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Sample records for acceptable ride quality

  1. Ride-Quality Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  2. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  3. The 1975 Ride Quality Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation is presented of papers reported at the 1975 Ride Quality Symposium held in Williamsburg, Virginia, August 11-12, 1975. The symposium, jointly sponsored by NASA and the United States Department of Transportation, was held to provide a forum for determining the current state of the art relative to the technology base of ride quality information applicable to current and proposed transportation systems. Emphasis focused on passenger reactions to ride environment and on implications of these reactions to the design and operation of air, land, and water transportation systems acceptable to the traveling public. Papers are grouped in the following five categories: needs and uses for ride quality technology, vehicle environments and dynamics, investigative approaches and testing procedures, experimental ride quality studies, and ride quality modeling and criteria.

  4. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  5. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  6. Evaluation of the ride quality of a light twin engine airplane using a ride quality meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1989-01-01

    A ride quality meter was used to establish the baseline ride quality of a light twin-engine airplane planned for use as a test bed for an experimental gust alleviation system. The ride quality meter provides estimates of passenger ride discomfort as a function of cabin noise and vibration (acceleration) in five axes (yaw axis omitted). According to the ride quality meter, in smooth air the cabin noise was the dominant source of passenger discomfort, but the total discomfort was approximately the same as that for the smooth-air condition. The researcher's subjective opinion, however, is that the total ride discomfort was much worse in the moderate turbulence than it was in the smooth air. The discrepancy is explained by the lack of measurement of the low-frequency accelerations by the ride quality meter.

  7. Ride quality criteria and the design process. [standards for ride comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravera, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual designs for advanced ground transportation systems often hinge on obtaining acceptable vehicle ride quality while attempting to keep the total guideway cost (initial and subsequent maintenance) as low as possible. Two ride quality standards used extensively in work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) are the DOT-Urban Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle (UTACV) standard and the International Standards Organization (ISO) reduced ride comfort criteria. These standards are reviewed and some of the deficiencies, which become apparent when trying to apply them in practice, are noted. Through the use of a digital simulation, the impact of each of these standards on an example design process is examined. It is shown that meeting the ISO specification for the particular vehicle/guideway case investigated is easier than meeting the UTACV standard.

  8. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  9. Ride quality judgements as a function of environmental, personality, and ride spectra correlates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Personality and demographic correlates, as well as physical correlates, of ride-quality judgements in a field situation namely, in selected passenger-train ride segments, were identified and investigated.

  10. Nonmotion factors which can affect ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Data pertaining to nonmotion factors affecting ride quality of transport aircraft were obtained as part of NASA in-house and sponsored research studies carried out onboard commuter-airline and research aircraft. From these data, quantitative effects on passenger discomfort of seat width, seat legroom, change in cabin pressure, and cabin noise are presented. Visual cue effects are also discussed.

  11. Intercity rail-passenger car ride quality test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharr, R. L.; Owings, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration's research and development program relating to intercity rail-passenger ride quality focuses on developing ride quality design criteria and specifications. The FRA ride quality test program and some of the techniques being used to analyze and evaluate the design criteria of the program are discussed.

  12. The effects of aircraft design on STOL ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of aircraft dynamic characteristics on passenger ride quality are investigated to determine ride-quality isocontours similar to aircraft handling-qualities contours. Measurements are made on a moving-base simulator while varying the aircraft short-period and Dutch Roll frequencies and dampings. Both pilot ratings and subjective ride-quality ratings are obtained during flight. Ride and handling qualities were found to be complementary for the Dutch Roll mode, but not for the short-period mode. Regions of optimal ride and handling qualities are defined for the short-period mode, and the effects of turbulence levels studied.

  13. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  14. An evaluation of helicopter noise and vibration ride qualities criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. E.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two methods of quantifying helicopter ride quality; absorbed power for vibration only and the NASA ride comfort model for both noise and vibration are discussed. Noise and vibration measurements were obtained on five operational US Army helicopters. The data were converted to both absorbed power and DISC's (discomfort units used in the NASA model) for specific helicopter flight conditions. Both models indicate considerable variation in ride quality between the five helicopters and between flight conditions within each helicopter.

  15. A user-oriented and computerized model for estimating vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Barker, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified empirical model and computer program for estimating passenger ride comfort within air and surface transportation systems are described. The model is based on subjective ratings from more than 3000 persons who were exposed to controlled combinations of noise and vibration in the passenger ride quality apparatus. This model has the capability of transforming individual elements of a vehicle's noise and vibration environment into subjective discomfort units and then combining the subjective units to produce a single discomfort index typifying passenger acceptance of the environment. The computational procedures required to obtain discomfort estimates are discussed, and a user oriented ride comfort computer program is described. Examples illustrating application of the simplified model to helicopter and automobile ride environments are presented.

  16. Ride quality - An exploratory study and criteria development. [visual motion simulator measurement of response ratings of ride quality of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The Langley six degree of freedom visual motion simulator has been used to measure subjective response ratings of the ride quality of eight segments of flight, representative of a wide variation in comfort estimates. The results indicate that the use of simulators for this purpose appears promising. A preliminary approach for the development of criteria for ride quality ratings based on psychophysical precepts is included.

  17. Report on objective ride quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambold, J. C.; Park, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The correlation of absorbed power as an objective ride measure to the subjective evaluation for the bus data was investigated. For some individual bus rides the correlations were poor, but when a sufficient number of rides was used to give reasonable sample base, an excellent correlation was obtained. The following logarithmical function was derived: S = 1.7245 1n (39.6849 AP), where S = one subjective rating of the ride; and AP = the absorbed power in watts. A six-degree-of-freedom method developed for aircraft data was completed. Preliminary correlation of absorbed power with ISO standards further enhances the bus ride and absorbed power correlation numbers since the AP's obtained are of the same order of magnitude for both correlations. While it would then appear that one could just use ISO standards, there is no way to add the effect of three degrees of freedom. The absorbed power provides a method of adding the effects due to the three major directions plus the pitch and roll.

  18. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for operational military helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots' discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  19. Ride quality of terminal-area flight maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Complex terminal-area flight maneuvers being considered for airline operations may not be acceptable to passengers. To provide technology in this area, a series of flight experiments was conducted by NASA using the U. S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft to obtain subjective responses of a significant number of passenger test subjects to closely controlled and repeatable flight maneuvers. Regression analysis of the data produced a mathematical model which closely predicts mean passenger ride-comfort rating as a function of the rms six-degree-of-freedom aircraft motions during the maneuver. This ride-comfort model was exercised to examine various synthesized flight maneuvers.

  20. Validation of the Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus (PRQA) for simulation of aircraft motions for ride-quality research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, W. B., II

    1977-01-01

    The NASA passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA), a ground based motion simulator, was compared to the total in flight simulator (TIFS). Tests were made on PRQA with varying stimuli: motions only; motions and noise; motions, noise, and visual; and motions and visual. Regression equations for the tests were obtained and subsequent t-testing of the slopes indicated that ground based simulator tests produced comfort change rates similar to actual flight data. It was recommended that PRQA be used in the ride quality program for aircraft and that it be validated for other transportation modes.

  1. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  2. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  3. Inflight data collection for ride quality and atmospheric turbulence research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadlec, P. W.; Buckman, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A flight test program to investigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence on passenger ride quality in large, wide-body commercial aircraft was conducted. Data were collected on a series of flight on a Boeing 747 aircraft. Atmospheric and aircraft performance data were obtained from special sensors, as well as conventional instruments and avionics systems normally available. Visual observations of meteorlogical conditions encountered were manually recorded during the flights.

  4. Effects of control laws and relaxed static stability on vertical ride quality of flexible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. A.; Swaim, R. L.; Schmidt, D. K.; Hinsdale, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    State variable techniques are utilized to generate the RMS vertical load factors for the B-52H and B-1 bombers at low level, mission critical, cruise conditions. A ride quality index is proposed to provide meaningful comparisons between different controls or conditions. Ride quality is shown to be relatively invariant under various popular control laws. Handling quality variations are shown to be major contributors to ride quality variations on both vehicles. Relaxed static stability is artificially implemented on the study vehicles to investigate its effects on ride quality. The B-52H ride quality is generally degraded when handling characteristics are automatically restored by a feedback control to the original values from relaxed stability conditions. The B-1 airplane shows little ride quality sensitivity to the same analysis due to the small rigid body contribution to load factors at the flight condition investigated.

  5. Passenger ride quality determined from commercial airline flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The University of Virginia ride-quality research program is reviewed. Data from two flight programs, involving seven types of aircraft, are considered in detail. An apparatus for measuring physical variations in the flight environment and recording the subjective reactions of test subjects is described. Models are presented for predicting the comfort response of test subjects from the physical data, and predicting the overall comfort reaction of test subjects from their moment by moment responses. The correspondence of mean passenger comfort judgments and test subject response is shown. Finally, the models of comfort response based on data from the 5-point and 7-point comfort scales are shown to correspond.

