregnancy associated infanticide or criminal abortion as well as the potential involvement of other persons in these crimes. All this would require close collaboration between obstetricians, psychiatrists and crime investigation experts in the forensic expertise of these criminal offences.

  9. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  10. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Geenes, Victoria; Williamson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder characterized by maternal pruritus in the third trimester, raised serum bile acids and increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes. The etiology of ICP is complex and not fully understood, but it is likely to result from the cholestatic effects of reproductive hormones and their metabolites in genetically susceptible women. Equally unclear are the mechanisms by which the fetal complications occur. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, etiology and management of ICP. PMID:19418576

  11. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between pregnancy and…

  12. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  13. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  14. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  15. Pregnancy risks associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Marshall, Nicole E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the last several decades, with approximately 40% of pregnant women now considered overweight or obese. Obesity has been shown to be associated with numerous poor pregnancy outcomes, including increased rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, stillbirth, postterm pregnancy, and increased rates of cesarean delivery. Many of these complications have been found to increase even further with increasing body mass index in a dose-response fashion. In this review, the association of obesity with maternal, fetal, and pregnancy outcomes is discussed as are the recommendations for caring for the obese gravida.

  16. The period of the follicular phase during which the uterus of mares shows estrus-like echotexture influences the subsequent pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Sánchez, S; Newcombe, J R; Garcés-Narro, C; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-10-01

    The interval from both spontaneous and prostaglandin (PGF)-induced luteolysis to ovulation is greatly variable in mares. Several reports have shown a positive association between the length of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) and the subsequent pregnancy rate (PR). However, it is not known whether this association also occurs in estrous cycles with spontaneous luteolysis. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of estrus-like echotexture of the uterus during the follicular phase on the subsequent PR in both spontaneous and PGF-induced cycles. A total of 768 estrous cycles from 325 thoroughbred mares were analyzed (401 estruses were induced with exogenous PGF and 367 cycles were not treated with PGF). The following factors were taken into account to determine the effect on PR: age of the mare, stallion, year of breeding, month of season, reproductive status of the mare, use of PGF treatment, duration of follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture, interovulatory interval (IOI; in spontaneous cycles), and ITO (in PGF-induced cycles). The age of the mare (P = 0.017), mare status (P = 0.031), the ITO (P = 0.041), and the duration of the follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture (P < 0.001) influenced the PR. The PR increased with the duration of estrus and of endometrial edema in both PGF-induced and spontaneous cycles. The correlation between the duration of endometrial edema and the IOI and ITO was positive (r = 0.5) and significant (P < 0.05). PMID:27298152

  17. The period of the follicular phase during which the uterus of mares shows estrus-like echotexture influences the subsequent pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Sánchez, S; Newcombe, J R; Garcés-Narro, C; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-10-01

    The interval from both spontaneous and prostaglandin (PGF)-induced luteolysis to ovulation is greatly variable in mares. Several reports have shown a positive association between the length of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) and the subsequent pregnancy rate (PR). However, it is not known whether this association also occurs in estrous cycles with spontaneous luteolysis. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of estrus-like echotexture of the uterus during the follicular phase on the subsequent PR in both spontaneous and PGF-induced cycles. A total of 768 estrous cycles from 325 thoroughbred mares were analyzed (401 estruses were induced with exogenous PGF and 367 cycles were not treated with PGF). The following factors were taken into account to determine the effect on PR: age of the mare, stallion, year of breeding, month of season, reproductive status of the mare, use of PGF treatment, duration of follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture, interovulatory interval (IOI; in spontaneous cycles), and ITO (in PGF-induced cycles). The age of the mare (P = 0.017), mare status (P = 0.031), the ITO (P = 0.041), and the duration of the follicular phase with estrus-like echotexture (P < 0.001) influenced the PR. The PR increased with the duration of estrus and of endometrial edema in both PGF-induced and spontaneous cycles. The correlation between the duration of endometrial edema and the IOI and ITO was positive (r = 0.5) and significant (P < 0.05).

  18. Kidney stones during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy.

  19. Occurrence of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes during isotretinoin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011

  20. Survey of premarital pregnancy in seven provinces.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1998-06-01

    This article provides data on premarital pregnancy by marriage cohort during 1946-91, and pregnancy outcomes (abortion or birth) in China. Data were obtained from the 1992 Premarital Pregnancy Survey conducted by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The sample includes 10,234 married women aged 20-44 years from 7 provinces and municipalities: Shanghai, Shandong, Guangdong, Jilin, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Ningxia. Premarital pregnancy increased steadily over time, especially during 1987-91. The trend was stable and consistent in rural areas. In urban areas, trends varied by cohort. Premarital pregnancy dipped substantially in the 1967-71 cohort, and somewhat in the 1957-61, 1977-81, and 1982-86 cohorts. Pregnancy outcomes in delivery of an infant rose on a stable basis over time, especially in rural areas. Abortion before marriage fluctuated widely by cohort. Abortions were particularly low in the 1967-71 cohort. Despite the lower premarital pregnancy level in 1957-61, abortion was relatively higher. Premarital pregnancy reflects cultural, social, political, and physiological contexts. The high abortion rate and the low premarital pregnancy rate were attributed to the famine in 1959-61 that swept across China. Low premarital pregnancy among the 1967-71 cohort is attributed to the strict moral standards adopted during the early part of the Cultural Revolution. A closer analysis of the 1957-61 cohort reveals that educational attainment is related to premarital pregnancy. Premarital pregnancy varies by residence and region. PMID:12293909

  1. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet ePublications Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet Print this fact sheet Pregnancy and ... pregnancy and medicines Is it safe to use medicine while I am pregnant? There is no clear- ...

  2. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  3. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  4. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  5. Planning your pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... Pregnancy > Before or between pregnancies > Planning your pregnancy Planning your pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  6. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  7. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  8. Pregnancy testing and counseling.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J N

    1989-06-01

    Pregnancy testing and counseling are increasingly accepted as necessary services for adolescents within the primary care setting. For teenagers in need of a pregnancy test, the easy-to-perform, highly sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay analysis for measuring beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is ideal. However, no single beta-HCG analysis should be taken as absolute evidence for the presence or absence of pregnancy. Instead, an integrated approach using all of the health care professional's skills in adolescent health care should be taken. In some cases a careful history and physical examination will confirm the pregnancy. At other times serial quantitative serum HCG titers, pelvic ultrasonography, and culdocentesis may be necessary to rule out the possibility of ectopic pregnancy or threatened abortion. For more than three quarters of pregnant adolescents the pregnancy is unplanned and may represent a major conflict for themselves, their partner, and their families. When such an event occurs the health care professional will frequently be sought as a resource. Successful pregnancy counseling has many components. The adolescent will need to visualize the counselor as an available, sensitive, nonjudgmental individual who believes in the right of the pregnant teenager ultimately to progress to her own decision. The counseling process should be firmly based on an understanding of adolescent psychosocial and biologic development, crises intervention techniques, and family dynamics. The counselor needs to be a reliable information source. If the adolescent decides to go to term, programs offering comprehensive prenatal services to teenagers should be identified. Information concerning high-quality, low-cost abortion services also will need to be available for those who wish to terminate. It is important to monitor the quality of care given in prenatal and abortion service referrals. Few adolescents currently choose to place their babies for adoption

  9. An Overlap of Breastfeeding during Late Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Changes in Colostrum Composition and Morbidity Rates among Peruvian Infants and Their Mothers1,2

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Grace S.; Penny, Mary E.; Zimmer, J. Paul; Díaz, Judith M.; Marín, R. Margot

    2009-01-01

    An overlap of breast-feeding and late pregnancy is associated with decreased intake of human milk and reduced infant growth. We evaluated the association of an overlap with macronutrient and immunological components of milk, infant urinary IgA, and infant and maternal morbidity. On d 2 and 1 mo postpartum, staff measured 24-h intake of breast milk and collected samples from 133 Peruvian women; 68 had breast-fed during the last trimester of pregnancy (BFP) and 65 had not breast-fed during pregnancy (NBFP). Data on maternal and infant anthropometry and health were collected for 1 mo. On d 2, lactose and lysozyme concentrations were higher, total lysozyme intake was higher and concentration and total intake of lactoferrin were lower in the BFP than the NBFP group (P < 0.05). The total 1-mo IgA intake was lower among BFP than NBFP infants (P = 0.01). Urinary IgA concentration was correlated with breast milk IgA concentration (r = 0.29; P = 0.01) but not with breast-feeding during pregnancy. An overlap was not associated with diarrhea but BFP infants were 5 times as likely to have a cough for at least 7 d than NBFP infants (P < 0.05). Reported mastitis was rare and occurred only in the NBFP group (P = 0.05). An overlap of breast-feeding and late pregnancy was associated with changes in milk composition, an increased frequency in symptoms of infant respiratory illness but decreased reported mastitis. Further in-depth studies are warranted to determine the cumulative effects associated with a breast-feeding/pregnancy overlap on infant and maternal outcomes. PMID:12888642

  10. An overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy is associated with subsequent changes in colostrum composition and morbidity rates among Peruvian infants and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Zimmer, J Paul; Díaz, Judith M; Marín, R Margot

    2003-08-01

    An overlap of breast-feeding and late pregnancy is associated with decreased intake of human milk and reduced infant growth. We evaluated the association of an overlap with macronutrient and immunological components of milk, infant urinary IgA, and infant and maternal morbidity. On d 2 and 1 mo postpartum, staff measured 24-h intake of breast milk and collected samples from 133 Peruvian women; 68 had breast-fed during the last trimester of pregnancy (BFP) and 65 had not breast-fed during pregnancy (NBFP). Data on maternal and infant anthropometry and health were collected for 1 mo. On d 2, lactose and lysozyme concentrations were higher, total lysozyme intake was higher and concentration and total intake of lactoferrin were lower in the BFP than the NBFP group (P < 0.05). The total 1-mo IgA intake was lower among BFP than NBFP infants (P = 0.01). Urinary IgA concentration was correlated with breast milk IgA concentration (r = 0.29; P = 0.01) but not with breast-feeding during pregnancy. An overlap was not associated with diarrhea but BFP infants were 5 times as likely to have a cough for at least 7 d than NBFP infants (P < 0.05). Reported mastitis was rare and occurred only in the NBFP group (P = 0.05). An overlap of breast-feeding and late pregnancy was associated with changes in milk composition, an increased frequency in symptoms of infant respiratory illness but decreased reported mastitis. Further in-depth studies are warranted to determine the cumulative effects associated with a breast-feeding/pregnancy overlap on infant and maternal outcomes. PMID:12888642

  11. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born.

  12. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  13. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Gaurav; Majumdar, Abha; Lall, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C.; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis. PMID:27382234

  14. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested.

  15. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. PMID:22846537

  16. Universal screening versus selective case-based screening for thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy is associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Early treatment of thyroid disorders can effectively reduce the risk of such complications. The results of different clinical trials have demonstrated that screening pregnant women for thyroid dysfunctions is cost-effective and should be encouraged. However, there is no consensus over the advantages of universal versus case-finding screening for thyroid disorders during pregnancy. A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for studies having been carried out to make a comparison between universal and case-finding screening methods during pregnancy in terms of the loss rate. The main search criteria were related to thyroid function, pregnancy, and adverse outcomes. All articles in English language are included. We analyzed by random effect method due to between-study heterogeneity. Among 241 articles found using the search terms, 40 articles were included out of which 10 were considered as acceptable and relevant. Five articles showed that case-finding screening missed between 30 and 55% of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction. 4 studies demonstrated that universal screening and detection of thyroid dysfunction may lead to less miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The results of 2 studies demonstrated that universal screening in pregnancy with a focus on hypothyroidism would be cost-effective. Early detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy can minimize the adverse maternal and fetal outcomes and is demonstrated to be cost-effective. Meta-analysis confirmed that case-based screening may miss up to 49% of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction. This provides further support for the argument in favor of universal screening of thyroid disorders in pregnancy. In order to shed more light on the advantages of universal screening for thyroid disorders in pregnancy, more comprehensive randomized controlled

  17. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

    2013-09-01

    .2%-19.3% vs. 26.4%). The presence of cysteamine during IVM of OPU-derived COCs also significantly increased the embryo production rate (34.4% vs. 23.4%). The higher number of embryos was again totally due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas cryotolerance was not affected. The relative increase in embryo production rate was higher with OPU-derived oocytes compared with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (47% vs. 24%). This improvement resulted in a mean of 1.73 transferable embryos per OPU session compared with 1.06 in the absence of cysteamine. The presence of cysteamine did not affect pregnancy rate, gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex of calves born from either fresh or frozen-thawed embryos. This study reported that cysteamine supplementation during IVM greatly improved the efficiency and affectivity of an OPU-IVP program.

  18. Australian teenagers and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Siedlecky, S

    1984-01-01

    Trends in teenage pregnancy in Australia between 1971-83 and some of the factors which may account for these trends are described. In view of the continuing public controversy surrounding the provision of contraceptive services for teenagers, providers of health education and contraceptive services should carefully evaluate the impact of their programs on teenage pregnancy rates. In the decade prior to 1971, the age-specific birth rate for those aged 15-19 continued to increase while the rate for women between 20-29 years of age declined. The teenage rate peaked in 1971 at 55.2. After 1971, the rate for teenagers began declining, and between 1971-82, the rate declined by 50.3%. In the early 1970's the availability of contraceptive services for teenagers was markedly increased. The trend toward increased services may have followed or paralleled the decline in the teenage birth. The decline in the age-specific birth rate for teenagers was marked between 1971-78 (55.2-28.5). The decline then flattened out between 1978-82 (28.5-27.4). These birth rates must be examined in the context of pregnancy and abortion rates. Abortion data is not routinely collected at the national level. In South Australia abortion reporting is mandatory. Rates for the nation were estimated on the basis of these reports. The estimates indicate that between 1978-82, for those aged 15-19, the number of abortions/1000 females increased from 12.3-21.2 while the number of pregnancies/1000 declined from 66.6-48.5. Two thirds of the decline in the pregnancy rate was attributed to increased contraceptive use and 1/3 to increased reliance on abortion. Between 1971-82, among teenagers, there was a marked decline in the number of maritally conceived pregnancies and in the number of premarital conceptions later legitimatized by marriage. In 1981, among the 28,781 premarital conceptions among teenagers, 49% ended in abortion; 39% in premarital births; and 12% in marital births. Data from South Australia for

  19. Effect of estradiol cypionate and amount of progesterone in the intravaginal device on synchronization of estrus, ovulation and on pregnancy rate in beef cows treated with FTAI based protocols.

    PubMed

    Uslenghi, Gastón; Chaves, Santiago González; Cabodevila, Jorge; Callejas, Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of estradiol cypionate (ECP) and amount of progesterone in the intravaginal device (PID) on synchronization of estrus and ovulation, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics and function and on pregnancy rate in beef cows treated with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) based protocols. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the synchronization of ovulation using 1mg of ECP at PID removal (day 8 after PID insertion) or 1mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) 24h later, in cows treated with 0.558 or 1g of progesterone (P4). The final subgroups were: 0.558g+ECP: n=10; 0.558g+EB: n=11; 1g+ECP: n=10; 1g+EB: n=10. Ovarian ultrasonic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. There was no effect of treatments on the diameter of dominant follicle at any time, and on the mean interval to estrus and to ovulation (P>0.05); however, ECP treated cows had scattered distribution of estrus (P<0.03) and ovulation (P<0.03). In Experiment 2, cows received the following treatments: 0.558gP4+ECP: n=52; 0.558gP4+EB: n=52; 1gP4+ECP: n=50; 1gP4+EB: n=52; and FTAI. Pregnancy rate did not differ (P>0.05) between progesterone content (0.558g: 52.9%, 55/104; 1g: 56.9%, 58/102) but differed between estradiol esters (P<0.05; ECP: 48.9%, 49/102; EB: 61.5%, 64/104). In Experiment 3, cows received: 0.558gP4+ECP: n=55; 0.558gP4+EB: n=53; 1gP4+ECP: n=54; 1gP4+EB: n=53; and FTAI. Pregnancy rate did not differ (P>0.05) between progesterone content (0.558g: 48.1%, 52/108; 1g: 53.3%, 57/107) and estradiol esters (ECP: 47.7%, 52/109; EB: 53.8%, 57/106). In conclusion, ECP administration at device removal and progesterone content of PID has no influence on the synchronization of estrus, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics and function. However, ECP administration affected the synchronization of ovulation and pregnancy rate in non-suckling beef cows, but did not affected pregnancy rate in suckling beef cows. Future studies should

  20. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of <12 months; no significant association was seen for longer inter-pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p < 0.001) than women without. Primiparous and nulliparous women had similar obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  1. Raltegravir Pharmacokinetics during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Watts, D. Heather; Stek, Alice; Best, Brookie M.; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Cressey, Tim R.; Aweeka, Francesca; Lizak, Patty; Kreitchmann, Regis; Burchett, Sandra K.; Shapiro, David E.; Hawkins, Elizabeth; Smith, Elizabeth; Mirochnick, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the pharmacokinetics (pk) of raltegravir in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods IMPAACT 1026s is an on-going prospective study of antiretroviral pk during pregnancy (NCT00042289). Women receiving 400 mg raltegravir twice daily in combination antiretroviral therapy had intensive steady state 12-hour pk profiles performed during pregnancy and at 6–12 weeks postpartum. Targets were trough concentration above 0.035 µg/mL, the estimated tenth percentile in non-pregnant historical controls. Results Median raltegravir AUC was 6.6 µg*hr/mL for second trimester (n= 16), 5.4 µg*hr/mL for third trimester (n=41), and 11.6 µg*hr/mL postpartum (n= 38) (p=0.03 pp vs 2nd trimester, p=0.001 pp vs third trimester). Trough concentrations were above the target in 69%, 80%, and 79% of second trimester, third trimester and postpartum subjects respectively, with wide variability (<0.010–0.917 µg/mL), and no significant difference between third trimester and postpartum trough concentrations was detected. The median ratio of cord blood/maternal raltegravir concentrations was 1.5. HIV RNA levels were < 400 copies/mL in 92% of women at delivery. Adverse events included elevated liver transaminases in one woman and vomiting in one. All infants with known status are HIV-uninfected. Conclusions Median raltegravir AUC was reduced by approximately 50% during pregnancy; trough concentrations were frequently below target both during late pregnancy and postpartum. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta. High rates of viral suppression at delivery and the lack of a clear relationship between raltegravir concentration and virologic effect in nonpregnant adults suggest that despite the decreased exposure during pregnancy, a higher dose is not necessary. PMID:25162818