  6. Review of ride quality technology needs of industry and user groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, J. R.; Brumaghim, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A broad survey of ride quality technology state-of-the-art and a review of user evaluation of this technology were conducted. During the study 17 users of ride quality technology in 10 organizations representing land, marine and air passenger transportation modes were interviewed. Interim results and conclusions of this effort are reported.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR PAVEMENT HEALTH MONITORING BASED ON SURFACE RIDE QUALITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akira; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Tateki

    Pavement ride quality testing has traditionally been based on subjective questionnaire ratings. The questionnaire survey has ability to directly measure the sense of road users' ride quality. However, it is difficult to quantify the evaluation results based on the questionnaire due to its lack of objectivity. This study examines pavement health monitoring method using physiological information such as heart rate variability (HRV) for detecting mental stress of road users toward pavement ride quality. First, a results of a driving simulator experiment shows that potential mental stress caused by road roughness can be observed in high-frequency oscillations in 0.15-0.4Hz of HRV processed by continuous wavelet transform. Then, the high-frequency oscillations of HRV is summarized as an index related to the mental stress that makes objective ride quality evaluation possible. Finally, this study indicates that the index contributes to improve the accuracy of pavement health monitoring based on surface ride quality.

  8. Ride quality sensitivity to SAS control law and to handling quality variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. A.; Schmidt, D. K.; Swaim, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The RQ trends which large flexible aircraft exhibit under various parameterizations of control laws and handling qualities are discussed. A summary of the assumptions and solution technique, a control law parameterization review, a discussion of ride sensitivity to handling qualities, and the RQ effects generated by implementing relaxed static stability configurations are included.

  9. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  10. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J. D.; Downing, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft typically have low wing loadings, and fly at low altitudes, and so they are susceptible to undesirable accelerations caused by random atmospheric turbulence. Larger commercial aircraft typically have higher wing loadings and fly at altitudes where the turbulence level is lower, and so they provide smoother rides. This project was initiated based on the goal of making the ride of the commuter aircraft as smooth as the ride experienced on the major commercial airliners. The objectives of this project were to design a digital, longitudinal mode ride quality augmentation system (RQAS) for a commuter aircraft, and to investigate the effect of selected parameters on those designs.

  11. Ride quality criteria. [transportation system interior and passenger response to environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ride quality refers to the interior or passenger environment of a transportation system as well as the passenger response to the environment. Ride quality factors are illustrated with the aid of a diagram presenting inputs to vehicle, the vehicle transfer function, the ride environment, the passenger response function, and the passenger ride response. The reported investigation considers the ride environment as measured on a variety of air and surface vehicles, the passenger response to the environment as determined from laboratory and field surveys, and criteria/standards for vibration, noise, and combined stimuli. Attention is given to the vertical vibration characteristics in cruise for aircraft and automobile, the aircraft vibration levels for various operating regimes, comparative noise levels during cruise, the discomfort level for a 9 Hz sinusoidal vibration, equal discomfort contours for vertical vibration, subjective response to noise in a speech situation, and noise and vibration levels for constant discomfort contours.

  12. Evaluation of ride quality measurement procedures by subjective experiments using simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, L. T., Jr.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Since ride quality is, by definition, a matter of passenger response, there is need for a qualification procedure (QP) for establishing the degree to which any particular ride quality measurement procedure (RQMP) does correlate with passenger responses. Once established, such a QP will provide very useful guidance for optimal adjustment of the various parameters which any given RQMP contains. A QP is proposed based on use of a ride motion simulator and on test subject responses to recordings of actual vehicle motions. Test subject responses are used to determine simulator gain settings for the individual recordings such as to make all of the simulated rides equally uncomfortable to the test subjects. Simulator platform accelerations vs. time are recorded with each ride at its equal discomfort gain setting. The equal discomfort platform acceleration recordings are then digitzed.

  13. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight simulator results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Borland, C. J.; Lefritz, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    Pilot performance was studied during simulated manual terrain following flight for ride quality criteria validation. An existing B-1 simulation program provided the data for these investigations. The B-1 simulation program included terrain following flights under varying controlled conditions of turbulence, terrain, mission length, and system dynamics. The flight simulator consisted of a moving base cockpit which reproduced motions due to turbulence and control inputs. The B-1 aircraft dynamics were programmed with six-degrees-of-freedom equations of motion with three symmetric and two antisymmetric structural degrees of freedom. The results provided preliminary validation of existing ride quality criteria and identified several ride quality/handling quality parameters which may be of value in future ride quality/criteria development.

  14. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for helicopter interior noise and vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  15. An approach to high speed ship ride quality simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, W. L.; Vickery, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The high speeds attained by certain advanced surface ships result in a spectrum of motion which is higher in frequency than that of conventional ships. This fact along with the inclusion of advanced ride control features in the design of these ships resulted in an increased awareness of the need for ride criteria. Such criteria can be developed using data from actual ship operations in varied sea states or from clinical laboratory experiments. A third approach is to simulate ship conditions using measured or calculated ship motion data. Recent simulations have used data derived from a math model of Surface Effect Ship (SES) motion. The model in turn is based on equations of motion which have been refined with data from scale models and SES of up to 101 600-kg (100-ton) displacement. Employment of broad band motion emphasizes the use of the simulators as a design tool to evaluate a given ship configuration in several operational situations and also serves to provide data as to the overall effect of a given motion on crew performance and physiological status.

  16. Analytical study of ride smoothing benefits of control system configurations optimized for pilot handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the relative improvements in aircraft ride qualities that resulted from utilizing several control law configurations that were optimized for pilot handling qualities only. The airplane configuration used was an executive jet transport in the approach configuration. The control law configurations included the basic system, a rate feedback system, three command augmentation systems (rate command, attitude command, and rate command/attitude hold), and a control wheel steering system. Both the longitudinal and lateral directional axes were evaluated. A representative example of each control law configuration was optimized for pilot handling qualities on a fixed base simulator. The root mean square airplane responses to turbulence were calculated, and predictions of ride quality ratings were computed by using three models available in the literature.

  17. Influence of unsprung weight on vehicle ride quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrovat, D.

    1988-08-01

    In the first part of this paper, a simple quarter-car, two-degree-of-freedom (2 DOF) vehicle model is used to investigate potential benefits and adaptive control capabilities of active suspensions. The results of this study indicate that, with an active suspension, it is possible to trade each 1% increase in tire deflection with a circa 1% decrease in r.m.s. sprung mass acceleration. This can be used for adaptive suspension tuning based on varying road/speed conditions. The second part of this paper is concerned with the influence of unsprung mass on optimal vibration isolation for the case of a linear 2 DOF, quarter-car model. In the study, it is assumed that the tire stiffness and geometry remain the same while unsprung mass is changed. The comprehensive computer analysis shows that, for active suspensions, both ride and handling can be improved by reducing the unsprung mass. In particular, when the total vehicle mass is kept constant, every 10% reduction in unsprung mass contributes to a circa 6% reduction in r.m.s. sprung mass acceleration for the same level of wheel-hop. For active suspension vehicles, this gives an added incentive for reducing the unsprung weight through the usage of, for example, aluminum wheels and lightweight composite materials. Although used primarily in the context of automotive applications, the results of this study are generic to similar 2 DOF structures in other areas of vibration isolation, ranging from computer peripherals to off-road vehicles.

  18. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  19. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

  20. Operational military helicopter interior noise and vibration measurements with comparisons to ride quality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Balka (1981) has identified the attainment of a 'jet-smooth' ride as a primary goal of the helicopter industry for commercial and certain military helicopters. It was noted that criteria accounting for both multiple axis vibration and interior noise are needed. The present investigation has the objective to present a vibration and interior noise data base in a format suitable for direct evaluation of aircraft ride quality. The investigation is also concerned with an assessment of the measured environment against available criteria as an indication of the state-of-the-art for current machines. Interior noise and vibration measurements were obtained on eight military helicopters during routine operational flights. The data are presented in the form of a number of parameters.

  1. Consumer acceptance and carcass quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commodity production systems, beef quality is designated based on the USDA grading criteria which take into account carcass marbling, maturity and yield. Producers are rewarded economically for beef quality grade (QG) of Choice versus Select although the price difference (spread) varies seasonal...