  2. Transgender men and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno

    2015-01-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity. PMID:27030799

  3. High Rates of Same-Sex Attraction/Gender Nonconformity in the Offspring of Mothers with Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy: Proposal of Prenatal Thyroid Model.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2015-09-30

    Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033

  4. High Rates of Same-Sex Attraction/Gender Nonconformity in the Offspring of Mothers with Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy: Proposal of Prenatal Thyroid Model

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033

  5. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States: a systematic review of the evidence for screening in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Catherine; McNamara, Bridgette; Williams, Emily D; Yore, Daniel; Oldenburg, Brian; Oats, Jeremy; Eades, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently proposed international guidelines for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recommend additional screening in early pregnancy for sub-populations at a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), such as indigenous women. However, there are criteria that should be met to ensure the benefits outweigh the risks of population-based screening. This review examines the published evidence for early screening for indigenous women as related to these criteria. Any publications were included that referred to diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States (n = 145). The risk of bias was appraised. There is sufficient evidence describing the epidemiology of diabetes in pregnancy, demonstrating that it imposes a significant disease burden on indigenous women and their infants at birth and across the lifecourse (n = 120 studies). Women with pre-existing T2DM have a higher risk than women who develop GDM during pregnancy. However, there was insufficient evidence to address the remaining five criteria, including the following: understanding current screening practice and rates (n = 7); acceptability of GDM screening (n = 0); efficacy and cost of screening for GDM (n = 3); availability of effective treatment after diagnosis (n = 6); and effective systems for follow-up after pregnancy (n = 5). Given the impact of diabetes in pregnancy, particularly undiagnosed T2DM, GDM screening in early pregnancy offers potential benefits for indigenous women. However, researchers, policy makers and clinicians must work together with communities to develop effective strategies for implementation and minimizing the potential risks. Evidence of effective strategies for primary prevention, GDM treatment and follow-up after pregnancy are urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23315909

  6. Pregnancy and olfaction: a review

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, E. Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Many women report a heightened sense of smell during pregnancy. Accounts of these anecdotes have existed for over 100 years, but scientific evidence has been sparse and inconclusive. In this review, I examine the literature on olfactory perception during pregnancy including measures of self-report, olfactory thresholds, odor identification, intensity and hedonic ratings, and disgust. Support for a general decrease in olfactory thresholds (increase in sensitivity) is generally lacking. There is limited evidence that some suprathreshold measures of olfactory perception, such as hedonic ratings of odors, are affected by pregnancy, but these effects are idiosyncratic. In this review, I explore the hypotheses that have been put forth to explain changes in olfactory perception during pregnancy and provide suggestions for further research. PMID:24567726

  7. Pregnancy and olfaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Many women report a heightened sense of smell during pregnancy. Accounts of these anecdotes have existed for over 100 years, but scientific evidence has been sparse and inconclusive. In this review, I examine the literature on olfactory perception during pregnancy including measures of self-report, olfactory thresholds, odor identification, intensity and hedonic ratings, and disgust. Support for a general decrease in olfactory thresholds (increase in sensitivity) is generally lacking. There is limited evidence that some suprathreshold measures of olfactory perception, such as hedonic ratings of odors, are affected by pregnancy, but these effects are idiosyncratic. In this review, I explore the hypotheses that have been put forth to explain changes in olfactory perception during pregnancy and provide suggestions for further research.

  8. [Dietary management of diabetic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Shimron-Nachmias, Limor; Frishman, Sigal; Hod, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    During pregnancy, several metabolic changes are observed which aim to provide optimum substrate, energy and other nutritional requirements to both the mother and the fetus. Maternal nutrition is the only source for most nutrients, influencing neonatal and placenta development, mother's physiological adjustment and also playing a major role in the destiny of the offspring. Over-nutrition or malnutrition are both linked with increased risk of diabetes mellitus in the offspring. Diabetes in pregnancy is the most common and important metabolic dysfunction in pregnancy. This is divided into two types and it is very important to distinguish between them, as each has different nutritional requirements and a different impact on the course of the pregnancy and the development of the fetus. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the main type of diabetes in pregnancy, it usually appears in the second half of pregnancy and mainly influences fetal growth rate and can slow systemic development. Most women with GDM are treated with nutritional management alone. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus is present before pregnancy and it's effects begin at fertilization and implantation, and continue throughout pregnancy and thereafter. It involves high risk of early abortion, severe congenital defects and disrupted organogenesis. Although the treatment of pre-existing diabetes is usually a pharmacological one (insulin or oral pharmacological agents), nutritional management is still very important in normalization of glucose levels before and throughout the pregnancy. Fetal morbidity is lower in women with diabetes in pregnancy when optimal glucose control is maintained. Normalization of glucose levels during pregnancy is agreed to be the main factor in preventing poor outcomes in pregnancy. Dietary advice throughout pregnancy include frequent small meals which contain carbohydrates that are not highly processed, rich with slowly absorbed starches and non-soluble polysaccharides and with a

  9. An Update on Teen Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Bramlett, Traci

    2016-02-01

    After years of high teen birth rates, there is currently a decline in U.S. pregnancy and birth rates among teens. Nevertheless, these rates continue to be higher than those of most global counterparts, and psychosocial and physical adversities still occur for pregnant teens and their children. The declining birth rates may be due to teens making better choices about contraceptive use and sexual behaviors. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in key positions to enhance pregnancy prevention for teens. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 25-28.]. PMID:27648871

  10. An Update on Teen Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Bramlett, Traci

    2016-02-01

    After years of high teen birth rates, there is currently a decline in U.S. pregnancy and birth rates among teens. Nevertheless, these rates continue to be higher than those of most global counterparts, and psychosocial and physical adversities still occur for pregnant teens and their children. The declining birth rates may be due to teens making better choices about contraceptive use and sexual behaviors. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in key positions to enhance pregnancy prevention for teens. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 25-28.].

  11. Beyond the discourse of reproductive choice: narratives of pregnancy resolution among Latina/o teenage parents.

    PubMed

    Mann, Emily S; Cardona, Vanessa; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the US teenage birth rate has declined dramatically in recent years, teen births among Latinas are higher than any other racial/ethnic group. Most studies focus on the causes and consequences of early motherhood among Latina teenagers, neglecting other important dimensions of the issue. This study examines how Latina/o teenage parents living in California narrate their experiences with unintended pregnancy resolution. Qualitative analysis reveals three central themes. First, participants expressed shock upon learning they or their partner was pregnant, followed by acceptance about their impending parenthood. Second, participants' views of abortion and adoption largely foreclosed these options as pathways by which to resolve their unintended pregnancies. Third, participants recounted numerous stories of the messages they received from parents, other family members and male partners that were frequently directive regarding how to resolve their pregnancies. These findings have implications for young people's reproductive health and rights, and for reproductive justice more broadly.

  12. Beyond the discourse of reproductive choice: narratives of pregnancy resolution among Latina/o teenage parents.

    PubMed

    Mann, Emily S; Cardona, Vanessa; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the US teenage birth rate has declined dramatically in recent years, teen births among Latinas are higher than any other racial/ethnic group. Most studies focus on the causes and consequences of early motherhood among Latina teenagers, neglecting other important dimensions of the issue. This study examines how Latina/o teenage parents living in California narrate their experiences with unintended pregnancy resolution. Qualitative analysis reveals three central themes. First, participants expressed shock upon learning they or their partner was pregnant, followed by acceptance about their impending parenthood. Second, participants' views of abortion and adoption largely foreclosed these options as pathways by which to resolve their unintended pregnancies. Third, participants recounted numerous stories of the messages they received from parents, other family members and male partners that were frequently directive regarding how to resolve their pregnancies. These findings have implications for young people's reproductive health and rights, and for reproductive justice more broadly. PMID:25953108

  13. Women’s Perspectives on Smoking and Pregnancy and Graphic Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Denise M.; Stone-Wiggins, Brenda; O’Hegarty, Michelle; Tong, Van T.; Polen, Kara N. D.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Council, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about adverse outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy and which outcomes might motivate cessation; to explore reactions to graphic warnings depicting 2 adverse outcomes. Methods Twelve focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age who were current smokers. Results Participants had low to moderate awareness of many outcomes and believed it was acceptable to smoke in the first trimester before knowledge of pregnancy. Perceived susceptibility to outcomes was low. Motivators included risk-focused information, especially serious risks to the baby (eg, stillbirth, SIDS). Graphic warnings produced strong reactions, especially the warning with a real photo. Conclusions Despite barriers to reducing rates of smoking during pregnancy, educational information and photos depicting babies’ risks could motivate women to quit. PMID:24933145

  14. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  15. ADHD treatment and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that ADHD is a common condition, not only in children and teenagers but also in adults. This has led to a rapid rise in the number of women of childbearing age who are being treated for this condition. Against the background of concerns about the use of medication of any kind during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it is remarkable that there is so little information available on the effects of ADHD medication on the fetus and newborn. The impulsivity associated with ADHD might lead to an increased rate of unplanned pregnancy. Although treating ADHD during pregnancy and lactation might have negative effects on the baby, suspension of treatment or inadequate treatment could also place both mother and baby at risk. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy could affect both the efficacy and the concentration of medication. Again, there is almost no guidance available. The US Food and Drug Administration has classified ADHD medications as being "pregnancy category C", implying that there is insufficient information to confirm either harm or lack of harm. From the limited information that has been published, it would appear that the risk of fetal malformation, at least with methylphenidate, is very low and that the amounts of medication excreted in breast milk and consumed by the infant are very small. Three questions that both clinicians and patients are likely to ask are the following. Should ADHD medication be stopped before, during or after pregnancy, or should it be continued throughout? Should ADHD medication doses be adjusted during the course of the pregnancy or after delivery? Should breastfeeding be encouraged or discouraged? Discontinuing ADHD treatment could put both mother and baby at risk. This has to be balanced against the possible risks to the baby of continuing treatment. Although the data remain inadequate, the risk of the latter appears to be quite small, at least for methylphenidate. However, there is

  16. [Teenage pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy. PMID:26233975

  17. Diabetes in pregnancy 1985.

    PubMed

    Hadden, D R

    1986-01-01

    The art of obstetrics is not a subject which is often discussed in the pages of Diabetologia. However, as the care of the diabetic mother and her offspring is rightly an interdisciplinary responsibility between obstetrician, diabetologist and neonatologist, it is important that each has a close understanding of the various problems. Dr. M.I. Drury (Dublin), speaking as an internist, raises a question on the optimum time and method of delivery of the baby; this has more than purely obstetrical implications. Drs. L. Mølsted-Pedersen (Copenhagen) and C. Kühl (Copenhagen and Klampenborg), obstetrician and internist from the longest-established joint obstetric/diabetic service in the world, present a Scandinavian view on the management of pregnancy. Both centres have distinguished records in the management of diabetic pregnancy. The different viewpoints in Denmark and in Ireland are clear - in Copenhagen, therapeutic abortion is practiced in a pregnancy at risk of severe congenital malformation; in Dublin it is not. Dr. Drury quotes a perinatal loss of 13 of 285 pregnancies (4.5%) in the past 5 years, but does not include the recognised spontaneous abortions which, on his overall figures, are about 10% of conceptions. Dr. Mølsted-Pedersen reports a perinatal loss of 3 of 201 infants (1.5%), excluding 17 spontaneous and 9 induced abortions. If these 9 aborted pregnancies, which were performed due to a risk of severe congenital malformation, were included as fatalities, the Copenhagen figure would be 12 of 210 (5.5%). Of course, we do not know if all those 9 fetuses were affected. The spontaneous abortion rate was 17 of 223 (8.0%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3514340

  18. Physical abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D E; Cecutti, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal clinic, private obstetricians' offices in a large city, private family physicians' offices in a large city, family physicians' offices in a small town, and a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: English-speaking women at 20 weeks' or more gestation attending or admitted consecutively. INTERVENTIONS: Three self-report questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) and the study questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirteen women (2.4%) refused to participate in the survey. Of the 548 women who completed the questionnaires 36 (6.6%) reported physical abuse during the current pregnancy and 60 (10.9%) before it. There were no significant differences in rates of abuse between settings. Of the women abused during the pregnancy 23 (63.9%) reported increased abuse during the pregnancy, and 28 (77.8%) remained with the abuser. Twenty-four pregnant women (66.7%) received medical treatment for abuse, but only 1 (2.8%) told her prenatal care provider of the abuse. Factor analysis revealed three factors associated with physical abuse in pregnancy: "social instability" (comprising low age, unmarried status, lower level of education, unemployment and unplanned pregnancy), "unhealthy lifestyle" (comprising poor diet, alcohol use, illicit drug use and emotional problems) and "physical health problems" (comprising health problems and prescription drug use). The GHQ scores showed that the abused women were significantly more emotionally distressed than the

  19. Invasive cervical cancer in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    La Russa, M; Jeyarajah, A R

    2016-05-01

    Detection of invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy is rare, with reported incidence rates ranging from 0.05% to 0.1%. However, cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies diagnosed during pregnancy. The management of invasive cervical cancer in pregnancy is extremely challenging and requires a multidisciplinary team approach to optimise the treatment for the patient by simultaneously providing the best chance of survival for the foetus. The approach is based mainly on the following factors: gestational age at the time of the diagnosis, stage, histological subtype, desire regarding fertility and quality of life. The gold standard treatment for this condition in pregnancy is not yet established. This is due to the absence of prospective studies and clinical trials. Therefore, its management presents a dilemma that requires individualisation of care. The various factors that need to be considered for obtaining a good outcome for both mother and child are described in this study. PMID:26586539

  20. Late termination of pregnancy. Professional dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2003-09-23

    Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester. This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional. In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality. Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women. Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus. PMID:14519900

  1. HIV and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs HIV and Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  2. Exercise during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise During Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  3. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise After Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  4. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot) during Pregnancy ( http: / / mothertobaby. org/ fact- sheets/ seasonal- influenza- vaccine- flu- shot- pregnancy/ pdf/ ). Nasal spray flu vaccines ...

  5. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes under control every day. My Blood Glucose Levels Daily Blood Glucose Levels before Pregnancy If you are thinking about getting ... after eating 100 to 155 Daily Blood Glucose Levels during Pregnancy During your pregnancy, you'll check ...

  6. Nutrition during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... my pregnancy? • What are the benefits of including fish and shellfish in my diet during pregnancy? • What should I know about eating fish during pregnancy? • How can food poisoning affect my ...

  7. Ending a Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ending a Pregnancy Ending a Pregnancy What is abortion? Abortion means ending a pregnancy early. In some cases, ... This is called a miscarriage, or a spontaneous abortion. In other cases, a woman chooses to end ...

  8. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  9. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  10. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  11. Biological agents and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, U

    1995-08-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to many biological, eg microbial, agents, which are potentially harmful to the fetus. The reported rates of vertical transmission of hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus vary between 3 to 90% and 0 to 65%, respectively. The susceptibility to hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency infection is increased in pregnant physicians, midwives, and nurses because of the bloodborne nature of these viruses. Also, TORCH (toxoplasmosis-rubella-cytomegalovirus-herpes) infections, acquired during pregnancy, may result in congenital infection, and serious sequelae in the neonatal period or years after birth. Schoolteachers and daycare personnel have an increased risk of perinatal varicella, "fifth disease," and mumps. Perinatal listeriosis affects one in 20,000 births and may result in fetal wastage. Because of the risk of the possibility of vertical transmission, immunization during pregnancy with live virus vaccines is not recommended. PMID:8520961

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kamenický, Peter; Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Chanson, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the general population but is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Symptoms of gestational PHPT may be unrecognized, or masked by physiological changes in calcium homeostasis associated with pregnancy. Gestational PHPT may have severe consequences for both mother and fetus. However, nowadays, gestational PHPT is usually diagnosed in earlier stages and milder forms, with low complication rates. Treatment should be individually tailored according to gestational age, the severity of hypercalcemia, and the risk-benefit balance. The conservative approach is preferred in mild forms, whereas surgery, usually performed during the second trimester, is reserved for symptomatic hypercalcemic PHPT. Given the young age of the patients, genetic causes should be considered. PMID:27157105

  13. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.

    PubMed

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1994-10-01

    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy. PMID:7983095

  14. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  15. Diagnosing cardiac disease during pregnancy: imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Ntusi, Ntobeko A; Samuels, Petronella; Moosa, Sulaiman; Mocumbi, Ana O

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women with known or suspected cardiovascular disease (CVD) often require cardiovascular imaging during pregnancy. The accepted maximum limit of ionising radiation exposure to the foetus during pregnancy is a cumulative dose of 5 rad. Concerns related to imaging modalities that involve ionising radiation include teratogenesis, mutagenesis and childhood malignancy. Importantly, no single imaging study approaches this cautionary dose of 5 rad (50 mSv or 50 mGy). Diagnostic imaging procedures that may be used in pregnancy include chest radiography, fluoroscopy, echocardiography, invasive angiography, cardiovascular computed tomography, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques. Echocardiography and CMR appear to be completely safe in pregnancy and are not associated with any adverse foetal effects, provided there are no general contra-indications to MR imaging. Concerns related to safety of imaging tests must be balanced against the importance of accurate diagnosis and thorough assessment of the pathological condition. Decisions about imaging in pregnancy are premised on understanding the physiology of pregnancy, understanding basic concepts of ionising radiation, the clinical manifestations of existent CVD in pregnancy and features of new CVD. The cardiologist/physician must understand the indications for and limitations of, and the potential harmful effects of each test during pregnancy. Current evidence suggests that a single cardiovascular radiological study during pregnancy is safe and should be undertaken at all times when clinically justified. In this article, the different imaging modalities are reviewed in terms of how they work, how safe they are and what their clinical utility in pregnancy is. Furthermore, the safety of contrast agents in pregnancy is also reviewed. PMID:27213857

  16. Preventing unplanned pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hawken, C

    1978-03-25

    A two-year study was undertaken in 1975--1976 to plan, implement and evaluate innovatory family planning educational and service delivery pilot projects, among those at-risk in Sydney. The study was done in three stages, described in the three parts of this paper. Part 1 describes the process of analyzing the major factors and outcomes in unplanned pregnancy and determining some characteristics of women experiencing unplanned pregnancies, from abortion and adoption records. The characteristics analyzed are: are, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, and ethnic group. Part II describes the process of determing acceptable communication channels and services they would use. Twenty-five women were interviewed in each of eight at-risk categories. Recommendations are made about suitable educational methods, and family planning services. Part 3 describes the implementation and evaluation of pilot projects. Four major projects are described: (i) in a two lower socio-economic housing area(s), (ii) among Greek men, (iii) among South Americans, and (iv) in two factories. Recommendations are made about future educational programmes and services. PMID:661707

  17. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

  18. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, the cows receiving eCG presented larger follicles at TAI (control = 13.5 ± 0.3 mm, 300 IU = 14.0 ± 0.2 mm, and 400 IU = 15.1 ± 0.3 mm; P < 0.0001; C1). However, there was no effect of eCG dose on any response variables studied (C2; P > 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination.

  19. Genetic analysis of the twenty-one-day pregnancy rate in US Holsteins using an ordinal censored threshold model with unknown voluntary waiting period.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y M; González-Recio, O; Weigel, K A; Fricke, P M

    2007-04-01

    Genetic variation in the number of 21-d opportunity periods required to achieve pregnancy after the voluntary waiting period (VWP) had passed was examined using 44,901 lactation records of 29,422 lactating Holstein cows on 61 large commercial dairy farms in the United States. Cows were allowed a maximum of 8 opportunity periods, and the cumulative percentages of cows that became pregnant by the end of the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth opportunity periods were 19, 29, 37, 43, and 47%, respectively. In addition, 38% of records were censored because of culling or failure to achieve pregnancy after 8 opportunity periods. Mean days open was 128 d for complete records, whereas mean days to last service was 148 d for censored records. An ordinal censored threshold model was developed, in which duration of the VWP was estimated simultaneously with prediction of sire breeding values. The posterior mean of intraherd-year heritability for the number of 21-d opportunity periods required to achieve pregnancy was 0.06, with a posterior standard deviation of 0.01. Posterior means for duration of the VWP ranged from 28 to 74 d postpartum among the 116 herd-parity classes represented in the study, whereas farmer-reported survey values for duration of the VWP ranged from 30 to 78 d postpartum. Sires' predicted transmitting abilities were computed, assuming an unknown VWP (i.e., estimated from the data), a VWP fixed at 60 d postpartum, or a VWP fixed at farmer survey values. Correlations among sire predicted transmitting abilities from different models were > or = 0.98, although some reranking occurred among top sires. In summary, the proposed model for genetic evaluation of female fertility can accommodate heterogeneity in duration of the VWP between herds, as well as heterogeneity that may arise within herds owing to management practices such as intentional delay of first insemination in high-producing cows or cows with poor body condition, and it can also accommodate

  20. Broad Ligament Pregnancy - Success Story of a Laparoscopically Managed Case.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Jayashree; Nair, Sobha S

    2016-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancies constitute 1% of ectopic pregnancies, among which broad ligament pregnancy is a rare form. The maternal mortality rate has been reported to be as high as 20%. The diagnosis is seldom established before surgery. Laparoscopic management of broad ligament ectopic pregnancy is the ideal form of treatment in appropriately selected patients. We present the case report of successful laparoscopic treatment of a 3x3.5cm broad ligament pregnancy. A search of literature shows that ours is the 6(th) case report of such a rare ectopic pregnancy managed endoscopically successfully. PMID:27630914

  1. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  2. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  3. Exercise and pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; O'Neill, M

    1994-06-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the maternal cardiorespiratory system include increases in oxygen consumption, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and plasma volume. The increase in oxygen reserve seen in early pregnancy is reduced later, suggesting that maternal exercise may present a greater physiologic stress in the third trimester. Evidence suggests that weight-bearing exercise produces a greater decrease in oxygen reserve than nonweight-bearing exercise. Furthermore, to maintain a heart rate below 140 beats per minute during pregnancy, the intensity of weight-bearing exercise must be reduced. Nonweight-bearing, water-based exercise results in smaller fetal heart rate changes and a lower maternal heart rate than the same exercise performed on land. Exercising in the supine position in late pregnancy has raised concerns because cardiac output in the supine position is lower than in the lateral position at rest, presumably because the gravid uterus partially obstructs the inferior vena cava. Sustained exercise produces a training effect on the mother, although reported associations between this effect and the experience of labor are not consistent. Short-term changes in fetal heart rate provide circumstantial evidence that physical activity can influence the fetus. Acute effects of exercise that can potentially affect the fetus include hyperthermia, changes in uteroplacental flow, reduced levels of maternal glucose, and increased uterine contractions. Moderate to high levels of sustained maternal exercise have been associated with reduced birthweight. Much research remains to be done on the effects of specific exercise regimens during pregnancy, the effects on previously sedentary women, and the long-term health consequences to the offspring of women who perform vigorous exercise during pregnancy.

  4. Critical Illness in Pregnancy: Part II: Common Medical Conditions Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Karnad, Dilip R; Bandi, Venkata; Hall, Nicole; Belfort, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The first of this two-part series on critical illness in pregnancy dealt with obstetric disorders. In Part II, medical conditions that commonly affect pregnant women or worsen during pregnancy are discussed. ARDS occurs more frequently in pregnancy. Strategies commonly used in nonpregnant patients, including permissive hypercapnia, limits for plateau pressure, and prone positioning, may not be acceptable, especially in late pregnancy. Genital tract infections unique to pregnancy include chorioamnionitis, group A streptococcal infection causing toxic shock syndrome, and polymicrobial infection with streptococci, staphylococci, and Clostridium perfringens causing necrotizing vulvitis or fasciitis. Pregnancy predisposes to VTE; D-dimer levels have low specificity in pregnancy. A ventilation-perfusion scan is preferred over CT pulmonary angiography in some situations to reduce radiation to the mother's breasts. Low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparins form the mainstay of treatment; vitamin K antagonists, oral factor Xa inhibitors, and direct thrombin inhibitors are not recommended in pregnancy. The physiologic hyperdynamic circulation in pregnancy worsens many cardiovascular disorders. It increases risk of pulmonary edema or arrhythmias in mitral stenosis, heart failure in pulmonary hypertension or aortic stenosis, aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome, or valve thrombosis in mechanical heart valves. Common neurologic problems in pregnancy include seizures, altered mental status, visual symptoms, and strokes. Other common conditions discussed are aspiration of gastric contents, OSA, thyroid disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, and cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy. Studies confined to pregnant women are available for only a few of these conditions. We have, therefore, reviewed pregnancy-specific adjustments in the management of these disorders. PMID:26020727

  5. [ACUTE ABDOMEN CAUSED BY COMPLICATED FIBROID IN PREGNANCY. CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Atanasova, V; Petrakieva, N; Markov, P; Raycheva, I; Nikolov, A

    2015-01-01

    With the advancing maternal age the rate of fibroids in pregnancy is also growing. A small part of fibroids in pregnancy are complicated and in about 2.6% necessitate urgent surgical treatment. We present a clinical case of subserose fibroid at 20 gestational weeks complicated with acute abdomen treated urgently with normal continuation of pregnancy. PMID:26863797

  6. Teenage Pregnancy: Issues and Strategies for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, George E.; And Others

    Many school administrators view teenage pregnancy as a top problems facing their school systems. Programs designed to reduce the teenage pregnancy rate must address multiple factors connected with teenage pregnancy. School-based clinic programs provide comprehensive primary health care for low income youth, require parental consent, provide mental…

  7. In Vitro Fertilization and Multiple Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    increased need for medical and social support. The Technology Being Reviewed IVF was first developed as a method to overcome bilateral Fallopian tube obstruction. The procedure includes several steps: (1) the woman’s egg is retrieved from the ovaries; (2) exposed to sperm outside the body and fertilized; (3) the embryo(s) is cultured for 3 to 5 days; and (4) is transferred back to the uterus. IFV is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for infertility today. According to data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry, the average live birth rate after IVF in Canada is around 30%, but there is considerable variation in the age of the mother and primary cause of infertility. An important advantage of IVF is that it allows for the control of the number of embryos transferred. An elective single embryo transfer in IVF cycles adopted in many European countries was shown to significantly reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies while maintaining acceptable birth rates. However, when number of embryos transferred is not limited, the rate of IVF-associated multiple pregnancies is similar to that of other treatments involving ovarian stimulation. The practice of multiple embryo transfer in IVF is often the result of pressures to increase success rates due to the high costs of the procedure. The average rate of multiple pregnancies resulting from IVF in Canada is currently around 30%. An alternative to IVF is IUI. In spite of reported lower success rates of IUI (pregnancy rates per cycle range from 8.7% to 17.1%) it is generally attempted before IVF due to its lower invasiveness and cost. Two major drawbacks of IUI are that it cannot be used in cases of bilateral tubal obstruction and it does not allow much control over the risk of multiple pregnancies compared with IVF. The rate of multiple pregnancies after IUI with COS is estimated to be about 21% to 29%. Ontario Health Insurance Plan Coverage Currently, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan covers

  8. Treatment of Acne in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chien, Anna L; Qi, Ji; Rainer, Barbara; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebaceous unit and affects adolescents and adults. Because high-quality guidelines regarding treatment of acne in pregnancy are scarce, management of this condition can be challenging. We describe the safety profile of common therapies and outline approaches based on available evidence. Topical azelaic acid or benzoyl peroxide can be recommended as baseline therapy. A combination of topical erythromycin or clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide is recommended for inflammatory acne. Oral erythromycin or cephalexin is generally considered safe for moderate to severe inflammatory acne when used for a few weeks. A short course of oral prednisolone may be useful for treating fulminant nodular cystic acne after the first trimester. In general, topical and oral antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy, but combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease bacterial resistance. Oral retinoids are teratogenic and absolutely contraindicated for women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Although some complementary therapies including micronutrients and nonpharmacologic treatments seem to be well tolerated, limited data exist regarding their safety and efficacy, and they are not currently recommended during pregnancy. The risk-to-benefit ratio, efficacy, acceptability, and costs are considerations when choosing a treatment for acne in pregnancy. PMID:26957383

  9. [Pregnancy-specific dermatoses].

    PubMed

    Soutou, B; Aractingi, S

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy-specific dermatoses include polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and impetigo herpetiformis are not real pregnancy-specific dermatoses but they are important to know considering the fetal and maternal risks. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy is a pruritic disease that usually occurs in primiparous women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Atopic eczema of pregnancy is still controversial as an entity covering conditions with eczematous lesions, prurigo, or folliculitis, and inconstantly associated with a personal history of atopy. Skin biopsy with direct immunofluorescence or search for serum anti-BPAg1 (180kD) NC16a antibodies is mandatory in pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy in order to rule out pemphigoid gestationis. Serum bile salts levels should be tested whenever a generalized pruritus develops during pregnancy in order to rule out intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25194221

  10. Pregnancy of unknown location.

    PubMed

    Schuneman, Margaret; Von Wald, Tiffany; Hansen, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The development of highly sensitive and accurate human chorionic gonadotropin assays as well as the improvement of vaginal ultrasound have allowed for the early detection of pregnancy and have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic gestations. One of the byproducts of this increased sensitivity is pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), a term which is used to describe pregnancy in a woman with a positive pregnancy test but no signs of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy. A PUL can include an early intrauterine pregnancy, a failing intrauterine/extrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. Modern medical management has improved the diagnosis and treatment of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss. In the hemodynamically stable patient with PUL, expectant management has been shown to be safe and allows for confirmatory studies before proceeding with therapy.

  11. Syphilis intervention in pregnancy: Zambian demonstration project.

    PubMed Central

    Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Chikamata, D M; Nkowane, B; Tembo, G; Perine, P L; Meheus, A

    1990-01-01

    attributable to syphilis were reduced to 28.3%; this is almost a two-third reduction when compared with 72.4% of adverse outcomes at control centres (p < less than 0.001). The intervention is culturally and politically acceptable in Zambia. The cost of each prenatal screening is US$0.60 and of averting each adverse outcome US$12. In countries with high rates of syphilis, there is an urgent need for STD control and Maternal and Child Health (MCH) programmes to pool their resources together to revitalise the prenatal care. PMID:2370060

  12. Unintended Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence before and during Pregnancy among Latina Women in Los Angeles, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Garcia, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy among Latinas. A cross-sectional interview measuring pregnancy intent, IPV, and acculturation, using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II), was conducted among Latina women…

  13. Effect of estradiol cypionate and GnRH treatment on plasma estradiol-17β concentrations, synchronization of ovulation and on pregnancy rates in suckled beef cows treated with FTAI-based protocols.

    PubMed

    Uslenghi, G; Vater, A; Rodríguez Aguilar, S; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different ovulation inducers on E-17β plasma concentrations, synchronized ovulations and pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, cows received a progesterone intravaginal device (PID) with 1 g of progesterone (P4) plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) (day 0). At PID removal (day 8), cows received 0.150 mg of D-cloprostenol and were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10/treatment): Group ECP: 1 mg of estradiol cypionate at PID removal, Group EB: 1 mg of EB 24 hr after PID removal, Group GnRH: 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr after PID removal, Group ECP-GnRH: 1 mg of ECP at PID removal plus 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. GnRH-treated cows ovulated later (p < .05) compared to ECP- and ECP+GnRH-treated cows. There were effects of treatment, time and their interaction on E-17β concentrations (p < .05). ECP treatment affected plasma E-17β concentration, which increased earlier and decreased later compared to treatments without ECP. In Experiment 2, cows received (i) ECP: n = 126; (ii) EB: n = 126; (iii) GnRH: n = 136; (iv) ECP+GnRH: n = 139; FTAI was performed 48-50 hr after PID removal. Pregnancy rates did not differ among ovulation inducers (p > .05; ECP: 54.0%, 68/126; EB: 49.2%, 62/126; GnRH: 40.4%, 55/136; ECP+GnRH: 43.9%, 61/139). In conclusion, ECP administration (ECP and ECP+GnRH treatments) affected E-17β concentrations, determining its earlier increase and later decrease compared to treatments without ECP (EB and GnRH treatments). ECP+GnRH-treated cows achieved the best distribution of ovulations without affecting pregnancy rates. PMID:27411960

  14. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  15. Acceptability of a Computerized Brief Intervention for Alcohol among Abstinent but at-Risk Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Pollick, Sarah A.; Beatty, Jessica R.; Sokol, Robert J.; Strickler, Ronald C.; Chang, Grace; Svikis, Dace S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Limitations in time and training have hindered widespread implementation of alcohol-based interventions in prenatal clinics. Also, despite the possibility of under-reporting or relapse, many at risk women report that they quit drinking after pregnancy confirmation so that interventions focusing on current drinking may seem unnecessary. The Computerized Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (C-BIAP) was designed to (a) be implemented via a handheld device in prenatal clinics, and (b) use a modified brief intervention strategy with women who screen at-risk but report no current drinking. Methods We administered the C-BIAP to 18 T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoyance, Cut Down, and Eye Opener) positive, pregnant African-American women who provided quantitative and qualitative feedback. Results The C-BIAP received high ratings of acceptability; qualitative feedback was also positive overall and suggested good acceptance of abstinence themes. Conclusions Technology may be a feasible and acceptable method for brief intervention delivery with pregnant women who do not report current drinking. PMID:24266770

  16. Pregnancies diagnosed during Depo-Provera use.

    PubMed

    Borgatta, Lynn; Murthy, Amitasrigowri; Chuang, Cynthia; Beardsley, Leah; Burnhill, Michael S

    2002-09-01

    We conducted a review of contraceptive failures among women using Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), using reports to the Insurance Division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. Cases were included if the Depo-Provera had been given at a Planned Parenthood center and pregnancy had either been diagnosed by, or reported to, a Planned Parenthood center. There were 402 reports of pregnancy from 1994 through 1998. The crude rate of reported pregnancies was 0.42 pregnancies per 1000 women using Depo-Provera each year. Pregnancy was diagnosed after the first trimester in 46% of women. Seventy-seven women (19.1%) received additional Depo-Provera injections while pregnant. Of the women whose date of conception could be estimated, 113 of 258 (45%) became pregnant after the injection. There was no observed increase in ectopic pregnancy rate, and no fetal anomalies were reported. Although pregnancy during Depo-Provera use is rare, it does occur. These pregnancies are frequently unrecognized until beyond first trimester.