  2. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for a commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, T. A.; Downing, D. R.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft with low wing loading that operate at low altitudes are particularly susceptible to unwanted accelerations caused by atmospheric gusts. This paper describes the design and analysis of a longitudinal digital Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS). The RQAS designs were conducted for a Cessna 402B aircraft using the flaps and the elevator as the control surfaces. The designs are generated using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Nominal designs are presented at five flight conditions that cover a total mission. Trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the effect of sample time, computational delay time, servo bandwidth and control power.

  3. Development and application of ride-quality criteria. [considering vehicle vibration damping design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    Ride quality vibration criteria applicable to the design and evaluation of air and surface transportation systems are described. Consideration is given to the magnitude of vehicle vibration experienced by the passenger, the frequency of vibration, the direction of vibration measurements are presented for a variety of air and surface transportation systems. In addition, simulator data on seat dynamics and passenger response are presented. Results suggest the relative merits of various physical descriptors and measurement locations for characterizing the vibration in terms suitable for the design and/or evaluation of transportation systems.

  4. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.

  5. An analysis of a candidate control algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a candidate algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system. The algorithm consists of a full-state feedback control law based on optimal control output weighting, estimators for angle of attack and sideslip, and a maneuvering algorithm. The control law is shown to perform well by both frequency and time domain analysis. The rms vertical acceleration is reduced by about 40 percent over the whole mission flight envelope. The estimators for the angle of attack and sideslip avoid the often inaccurate or costly direct measurement of those angles. The maneuvering algorithm will allow the augmented airplane to respond to pilot inputs. The design characteristics and performance are documented by the closed-loop eigenvalues; rms levels of vertical, lateral, and longitudinal acceleration; and representative time histories and frequency response.

  6. Aircraft ride quality controller design using new robust root clustering theory for linear uncertain systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    The aspect of controller design for improving the ride quality of aircraft in terms of damping ratio and natural frequency specifications on the short period dynamics is addressed. The controller is designed to be robust with respect to uncertainties in the real parameters of the control design model such as uncertainties in the dimensional stability derivatives, imperfections in actuator/sensor locations and possibly variations in flight conditions, etc. The design is based on a new robust root clustering theory developed by the author by extending the nominal root clustering theory of Gutman and Jury to perturbed matrices. The proposed methodology allows to get an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty radius of the parameter space. The current literature available for robust stability becomes a special case of this unified theory. The bounds derived on the parameter perturbation for robust root clustering are then used in selecting the robust controller.

  7. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Therapeutic Horse Riding on the Quality of Life, Health, and Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, E.; Davies, B.; Wolfe, R.; Raadsveld, R.; Heine, B.; Thomason, P.; Dobson, Fiona; Graham, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined whether therapeutic horse riding has a clinically significant impact on the physical function, health and quality of life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Ninety-nine children aged 4 to 12 years with no prior horse riding experience and various levels of impairment (Gross Motor Function…

  9. Study on using a digital ride quality augmentation system to trim an engine-out in a Cessna 402B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    A linear model of the Cessna 402B was used to determine if the control power available to a Ride Quality Augmentation System was adequate to trim an engine-out. Two simulations were completed: one using a steady state model, and the other using a state matrix model. The amount of rudder available was not sufficient in all cases to completely trim the airplane, but it was enough to give the pilot valuable reaction time. The system would be an added measure of safety for only a relatively small amount of development.

  10. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  11. Preliminary control law and hardware designs for a ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Linse, D. J.; Suikat, R.; Entz, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    The continued investigation of the design of Ride Quality Augmentation Systems (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is described. The purpose of these RQAS is the reduction of the vertical and lateral acceleration response of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The current investigations include the refinement of the sample data feedback control laws based on the control-rate-weighting and output-weighting optimal control design techniqes. These control designs were evaluated using aircraft time simulations driven by Dryden spectra turbulence. Fixed gain controllers were tested throughout the aircrft operating envelope. The preliminary design of the hardware modifications necessary to implement and test the RQAS on a commuter aircraft is included. These include a separate surface elevator and the flap modifications to provide both direct lift and roll control. A preliminary failure mode investigation was made for the proposed configuration. The results indicate that vertical acceleration reductions of 45% and lateral reductions of more than 50% are possible. A fixed gain controller appears to be feasible with only minor response degradation.

  12. ASHRAE STANDARD 62: VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper highlights some of the key features of the design procedures in ASHRAE Standard 62 (Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality) and summarizes the status of the related review process. he Standard contains design procedures and guidelines for ventilation rates in "al...

  13. Online Support Service Quality, Online Learning Acceptance, and Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung-Wan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines potential differences between Korean and American students in terms of their perception levels regarding online education support service quality, online learning acceptance, and satisfaction. Eight hundred and seventy-two samples, which were collected from students in online classes in the United States and Korea, were…

  14. Determinants of Taste Preference and Acceptability: Quality vs. Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects whereas processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Utilizing an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine irrespective of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different with the sucralose-preferring rats finding the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose, relative to sucralose-avoiding rats. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggested otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner roughly similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  15. Determinants of taste preference and acceptability: quality versus hedonics.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Blonde, Ginger D; Eckel, Lisa A; Spector, Alan C

    2012-07-18

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects, but the processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Using an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine regardless of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different-compared to sucralose-avoiding rats, the sucralose-preferring rats found the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggests otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner approximately similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  16. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W.; Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven-step DQO process

  17. Enjoying the Ride!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the author's favorite things to do is ride her bike. She finds bike riding to be a therapeutic outdoor adventure. In this article, the author describes how her students made their self-portrait bicycle collages. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  18. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  19. Analytical and experimental assessment of heavy truck ride

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    This study is the second phase in a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer. The discussion includes a brief overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental road and modal test results. A novel system identification approach is used, employing both lab-based modal tests, and modal data derived using the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT), a scheme that utilizes the roadway surface as a natural forcing function. The use of a cab isolation system is investigated with the computer model for purposes of improving the ride quality of the vehicle. To validate these analytical predictions, an engineering prototype vehicle was developed, which included a cab isolation system, to experimentally assess ride quality. Ride quality improvements due to the addition of the isolation system are then assessed both experimentally and analytically, and the results are compared.

  20. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  1. An objective method for 3D quality prediction using visual annoyance and acceptability level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Darya; Fournier, Jérôme; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes a new objective metric for video quality assessment. It predicts the impact of technical quality parameters relevant to visual discomfort on human perception. The proposed metric is based on a 3-level color scale: (1) Green - not annoying, (2) Orange - annoying but acceptable, (3) Red - not acceptable. Therefore, each color category reflects viewers' judgment based on stimulus acceptability and induced visual annoyance. The boundary between the "Green" and "Orange" categories defines the visual annoyance threshold, while the boundary between the "Orange" and "Red" categories defines the acceptability threshold. Once the technical quality parameters are measured, they are compared to perceptual thresholds. Such comparison allows estimating the quality of the 3D video sequence. Besides, the proposed metric is adjustable to service or production requirements by changing the percentage of acceptability and/or visual annoyance. The performance of the metric is evaluated in a subjective experiment that uses three stereoscopic scenes. Five view asymmetries with four degradation levels were introduced into initial test content. The results demonstrate high correlations between subjective scores and objective predictions for all view asymmetries.

  2. California rides the tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Revolutions rarely succeed without a struggle. At the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), the move to restructure the state`s electric utility industry is no exception. The stakes are enormous. For starters, annual revenues at the state`s investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) exceed $18 billion, making up 2 percent of California`s gross state product. Competitively priced electricity is vital to California`s $800-billion-a-year economy, one would think. And with its sweeping restructing plan, the CPUC has found itself riding a tiger, hoping it won`t get swallowed whole in the process.

  3. 46 CFR 10.409 - Coast Guard-accepted Quality Standard System (QSS) organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard-accepted Quality Standard System (QSS) organizations. 10.409 Section 10.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL Training Courses and Programs § 10.409 Coast...

  4. WebCT--The Quasimoderating Effect of Perceived Affective Quality on an Extending Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Franco, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption--in higher education--continues to be a focal interest in learning research.…

  5. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  6. Cardiopulmonary loading in motocross riding.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Tomi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2007-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine physiological responses during motocross riding. Nine Finnish A-level motocross riders performed a 15-min ride at a motocross track and a test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the laboratory. Cardiopulmonary strain was measured continuously during the ride as well as in the VO2max test. During the ride, mean VO2 was 32 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (s = 4), which was 71% (s = 12) of maximum, while ventilation (V(E)) was 73% (s = 15) of its maximum. The relative VO2 and V(E) values during the riding correlated with successful riding performance (r = 0.80, P < 0.01 and r = 0.79, P < 0.01, respectively). Mean heart rate was maintained at 95% (s = 7) of its maximum. Mean blood lactate concentration was 5.0 mmol x l(-1) (s = 2.0) after the ride. A reduction of 16% (P < 0.001) in maximal isometric handgrip force was observed. In conclusion, motocross causes riders great physical stress. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for the isometric and dynamic muscle actions experienced during a ride. PMID:17497401

  7. a User-Driven Selection of Vgi Based on Minimum Acceptable Quality Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Criscuolo, L.; Pepe, M.; Rampini, A.