  17. Pregnancy Outcomes in Chinese Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A Retrospective Study of 109 Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy. PMID:27442513

  18. Pregnancy Outcomes in Chinese Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A Retrospective Study of 109 Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy. PMID:27442513

  19. Associations of Adolescent Hopelessness and Self-Worth With Pregnancy Attempts and Pregnancy Desire

    PubMed Central

    Fedorowicz, Anna R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Bolland, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. Methods. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Results. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. Conclusions. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success. PMID:24922147

  20. [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2005-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient, it would be administered every day with our diet. The main role of this micronutrient is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Iodine deficit is related with goitre, and an important problem "diseases related with iodine deficiency", including high rate of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed of growth, high rate of aborts and congenital abnormalities.A risk group is pregnant women. Some authors have been demonstrated the utility of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. A systematic review of Cochrane group has shown that iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreased neonatal mortality RR 0.71 (0.56-0.9), and decrease the incidence of cretinism in children under 4 years RR 0.27 (0.12-0.6). As final recommendations, a program in pregnant women must be development to treat with iodine such as we make with folic acid. Pills with iron and iodine (1 mg iron and 25 ug iodine) have been demonstrated better results that pills with iodine. Tablets are the main presentation due to the role of the women in our Society and the work time. Programs of iodine enriched salt have been demonstrated a follow up of 50%. PMID:16386080

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vender, R J; Spiro, H M

    1982-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly affects women of childbearing age, leading to concerns about the effects of the disease on fertility and pregnancy, the effect of pregnancy on the disease, and the diagnosis and treatment of IBD in the pregnancy women. The literature regarding these issues is reviewed, and a representative case report is discussed. Ulcerative colitis has no effect on fertility. Crohn's disease appears to be associated with an increased risk of infertility. "Subfertility," a temporary inability to conceive associated with chronic disease activity, is perhaps a more suitable description. There have been no studies regarding infertility and males with IBD, although sulfasalazine has recently been reported to cause reversible infertility in men. Ulcerative colitis is not associated with a higher spontaneous abortion rate than the general population, although it is not clear whether certain subgroups of patients have a higher rate of abortion. A similar conclusion has been reached for Crohn's disease, although reported abortion rates of 10-25% are somewhat higher than the general population. Approximately 30-50% of pregnant women with ulcerative colitis have exacerbations during their pregnancy or postpartum, a figure that is applicable to Crohn's disease as well, and which is no different than a control population of nonpregnant women with IBD. Patients with active ulcerative colitis at conception have a higher incidence of disease exacerbation than those with quiescent disease. Postpartum recurrences are more frequent in Crohn's disease, occurring in up to 40% of patients, but respond to standard medical therapy. Women who have had an ileostomy for ulcerative colitis consistently and successfully carry pregnancy to term. There is no data regarding women who have had an ileostomy for Crohn's disease. The approach to the women with abdominal pain during pregnancy is reviewed, including the use of radiographic procedures. No amount of radiation

  2. Practices and opinions of Connecticut general dentists regarding dental treatment during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pina, Patricia M; Douglass, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the opinions and practices of general dentists in Connecticut regarding dental care during pregnancy. A survey was mailed to Connecticut general dentists to acquire data regarding age, gender, training, type of practice, years in practice, payment types accepted, procedures provided for pregnant women according to trimester, provider comfort level with treating pregnant patients, reasons for not treating pregnant patients, and provider opinions about dental care during pregnancy. The response rate was 42%, yielding a sample of 116 dentists. The majority of respondents (97%) reported treating pregnant patients; however, only 45% felt "very comfortable" treating these patients. All dentists in the sample agreed that physicians need to include an oral health evaluation and appropriate referral for patients' prenatal care. However, 70% of respondents had never received a dental referral for a pregnant patient. The majority of dentists favored providing dental treatment during the second trimester of pregnancy. Most dentists (77%) would take a radiograph for a patient 10 weeks into the pregnancy seeking treatment for dental pain, but only 2% would take routine radiographs regardless of the pregnancy trimester. There was a lack of consensus about medications dentists reported acceptable to prescribe for pregnant patients, and female dentists were significantly less likely than males to prescribe ibuprofen (P < 0.05). At least half of the respondents reported not being completely comfortable treating pregnant patients. Further, many dentists appear to not follow medication prescribing guidelines for this population. While additional research is needed, these initial results indicate that additional education regarding the treatment of pregnant patients would be a beneficial addition to dental school and continued education course curricula.

  3. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  4. Snoring during pregnancy and its relation to sleepiness and pregnancy outcome - a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of snoring and sleepiness is known to increase during pregnancy, and this might impact maternal health and obstetric outcome. However, the association between snoring and sleepiness during pregnancy is not fully understood. This study was aimed at investigating the development of snoring during pregnancy and prospectively assessing if there is an association between snoring and sleepiness or adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia, mode of delivery, and fetal complications. Methods Consecutively recruited pregnant women (n = 500) received a questionnaire concerning snoring and sleep at the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who had rated their frequency of snoring at both occasions (n = 340) were divided into subgroups according to the development of snoring they reported and included in the subsequent analyses. Additional medical data were collected from the medical records. Results The frequency of snoring was 7.9% in the 1st trimester and increased to 21.2% in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who snored already in early pregnancy had significantly higher baseline BMI (p = 0.001) than the women who never snored, but snoring was not associated with the magnitude of weight gain during pregnancy. Snoring women were more likely to experience edema in late pregnancy than the non-snorers. Women who started to snore during pregnancy had higher Epworth Sleepiness Scores than the non snorers in both early and late pregnancy. No significant association between obstetric outcome and snoring was found. Conclusion Snoring does increase during pregnancy, and this increase is associated with sleepiness, higher BMI at the start of pregnancy and higher prevalence of edema, but not with weight gain. PMID:24418321

  5. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  6. Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Baha M; Viteri, Oscar A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis are associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required, because diabetic ketoacidosis onset in pregnancy can be insidious, usually at lower glucose levels, and often progresses more rapidly as compared with nonpregnancy. Morbidity and mortality can be reduced with early detection of precipitating factors (ie, infection, intractable vomiting, inadequate insulin management or inappropriate insulin cessation, β-sympathomimetic use, steroid administration for fetal lung maturation), prompt hospitalization, and targeted therapy with intensive monitoring. A multidisciplinary approach including a maternal-fetal medicine physician, medical endocrinology specialists familiar with the physiologic changes in pregnancy, an obstetric anesthesiologist, and skilled nursing is paramount. Management principles include aggressive volume replacement, initiation of intravenous insulin therapy, correction of acidosis, correction of electrolyte abnormalities and management of precipitating factors, as well as monitoring of maternal-fetal response to treatment. When diabetic ketoacidosis occurs after 24 weeks of gestation, fetal status should be continuously monitored given associated fetal hypoxemia and acidosis. The decision for delivery can be challenging and must be based on gestational age as well as maternal-fetal responses to therapy. The natural inclination is to proceed with emergent delivery for nonreassuring fetal status that is frequently present during the acute episode, but it is imperative to correct the maternal metabolic abnormalities first, because both maternal and fetal conditions will likewise improve. Prevention strategies should include education of diabetic pregnant women about the risks of diabetic ketoacidosis, precipitating factors, and the importance of reporting signs and symptoms in a timely fashion.

  7. Pregnancy and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium, and folic acid than you did before pregnancy. You also need more calories. But "eating for ... baby. You should gain weight gradually during your pregnancy, with most of the weight gained in the ...

  8. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  9. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Every pregnancy has some risk of problems. The causes can be conditions you already have or conditions you develop. ... pregnant with more than one baby, previous problem pregnancies, or being over age 35. They can affect ...

  10. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  12. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During ... médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give birth every year, ...

  13. Pregnancy and IC

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of deformities and premature labor. Fitness and Physical Therapy to Keep You Comfortable Along with diet, a ... and relaxation, IC and pregnancy-friendly exercise, and physical therapy. During pregnancy, there’s a lot of weight on ...

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy: Molecular Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management. Journal of Hepatology, volume 33, 2000, pages 1012-1021. ... Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy: Molecular Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management. Journal of Hepatology, volume 33, 2000, pages 1012-1021. ...

  15. Immunization and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Immunization & Pregnancy Vaccines help keep apregnant woman and her growing family healthy. Vaccine Before pregnancy Hepatitis A ... 232-4636) • English or Spanish National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Immunization Services Division CS238938B 03/ ...

  16. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause problems ... drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause problems ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  18. Medication Use during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications that are necessary. What Medications Can Cause Birth Defects? We know that taking certain medications during pregnancy ... may visit the FDA Pregnancy Registry website. National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Medications and Birth Defects The Centers ...

  19. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Benzodiazepines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... receptor agonists during pregnancy: maternal characteristics. Pharmcoepidemiol Drug Saf 16(9):988-994. Wikner BN, et al. ... pregnancy: neonatal outcome and congenital malformations Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16(11):1203-1210. July, 2014

  1. The relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking: an analysis of PRAMS data.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Margaret S; Cheng, Diana; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking from a large national sample of women in the United States, the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The study sample consisted of 49,510 female smokers. Smoking rates and quantities were captured prior to pregnancy, the last 3 months of pregnancy, and postpartum. Changes in smoking were compared between pregnancies classified as intended, mistimed, and unwanted. Regardless of pregnancy intention status, most behavior change happened before the final 3 months of pregnancy. Overall, most women were able to quit or reduce smoking. However women with unwanted pregnancies had 0.86 times the adjusted odds of quitting/reducing cigarette smoking compared to women with intended or mistimed pregnancies (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95). Findings suggest early smoking cessation interventions lead to greater change in smoking, regardless of pregnancy intention, although change is more difficult for women with unwanted pregnancies.

  2. [Dopplerometry at prolonged pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Salii-Prenichi, L; Milchev, N; Markova, D; Apiosjan, Zh

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged pregnancy, associated with low amniotic fluid is a reason for the increase of fetal mortality and morbidity. There is no a define test at prolonged pregnancy which can determine which pregnancy are at a risk for adverse outcome and complications. Dopplerometry as a noninvasive method for examination of blood circulation, and especially a. cerebri media and a. umbilicalis can be used for the prediction of the outcome of prolonged pregnancy.

  3. [Antithrombotic therapy and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Chauleur, Céline; Raia, Tiphaine; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is about one event per 1000 pregnancies and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PC) occurred in 15%. Knowing the biological combined with clinical risk factors would help to prevent problems during the pregnancy. Several antithrombotic therapies exist, including very recent ones but LMWH and aspirin are still molecules of choice. The women should be assessed for VTE and PC risk in order to improve the outcome.

  4. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura During Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Beth V.; Rutherford, Cynthia; Ramus, Ronald; Lieser, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic surgical techniques in pregnancy have been accepted and pose minimal risks to the patient and fetus. We present the first reported case of a pregnant woman with immune thrombocytopenia purpura who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy during the second trimester. Methods and Results: The anesthesia, hematology, and obstetrics services closely followed the patient's preoperative and intraoperative courses. After receiving immunization, stress dose steroids, and prophylactic antibiotics, she underwent a successful laparoscopic splenectomy. After a short hospital stay, the patient was discharged home. Conclusion: Immune thrombocytopenia purpura can be an indication for splenectomy. As demonstrated in appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and our case presentation, laparoscopic splenectomy can be safely performed during pregnancy. PMID:11303997

  5. Acute liver failure in pregnancy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, V; Udayakumar, N

    2008-03-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in pregnancy is a common challenging clinical problem both in terms of correct diagnosis and management. Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute viral hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E (HEV), particularly from endemic countries like India, where ALF carries a high mortality. In both HEV infection and herpes simplex infections, maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. ALF specific to pregnancy including pre-eclampsia, associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction result in increased maternal and fetal mortality if not recognized and acted on early. Early recognition of possible causes and prompt treatment are crucial for successful outcome of ALF in pregnancy. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. This review article addresses the present understanding of ALF in pregnancy reviewing the common causes of ALF and their management in pregnancy. PMID:18299670

  6. Intermittent hepatic porphyria in pregnancy with good perinatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Sijanović, Siniša; Rubin, Mirjana; Košuta Petrović, Maja; Abičić Žuljević, Kristina; Simić, Ivana

    2012-02-01

    Porphyrias are rare metabolic diseases caused by enzymatic defects of the haeme biosynthesis. Association of pregnancy and acute porphyria is rare, but mortality rate among pregnant women from acute attack has been reported up to 42%. This paper presents a patient with pregnancy complicated by intermittent hepatic porphyria with good perinatal outcome. The pattern of the attack in pregnancy varies individually and it makes porphyric pregnancies a challenge. Previously diagnosed porphyria patients should be closely monitored during pregnancy and diagnosis of acute porphyria must be also considered in all pregnant women with unexplained abdominal pain.

  7. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  8. Insulin therapy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jawad, Fatema

    2016-09-01

    Insulin is the mainstay of pharmacotherapy in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. This review covers the various insulin regimes and preparations, explaining how to use them, and decide appropriate doses in pregnancy. It approaches insulin treatment from a patient - centred, as well as physician and obstetrician friendly viewpoint, providing pragmatic guidance for management of diabetes in pregnancy. PMID:27582152

  9. Antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Sonia; Rebaioli, Chiara Biasini; Lojacono, Andrea; Rovetto, Bettina; Barbolini, Edoardo; Taglietti, Marco; Nuzzo, Monica; Tincani, Angela

    2006-11-01

    Since the 1960s, antiphospholipid antibodies have been known to be associated with repeated miscarriages and fetal losses. Other complications of pregnancy, such as preterm birth, with pre-eclampsia or severe placental insufficiency were also frequently reported and are included in the current classification criteria of the antiphospholipid syndrome. The titer, isotype or antigen specificity of the antibodies may be important in risk determination. The pathogenesis of pregnancy failures is not only linked to the thrombophilic effect of antiphospholipid antibodies but also to a direct effect of antibodies on trophoblast differentiation and invasion. The study of experimental animal models provided sound evidence of the pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies both in lupus-prone and -naive mice. The classification of pregnant antiphospholipid syndrome patients as being at a 'high risk' has completely changed their prognosis due to obstetric monitoring and the application of effective therapy. In fact, despite the high rates of complications and preterm delivery, a successful outcome can now be achieved in a large majority of cases.

  10. Pre-pregnancy stress reactivity and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Gunderson, Erica P; Matthews, Karen A; Lewis, Cora E; Carnethon, Mercedes

    2010-11-01

    Stress has been proposed as a cause of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA), but stress does not have the same effects on all women. It may be that a woman's reaction to stress relates to her pregnancy health, and previous studies indicate that higher reactivity is associated with reduced birthweight and gestational age. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy cardiovascular reactivity to stress and pregnancy outcome. The sample included 917 women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who had cardiovascular reactivity measured in 1987-88 and at least one subsequent singleton livebirth within an 18-year period. Cardiovascular reactivity was measured using a video game, star tracing and cold pressor test. Gestational age and birthweight were based on the women's self-report, with PTB defined as birth <37 weeks' gestation and SGA as weight <10th percentile for gestational age. Linear and Poisson regression and generalised estimating equations were used to model the relationship between reactivity to stress and birth outcomes with control for confounders. Few associations were seen between reactivity and pregnancy outcomes. Higher pre-pregnancy diastolic blood pressure (adjusted relative risk 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98, 1.34) and mean arterial pressure reactivity (1.15; 0.98, 1.36) were associated with risk of PTB at first pregnancy, while SGA was associated with lower systolic blood pressure reactivity (0.76; 0.60, 0.95). No associations were seen with other measures of reactivity. Contrary to hypothesis, the association between heart rate reactivity and PTB in first pregnancy was stronger in whites (adjusted relative risk 1.39; 1.03, 1.88) than in blacks (1.00; 0.83, 1.20; P for interaction = 0.08). Similar results were found for mean arterial pressure. No strong associations were found between higher pre-pregnancy stress reactivity and SGA or PTB, and stress reactivity

  11. Designing a multipurpose technology for acceptability and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Owen, Derek H.

    2015-01-01

    Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) are new tools aimed at reducing or preventing multiple and overlapping sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women and couples around the globe. While MPTs could prove more acceptable and easier to adhere to than single-purpose prevention products, continuing high rates of HIV and unintended pregnancy remind us that these new products will need to be efficacious, acceptable and effectively used to achieve a public health impact. In this paper, we describe how a range of research methods can be applied during the pre-clinical phase of product development to inform decisions related to formulation and vehicle or product delivery mechanisms, and consider how choices in product-related characteristics may influence future demand for, delivery and use of future products. We draw on examples from the development of new single-purpose HIV and contraceptive products and then extend our discussion to the development of MPTs, including vaginal rings and injections. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188706

  12. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O

    2016-07-01

    Protein forms an essential component of a healthy diet in humans to support both growth and maintenance. During pregnancy, an exceptional stage of life defined by rapid growth and development, adequate dietary protein is crucial to ensure a healthy outcome. Protein deposition in maternal and fetal tissues increases throughout pregnancy, with most occurring during the third trimester. Dietary protein intake recommendations are based on factorial estimates because the traditional method of determining protein requirements, nitrogen balance, is invasive and undesirable during pregnancy. The current Estimated Average Requirement and RDA recommendations of 0.88 and 1.1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively, are for all stages of pregnancy. The single recommendation does not take into account the changing needs during different stages of pregnancy. Recently, with the use of the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation method, we defined the requirements to be, on average, 1.2 and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) during early (∼16 wk) and late (∼36 wk) stages of pregnancy, respectively. Although the requirements are substantially higher than current recommendations, our values are ∼14-18% of total energy and fit within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. Using swine as an animal model we showed that the requirements for several indispensable amino acids increase dramatically during late gestation compared with early gestation. Additional studies should be conducted during pregnancy to confirm the newly determined protein requirements and to determine the indispensable amino acid requirements during pregnancy in humans. PMID:27422521

  13. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-09-01

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy. PMID:27648405

  14. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Sélim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  15. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  16. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-01-01

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy. PMID:27648405

  17. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-01-01

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy.

  18. Thrombophilia and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kupferminc, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy is hypercoagulable state. The field of thrombophilia; the tendency to thrombosis, has been developed rapidly and has been linked to many aspects of pregnancy. It is recently that severe pregnancy complications such as severe preeclampsia intrauterine growth retardation abruptio placentae and stillbirth has been shown to be associated with thrombophilia. Recurrent miscarriage and has also been associated with thrombophilia. Finally, thromboembolism in pregnancy as in the non-pregnant state is linked to thrombophilia. In this review all aspects of thrombophilia in pregnancy are discussed, and also all prophylactic and therapeutic implications. PMID:14617365

  19. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature. PMID:23662227

  20. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  1. [Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Harbeck, B; Schütt, M; Sayk, F

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy can become life-threatening for both mother and fetus. In addition to some pregnancy-linked endocrine disorders, several pre-existing forms of endocrinopathy, such as Grave's disease, type 1 diabetes and adrenal insufficiency might deteriorate acutely during pregnancy. Early diagnosis and management are challenging because the classical symptoms are often modified by pregnancy. Laboratory tests are subject to altered physiological ranges and pharmacological options are limited while therapeutic goals are stricter than in the non-pregnant patient. This article focuses on endocrine emergencies complicating pregnancy. PMID:22349529

  2. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  3. Explaining disproportionately high rates of adverse birth outcomes among African Americans: the impact of stress, racism, and related factors in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Giscombé, Cheryl L; Lobel, Marci

    2005-09-01

    Compared with European Americans, African American infants experience disproportionately high rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery and are more than twice as likely to die during their 1st year of life. The authors examine 5 explanations for these differences in rates of adverse birth outcomes: (a) ethnic differences in health behaviors and socioeconomic status; (b) higher levels of stress in African American women; (c) greater susceptibility to stress in African Americans; (d) the impact of racism acting either as a contributor to stress or as a factor that exacerbates stress effects; and (e) ethnic differences in stress-related neuroendocrine, vascular, and immunological processes. The review of literature indicates that each explanation has some merit, although none is sufficient to explain ethnic disparities in adverse birth outcomes. There is a lack of studies examining the impact of such factors jointly and interactively. Recommendations and cautions for future research are offered.