    2015-08-01

    Despite Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities are now extremely helpful in a number of scientific applications, researchers and decision makers oppose some resistance to the usage of volunteered contributions, due to quality issues. Several methods and workflows have been proposed to face quality issues in different VGI projects, usually built ad-hoc for specific datasets, thus resulting neither extensible nor transferable. In order to overcome this weakness, the authors propose to perform an user-driven assessment on VGI items in order to filter only those that satisfy minimally acceptable quality levels defined according to their specific quality requirements and project goals. In the present work the users, i.e., information consumers, are seen as decision makers and are allowed to set the minimum acceptable quality levels Thus the approach proposes a user driven assessment of the fitness for use of VGI items. The paper first briefly presents a view on VGI components and suitable quality indices, then it describes a logic architecture for managing them and for enabling a querying mechanism to the datasets. The approach is finally exemplified with a case study simulation.

  8. Effect of sourdough on quality and acceptability of wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros-Martínez, M del Refugio; Ochoa-Martínez, L Araceli; González-Herrera, Silvia M; Delgado-Licon, Efren; Bello-Pérez, L Arturo; Morales-Castro, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative on the search for functional food products, this study evaluated the use of sourdough in the preparation of wheat flour tortillas. The sourdough was elaborated with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and the wheat flour tortillas were prepared with different concentrations of mother sponge (5%, 15%, and 25%) and fermentation times (1 and 3 h) at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Quality (diameter, height, color, pH, stretchability scores, and Kramer shear cell results) of wheat tortillas was evaluated after 24 h of preparation. The mother sponge concentration and fermentation time affected some quality parameters and acceptability properties (taste, aroma, color, opacity, and rollability). In addition, the sourdough tortillas had higher stretchability values than control tortillas. Since most of the prepared sourdough tortillas had acceptability values similar to those of tortilla controls, the introduction of sourdough is a viable means to incorporate additional nutritional and nutraceutical value into wheat tortillas. PMID:22416689

  9. A design tool for estimating passenger ride discomfort within complex ride environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experimental studies utilizing approximately 2200 test subjects has led to the development of a general empirical model for the prediction of passenger ride discomfort in the presence of complex noise and vibration inputs. The ranges of vibration and noise stimuli used to derive the model included the amplitudes and frequencies that are known to most influence passenger comfort. The ride quality model accounts for the effects of combined axis vibrations (up to three axes simultaneously) and includes corrections for the effect of vibration duration and interior noise. Output of the model consists of an estimate of the passenger discomfort produced by a given noise and/or vibration environment. The discomfort estimate is measured along a continuous scale that spans the range from below discomfort threshold to values of discomfort that are far above discomfort threshold

  10. Riding Standards. The Policies and Operating Procedures of the National Riding Committee 1976-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Paul D., Ed.; Perrin, Coleman P., Ed.

    This booklet contains information on riding standards as established by the National Riding Committee. The first section discusses rated rider examinations, followed by discussions of forward and western riding-rated rider examinations requirements. The next section examines the appointment of judges and precedes a program for teaching riding.…

  11. Acceptability of quality reporting and pay for performance among primary health centers in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M

    2013-01-01

    Primary health care (PHC) is emphasized as the cornerstone of any health care system. Enhancing PHC performance is considered a strategy to enhance effective and equitable access to care. This study assesses the acceptability of and factors associated with quality reporting among PHC centers (PHCCs) in Lebanon. The managers of 132 Lebanese Ministry of Health PHCCs were surveyed using a cross-sectional design. Managers' willingness to report quality, participate in comparative quality assessments, and endorse pay-for-performance schemes was evaluated. Collected data were matched to the infrastructural characteristics and services database. Seventy-six percent of managers responded to the questionnaire, 93 percent of whom were willing to report clinical performance. Most expressed strong support for peer-performance comparison and pay-for-performance schemes. Willingness to report was negatively associated with the religious affiliation of centers and presence of health care facilities in the catchment area and favorably associated with use of information systems and the size of population served. The great willingness of PHCC managers to employ quality-enhancing initiatives flags a policy priority for PHC stakeholders to strengthen PHCC infrastructure and to enable reporting in an easy, standardized, and systematic way. Enhancing equity necessitates education and empowerment of managers in remote areas and those managing religiously affiliated centers. PMID:24397238

  12. The influence of tinnitus acceptance on the quality of life and psychological distress in patients with chronic tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, David; Rumpold, Gerhard; Schmidt, Annette; Zorowka, Patrick G.; Bliem, Harald R.; Moschen, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings show the importance of acceptance in the treatment of chronic tinnitus. So far, very limited research investigating the different levels of tinnitus acceptance has been conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) and psychological distress in patients with chronic tinnitus who reported different levels of tinnitus acceptance. The sample consisted of outpatients taking part in a tinnitus coping group (n = 97). Correlations between tinnitus acceptance, psychological distress, and QoL were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate a cutoff score for the German “Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire” (CTAQ-G) and to evaluate the screening abilities of the CTAQ-G. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare QoL and psychological distress in patients with low tinnitus acceptance and high tinnitus acceptance. A cutoff point for CTAQ-G of 62.5 was defined, differentiating between patients with “low-to-mild tinnitus acceptance” and “moderate-to-high tinnitus acceptance.” Patients with higher levels of tinnitus acceptance reported a significantly higher QoL and lower psychological distress. Tinnitus acceptance plays an important role for patients with chronic tinnitus. Increased levels of acceptance are related to better QoL and less psychological distress. PMID:26356381

  13. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  9. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  10. The Process of Teaching Therapeutic Horseback Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renker, Lorraine

    Therapeutic horseback riding for persons with disabilities provides physical, mental, social, and emotional benefits. Most research in this area has focused on the product or benefits of therapeutic riding, while the process of teaching horseback riding has received little attention. Research from the fields of regular education, special…

  11. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least...

  15. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  16. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K.; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; Chauhan, P.; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  17. Data Quality Objectives and Criteria for Basic Information, Acceptable Uncertainty, and Quality-Assurance and Quality-Control Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Bank, Fred G.; Cazenas, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration and State transportation agencies have the responsibility of determining and minimizing the effects of highway runoff on water quality; therefore, they have been conducting an extensive program of water-quality monitoring and research during the last 25 years. The objectives and monitoring goals of highway runoff studies have been diverse, because the highway community must address many different questions about the characteristics and impacts of highway runoff. The Federal Highway Administration must establish that available data and procedures that are used to assess and predict pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff are valid, current, and technically supportable. This report examines criteria for evaluating water-quality data and resultant interpretations. The criteria used to determine if data are valid (useful for intended purposes), current, and technically supportable are derived from published materials from the Federal Highway Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey and from technical experts throughout the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality data that are documented to be meaningful, representative, complete, precise, accurate, comparable, and admissible as legal evidence will meet the scientific, engineering, and regulatory needs of highway agencies. Documentation of basic information, such as compatible monitoring objectives and program design features; metadata (when, where, and how data were collected as well as who collected and analyzed the data); ancillary information (explanatory variables and study-site characteristics); and legal requirements are needed to evaluate data. Documentation of sufficient quality-assurance and quality-control information to establish the quality and uncertainty in the data and interpretations also are needed to determine the comparability and utility of

  18. "Paul Revere's Ride": Awakening Abolitionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepore, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow used to be both the best-known poet in the English-speaking world and the most beloved, adored by the learned and the lowly alike, read by everyone from Nathaniel Hawthorne and Abraham Lincoln to John Ruskin and Queen Victoria--and, just as avidly, by the queen's servants. "Paul Revere's Ride" is Longfellow's best-known…

  19. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  20. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  1. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Riding Highlight!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Laura, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Horses have always been appreciated by humans for their strength, beauty, and gentle demeanor. Children, especially, have gravitated toward them and many experience their first horseback riding lesson at a young age. However, horses can play a very different role in the lives of children and adults with disabilities. Hippotherapy is physical,…

  2. Physicochemical characterization of pure persimmon juice: nutritional quality and food acceptability.

    PubMed

    González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices. PMID:25619747

  3. Objective evaluation of speech signal quality by the prediction of multiple foreground diagnostic acceptability measure attributes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Deep; Lu, W