  4. Pregnancy-associated retinal diseases and their management.

    PubMed

    Errera, Marie-Hélène; Kohly, Radha P; da Cruz, Lyndon

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated retinal diseases are conditions that may occur uniquely in pregnancy or, more commonly, general conditions that may worsen or alter during pregnancy as a result of hematologic, hormonal, metabolic, cardiovascular, and immunologic changes. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is by far the most common retinal condition that is altered by pregnancy. However, there are currently no widely accepted, precise clinical guidelines regarding its management during pregnancy. At present it is not possible to predict who will regress and who will progress without treatment. Some of the variation in progression of DR in pregnancy may be a result of well-known risk factors such as hypertension or inadequate glycemic control prior to pregnancy. Other pregnancy-associated retinal diseases are relatively uncommon, and their treatments are poorly characterized. Pre-existing conditions include the white dot syndromes, such as punctuate inner choroidopathy and ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, as well as chorioretinal neovascularization from many other etiologies. Retinal and chorioretinal disorders that can arise during pregnancy include central serous chorioretinopathy and occlusive vasculopathy such as retinal artery occlusion (Purtschers-like retinopathy) and retinal vein occlusion. There remains a small group that appear to be unique to pregnancy, with pre-eclampsia- and eclampsia-associated retinopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, or amniotic fluid embolism being the best described. In angiogenic retinal diseases outside of pregnancy, the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents) has proven helpful. There are no safety data about the use of anti-VEGF agents during pregnancy, and conventionally the proposed interventions have been laser photocoagulation and systemic or intravitreal injections of steroids. Most of the literature on the treatment of pregnancy associated-chorioretinal neovascularization is anecdotal.

  5. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted. PMID:27172867

  6. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted.

  7. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes.

  8. Twin pregnancy diagnosis in Holstein cows: discriminatory powers and accuracy of diagnosis by transrectal palpation and outcome of twin pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J D; Weaver, L D; Franti, C E

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of twin pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation and to examine fetal survival, culling rates, and gestational lengths of cows diagnosed with twins. In this prospective study, 5309 cows on 14 farms in California were followed from pregnancy diagnosis to subsequent abortion or calving. The average sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive value of twin pregnancy diagnosis were 49.3%, 99.4%, 96.0%, and 86.1%, respectively. The abortion rate for single pregnancies of 12.0% differed significantly from those for bicornual twin pregnancies and unicornual twin pregnancies of 26.2% and 32.4%, respectively (P < 0.05). The early calf mortality between cows calving with singles (3.2%) and twins (15.7%) were significantly different (P < 0.005). The difference in fetal survival between single pregnancies and all twin pregnancies resulted in 0.42 and 0.29 viable heifers per pregnancy, respectively. The average gestation for single, bicornual, and unicornual pregnancies that did not abort before drying-off was 278, 272, and 270 days, respectively. Results of this study show that there is an increased fetal wastage associated with twin pregnancies and suggest a need for further research exploring management strategies for cows carrying twins. PMID:7728734

  9. Recurrent pregnancy loss: summary and clinical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lee, R M; Silver, R M

    2000-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is traditionally defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestation. This problem occurs in approximately 1% of all couples and is a frustrating problem for both the patient and physician. This article provides an overview of the problem, including causes, treatments, and recommendations. Among the numerous proposed causes of RPL, only parental karyotype abnormalities, antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine malformations, and cervical incompetence are universally accepted. There are numerous treatments for RPL, but only the efficacy of heparin and low-dose aspirin in women with antiphospholipid syndrome has been established with properly controlled trials. Even after undertaking a complete evaluation, the cause of RPL remains uncertain in over 50% of cases. These patients should understand that subsequent pregnancies have up to a 70% chance of success without treatment.

  10. Diabetes in pregnancy--dietary management.

    PubMed

    Serci, Iolanda

    2008-06-01

    The provision of adequate energy and nutrients in the woman with DM is essential for normal fetal growth. However, dietary modifications including exercise are essential to normalise blood glycaemic levels and prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the evidence surrounding the nutritional management in GDM has been controversial. Dornhorst and Frost (2002) state that not only are there conflicting guidelines on nutritional management but disagreement as to the effectiveness of this on pregnancy outcomes. NICE (2008) has issued guidelines on the management of DM before, during and after pregnancy. Dietary prescriptions should include personal preference, body weight and type and level of exercise, blood glucose levels, ketone levels and any medications taken for the DM. Midwives must empower women to manage their condition through making appropriate and acceptable choices for their health and that of their baby. PMID:18564524

  11. Diabetes in pregnancy--dietary management.

    PubMed

    Serci, Iolanda

    2008-06-01

    The provision of adequate energy and nutrients in the woman with DM is essential for normal fetal growth. However, dietary modifications including exercise are essential to normalise blood glycaemic levels and prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the evidence surrounding the nutritional management in GDM has been controversial. Dornhorst and Frost (2002) state that not only are there conflicting guidelines on nutritional management but disagreement as to the effectiveness of this on pregnancy outcomes. NICE (2008) has issued guidelines on the management of DM before, during and after pregnancy. Dietary prescriptions should include personal preference, body weight and type and level of exercise, blood glucose levels, ketone levels and any medications taken for the DM. Midwives must empower women to manage their condition through making appropriate and acceptable choices for their health and that of their baby.

  12. A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Shen, Yue-Ying; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Lin, Ru; Fang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured.

  13. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy.

  14. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  15. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  16. Pregnancy and non-valvular heart disease--anesthetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Gaurab; Sengupta, Saikat; Rudra, Amitava; Debnath, Saurabh

    2010-01-01

    Non-valvular heart disease is an important cause of cardiac disease in pregnancy and presents a unique challenge to the anesthesiologist during labor and delivery. A keen understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, in addition to the altered physiology of pregnancy, is the key to managing such patients. Disease-specific goals of management may help preserve the hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters within an acceptable limit and a successful conduct of labor and postpartum period. PMID:20442539

  17. Pregnancy and pregnancy outcome in hepatitis C type 1b.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, T; Cannon, B; Hogan, J; Crowley, M; Devereux, C; Fanning, L; Kenny-Walsh, E; Shanahan, F; Whelton, M J

    2000-09-01

    A large cohort of rhesus-negative women in Ireland were inadvertently infected with hepatitis C virus following exposure to contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin in 1977-8. This major iatrogenic episode was discovered in 1994. We studied 36 women who had been infected after their first pregnancy, and compared them to an age- and parity-matched control group of rhesus-positive women. The presence of hepatitis C antibody was confirmed in all 36 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by recombinant immunoblot assay, while 26 (72%) of the cohort were HCV-RNA-positive (type 1b) on PCR testing. In the 20 years post-infection, all members of the study group had at least one pregnancy, and mean parity was 3.5. They had a total of 100 pregnancies and 85 of these went to term. There were four premature births, one being a twin pregnancy, and 11 spontaneous miscarriages. One miscarriage occurred in the pregnancy following HCV infection. There were two neonatal deaths due to severe congenital abnormalities in the PCR-positive women. Of the children born to HCV-RNA positive mothers, only one (2.3%) tested positive for the virus. Significant portal fibrosis on liver biopsy was confined to HCV-RNA-positive mothers apart from one single exception in the antibody-positive HCV-RNA-negative group. Comparison with the control group showed no increase in spontaneous miscarriage rate, and no significant difference in obstetric complications; birth weights were similar for the two groups.

  18. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion Decision

    PubMed Central

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Salvador, Joaquín; Borrell, Carme

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy planning allows women to better control their life trajectory and contributes to the future child’s health and development. Many studies that have analyzed socioeconomic inequalities in unintended pregnancy only took into account those pregnancies ending in births. Few of them that analyzed unintended pregnancy, including both induced abortion and births, and its socioeconomic determinants, concluded that unintended pregnancy is more frequent in young, poor, or unmarried women. These inequalities have been poorly studied in Europe, especially in the southern European context. The aim of the present study is to describe socioeconomic inequalities in unintended pregnancy and in abortion decision in Barcelona, Spain. The major findings are that unintended pregnancies accounted for 41% of total pregnancy and of these, 60% ended in abortion. From all pregnancies, the proportion of induced abortion reached 25.6%. Compared to women with university studies, those with primary education uncompleted had more unintended pregnancies (OR = 7.22). When facing an unintended pregnancy, women of lower socioeconomic position are more likely to choose induced abortion, although this is not the case among young or single women. This study reveals deep socioeconomic inequalities in unintended pregnancies and abortion decision in Barcelona, Spain, where the birth rate is very low and the abortion rate is rising. Women in low socioeconomic positions have many more unintended pregnancies than better educated women. Except for young or single women, the lower the socioeconomic position, the higher the proportion of women who choose an induced abortion when facing an unintended pregnancy. PMID:18038210

  19. Why is the number of pregnancies among teenagers decreasing?

    PubMed

    Powell, M G; Deber, R B

    1982-09-15

    The issue of pregnancy among adolescent women has received considerable attention from the media. Contrary to common belief, both the numbers and the rates of such pregnancies, even when data on abortion are included, have been declining. Patterns of contraception may account for some of the decrease; however, more study is required. In the past, unmarried teenagers who became pregnant either got married or put the baby up for adoption. Now they can either have an abortion or keep the baby. Solutions to the problems of pregnancy among teenagers must therefore be addressed to these altered social consequences rather than to misleading comments about "epidemics", with their suggestion of increased rates of pregnancy.

  20. A Review of Antibiotic Use in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Bland, Christopher M; Griffin, Brooke; Stover, Kayla R; Eiland, Lea S; McLaughlin, Milena

    2015-11-01

    During pregnancy, untreated sexually transmitted or urinary tract infections are associated with significant morbidity, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion. Approximately one in four women will be prescribed an antibiotic during pregnancy, accounting for nearly 80% of prescription medications in pregnant women. Antibiotic exposures during pregnancy have been associated with both short-term (e.g., congenital abnormalities) and long-term effects (e.g., changes in gut microbiome, asthma, atopic dermatitis) in the newborn. However, it is estimated that only 10% of medications have sufficient data related to safe and effective use in pregnancy. Antibiotics such as beta-lactams, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, clindamycin, and fosfomycin are generally considered safe and effective in pregnancy. Fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are generally avoided in pregnancy. Physiologic changes in pregnancy lead to an increase in glomerular filtration rate, increase in total body volume, and enhanced cardiac output. These changes may lead to pharmacokinetic alterations in antibiotics that require dose adjustment or careful monitoring and assessment. PMID:26598097

  1. Hysteroscopy and suction evacuation of cesarean scar pregnancies: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Fylstra, Donald L

    2014-03-01

    Implantation of a pregnancy into the scar of a prior cesarean is an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be one in 1800-2216 pregnancies. The increase in the incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be a consequence of the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. The natural history of cesarean scar pregnancy is unknown. However, if such a pregnancy is allowed to continue, uterine scar rupture with hemorrhage and possible hysterectomy seem likely. Two early diagnosed cesarean scar pregnancies were treated with hysteroscopy and suction curettage removal. One required intramuscular methotrexate to resolve a persistent cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. It would seem reasonable that simple suction evacuation would frequently leave chorionic villi imbedded within the cesarean scar, as the pregnancy is not within the endometrial cavity.

  2. Exercise in Pregnancy: Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Artal, Raul

    2016-09-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that in all phases of life, including pregnancy, physical activity promotes health benefits and precludes comorbidities, the scientific evidence is indisputable. Several organizations around the world have updated in recent years the guidelines and recommendations for exercise in pregnancy. The December 2015, updated guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists emphasize that physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risk. Although recommending exercise in pregnancy, the anatomic/physiological changes, absolute and relative contraindications should be considered. Women who exercised regularly before pregnancy, in the absence of contraindications, can continue and engage in moderate to strenuous activities, although information on strenuous activities in pregnancy is still limited. This review summarizes the most recent published and recommended guidelines. PMID:27398880

  3. Hormones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratap; Magon, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus PMID:23661874

  4. Nevi and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Amy Kalowitz; Martires, Kathryn J; Driscoll, Marcia S; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Changes in the moles of pregnant women are frequently attributed to pregnancy, but recent studies suggest that pregnancy does not induce significant physiologic changes in nevi. It is common for nevi on the breasts and abdomen to grow with normal skin expansion, but studies that have examined melanocytic nevi on the backs or lower extremities have found no significant changes in size during pregnancy. Several studies have also investigated the belief that moles darken during pregnancy and have found insufficient evidence to support this idea. Dermoscopically, transient changes have been identified, but none are suggestive of melanoma. Results vary in terms of histologic changes seen in samples taken from pregnant women, but all authors agree that any histopathologic features consistent with melanoma should be viewed as melanoma and not attributed to pregnancy. Biopsy specimens should be obtained promptly from any changing mole that would raise concern for malignancy in a nonpregnant patient. Such procedures can be performed safely during pregnancy. PMID:27646736

  5. Pregnancy and the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yenerel, Nursal Melda; Küçümen, Raciha Beril

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant changes in all systems of the body. Although most of them are physiological, they may also lead to pathological consequences. The resulting pathological changes may occur for the first time or existing diseases affected by pregnancy can become more serious or change course. Diseases specific only to pregnancy may arise. Like all systems of the body, the visual system is also affected by pregnancy, developing a wide range of physiological and pathological changes. Knowing the ocular physiological changes and diagnosing eye diseases that may develop during pregnancy, and preventing and treating these diseases is crucial to ensure the baby’s healthy development. Therefore, we have reviewed the conditions that an ophthalmologist should recognize, follow-up, and pay attention to during treatment and summarized them under the topic “pregnancy and the eye”. PMID:27800235

  6. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  7. Melatonin treatment of embryo donor and recipient ewes during anestrus affects their endocrine status, but not ovulation rate, embryo survival or pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, T G; Robinson, J J; Aitken, R P; Robertson, I S

    1998-04-01

    Thirty-two Border Leicester x Scottish Blackface ewes that lambed in March were individually penned with their lambs from April 16th and given daily an oral dose of 3 mg melatonin at 1500 h (Group M). A further 32 acted as controls (Group C). Within each group half were used as embryo donors (Group D) following superovulation and half received embryos (Group R) following an induced estrus. Prior to weaning on 21 May ewes received ad libitum a complete diet providing 9 megajoules (MJ) of metabolizable energy and 125 g/kg crude protein. Thereafter each received 1.6 kg of the diet daily. In early June each ewe received an intravaginal device (300 mg progesterone) inserted for 12 d. Donors were superovulated with 4 i.m. injections of porcine FSH 12 h apart, commencing 24 h before progesterone withdrawal. Ovulation in recipients was induced with 800 IU PMSG injected i.m. at progesterone removal. Donor ewes were inseminated 52 h after progesterone withdrawal. Embryos were collected 4 d later and transferred to recipients. Melatonin suppressed plasma prolactin (P < 0.001) and advanced estrus (P < 0.05) and timing of the LH peak (P < 0.05). These events also occurred earlier in donors than in recipients (P < 0.01). Mean (+/- SEM) ovulation rates for melatonin-treated and control donors were 5.5 +/- 0.71 and 4.7 +/- 0.66, respectively (NS). Corresponding recipient values were 3.3 +/- 0.40 and 3.4 +/- 0.39 (NS). Mean (+/- SEM) embryo yields were 2.9 +/- 0.64 and 2.6 +/- 0.73 for melatonin-treated (n = 15) and control (n = 16) donors, respectively, and for the 12 ewes per treatment that supplied embryos, corresponding numbers classified as viable were 2.7 +/- 0.47 and 2.3 +/- 0.61 (NS). Following transfer, 57% of embryos developed to lambs when both donor and recipient received melatonin, 86% when only the donor received melatonin, 91% when only the recipient received melatonin, and 67% when neither received melatonin (NS). Thus, embryo survival following transfer was not

  8. [Pregnancy and enterostomy].

    PubMed

    Delaini, G G; Signori, E; Cattani, P; Tosadori, U; Dagradi, V; Piccinelli, D; Lolli, P; Iacono, C; Tenchini, P

    1985-10-01

    The authors describe the difficulties and possible complications of pregnancy in colonostomized women. In the neoplastic forms, generally appearing in advanced age, the knowledge of the basic disease discourages any possible attempt at pregnancy. In the chronic inflammatory diseases (ulcerous rectocolitis and Crohn's disease), typical of young age, pregnancy, if opportunely followed and programmed, can get an absolutely favourable course. The authors report their own experiences and some other authors' ones.

  9. SSRI use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tran, Heather; Robb, Adelaide S

    2015-11-01

    The Society of Maternal and Fetal Medicine recently had a conference on the use of medications during pregnancy, delivery, and breast-feeding. One of the most important topics covered during that 2-day conference was major depression (MDD) and the use of Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). This article will review the current state of knowledge about MDD during and immediately after pregnancy and treatment with SSRIs during pregnancy and breast-feeding. PMID:26428019

  10. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  11. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

  12. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP.

  13. Methionine metabolism in human pregnancy123

    PubMed Central

    Dasarathy, Jaividhya; Gruca, Lourdes L; Bennett, Carole; Parimi, Prabhu S; Duenas, Clarita; Marczewski, Susan; Fierro, Julie L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia during pregnancy, which is a consequence of perturbations in methionine and/or folate metabolism, has been implicated in adverse outcomes such as neural tube defects, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, and premature delivery. The adaptive changes in methionine metabolism during pregnancy in humans have not been determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine the kinetics of methionine and its rate of transsulfuration and transmethylation in healthy women with advancing gestation. Design: The whole-body rate of appearance (Ra) of methionine and phenylalanine was measured in healthy pregnant women during the first (n = 10), second (n = 5), and third (n = 10) trimesters of pregnancy. These data were compared with those for nonpregnant women (n = 8). Tracers [1-13C]methionine, [C2H3]methionine, and [2H5]phenylalanine were administered as prime-constant rate infusions. The effect of enteral high-protein, mixed-nutrient load on tracer-determined variables was also examined. Results: In pregnant women, the Ra of phenylalanine was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the first trimester than in the second and third trimesters and was significantly lower than that in nonpregnant women. A linear positive correlation was evident between gestational age and phenylalanine Ra. The fractional rate and total rate of transsulfuration of methionine was significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the first trimester, whereas the rate of transmethylation was higher during the third trimester. Plasma concentrations of total cysteine and homocysteine were lower during pregnancy. Conclusions: Uncomplicated pregnancy in humans is associated with a higher rate of transsulfuration early in gestation and a higher rate of transmethylation of methionine in late gestation. These data may have implications for understanding the role of methionine and homocysteine in complications of pregnancy and for the nutritional care of pregnant women. PMID:19939983

  14. Pregnancy and Lupus Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Andrea G; Garovic, Vesna D

    2015-09-01

    The management of lupus nephritis in pregnancy presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for providers. Pregnancy creates a series of physiologic changes in the immune system and kidney that may result in an increased risk of disease flare and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, such as preeclampsia, fetal loss, and preterm delivery. Conception should be delayed until disease is in remission to ensure the best pregnancy outcomes. Maternal disease activity and fetal well-being should be monitored closely by an interdisciplinary team, including obstetricians, rheumatologists, and nephrologists throughout pregnancy. Careful attention must be paid to the dosing and potential teratogenicity of medications.

  15. Neuroinfectious diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly Jo; Roos, Karen L

    2011-09-01

    Pregnancy is associated with impaired T-cell-mediated immunity putting the woman at risk for infectious diseases not typically seen in immunocompetent individuals. When maternal infection is severe, and when a primary herpesvirus infection is acquired during pregnancy, there is a risk of fetal loss, maternal death, neonatal death, or congenital abnormalities from intrauterine infection. In this review, the authors emphasize specific neurologic infectious diseases that occur in pregnancy, the safety of the antimicrobial therapy of these diseases during pregnancy, as well as the congenital and neonatal sequelae of infection. PMID:22113513

  16. Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gargallo Fernández, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    Association of hyperthyroidism and pregnancy is not an unusual event, and has an impact on both the mother and fetus. After delivery, it may also affect the newborn and the nursing mother. Clinical management of this situation is quite different from that required by non-pregnant hyperthyroid women and poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This review addresses aspects related to the unique characteristics of biochemical assessment of thyroid function in pregnancy, the potential causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, and the clinical and therapeutic approach in each case. Special attention is paid to pregnancy complicated with Graves' disease and its different the maternal, fetal, neonatal, and postnatal consequences. PMID:23477757

  17. Pregnancy and Lupus Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Andrea G; Garovic, Vesna D

    2015-09-01

    The management of lupus nephritis in pregnancy presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for providers. Pregnancy creates a series of physiologic changes in the immune system and kidney that may result in an increased risk of disease flare and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, such as preeclampsia, fetal loss, and preterm delivery. Conception should be delayed until disease is in remission to ensure the best pregnancy outcomes. Maternal disease activity and fetal well-being should be monitored closely by an interdisciplinary team, including obstetricians, rheumatologists, and nephrologists throughout pregnancy. Careful attention must be paid to the dosing and potential teratogenicity of medications. PMID:26573551

  18. Ostomy and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gopal, K A; Amshel, A L; Shonberg, I L; Levinson, B A; VanWert, M; VanWert, J

    1985-12-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with ostomy poses significant concern in its management. A search for literature addressing this problem revealed minimal information. Questionnaires on this subject were sent to all of the members of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, and the replies received from them were analyzed by the computer. Attempts were made to answer questions regarding stoma complications, recurrence of disease during pregnancy, type of childbirth (vaginal or cesarean), special needs during pregnancy, and any recurring problems with subsequent pregnancies.

  19. Hypoparathyroidism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa Hitesh; Bhat, Shashikala; Shetty, Seema; Umakanth, Shashikiran

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon endocrine deficiency characterised by low serum calcium, absent or inappropriately low parathyroid hormone and normal or high serum phosphorus levels. Parathyroid hormone is essential for calcium homoeostasis. Pregnancy and lactation are known for increased calcium requirement. They cause calcium stress as well as alter its metabolism. Hence, many abnormalities are expected in hypoparathyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of pregnancy in postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, which is rarely encountered in antenatal clinics. We describe our clinical, biochemical and therapeutic experience of pregnancy and lactation in this patient with hypoparathyroidism.

  20. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Rossella; Ladu, Cristina; Vezzosi, Chiara; Mannelli, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare condition in the general population and is even less common during pregnancy with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome may be difficult during pregnancy because the typical features of the disorder and pregnancy may overlap. However, Cushing's syndrome results in increased fetal and maternal complications, and diagnosis and treatment are critical. This report describes a case of 26-year-old female at the 19th week of pregnancy with symptoms and signs of hypercortisolism, where ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed and treated by robotic laparoscopic adrenalectomy at the 21th week of gestation.

  1. Recurrent Ectopic Pregnancy in the Tubal Remnant after Salpingectomy

    PubMed Central

    Samiei-Sarir, Bahareh; Diehm, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We present two cases of ectopic pregnancy located within the remnant tube following ipsilateral salpingectomy. This particular pathology is rare and yet has significant consequences for the patient, with mortality rates 10–15 times higher than other ectopic pregnancies. It demonstrates that salpingectomy does not exclude ectopic pregnancy on the ipsilateral side. We suggest careful clinical consideration and bring attention to the current surgical technique. PMID:24151570

  2. Disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ellen; Wang, Bing Wei; Guimond, Colleen; Synnes, Anne; Sadovnick, Dessa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding safety of disease-modifying drug (DMD) use during pregnancy on perinatal and developmental outcomes in offspring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A PubMed and EMBASE search up to February 2012 was conducted with a manual search of references from relevant articles. Selected studies were evaluated using internationally accepted criteria. Results: Fifteen studies identified 761 interferon β-, 97 glatiramer acetate-, and 35 natalizumab-exposed pregnancies. Study quality ranged from poor to good; no study was rated excellent. Small sample sizes limited most studies. Compared with data for unexposed pregnancies, fair- to good-quality prospective cohort studies reported that interferon β exposure was associated with lower mean birth weight, shorter mean birth length, and preterm birth (<37 weeks), but not low birth weight (<2,500 g), cesarean delivery, congenital anomaly (including malformation), or spontaneous abortion. Fewer studies of fair quality were available for glatiramer acetate and natalizumab. Glatiramer acetate exposure was not associated with lower mean birth weight, congenital anomaly, preterm birth, or spontaneous abortion. Natalizumab exposure did not appear to be associated with shorter mean birth length, lower mean birth weight, or lower mean gestational age. No studies examined mitoxantrone or fingolimod exposure. One study of paternal DMD use during conception found no effect on gestational age or birth weight. Few studies examined longer-term developmental outcomes. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to determine the potential risks associated with preconceptional and in utero DMD exposure in patients with MS. Discontinuation of DMDs before conception is still recommended. PMID:22933738

  3. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  4. Use of Medications in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Websites About Us Medications and Pregnancy Pregnancy Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Safe lists for medications in pregnancy- inadequate evidence base and inconsistent guidance from web-based information, 2011 ...

  5. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  6. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  7. Relationship between Stress Coping Styles and Pregnancy Complications among Women Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal stress exposure, stress coping styles, and pregnancy complications. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional, and prospective study. Setting Tulane-Lakeside Hospital, New Orleans, LA and Women's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA. Participants The study included 146 women (122 from New Orleans and 24 from Baton Rouge), who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Methods Participants were interviewed regarding their hurricane experiences and perceived stress, and coping styles were assessed using the Brief COPE. Medical charts were also reviewed to obtain information about pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine possible associations. Results Hurricane exposure was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.03, 1.86; P=0.03) and current perceived stress (aOR=1.50; CI=1.34, 1.99; P<0.01). Stress perception significantly predisposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (aOR=1.16; CI=1.05, 1.30; P<0.01) and gestational diabetes (aOR=1.13; CI=1.02, 1.25; P=0.03). Use of planning, acceptance, humor, instrumental support, and venting coping styles were associated with a significantly reduced occurrence of pregnancy complications (P<0.05). Higher rates for gestational diabetes was found among women using the denial coping style (aOR=2.25; CI=1.14, 4.45; P=0.02). Conclusion Exposure to disaster-related stress may complicate pregnancy, while some coping styles may mitigate its effects. Further research should explore how coping styles may mitigate or exacerbate the effect of major stressors and how positive coping styles can be encouraged or augmented. PMID:25712783

  8. Reducing deaths from pregnancy and childbirth. Asia.

    PubMed

    Pillai, G

    1993-01-01

    99% of all maternal deaths occur in the developing world, and South Asian countries account for most deaths. The causes are obstructed labor, hemorrhage, pregnancy-related hypertension (eclampsia), or unsafe abortion. The United Nation's Children's Fund estimates 340 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births in India. In Indian rural areas, the maternal mortality rate is between 800 and 900 deaths per 100,000 live births in Bangladesh, 600; in Nepal, 830; and in Bhutan, 1710. IN comparison, the rate in the United States is 8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The technology for reducing maternal mortality has been utilized in most developed countries, as well as in parts of South Asia, in particular in Sri Lanka. The goal of the Safe Motherhood Initiative was to reduce maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. The immediate causes of maternal mortality include pregnancy and delivery and the management of complications such as hemorrhage, toxic and bacterial infections (sepsis), eclampsia, and obstructed labor. The poor health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women are the underlying causes of maternal death. One study in India found that inadequate medical treatment contributes to 36% to 47% of maternal deaths in hospitals. In India, abortion services are legal and acceptable on social, religious, and political grounds, but services are inaccessible. In Bangladesh, the availability of menstrual regulation is estimated to save 100,000 to 160,000 women from unsafe abortions each year. However, the inaccessibility of this service accounts for 700,000 unsafe abortions and 7000 maternal deaths. Gender bias in the allocation of meager food supplies results in the poor health and nutritional status of women, rendering a woman's pelvis too small, which causes obstructed labor and even death. Socioeconomic status is linked to access the family planning and health services which affect mortality and reproductive health. In Sri Lanka and Kerala, government

  9. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  10. Does drug compliance change in asthmatic patients during pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women with asthma are recommended to maintain optimal therapeutic management during pregnancy. Uncontrolled, symptomatic asthma may increase the risk of adverse peri-natal outcomes; thus adequate regular anti-asthmatic treatment must be given to provide optimal asthma control during pregnancy. However, doubts about the safety of asthmatic drugs can affect pregnant asthmatic patients’ drug compliance. The aim of this study was to assess behavioral differences in drug compliance among pregnant asthmatic patients. Methods Thirty two asthmatic and 121 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted after delivery. The interviews included disease characteristics, drug compliance and patients’ own perspective for asthma status prior to and during pregnancy. In addition, medical and pregnancy history, pregnancy complications and outcomes, and newborn characteristics were recorded. Results In our study group the rates of hospitalization, emergency room visits and systemic steroid use in the year before pregnancy were 13%, 46.9% and 18.8%, respectively. The rate of regular asthma medication use was only 32% at that period and increased to 44% during pregnancy. However, hospitalization, emergency room visits, systemic steroid usage rates remained unchanged and according to patients’ own evaluations, 44% of asthmatics pointed out that their asthma had worsened during pregnancy. No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of pregnancy/labour complication between asthmatic and non-asthmatics. Conclusions Contrary to some previous studies, in our study regular use of asthma drugs increased during pregnancy. The uncontrolled condition of their asthma before and during pregnancy and the idea that their asthma worsened during pregnancy might force the patients to use medication more regularly. PMID:23759108

  11. Primary aldosteronism and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ester; Amar, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a complication of 8% of all pregnancies and 10% of HT cases are due to primary aldosteronism (PA). There is very little data on PA and pregnancy. Given the changes in the renin angiotensin system during pregnancy, the diagnosis of PA is difficult to establish during gestation. It may be suspected in hypertensive patients with hypokalemia. A comprehensive literature review identified reports covering 40 pregnancies in patients suffering from PA. Analysis of these cases shows them to be high-risk pregnancies leading to maternal and fetal complications. Pregnancy must be programmed, and if the patient has a unilateral form of PA, adrenalectomy should be performed prior to conception. It is customary to stop spironolactone prior to conception and introduce antihypertensive drugs that present no risk of teratogenicity. When conventional antihypertensive drugs used during pregnancy fail to control high blood pressure, diuretics, including potassium-sparing diuretics may be prescribed. Adrenalectomy can be considered during the second trimester of pregnancy exclusively in cases of refractory hypertension. A European retrospective study is currently underway to collect a larger number of cases.

  12. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth.

  13. Smoking and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  14. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for a mother during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the baby gets iodine from the mother’s diet. Women need more iodine when they are pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day. In the United States, about 7 percent of pregnant women may not ...

  15. Iodine and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women. PMID:21765996

  16. Prolactinomas, cabergoline, and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Andrea; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia, frequently caused by a prolactinoma, is an important cause of infertility among young women. Dopamine agonists (DA) are the treatment of choice. Although cabergoline (CAB) is currently considered the gold standard DA, bromocriptine (BRC) remains the drug of choice for women desiring pregnancy, as it was proven to be safe in more than 6,000 pregnancies. The purpose of this review is to perform a critical evaluation of CAB safety in pregnancy, as it is used by most patients harboring prolactinomas. Although the number of CAB-induced pregnancies (about 800) is still reduced as compared with those under BRC treatment, data in the literature do not point to increase risk of preterm delivery or fetal malformations, comparing to pregnancies induced by BRC and those in the general population. Moreover, CAB use throughout pregnancy was reported in about ten cases, without evidence of any harm to fetal development. Therefore, even though BRC still remains the recommended DA drug for pregnancy induction or use during pregnancy in women with prolactinomas, increasing evidences point to the safety of CAB for this purpose.

  17. Spontaneous pneumothorax during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Luis; Puente, Susana; Madrid, Carmen; Novo, Susana; Gil-Alonso, José L; Guntiñas, Alicia

    2002-05-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax complicating pregnancy is rare. Only 41 cases have been previously published. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumothorax successfully treated with tube thoracostomy during the 38th week of pregnancy. Under epidural anesthesia, the patient had vaginal delivery of a healthy male infant 36 hours after tube thoracostomy.

  18. Primary aldosteronism and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ester; Amar, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a complication of 8% of all pregnancies and 10% of HT cases are due to primary aldosteronism (PA). There is very little data on PA and pregnancy. Given the changes in the renin angiotensin system during pregnancy, the diagnosis of PA is difficult to establish during gestation. It may be suspected in hypertensive patients with hypokalemia. A comprehensive literature review identified reports covering 40 pregnancies in patients suffering from PA. Analysis of these cases shows them to be high-risk pregnancies leading to maternal and fetal complications. Pregnancy must be programmed, and if the patient has a unilateral form of PA, adrenalectomy should be performed prior to conception. It is customary to stop spironolactone prior to conception and introduce antihypertensive drugs that present no risk of teratogenicity. When conventional antihypertensive drugs used during pregnancy fail to control high blood pressure, diuretics, including potassium-sparing diuretics may be prescribed. Adrenalectomy can be considered during the second trimester of pregnancy exclusively in cases of refractory hypertension. A European retrospective study is currently underway to collect a larger number of cases. PMID:27156905

  19. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  20. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  1. Primary aldosteronism and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morton, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Less than 50 cases of pregnancy in women with primary aldosteronism have been reported, suggesting the disorder is significantly underdiagnosed in confinement. Accurate diagnosis is complicated by physiological changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis in pregnancy, leading to a risk of false negative results on screening tests. The course of primary aldosteronism during pregnancy is highly variable, although overall it is associated with a very high risk of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The optimal management of primary aldosteronism during pregnancy is unclear, with uncertainty regarding the safety of mineralocorticoid antagonists and amiloride, their relative efficacy compared with the antihypertensive medications commonly used during pregnancy, and as to whether prognosis is improved by laparoscopic adrenalectomy where an adrenal adenoma can be demonstrated.

  2. Recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kamini A; Pillai, Jyothi R

    2006-08-01

    Recurrent abortions are hisheartening to the couple and also to the treating clinicians. Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy weighing 500 g or less. Recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion is defined as three or more consective abortions. Important factors involved in recurrent early pregnancy loss are genetic factors, endocrine factors, anatomic factors, immunologic factors, infectious factors and environmental factors. The factors are described in a nutshell in the text. Any severe infection that leads to bacteraemia orviraemia can cause sporadic miscarriage. Congenital uterine abnormalities have been associated most often with second-trimestar pregnancy loss. As regarding management of recurrent pregnancy loss the clinician has limited options. The use of aspiration in low dose (75 mg) and heparin is beneficial in APS positive patients. Multivitamins and folic acid assume importance in thrombophilic disorders. Tender live care with regular antenatal check-ups go a great way in achieving live term pregnancy.