    2012-05-01

    A methodology is described to objectively diagnose the quality of speech signals by predicting the perceptual detectability of a selected set of distortions. The distortions are a statistically selected subset of the broad number of distortions used in diagnostic acceptability measure (DAM) testing. The justification for such a methodology is established from the analysis of a set of speech signals representing a broad set of distortions and their respective DAM scores. At the heart of the ability to isolate and diagnose the perceptibility of the individual distortions is a physiologically motivated cochlear model. The philosophy and methodology is thus distinct from traditional objective measures that are typically designed to predict mean opinion scores (MOS) using well versed functional psychoacoustic models. Even so, a weighted sum of these objectively predicted set of distortions is able to predict accurate and robust MOS scores, even when the reference speech signals have been subject to the Lombard effect. PMID:22559381

  4. Acceptability of the Conceptions of Higher Education Quality to First Year Students of the Study Field of Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Žibeniene, Gintaute; Savickiene, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    The article presents which conceptions of higher education quality are most acceptable to first-year students of the study field of pedagogy. It is significant to analyse students' opinions as more than 10 years ago the EU member states agreed that higher education institutions bear responsibility for the quality of higher education. Being members…

  5. Worldwide Status of Fresh Fruits Irradiation and Concerns about Quality, Safety, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2016-08-17

    Development of knowledge-based food preservation techniques have been a major focus of researchers in providing safe and nutritious food. Food irradiation is one of the most thoroughly investigated food preservation techniques, which has been shown to be effective and safe through extensive research. This process involves exposing food to ionizing radiations in order to destroy microorganisms or insects that might be present on and/or in the food. In addition, the effects of irradiation on the enzymatic activity and improvement of functional properties in food have also been well established. In the present review, the potential of food irradiation technology to address major problems, such as short shelf life, high-initial microbial loads, insect pest management (quarantine treatment) in supply chain, and safe consumption of fresh fruits was described. With improved hygienic quality, other uses, such as delayed ripening and enhanced physical appearance by irradiation were also discussed. Available data showed that the irradiation of fruits at the optimum dose can be a safe and cost-effective method, resulting in enhanced shelf life and hygienic quality with the least amount of compromise on the various nutritional attributes, whereas the consumer acceptance of irradiated fruits is a matter of providing the proper scientific information. PMID:25830470

  6. Virtual glaucoma clinics: patient acceptance and quality of patient education compared to standard clinics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Jennifer H; Austin, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Virtual glaucoma clinics allow rapid, reliable patient assessment but the service should be acceptable to patients and concordance with treatment needs to be maintained with adequate patient education. This study compares experiences and understanding of patients reviewed via the virtual clinic versus the standard clinic by way of an extended patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ). Patients and methods One hundred PSQs were given to consecutive patients attending glaucoma clinics in October 2013. All 135 patients reviewed via the virtual clinic from April 2013 until August 2013 were sent postal PSQs in September 2013. Data were obtained for demographics, understanding of glaucoma, their condition, satisfaction with their experience, and quality of information. Responses were analyzed in conjunction with the clinical records. Results Eighty-five percent of clinic patients and 63% of virtual clinic patients responded to the PSQ. The mean satisfaction score was over 4.3/5 in all areas surveyed. Virtual clinic patients’ understanding of their condition was very good, with 95% correctly identifying their diagnosis as glaucoma, 83% as ocular hypertension and 78% as suspects. There was no evidence to support inferior knowledge or self-perceived understanding compared to standard clinic patients. Follow-up patients knew more about glaucoma than new patients. Over 95% of patients found our information leaflet useful. Forty percent of patients sought additional information but less than 20% used the internet for this. Conclusion A substantial proportion of glaucoma pathway patients may be seen by non-medical staff supervised by glaucoma specialists via virtual clinics. Patients are accepting of this format, reporting high levels of satisfaction and non-inferior knowledge to those seen in standard clinics. PMID:25987832

  7. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. PMID:25047068

  8. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  9. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  10. Optimizing Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods for Protein Quality, Cost, and Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jacklyn; Callaghan, Meghan

    2016-03-01

    This article describes current research on the development of alternative ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) in the treatment of severe acute malnutrition. An innovative and versatile linear programming tool has been developed to facilitate the creation of therapeutic formulas that are determined acceptable on multiple levels: costs, ingredient acceptability, availability and stability, nutrient requirements, and personal preferences. The formulas are analyzed for ease of production by Washington University team members and for organoleptic properties acceptability to target populations. In the future, RUTF products that are cost-effective, acceptable, sustainable, and widely available will become a reality. PMID:26864957

  11. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION...

  12. 40 CFR 90.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 90.510 Section 90.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT...

  13. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  14. The Role of Peer Influence and Perceived Quality of Teaching in Faculty Acceptance of Web-Based Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Welch, Anita G.; Ray, Chris M.; Peterson, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    This study's primary investigation is the impact of "peer influence" and "perceived quality of teaching" on faculty members' usage of web-based learning management systems within the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) framework. These factors are entered into an extended TAM as external variables impacting on the core constructs…

  15. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  16. Unrestricted riding in pickup truck cargo beds poses significant hazards.

    PubMed

    Sneed, R C

    2000-02-01

    Individuals riding in the beds of pickup trucks face significant risks of debilitating injury or death, yet Mississippi currently has no legislation restricting ridership in truck beds. Data collection on accidents involving truck bed passengers indicates that children make up the majority of victims. Such accidents impose a heavy burden on society in terms of both medical expenses and impaired quality of life for the victims. PMID:10710895

  17. Safety in Riding Programs: A Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kpachavi, Teresa

    1996-01-01

    Camp riding programs should be examined regularly for liability and risk management issues. Elements of a basic safety assessment include requiring proper safety apparel, removing obstructions from riding rings, ensuring doors and gates are closed, requiring use of lead ropes, securing equine medications, banning smoking, posting written…

  18. Geology highlights for Ride the Rockies 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, J.L.; Hess, Amber; Van Sistine, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 13 through June 19, 2010. Ride the Rockies begins in Grand Junction, with stops in Delta, Ouray, Durango, Pagosa Springs, Alamosa, and ends in Salida, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  19. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocross riding.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Tomi; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine physiological and neuromuscular responses during motocross riding at individual maximal speed together with the riding-induced changes in maximal isometric force production. Seven A-level (group A) and 5 hobby-class (group H) motocross-riders performed a 30-minute riding test on a motocross track and maximal muscle strength and oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests in a laboratory. During the riding the mean (+/-SD) VO2 reduced in group A from 86 +/- 10% to 69 +/- 6% of the maximum (P < 0.001), whereas in group H the corresponding reduction was from 94 +/- 25% to 82 +/- 20% (P < 0.05). This relative VO2 during the riding correlated with riding speed (r = 0.70, P < 0.01). Heart rate (HR) was maintained at the level of 97 +/- 7% of its maximum in group A and at 98 +/- 3% in group H. Mean muscle activation of the lower body during riding varied between 24% and 38% of its maximum in group A and between 40% and 45% in group H. In conclusion, motocross is a sport that causes great physical stress and demands on both skill and physical capacity of the rider. Physical stress occurs as the result of handling of the bike when receiving continuous impacts in the situation requiring both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Our data suggest that both maximal capacity and strain during the ride should be measured to analyze the true physiological and neuromuscular demands of motocross ride. For the practice, this study strongly suggests to train not only aerobic and anaerobic capacity but also to use strength and power training for successful motocross riding. PMID:18296976

  20. Maternal diet during early childhood, but not pregnancy, predicts diet quality and fruit and vegetable acceptance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Amy M; Collins, Clare E; Hure, Alexis J; Jensen, Megan; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Studies have identified prenatal flavour exposure as a determinant of taste preferences in infants; however, these studies have focused on relatively small samples and limited flavours. As many parents struggle with getting children to accept a variety of nutritious foods, a study of the factors influencing food acceptance is warranted. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to a wider variety of fruit and vegetables and overall higher diet quality in utero results in acceptance of a greater variety of these foods and better diet quality for offspring during childhood. This study is a secondary data analysis of pregnant women (n = 52) and their resulting offspring recruited for the Women and Their Children's Health study in NSW, Australia. Dietary intake of mothers and children was measured using food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality and vegetable and fruit variety were calculated using the Australian Recommended Food Score and the Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score. Associations between maternal and child diet quality and variety were assessed using Pearson's correlations and the total effect of in utero maternal pregnancy diet on childhood diet was decomposed into direct and indirect effect using mediation analysis. Maternal pregnancy and post-natal diet were both correlated with child diet for overall diet quality and fruit and vegetable variety (P < 0.001). Mediation analyses showed that the indirect effect of maternal pregnancy diet on child diet was mediated through maternal post-natal diet, particularly for fruit (P = 0.045) and vegetables (P = 0.055). Nutrition intervention should therefore be aimed at improving diet quality and variety in mothers with young children, in order to subsequently improve eating habits of offspring. PMID:25294406

  1. Vehicle for civil helicopter ride quality research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. J.; Schlegel, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A research aircraft for investigating the factors involved in civil helicopter operations was developed for NASA Langley Research Center. The aircraft is a reconfigured 17000 kg (36000 lb) military transport helicopter. The basic aircraft was reconfigured with advanced acoustic treatment, air-conditioning, and a 16-seat airline cabin. During the spring of 1975, the aircraft was flight tested to measure interior environment characteristics - noise and vibration - and was flown on 60 subjective flight missions with over 600 different subjects. Data flights established noise levels somewhat higher than expected, with a pure tone at 1400 Hz and vertical vibration levels between 0.07g and 0.17g. The noise and vibration levels were documented during subjective flight evaluations as being the primary source of discomfort. The aircraft will be utilized to document in detail the impact of various noise and vibration levels on passenger comfort during typical short-haul missions.