  3. Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Palta, A; Dhiman, P

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is quite common. Evaluation of blood counts of pregnant women has shown that thrombocytopenia is the second most common haematological problem in pregnancy, after anaemia. While mostly thrombocytopenia has no consequences for either the mother or the foetus, in some cases it is associated with substantial maternal and/or neonatal morbidity and mortality. It may result from a number of diverse aetiologies. Adequate knowledge of these causes will help the clinicians in making proper diagnosis and management of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia is essential to rule out any systemic disorders that may affect pregnancy management as thrombocytopenia can present as an isolated finding or in combination with underlying conditions. In this concise review, we have provided the overview of thrombocytopenia diagnosed during pregnancy. PMID:26431056

  4. [Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Middeke, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In pregnancy, both mother and fetus benefit from blood pressure in normal ranges. There is discrepancy in the normenclature and thresholds for classification of hypertension in pregnancy and for initiation of antihypertensive treatment in different international guidelines. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values that are associated with normal outcome are notably lower than any recommended treatment threshold in pregnancy. Tight blood pressure control under 85 mmHg diastolic is save and significantly prevents severe maternal hypertension as could be demonstrated in CHIPS. Close blood pressure monitoring comprising modern methods and devices including telemonitoring allows early recognition of risk developments and optimal guidance of antihypertensive therapy starting early in pregnancy. Only a few pharmacological substances are suitable for antihypertensive treatment in pregnancy. PMID:27598915

  5. Lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clissold, T L; Hopkins, W G; Seddon, R J

    1991-03-27

    Lifestyle behaviours of 183 women before and during pregnancy were investigated by retrospective questionnaire in the first few days postpartum. The threshold of cigarette smoking for a reduction in birth weight was exceeded at full term by 17% of the women, but only 1% exceeded a similar threshold for alcohol consumption. Consumption below the recommended minimum level for one or more major food groups was reported by 35% of the women during pregnancy. Only 36% of the women were vigorously active before pregnancy, and only 13% remained so throughout pregnancy. Level of education was a significant predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviours. Concern for their baby's and their own health were the main reasons given for change in behaviour during pregnancy, while doctor's advice and antenatal classes were cited infrequently. A new approach to lifestyle enhancement by health professionals might promote desirable changes in relation to smoking and possibly also food consumption and physical activity.

  6. [Paravaginal abscess in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hasbargen, U; Hillemanns, P; Scheidler, J; Kimmig, R; Hepp, H

    2001-10-01

    Paravaginal abscess in pregnancy. We report the diagnosis and treatment of an infected Gartner's duct cyst during pregnancy. The patient presented with lower abdominal pain, fever (38.5 degrees C) and an elevated C-reactive Protein level. Pelvic examination revealed a painful paravaginal mass. Sonography was not able to detect the cranial border of the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed fluid accumulation laterodorsal to the vagina without evidence of a connection with the retroperitoneal space. An infected Gartner's duct cyst with consecutive abscess formation along the mesonephric duct system, was diagnosed. Following transvaginal drainage, the remainder of the pregnancy was uneventful and the patient was delivered vaginally at 40 + 5 weeks without complications. - The rare clinical finding of a paravaginal abscess in pregnancy was treated without termination of the pregnancy. Preoperative planning of the surgical approach using MRI can be easier for pelvic processes extending out of the pelvis than using ultrasound and is less painful for the patient.

  7. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; Harti, A; Bouderka, M A; Barrou, H; Matar, N; Benaguida, M

    1993-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a serious condition and diagnosis is often difficult. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old woman in the 32nd week of her fifth pregnancy, in which the outcome was fatal for both mother and child. The cause of pancreatitis during pregnancy has been attributed to many factors, chiefly cholelithiasis. A number of recent studies have shown the relationship existing between the role played by pregnancy in predisposing to gallbladder disease with lithiasis. Many diagnosis errors are made in this condition. Thus modern treatment methods have improved the prognosis in acute pancreatitis but, when it occurs during pregnancy, diagnostic delays often lead to a gloomy outlook. PMID:8248696

  8. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vest, Amanda R; Cho, Leslie S

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy represent the second commonest cause of direct maternal death and complicate an estimated 5-10 % of pregnancies. Classification systems aim to separate hypertension similar to that seen outside pregnancy (chronic and gestational hypertension) from the potentially fatal pregnancy-specific conditions. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia represent increasing severities of this disease spectrum. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' 2013 guidelines no longer require proteinuria as a diagnostic criterion, because of its variable appearance in the disease spectrum. The cause involves inadequate cytotrophoblastic invasion of the myometrium, resulting in placental hypoperfusion and diffuse maternal endothelial dysfunction. Changes in angiogenic and antiangiogentic peptide profiles precede the onset of clinical preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia should be closely monitored and receive magnesium sulfate intravenously if severe features, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia occur. Definitive therapy is delivery of the fetus. Hypertension in pregnancy increases future maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Immunology of neuromyelitis optica during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Vahid; Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Bove, Riley M.

    2016-01-01

    Anti–aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules. Furthermore, high estrogen levels during pregnancy can boost B-cell activating factor and type 1 interferon (IFN) production, facilitating development of self-reactive peripheral B cells in association with increased disease activity. Elevated levels of estrogen during pregnancy decrease IFN-γ generation, which causes a shift toward T helper (Th) 2 immunity, thereby propagating NMO pathogenesis. Women with NMO have an elevated rate of pregnancy complications including miscarriage and preeclampsia, which are associated with increased Th17 cells and reduction of T-regulatory cells. These in turn can enhance inflammation in NMO. Increased regulatory natural killer cells (CD56−) during pregnancy can enhance Th2-mediated immunity, thereby increasing inflammation. In the placenta, trophoblasts express AQP4 antigen and are exposed to maternal blood containing anti-AQP4 antibodies. Animal models have shown that anti-AQP4 antibodies can bind to AQP4 antigen in placenta leading to complement deposition and placental necrosis. Reduction of regulatory complements has been associated with placental insufficiency, and it is unclear whether these are altered in NMO. Further studies are required to elucidate the specific mechanisms of disease worsening, as well as the increased rate of complications during pregnancy in women with NMO. PMID:27761482

  10. Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy* **

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan; Tauheed, Nazia; Ahmad, Aquil; Mohsin, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy. PMID:25029647

  11. Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy: Current Controversies and Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jennifer L.; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of depression during pregnancy is both a common and complex clinical challenge. The decision to expose the fetus to antidepressant medication during pregnancy must be weighed against the risks of untreated maternal depression to both mother and fetus. Maternal depression during pregnancy has been associated with increased rates of preterm birth and maternal substance use. The safety of antidepressant use during pregnancy appears to be largely reassuring but there remain two areas of controversy including neonatal withdrawal syndrome and primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Individualized treatment recommendations based on the patient's history are essential in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:19661762

  12. [Extrauterine pregnancy with gestagen-releasing intrauterine device in situ].

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Mette Schou; Højgaard, Astrid; Bor, Pinar

    2010-04-26

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) (Mirena) is a frequently used and effective method of contraception, with a Pearl index of 0.1. The ectopic pregnancy rate is 0.02 per 100 woman-years. Special attention is needed in situations where pregnancy is detected with a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD in situ, because almost two thirds of these pregnancies are ectopic. We describe one of these rare cases of ectopic pregnancy in a woman aged 37 years, who was admitted to hospital with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding.

  13. Pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to laninamivir during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Minakami, Hisanori; Kubo, Takahiko; Nakai, Akihito; Saito, Shigeru; Unno, Nobuya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess pregnancy outcomes of women treated with a novel neuraminidase inhibitor, laninamivir, during pregnancy. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancy outcomes of 112 pregnant women who were given laninamivir for treatment of influenza was performed. Possible adverse events, including miscarriages, preterm birth, foetal malformation and any neonatal morbidity requiring treatment, were assessed. Results Seventeen, 39, 46 and 10 women were administered a single inhaled dose of 20 or 40 mg of laninamivir at gestational week (GW) 3–11, 12–21, 22–36 and 37 or more, respectively. One (1.8%) of 56 women with laninamivir at GW <22 experienced miscarriage at GW <12. The remaining 111 women gave birth to 111 viable infants but at preterm (GW <37) in nine (8.8%) of 102 women with laninamivir at GW <37. Three (2.7%) of the 111 newborns had malformations: forefoot varus deformity, foot polydactyly and cleft lip in one each born to a mother taking laninamivir at GW 6, 17 and 21, respectively. Five neonates (4.5%) were small for gestational age. Eleven (9.9%), five (4.5%) and no neonates required phototherapy for jaundice, transient respiratory supports for respiratory distress syndrome (n = 2) or transient tachypnoea of the newborn (n = 3), and glucose administration for hypoglycaemia, respectively. Conclusions Although this study included a small number of study women and no control women, the results suggested that maternal exposure to laninamivir did not increase the rate of adverse pregnancy and foetal outcomes. PMID:25074683

  14. [Pregnancy and eating behavior in pregnant women from a low-income neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the meanings of acceptance attributed to pregnancy and their influence on the eating behavior of pregnant women attending a health unit located in a low-income neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a qualitative approach with social representations as the analytical category. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with adolescent and adult pregnant women (primiparous or multiparous) in different stages of pregnancy. Discourse analysis drew on in-depth hermeneutics, using thematic analysis as the main technical resource. Two representational categories emerged from the set of discourses, namely accepting versus not accepting the pregnancy, which involved different eating behaviors. In the former, women tended to either eat adequately or overeat. For the latter, not accepting the pregnancy was associated with denial of eating, temporarily or throughout the pregnancy.

  15. Controlled Exercise Is a Safe Pregnancy Intervention in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Kincer, Jeanie F; Dickens, Brett J; Pearson, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, women often show a willingness to make positive lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation, initiation of a vitamin regimen, improvement of their diet, and increases in their levels of exercise or physical activity. To study health outcomes in both pregnant mice and their offspring, we developed a model of controlled maternal exercise during mouse pregnancy. Female ICR and C57BL/6 mice underwent controlled wheel walking for 1 h daily, 5 d each week, at a speed of 6 m/min prior to and during pregnancy and nursing. Dam body weight, food consumption, pregnancy rates, litter size, pup weights and litter survival were used as markers of pregnancy success and were not significantly affected by controlled maternal exercise. The proposed exercise paradigm is a safe pregnancy intervention and can be explored further. PMID:24041205

  16. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Yasmin; Ikeme, Arinze; Bhogal, Navjyot; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT) during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD) machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age. PMID:26949554

  17. Broad Ligament Pregnancy – Success Story of a Laparoscopically Managed Case

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sobha S.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancies constitute 1% of ectopic pregnancies, among which broad ligament pregnancy is a rare form. The maternal mortality rate has been reported to be as high as 20%. The diagnosis is seldom established before surgery. Laparoscopic management of broad ligament ectopic pregnancy is the ideal form of treatment in appropriately selected patients. We present the case report of successful laparoscopic treatment of a 3x3.5cm broad ligament pregnancy. A search of literature shows that ours is the 6th case report of such a rare ectopic pregnancy managed endoscopically successfully. PMID:27630914

  18. Broad Ligament Pregnancy – Success Story of a Laparoscopically Managed Case

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sobha S.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancies constitute 1% of ectopic pregnancies, among which broad ligament pregnancy is a rare form. The maternal mortality rate has been reported to be as high as 20%. The diagnosis is seldom established before surgery. Laparoscopic management of broad ligament ectopic pregnancy is the ideal form of treatment in appropriately selected patients. We present the case report of successful laparoscopic treatment of a 3x3.5cm broad ligament pregnancy. A search of literature shows that ours is the 6th case report of such a rare ectopic pregnancy managed endoscopically successfully.

  19. Pregnancy-Related School Dropouts in Botswana. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekers, Dominique; Ahmed, Ghyasuddin

    In many Sub-Saharan African countries, there are concerns about high rates of pregnancy-related school dropouts. Data from the 1988 Botswana Family Health Survey, in conjunction with focus group interviews, were used in this study. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of family life education on schoolgirl pregnancy, and to identify…

  20. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jeanne A.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

  1. Teen pregnancy: a public health issue or political football?

    PubMed

    Clark, M P

    1996-08-01

    Politicians in the US have made adolescent parents the scapegoat of changing cultural patterns by suggesting punitive solutions to nonmarital births rather than addressing underlying causes of premature child-bearing. It is known that the percentages of young people of all races and all social classes reporting early, nonmarital sexual intercourse have increased dramatically, while adolescent fertility rates peaked in the 1950s. Improved access to contraception and abortion caused a decline in teen pregnancy and birth rates from 1970 to 1986. During 1986-91, service providers could not match growing demand, and the birth rate increased 25%. Increased rates of sexual activity have also led to increases in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS among adolescents. This situation was exacerbated by Reagan and Bush policies, which reduced funding for services to adolescents and supported abstinence-only sex education courses. The concern voiced by policy-makers today centers on nonmarital childbearing by low-income adolescents who will rely on public assistance to survive. A proper response to this situation would involve the following policy actions: 1) mandating comprehensive sexuality education from kindergarten through high school, 2) funding mentoring programs, 3) improving economic and educational opportunities, 4) expanding STD and HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 5) increasing access to confidential health services (including mental health care and substance abuse treatment), 6) expanding child sexual abuse prevention and intervention programs, and 7) increasing access to and acceptability of teen contraceptive usage and abortion.

  2. Pregnancy outcome of early multifetal pregnancy reduction: triplets to twins versus triplets to singletons.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jigal; Hourvitz, Ariel; Dor, Jehoshua; Yinon, Yoav; Elizur, Shai; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Barzilay, Eran; Shulman, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR) of triplets to twins results in improved pregnancy outcomes compared with triplet gestations managed expectantly. Perinatal outcomes of early transvaginal MPR from triplets to twins were compared with reduction from triplets to singletons. Seventy-four trichorionic triplet pregnancies that underwent early transvaginal MPR at 6-8 weeks gestation were included. Cases were divided into two groups according to the initial procedure: reduction to twin (n = 55) or to singleton (n = 19) gestations. Infants from triplet pregnancies reduced to twins were delivered earlier (36.6 versus 37.9 weeks; P = 0.04) and had lower mean birth weights (2364 g versus 2748 g; P = 0.02) compared with those from triplets reduced to singleton gestations. The rates of pregnancy loss before 24 weeks (3.6% versus 5.3%), as well as of preterm delivery before 32 and 34 weeks of gestation (0% versus 5.3% and 7.3% versus 5.3%, respectively) were similar between the twin and singleton pregnancies. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of gestational diabetes (15.1% versus 5.6%) or gestational hypertension (24.5% versus 16.7%) between the groups. Selective reduction of triplet pregnancies to singleton rather than twin gestations is associated with improved outcomes. PMID:25444505

  3. Anaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goonewardene, Malik; Shehata, Mishkat; Hamad, Asma

    2012-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 110 g/L, affects more than 56 million women globally, two thirds of them being from Asia. Multiple factors lead to anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately.

  4. Managing Prolactinomas during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Mussa Hussain; Alzahrani, Saad; Alshahrani, Fahad; Alsherbeni, Safia; Almoharib, Ohoud; Aljohani, Naji; Almagamsi, Abdurahman

    2015-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional benign pituitary tumors due to a pituitary micro- or macroadenoma. The majority of patients presents with infertility and gonadal dysfunction. A dopamine agonist (DA) (bromocriptine or cabergoline) is the treatment of choice that can normalize prolactin levels, reduce tumor size, and restore ovulation and fertility. Cabergoline generally preferred over bromocriptine because of its higher efficacy and tolerability. Managing prolactinomas during pregnancy may be challenging. During pregnancy, the pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia due to a progressive increase in serum estrogens level that may lead to increase of the tumor volume with potential mass effect and visual loss. The risk of tumor enlargement may occur in 3% of those with microadenomas, 32% in those with macroadenomas that were not previously operated on, and 4.8% of those with macroadenomas with prior ablative treatment. Though both drugs appear to be safe during pregnancy, the data on fetal exposure to DAs during pregnancy have been reported with bromocriptine far exceeds that of cabergoline with no association of increased risk of pregnancy loss and premature delivery. It is advisable to stop the use of DAs immediately once pregnancy is confirmed, except in the case of women with invasive macroprolactinomas or pressure symptoms. This review outlines the therapeutic approach to prolactinoma during pregnancy, with emphasis on the safety of available DA therapy. PMID:26074878

  5. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yakasai, I A; Adamu, N; Galadanchi, H S

    2012-01-01

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35-year-old woman presented with features suggestive of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was neither any evidence at the time of presentation to suspect a molar gestation, nor β human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) hormone estimation was done, but only a clearview pregnancy test was carried out. She had total left salpingectomy and histological evaluation of the specimen revealed complete hydatidiform mole. The hCG level normalized within 3 weeks of follow-up. Clinical features of ectopic molar pregnancy may be indistinguishable from non-molar ectopic pregnancy. We recommend βhCG estimation as well as histological examination of the surgical specimen for all patients coming with features suggestive of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:23238205

  6. Neonatal management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Khan, Shareen; Baki, Md Abdul; Zabeen, Bedowra; Azad, Kiswhar

    2016-09-01

    Women with diabetes in pregnancy, either pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2) or Gestational Diabetes, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labour and increased foetal mortality rate. Adequate glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial for improving foetal and perinatal outcomes in these babies. Perinatal and neonatal morbidities and mortality rates have declined since the development of specialized maternal, foetal, and neonatal care for women with diabetes and their offspring. However, infants of diabetic mothers are at risk for developing complications as macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac and respiratory problems, birth injuries and congenital malformations. In this review article we describe the neonatal management of the offspring of diabetic mothers.

  7. Neonatal management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Khan, Shareen; Baki, Md Abdul; Zabeen, Bedowra; Azad, Kiswhar

    2016-09-01

    Women with diabetes in pregnancy, either pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2) or Gestational Diabetes, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labour and increased foetal mortality rate. Adequate glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial for improving foetal and perinatal outcomes in these babies. Perinatal and neonatal morbidities and mortality rates have declined since the development of specialized maternal, foetal, and neonatal care for women with diabetes and their offspring. However, infants of diabetic mothers are at risk for developing complications as macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac and respiratory problems, birth injuries and congenital malformations. In this review article we describe the neonatal management of the offspring of diabetic mothers. PMID:27582162

  8. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erin L; Kersey, David C; Durrant, Barbara S; Kouba, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  9. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  10. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  11. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  12. Successful Pregnancy in a 31-Year-Old Peritoneal Dialysis Patient with Bilateral Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nazer, Ahmed; AlOmar, Osama; Al-Badawi, Ismail A.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of pregnancy among childbearing age women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing long-term periodic dialysis ranges from 1% to 7%. Although pregnancy in dialysis women with ESRD is considered a largely high-risk pregnancy, occurrence of successful pregnancy is not impossible with success rates approaching 70%. Rates of successful pregnancy are greatly impacted by early pregnancy diagnosis and preserved residual renal functions. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of successful pregnancy (despite late diagnosis at 14 weeks of gestation) in a 31-year-old peritoneal dialysis patient with bilateral nephrectomy and no whatsoever preserved residual renal function. Moreover, a literature review on pregnancy in dialysis patients is presented. PMID:24198990

  13. Improving Schooling to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This brief digest discusses teenage pregnancy and various educational strategies that appear to affect pregnancy rates. While pregnancy among white teenagers has increased since the 1970s, the birthrate among black teenagers is still five to eight times higher. Teenage mothers and fathers have lower educational attainment and income than their…

  14. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  15. [Pregnancy in young girls].

    PubMed

    Klapp, C

    2003-06-01

    More and increasingly young adolescents are sexually active and pay less or no attention to contraception. The pregnancy rate among adolescents has been definitely increasing in recent years and especially among the youngest. This entails a large proportion of medicosomatic and also psychosocial risks such as premature labour and delivery as well as social disadvantages. Moreover, abortions have greatly increased. e.g. by 20% in 2001. Among the causes besides earlier maturity we may assume inadequate sex education falling short of cognitive capacity and emotional needs as well as difficult social problems with deficiencies in tenderness requirements and poor prospects of vocational training and professional career 8 examples, case reports). The overall situation pre-programmes medium-term and long-term consequences such as deficient school education and training, financial dependence and excessive financial and emotional strain on mother and child. A considerable gap in this regard can be filled by medical health promotion in step with physical and mental development, as well as by primary and secondary prevention in respect of information deficits, within the framework of a sound relationship of trust and reliability between the physician and the (female) patient. PMID:14556119

  16. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing.

  17. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  18. Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Andrea; Jallad, Raquel S; Machado, Marcio C; Fragoso, Maria C; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Pituitary hormonal hyper- and hyposecretion influences pregnancy outcomes, as well as pregnancy can interfere on pituitary tumors, especially in prolactinomas. We review literature about specific follow-up and management in pregnant women harboring prolactinomas, acromegaly, or Cushings disease and the impact of clinical and surgical treatment on each condition. PMID:26977888

  19. Sleep in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, P

    1996-07-01

    The article examines relationships between pregnancy and maternal sleep. Specifically, sleep as a restorative process is considered with regard for the metabolic and arousal demands of childbearing. The analysis draws attention to the limited number of studies in the area and the need for greater research interest in pregnancy sleep phenomena. The available evidence indicates that maternal slow-wave and rapid eye movement which are key to anabolic activity and neural-cerebral recharge, are protected throughout pregnancy until perhaps the last 3 to 4 weeks before delivery. The sleep disturbances about which term gravidas complain appear to be based on increased periods of wakefulness after sleep onset. PMID:8717994

  20. ASH position paper: hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Hypertension is publishing a series of Position Papers in their official journals throughout the 2008-2009 years. The following Position Paper originally appeared: JASH. 2008;2(6):484-494. Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension, Inc (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous magnesium sulfate is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  1. Preventing unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J F

    1991-09-14

    This editorial comments on the recent report of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on unplanned pregnancy. This report followed up an earlier report which recommended that the NHS make freely available contraceptive services. Even though this came to fruition, abortion rates continued to rise. In 1990, 174,000 legal abortions were performed in England and Wales, of which 33% were women 20 years. The current report reviewed education and contraceptive services with particular emphasis on teenagers. Unwanted teenage pregnancy was attributed to the lack of education on family planning and related issues in schools. The proposal is for a flexible sex education curriculum with specially trained teachers. Curriculum would be established in national guidelines. A suggested improvement was the addition of seminars for parents and school governors on sex education, even though this means competing with GCSE's. The media should take responsibility for focusing on contraception as a benefit if it continues to promote the delights of sexual intercourse. It is pointed out the emergency contraceptive knowledge is poor. A Family Planning Association (FPA) survey reports that only 1 out of 2 pharmacists receives requests about emergency contraception. Another FPA unpublished study shows that 500 out of 1000 women receiving legal abortions did not use any form of contraception before conception. The need for emergency contraception an appropriate clinic facilities is emphasized. The report also strongly disagrees with the closing of clinics which has been ongoing since the 1974 transfer of FPA clinics to the NHS. The district health authorities must function on a restricted budget while general practitioners in FP are paid from unrestricted funds. Community family planning clinics and general practitioners in the NHS differ considerably in the services offered. Practitioners offer oral contraceptives generally, while clinics provide a wide range of methods. NHS

  2. Preventing unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J F

    1991-09-14

    This editorial comments on the recent report of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on unplanned pregnancy. This report followed up an earlier report which recommended that the NHS make freely available contraceptive services. Even though this came to fruition, abortion rates continued to rise. In 1990, 174,000 legal abortions were performed in England and Wales, of which 33% were women 20 years. The current report reviewed education and contraceptive services with particular emphasis on teenagers. Unwanted teenage pregnancy was attributed to the lack of education on family planning and related issues in schools. The proposal is for a flexible sex education curriculum with specially trained teachers. Curriculum would be established in national guidelines. A suggested improvement was the addition of seminars for parents and school governors on sex education, even though this means competing with GCSE's. The media should take responsibility for focusing on contraception as a benefit if it continues to promote the delights of sexual intercourse. It is pointed out the emergency contraceptive knowledge is poor. A Family Planning Association (FPA) survey reports that only 1 out of 2 pharmacists receives requests about emergency contraception. Another FPA unpublished study shows that 500 out of 1000 women receiving legal abortions did not use any form of contraception before conception. The need for emergency contraception an appropriate clinic facilities is emphasized. The report also strongly disagrees with the closing of clinics which has been ongoing since the 1974 transfer of FPA clinics to the NHS. The district health authorities must function on a restricted budget while general practitioners in FP are paid from unrestricted funds. Community family planning clinics and general practitioners in the NHS differ considerably in the services offered. Practitioners offer oral contraceptives generally, while clinics provide a wide range of methods. NHS

  3. Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; McAnarney, E R

    1994-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a common antecedents of adolescent pregnancy. We studied the pregnancies of 127 poor, black, 12- to 18-year-olds; 42 (33%) of whom reported that they had been physically or sexually abused prior to conception. We hypothesized that during pregnancy: (a) Previously abused adolescents report more stress and depression and less adequate social support than do nonabused adolescents; and (b) Previously abused adolescents obtain less prenatal care, gain less weight, engage in more substance abuse, and give birth to smaller babies than do nonabused adolescents. Consistent with the first study hypothesis, we found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Although there were no group differences in the rate of weight gain or the quantity of prenatal care obtained during pregnancy, abused adolescents were more likely to report substance use during pregnancy and gave birth to significantly smaller, (2,904 +/- 676 vs. 3,198 +/- 443 grams; p = .01), less mature (38.0 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.1 +/- 1.7 weeks; p = .05) infants. Our finding demonstrate the importance of asking pregnant adolescents about abuse. PMID:7922731

  4. Maternal immunization. Clinical experiences, challenges, and opportunities in vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization holds tremendous promise to improve maternal and neonatal health for a number of infectious conditions. The unique susceptibilities of pregnant women to infectious conditions, as well as the ability of maternally-derived antibody to offer vital neonatal protection (via placental transfer), together have produced the recent increased attention on maternal immunization. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends 2 immunizations for all pregnant women lacking contraindication, inactivated Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap). Given ongoing research the number of vaccines recommended during pregnancy is likely to increase. Thus, achieving high vaccination coverage of pregnant women for all recommended immunizations is a key public health enterprise. This review will focus on the present state of vaccine acceptance in pregnancy, with attention to currently identified barriers and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Additionally, opportunities for improvement will be considered. PMID:25483490

  5. Essential pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions for improved maternal, newborn and child health.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Mansoor, Tarab; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    The statistics related to pregnancy and its outcomes are staggering: annually, an estimated 250000-280000 women die during childbirth. Unfortunately, a large number of women receive little or no care during or before pregnancy. At a period of critical vulnerability, interventions can be effectively delivered to improve the health of women and their newborns and also to make their pregnancy safe. This paper reviews the interventions that are most effective during preconception and pregnancy period and synergistically improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Among pre-pregnancy interventions, family planning and advocating pregnancies at appropriate intervals; prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections including HIV; and peri-conceptual folic-acid supplementation have shown significant impact on reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy, interventions including antenatal care visit model; iron and folic acid supplementation; tetanus Immunisation; prevention and management of malaria; prevention and management of HIV and PMTCT; calcium for hypertension; anti-Platelet agents (low dose aspirin) for prevention of Pre-eclampsia; anti-hypertensives for treating severe hypertension; management of pregnancy-induced hypertension/eclampsia; external cephalic version for breech presentation at term (>36 weeks); management of preterm, premature rupture of membranes; management of unintended pregnancy; and home visits for women and children across the continuum of care have shown maximum impact on reducing the burden of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. All of the interventions summarized in this paper have the potential to improve maternal mortality rates and also contribute to better health care practices during preconception and periconception period. PMID:25178042

  6. Essential pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions for improved maternal, newborn and child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The statistics related to pregnancy and its outcomes are staggering: annually, an estimated 250000-280000 women die during childbirth. Unfortunately, a large number of women receive little or no care during or before pregnancy. At a period of critical vulnerability, interventions can be effectively delivered to improve the health of women and their newborns and also to make their pregnancy safe. This paper reviews the interventions that are most effective during preconception and pregnancy period and synergistically improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Among pre-pregnancy interventions, family planning and advocating pregnancies at appropriate intervals; prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections including HIV; and peri-conceptual folic-acid supplementation have shown significant impact on reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy, interventions including antenatal care visit model; iron and folic acid supplementation; tetanus Immunisation; prevention and management of malaria; prevention and management of HIV and PMTCT; calcium for hypertension; anti-Platelet agents (low dose aspirin) for prevention of Pre-eclampsia; anti-hypertensives for treating severe hypertension; management of pregnancy-induced hypertension/eclampsia; external cephalic version for breech presentation at term (>36 weeks); management of preterm, premature rupture of membranes; management of unintended pregnancy; and home visits for women and children across the continuum of care have shown maximum impact on reducing the burden of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. All of the interventions summarized in this paper have the potential to improve maternal mortality rates and also contribute to better health care practices during preconception and periconception period. PMID:25178042

  7. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  8. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  9. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  10. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  11. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  12. Viral infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Kwon, Ja-Young; Racicot, Karen; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be 'immunosuppressed', the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  13. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  14. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Regularly Exercise is another way to keep blood sugar under control. It helps to balance food intake. After checking ... it as directed in order to help keep blood sugar under control. Get Tested for Diabetes after Pregnancy Get tested ...

  15. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For Pregnant Women Whooping cough (pertussis) is a very contagious disease that can ...

  16. Thrombocytopenic syndromes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Matthew; Malinowski, Ann K; Shehata, Nadine

    2016-03-01

    The physiological changes in pregnancy result in platelet counts that are lower than in nonpregnant women. Consequently, thrombocytopenia is a common finding occurring in 7-12% of pregnant women. Gestational thrombocytopenia, the most common cause of low platelet counts, tends to be mild in most women and does not affect maternal, fetal or neonatal outcomes. Gestational thrombocytopenia needs to be distinguished from other less common causes of isolated thrombocytopenia, such as immune thrombocytopenia, which affects approximately 3% of thrombocytopenic pregnant women and can lead to neonatal thrombocytopenia. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and thrombotic microangiopathies are both associated with thrombocytopenia. They share a considerable number of similar characteristics and are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and rarely mortality. Accurate identification of the aetiology of thrombocytopenia and appropriate management are integral to optimizing the pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcomes of this population. Clinical cases are described to illustrate the various aetiologies of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy and their treatment. PMID:27512485

  17. [Diabetes and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Eva; Winkler, Gábor

    2011-10-01

    Metabolic characteristics of physiological and diabetic pregnancies are discussed. The basic factor of these changes is the increasing insulin resistance throughout pregnancy, which in case of diabetes may result in hyperglycemia with undesirable clinical consequences and complications for both the mother and the fetus. Prevention of these complications by maintaining physiological metabolic state of diabetic pregnant women is possible, which is similar to that of healthy women. The aim of treatment of pregnant diabetics is to achieve normoglycemic state during the whole gestation that is possible by early diagnosis in case of gestational diabetes and by adequate preconception care in case of pregestational diabetes. To obtain desirable glycemic conditions insulin treatment is necessary in most of the cases together with adequate, quantitative nutrition therapy, while oral antidiabetic drugs during pregnancy and lactation are to be avoided. For adequate care of the cases with diabetes and pregnancy interdisciplinary diabetes centers with well-trained experts are required.

  18. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...

  20. Stages of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... youth volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find ... serious health problem for pregnant women around the world. It affects 2 to 8 percent of pregnancies ...

  2. Microcirculation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, I; George, R B; Farrag, M; Cerny, V; Lehmann, C

    2014-01-01

    The microcirculation, like all physiological systems undergoes modifications during the course of pregnancy. These changes aid the adaption to the new anatomical and physiological environment of pregnancy and ensure adequate oxygen supply to the fetus. Even though the microcirculation is believed to be involved in major pregnancy related pathologies, it remains poorly understood. The availability of safe and non-interventional technologies enabling scientists to study the intact microcirculation of the pregnant patient will hopefully expand our understanding. In this article we review the physiological changes occurring in the microcirculation during pregnancy and the role of the microcirculation in gestational related pathologies. We will also describe the available techniques for the measurement and evaluation of the microcirculation. Lastly we will highlight the possible fields in which these techniques could be utilized to help provide a clearer view of the microcirculation in the pregnant woman.

  3. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... which is often worse at night. Stress and dreams. Many pregnant women worry about the baby or ... which can make it hard to sleep. Vivid dreams and nightmares are common during pregnancy. Dreaming and ...

  4. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  5. Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Dating and Intimacy Sexuality and Cancer Treatment: Men ... here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Print to PDF ...

  6. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner) up at night. continue Finding a Good Sleeping Position Early in your pregnancy, try to get ... may safely improve your chances of getting a good night's sleep: Cut out caffeinated drinks like soda, coffee, and ...

  7. Paroxetine (Paxil) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication used to treat depression, social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and panic disorder. Paroxetine belongs to the class ... appear to have significant long-term effects on brain development in babies exposed during pregnancy. While reassuring, ...

  8. Microangiopathy and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Azzoug, Said; Chentli, Farida

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic microangiopathy is a frequent complication of longstanding diabetes mellitus. Micro vascular lesions may have severe implications for both maternal and foetal health. Patients with advanced underlying lesions are at increased risk of progression during pregnancy. Severe retinal lesions can progress during pregnancy and one year after delivery. Poor glycaemic control prior to conception and rapid improvement during pregnancy are other risk factors of progression. Treatment of lesions with high risk of progression and progressive blood glucose lowering in the preconception period can improve the prognosis. Diabetic nephropathy predisposes to preeclampsia, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal mortality. Patients with elevated creatinine levels are at increased risk of permanent impairment of kidney function. These patients should be closely monitored and their blood pressure tightly controlled. Gastroparesis may be aggravated by pregnancy hyper emesis. Autonomic neuropathy may result in erratic maternal glucose control, foetus growth retardation and foetal loss. PMID:27582154

  9. [Neuroinfections and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Gusev, V A; Koniaeva, V V

    1985-01-01

    The course of neuroinfections (both acute and chronic) associated with pregnancy was studied in a series of 156 women. The patients were divided into two groups. Out of the 36 women comprising the first group who fell ill during gestation, 12 had a fulminant course of the disease with five lethal cases, 24 women had a subacute course and pregnancy progressed to a normal delivery. The second group included 120 patients who conceived in the presence of the residual manifestations of the previous cerebral arachnoiditis, arachnoencephalitis, encephalitis and diencephalitis. The authors describe the clinical course of the residual forms of neuroinfections in relation to pregnancy, parturition and puerperium and offer recommendations on the obstetrical management of pregnancy complicated by neuroinfections.

  10. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  11. Cardiac arrhythmias in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Knotts, Robert J; Garan, Hasan

    2014-08-01

    As more women with repaired congenital heart disease survive to their reproductive years and many other women are delaying pregnancy until later in life, a rising concern is the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during pregnancy. Naturally occurring cardiovascular changes during pregnancy increase the likelihood that a recurrence of a previously experienced cardiac arrhythmia or a de novo arrhythmia will occur. Arrhythmias should be thoroughly investigated to determine if there is a reversible etiology, and risks/benefits of treatment options should be fully explored. We discuss the approach to working up and treating various arrhythmias during pregnancy with attention to fetal and maternal risks as well as treatment of fetal arrhythmias. Acute management in stable patients includes close monitoring and intravenous pharmacologic therapy, while DC cardioversion should be used to terminate arrhythmias in hemodynamically unstable patients. Long-term management may require continued oral antiarrhythmic therapy, with particular attention to fetal safety, to prevent complications associated with arrhythmias.

  12. VIRAL INFECTIONS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Racicot, Karen; Kwon, Ja-Young; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be “immunosuppressed”, the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  13. Psoriasis: Pregnancy and Nursing

    MedlinePlus

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode Pregnancy and Nursing In general, psoriasis does not affect the male ... psoriasis and birth » Treating psoriasis while pregnant or nursing There is little research on the impact of ...

  14. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Diseases Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing In the States Adolescent Health Topics America's Adolescents Healthy Relationships Mental Health ... database Email Address> Health Insurance Marketplace Office of Adolescent Health 1101 Wootton Parkway, Suite 700 Rockville, MD ...

  15. Ectopic/Tubal Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... miscarriage? The medical term for miscarriage is “spontaneous abortion”, but it’s not the same thing as a therapeutic or planned abortion. A spontaneous abortion is when a pregnancy ends “ ...

  16. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  17. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you and your baby and contain less sugar that can damage your teeth. Water or low-fat milk hydrates you and contains little or no sugar. For More Information American Dental Association: Pregnancy http : / / ...

  18. Pregnancy Complications: Preexisting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preexisting diabetes Preexisting diabetes E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... and your baby are healthy. What is preexisting diabetes? About 9 out of 100 women (9 percent) ...

  19. Pregnancy and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you smoke, use alcohol or take illegal drugs, so does your unborn baby. First, don't ... Smoking during pregnancy passes nicotine and cancer-causing drugs to your baby. Smoke also keeps your baby ...

  20. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be harmful to the baby. Women with bipolar disorder who stop taking medication during their pregnancy may ... baby. If possible, women with seizure disorders or bipolar disorder who could become pregnant should discuss their options ...