  2. Supplemental Control for Aircraft Riding Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Rolanda S.; Ashokkumar, C. R.; Homaifar, Abdollah

    1997-01-01

    The concept of preview control has been applied and proven to be successful in the automotive vehicle. These same concepts are now applied to an aircraft under the assumption that exogenous inputs (wind gust, turbulence, etc. ) can be measured. A supplemental control law for surface deflection is designed to compensate for the loss in performance in the presence of atmospheric disturbances. Fuzzy logic control is employed to handle the nonlinear, time varying characteristics of the disturbance. A methodology to tune the outer loop control parameters is presented.

  3. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  4. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    PubMed

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-01-01

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses. PMID:26965405

  5. Behavior and Development: Physical Development--"Riding Along" Outdoors!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Riding toys and push-pull toys are traditionally part of every early childhood program. Young children can develop a wide variety of skills and get numerous health benefits from riding toys if one is careful and thoughtful in setting up the riding-toy area. This article describes various types of riding toys and activity ideas to enhance…

  6. Measuring Performance Excellence: Key Performance Indicators for Institutions Accepted into the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Given growing interest in accountability and outcomes, the North Central Association's Higher Learning Commission developed a new path for accreditation, the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP). The goal is to infuse continuous improvement and quality in the culture of higher education, and to blend traditional accreditation with the…

  7. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  8. User evaluation of ride technology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, J. R.; Brumaghim, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    The 23 organizations queried represent government, carrier, and manufacturing interests in air, marine, rail, and surface transportation systems. Results indicate a strong need for common terminology and data analysis/reporting techniques. The various types of ride criteria currently in use are discussed, particularly in terms of their respective data base requirements. A plan of action is proposed for fulfilling the ride technology needs identified by this study.

  9. Service User- and Carer-Reported Measures of Involvement in Mental Health Care Planning: Methodological Quality and Acceptability to Users

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Chris J.; Bee, Penny E.; Walker, Lauren; Price, Owen; Lovell, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning is a key healthcare priority but one that is difficult to achieve in practice. To better understand and measure user and carer involvement, it is crucial to have measurement questionnaires that are both psychometrically robust and acceptable to the end user. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the terms “care plan$,” “mental health,” “user perspective$,” and “user participation” and their linguistic variants as search terms. Databases were searched from inception to November 2012, with an update search at the end of September 2014. We included any articles that described the development, validation or use of a user and/or carer-reported outcome measures of involvement in mental health care planning. We assessed the psychometric quality of each instrument using the “Evaluating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes” (EMPRO) criteria. Acceptability of each instrument was assessed using novel criteria developed in consultation with a mental health service user and carer consultation group. Results: We identified eleven papers describing the use, development, and/or validation of nine user/carer-reported outcome measures. Psychometric properties were sparsely reported and the questionnaires met few service user/carer-nominated attributes for acceptability. Where reported, basic psychometric statistics were of good quality, indicating that some measures may perform well if subjected to more rigorous psychometric tests. The majority were deemed to be too long for use in practice. Discussion: Multiple instruments are available to measure user/carer involvement in mental health care planning but are either of poor quality or poorly described. Existing measures cannot be considered psychometrically robust by modern standards, and cannot currently be recommended for use. Our review has identified an important knowledge gap, and an urgent need to

  10. Riding a Trail of Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the comet Encke riding along its pebbly trail of debris (long diagonal line) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This material actually encircles the solar system, following the path of Encke's orbit. Twin jets of material can also be seen shooting away from the comet in the short, fan-shaped emission, spreading horizontally from the comet.

    Encke, which orbits the Sun every 3.3 years, is well traveled. Having exhausted its supply of fine particles, it now leaves a long trail of larger more gravel-like debris, about one millimeter in size or greater. Every October, Earth passes through Encke's wake, resulting in the well-known Taurid meteor shower.

    This image was captured by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer when Encke was 2.6 times farther away than Earth is from the Sun. It is the best yet mid-infrared view of the comet at this great distance. The data are helping astronomers understand how rotating comets eject particles as they circle the Sun.

  11. Links Among Italian Preschoolers’ Socio-Emotional Competence, Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Peer Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of teacher-child relationship quality (close, conflictive, and dependent), children’s social behavior, and peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool-aged children (46 boys; 42 girls). Preschool teachers evaluated the quality of the teacher-child relationship and children’s social behaviors (i.e., social competence, anger-aggression, and anxiety-withdrawal). Peer-rated likability was measured using a sociometric procedure. Results indicated that conflictual teacher-child relationships were related to high aggressive behavior, and dependent teacher-child relationships were positively associated with children’s anxiety-withdrawal. Moreover, we found an indirect association between close teacher-child relationship quality and peer likability through children’s social competence. The findings provide evidence that the teacher-child relationship is critical for children’s social behaviors, and that social competence was uniquely related to peer likability. PMID:24039375

  12. Maintaining Acceptable Indoor Air Quality during the Renovation of a School. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information that school facility personnel can use concerning the potential impacts of renovation projects on indoor air quality (IAQ), along with details of some effective control strategies, are presented. Various kinds of contaminants may be generated by renovations, including volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, dusts and fibers (e.g.,…

  13. INFLUENCE OF FORAGE SPECIES ON PASTURE PERFORMANCE, CARCASS QUALITY, AND CONSUMER ACCEPTABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    British-type steers of predominantly Angus breeding were used to determine the influence of forage species fed during the final 30 to 45 days of finishing on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Finishing treatments included: 1) Mixed cool season pasture [bluegrass, orchardgrass,...

  14. The meaning of air quality and flue gas emission standards for public acceptance of new thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Barbalić, N; Marijan, G; Marić, M

    2000-06-01

    For the time being only 30-40% of the electric energy supply in Croatia comes from burning fossil fuel. New capacities of 800-1400 MW for the next decade will have to rely on the exclusive use of fossil fuels in thermal power plants (TPP). Public opinion will probably have a decisive influence on the issuing of construction permissions. The potential adverse effects on air seem to be the main argument against construction of TPPs. The priority is therefore to unambiguously state what air quality is warranted in the influenced area for the whole operation period of a TPP. It is important that the public should understand the real meaning of current air quality standards and emission limits. The only known way to do it today is through comparison with the corresponding standards and limits accepted worldwide. This paper discusses some important aspects of such comparison. PMID:11103526

  15. Green power marketing claims: A free ride on conventional power?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    It appears that a lot, if not most, of the green power being marketed to consumers today in customer choice states is not green at all, at least as that term may be understood by the typical consumer. Such power is not, contrary to claims, coal and nuke free and does not displace power generated from coal or nuclear power plants. It does not create a market for renewable resources. And it does not make a contribution to improving environmental quality. Indeed, it appears that green power in its current form is receiving a free ride on the conventional power industry, a face about which green power consumers are not being made aware.

  16. Application of Active Controls Technology to Aircraft Ride Smoothing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, Maris; Jacobson, Ira D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade-offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL-class aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically-predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  17. Evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept. Part II-ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Jokl, M V

    1997-03-01

    Weber-Fechner's law concerning the perception of sound by man with time expressed as a logarithmic function can also be used for the odour constituent used in the evaluation of indoor air quality in buildings. A new unit dB (odour) based on the concentration of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) is proposed as it is currently the basis for determining the air change rate. On the Psycho-Physical Scale according to Yaglou, the weakest odour that can be detected by the human smell sensors is equal to one and corresponds to the lower limit of percentage dissatisfaction (PD) of 5.8% and a threshold concentration (TVOC) of 50 micrograms/m3-0 dB (odour). The upper limit is determined by the initial value of toxicity TVOC -25,000 micrograms/m3-135 dB (odour). Optimal values corresponding to PD = 20% (according to EUR 14449 EN) and admissible values corresponding to PD = 30% (see Part I of this paper) are proposed, therefore the same values used to evaluate noise can be used to evaluate air quality and additionally the contribution of individual constituents (at present acoustic and odour) to the overall quality of the environment can be ascertained. PMID:9150998

  18. [Are mortality indicators acceptable indicators for the quality of health care?].

    PubMed

    Ravaud, P; Giraudeau, B; Roux, P M; Durieux, P

    1999-10-01

    IMPORTANCE OF PUBLISHING MORTALITY RATES: Mortality rates for certain interventions or disease states have been used over the last decade as indicators of the quality of care provided by a given hospital, unit or, medical team. If published, these rates would be a useful tool for decision makers in the process of fund allocations, for public information, and for promoting improved care in hospitals or units with a low classification. METHODOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS: It is difficult to adjust an indicator of mortality to disease-related risk factors and any modification of this adjustment can have major consequences on the validity of subsequent comparisons. The differences in mortality observed between hospitals and physicians can reflect not only differences in quality of care but also differences in approaches to disease-related risk factors, therapeutic choices, or coding practices. The lack of statistical power is a major limiting factor in interpreting differences in mortality rates. To evidence a statistically significant difference in mortality between two hospitals whose rates are respectively 0.5% and 1% (for example in total hip replacement patients), it would be necessary to include 4673 patients, a number which would correspond to 20 years data for a hospital performing 230 interventions per year. Consequently, the number of interventions performed in the most active hospitals would not be sufficient to make such comparisons. LIMITATIONS AND COUNTER EFFECTS: Some studies have demonstrated that the publication of mortality rates does not have a major influence on patients' decisions nor on physicians' choice of a referral hospital. It would have no effect on improving health care quality of the institutions cited. One the contrary, certain counter effects have been observed: modification in patient recruitment, higher-risk patients being referred to hospitals with unpublished mortality rates. For many authors, procedure indicators are more pertinent than

  19. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness. PMID:20028192

  20. Quantitative Prediction of Computational Quality (so the S and C Folks will Accept it)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    Our choice of title may seem strange but we mean each word. In this talk, we are not going to be concerned with computations made "after the fact", i.e. those for which data are available and which are being conducted for explanation and insight. Here we are interested in preventing S&C design problems by finding them through computation before data are available. For such a computation to have any credibility with those who absorb the risk, it is necessary to quantitatively PREDICT the quality of the computational results.

  1. Quality attributes and consumer acceptance of new ready-to-eat frozen restructured chicken.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marcio Aurelio; Villanueva, Nilda Doris Montes; Gonçalves, José Ricardo; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new restructured product, cooked and frozen ready-to-eat product that was prepared with boneless chicken meat (breast and drumstick) and mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM). Non-meat ingredients, such as transglutaminase (TG) and egg albumin powder, were tested to obtain a better strength of adhesion between the meat particles. Five formulations for restructured chicken were developed as follows: T1 (1 % transglutaminase), T2 (1 % transglutaminase and 15 % MSCM), T3 (1 % egg albumin powder), T4 (1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM) and T5 (1 % transglutaminase, 1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM). The results of the experiment showed a greater luminosity (L*) in the treatments with TG (T1) and albumin (T3). The treatments without MSCM (T1 and T3) presented significantly lower mean values for redness (a*) when compared to treatments with MSCM (T2, T4 and T5) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the treatments (p ≥ 0.05) when analyzing the percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol content. Consumer testing showed a high acceptance of the restructured products in all evaluated attributes. Similarly, with regard to the purchase intention, consumers mostly expressed that they would probably or certainly buy the products, for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5. Moreover, the meat cuts with no commercial value, can transform into new ready-to-eat products that have a high probability of success in the market. PMID:25892785

  2. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  3. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market. PMID:25584640

  4. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  5. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  6. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  7. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  8. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  9. Using Video Feedback to Improve Horseback-Riding Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Heather; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study used video feedback to improve the horseback-riding skills of advanced beginning riders. We focused on 3 skill sets: those used in jumping over obstacles, dressage riding on the flat, and jumping position riding on the flat. Baseline consisted of standard lesson procedures. Intervention consisted of video feedback in which a recorded…

  10. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  11. Riding the Wave of Personal Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how superintendents are riding the wave of personal technology. Once reluctant users, superintendents now find their hand-held devices an indispensable tool for leveraging their school system leadership. However, as the availability and allure of personal technology devices proliferate, superintendents find themselves…

  12. Determinants behind young motorcyclists' risky riding behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jinn-Tsai; Chung, Yi-Shih; Huang, Shih-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    Young motorcyclists have traditionally been considered a high-risk population. Given the critical influence of riders' behaviors on traffic safety, identifying what riders think can help clarify the nature of accidents. Although psychological studies have explored the relationships among personality traits, attitudes and risky driving behavior, the primary difference this study makes from past studies is incorporating both positive and negative effects in a refined causal framework. This study adopts structural equation modeling to analyze data collected from 683 young motorcyclists aged between 18 and 28. The results conclude three primary personality traits of young motorcyclists, namely sensation seeking, amiability and impatience. While amiable riders represent a group of relatively mature and safe riders, the sensation-seeking riders are extremely self-confident, comfortable with unsafe riding and interested in the utility gained from it. Meanwhile, the sensation-seeking ones also are highly aware of traffic conditions, which may lower the chances of getting into an accident, but the accident could be extremely severe if it ever occurs. Impatient riders, having low riding confidence and traffic awareness deficiency, also seek utility from certain risky riding behaviors. However, their fear of an accident leads them to fail to observe surrounding traffic conditions. The result indicates various mental compromise mechanisms for young motorcyclists in conducting riding behaviors. Thus, corresponding countermeasures, including licensure system and ITS roadway development, should consider the heterogeneous characteristics of young riders. PMID:19887168

  13. Riding Bikes: A Pastime for Every Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    People have heard the expression "It's as easy as riding a bike." But the idea of a child with special needs balancing, steering, and pedaling a bike can seem out of reach for some; especially when he may be unable to walk unaided or hold his head up without support. Physical capabilities or stamina need not keep a child from this pleasurable…

  14. Kenojuak Ashevak: "Young Owl Takes a Ride."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan used to introduce K-3 students to a Canadian Inuit artist, to the personal and cultural context of the artwork, and to a simple printmaking technique. Includes background information on the artist, instructional strategies, and a print of the artist's "Young Owl Takes a Ride." (GEA)

  15. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    PubMed

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

  16. Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on structure, quality, sensory acceptance and glycemic response of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Capriles, Vanessa D; Arêas, José A G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of adding increasing levels of prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12%) on the sensory and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread (GFB) was assessed. ITFs can provide structure and gas retention during baking, thus improving GFB quality by yielding better specific volume, softer crumb, improved crust and crumb browning with enhanced sensory acceptance. During baking, approximately one-third of the ITFs was lost. The addition of 12% ITFs to the basic formulation is required in order to obtain GFB enriched with 8% ITFs (4 g of fructans per 50 g bread serving size), levels that can provide health benefits. 12% ITFs-addition level decreased GFB glycemic index (from 71 to 48) and glycemic load (from 12 to 8). Prebiotic ITFs are a promising improver for GFB that can provide nutritional (11% dietary fiber content, low glycemic response) and functional benefits to patients with celiac disease, since ITFs are prebiotic ingredients that can also increase calcium absorption. PMID:23032642

  17. [Riding therapy in the rehabilitation of mobility-impaired children].

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Helena; Kela, Katri; Sätilä, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Riding therapy is a comprehensive and functional form of rehabilitation, in which the rehabilitee, the horse and the riding therapist collaborate in order to achieve individually assigned goals that support rehabilitation. In Finland, riding therapy is therapeutic rehabilitation carried out by riding therapists who have undergone approved training. The therapy is mainly implemented in an individual form, but small group working is also applied, e.g. in the form of pair therapy and therapeutic vaulting. In Europe, this form of rehabilitation has been divided into hippotherapy supporting motor functions and heilpedagogical riding therapy functioning in support of upbringing. PMID:27522837

  18. Effect of salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, meat quality, and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Morey, Amit; Bowers, Jordan W J; Bauermeister, Laura J; Singh, Manpreet; Huang, Tung-Shi; McKee, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-listerial efficacy of salts of organic acids, and their impact on the quality of frankfurters. Beef frankfurters were manufactured by incorporating organic acids in 5 different combinations: (1) control (no marinade addition; C); (2) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt; SL); (3) potassium lactate (2% wt/wt; PL); (4) sodium citrate (0.75% wt/wt; SC); and (5) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt)/sodium diacetate (0.25% wt/wt; SL/SD). Cooked frankfurters were inoculated with streptomycin-resistant (1500 μg/mL) L. monocytogenes (7 log₁₀ CFU/frank). Inoculated and noninoculated frankfurters were vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken weekly up to 10 wk for estimation of L. monocytogenes as well as aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophs (PSY), respectively. Total of 2 independent trials of the entire experiment were conducted. Noninoculated beef frankfurters were evaluated weekly by untrained sensory panelists for 7 wk. SL, PL, and SC treatments did not (P > 0.05) adversely affect consumer acceptability through 8 wk although, SL/SD treatment was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less preferred across all sensory attributes. SL/SD treatment negatively affected product quality, but was able to control APC, PSY, and L. monocytogenes levels. SC performed similar to the control throughout the 8, 9, and 10 wk storage periods, providing no benefit for inhibiting L. monocytogenes (increasing from 7 logs CFU/frank to 10 logs CFU/frank throughout storage) or extending shelf life of the beef frankfurters. In conclusion, 2% SL and PL, and 2% SL/0.25% SD may be effective L. monocytogenes inhibitors (maintaining inoculation levels of 7 logs CFU/frank during storage), but changes in SL/SD treatment formulation should be studied to improve product quality. PMID:24460770

  19. Can home care maintain an acceptable quality of life for patients with terminal cancer and their relatives?

    PubMed

    Hinton, J

    1994-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to assess whether patients with terminal cancer, and their relatives, find that competent home care sufficiently maintains comfort and helps adjustment. A random sample from a home care service with readily available beds comprised 77 adults and their relatives who were able and willing to be interviewed separately each week. They were asked the nature and degree of current problems and regular assessments were made of some qualities of life including mood, attitude to the condition, perceived help and preferred place of care. These patients had 90% of their care at home; 29% died at home but 30% were finally admitted for one to three days and 41% for longer. In the final eight weeks, tolerable physical symptoms were volunteered by a mean of 63% each week and psychological symptoms by 17%. Some distress was felt by 11% of patients; this was usually from pain, depression, dyspnoea, anxiety or weakness, and generally did not persist. Relatives suffered grief, strain or their own ill health. Patients' and relatives' reports generally matched except for the strain on carers. Regular assessments found that 64% of patients thought death certain or probable, and 27% thought it possible. Various proportions coped by optimism, fighting their disease, partial suppression or denial, but 50% reached positive acceptance. Relatives were more aware and accepting. About three-quarters of patients and half the relatives were composed, often enjoying life. Serious depression affected 5% of patients and anxiety 4%, but relatives' manifest depression in the later stages increased to 17% and anxiety to 14%. Many consciously disguised their feelings. Treatment was usually praised but realistic preference for home care fell steadily from 100% to 54% of patients and 45% of relatives. At follow-up most relatives approved of where patients had received care and died. PMID:7952369

  20. Acceptance and control of aircraft interior noise and vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Ride quality criteria for noise, vibration, and their combination in the helicopter cabin environment are discussed. Results are presented of laboratory and field studies of passenger responses to interior noise and vibration during the performance of a listening task and during reverie, as well as to the interaction of noise with multi-frequency and multi-axis vibration. A study of means for reducing helicopter interior noise based on analytical, experimental and flight studies of the near-field noise source characteristics of the aircraft, the transmission of noise through aircraft structures and the attenuation of noise by various noise control treatments is then presented which has resulted in a reduction of 3 dB in helicopter cabin noise. Finally, a model under development to evaluate passenger acceptance of a helicopter noise and vibration environment is indicated which incorporates the observed noise and vibration effects on comfort and is expected to provide insights for more effective noise and vibration control.

  1. Air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  2. Riding to School in a Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Shutrump, Sue; Manary, Miriam A.

    2007-01-01

    Riding on a school bus is one of the safest forms of transportation in the U.S. Every year 450,000 public school buses travel more than 4.3 billion miles to transport 23.5 million children to and from school and school related activities. Students are reportedly eight times safer on the school bus than they are in cars. However, the percentage of…

  3. The study of laser beam riding guided system based on 980nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Xu, Haifeng; Sui, Xin; Yang, Kun

    2015-10-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  4. Measurement of suspension and ride characteristics of the M1 main battle tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bobby E.; Palmertree, Billy; Bobbitt, C. W.

    1987-01-01

    Means were developed to measure the effect of vibration on human beings in a tank vehicle so as to determine the limits to which they might be taken in terms of operating effectiveness and also in terms of well being. Improved hardware for making these measurements, a method for relating tank hull input forces to ride quality, and installation and calibration of instrumentation to measure the hull forces are discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  6. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  7. Neurologic complication after a roller coaster ride.

    PubMed

    Sa Leitao, Davi; Mendonca, Dercio; Iyer, Harish; Kao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications after roller coaster rides are uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion and prompt appropriate investigation. A 22-year-old healthy African American man presented with a 2-day history of constant occipital headache associated with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and ambulatory dysfunction. Physical examination showed gait ataxia, slight dysmetria, and vertical nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed early subacute ischemic infarct in the right cerebellum in the distribution of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed focal dissection of the right vertebral artery at C1 through C2 level. On subsequent questioning, the patient recollected riding a roller coaster 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Anticoagulation with heparin was started, and the patient was bridged to oral warfarin. After a 5-day uneventful hospital course, symptoms improved and patient was discharged on oral anticoagulation. Cervicocephalic arterial dissections after roller coaster rides are rarely described in literature. The acceleration and abrupt changes of direction might lead to indirect trauma that is applied to mobile portions of the cervicocephalic arteries leading to intimal tears. Magnetic resonance angiography combined with axial T1-weighted cervical MRI is preferred because it is a high-sensitive, noninvasive test. The rationale for the use of anticoagulants or antiplatelets in patients with cervicocephalic arterial dissection is to prevent early recurrence and infarction. However, a meta-analysis failed to show significant difference in the rates of disability or death between both groups. Therefore, the decision for medical treatment should be made in a case-by-case basis. PMID:20980120

  8. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  9. Riding Pontic--Aesthetic Journey Aesthetic Goal.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Byajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Manisha, Kukreja; Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Nafria, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The increasing concern for esthetics during the orthodontic treatment can be measured by the increasing popularity ofaesthetic brackets, lingual technique, smaller sized metal brackets, and clear alignment therapy. Many clients, especially adolescents, are self-conscious about their appearance in social and professional situations, and they refuse to tolerate the inevitable "black holes" of edentulous spaces during orthodontic treatment. This article describes the use, fabrication, modifications, and shortcomings of riding pontics; and illustrates how their use provides aesthetic, psychological and functional benefits. PMID:26720951

  10. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  11. Introducing heterogeneous users and vehicles into models and algorithms for the dial-a-ride problem.

    PubMed

    Parragh, Sophie N

    2011-08-01

    Dial-a-ride problems deal with the transportation of people between pickup and delivery locations. Given the fact that people are subject to transportation, constraints related to quality of service are usually present, such as time windows and maximum user ride time limits. In many real world applications, different types of users exist. In the field of patient and disabled people transportation, up to four different transportation modes can be distinguished. In this article we consider staff seats, patient seats, stretchers and wheelchair places. Furthermore, most companies involved in the transportation of the disabled or ill dispose of different types of vehicles. We introduce both aspects into state-of-the-art formulations and branch-and-cut algorithms for the standard dial-a-ride problem. Also a recent metaheuristic method is adapted to this new problem. In addition, a further service quality related issue is analyzed: vehicle waiting time with passengers aboard. Instances with up to 40 requests are solved to optimality. High quality solutions are obtained with the heuristic method. PMID:24511211

  12. Introducing heterogeneous users and vehicles into models and algorithms for the dial-a-ride problem

    PubMed Central

    Parragh, Sophie N.

    2011-01-01

    Dial-a-ride problems deal with the transportation of people between pickup and delivery locations. Given the fact that people are subject to transportation, constraints related to quality of service are usually present, such as time windows and maximum user ride time limits. In many real world applications, different types of users exist. In the field of patient and disabled people transportation, up to four different transportation modes can be distinguished. In this article we consider staff seats, patient seats, stretchers and wheelchair places. Furthermore, most companies involved in the transportation of the disabled or ill dispose of different types of vehicles. We introduce both aspects into state-of-the-art formulations and branch-and-cut algorithms for the standard dial-a-ride problem. Also a recent metaheuristic method is adapted to this new problem. In addition, a further service quality related issue is analyzed: vehicle waiting time with passengers aboard. Instances with up to 40 requests are solved to optimality. High quality solutions are obtained with the heuristic method. PMID:24511211

  13. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  14. 77 FR 39208 - Information Collection: Ride-Along Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on a new information collection associated with the Ride- Along Program application, a program which allows any private citizen to apply to ride along with Forest Service law enforcement...

  15. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  16. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-01-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the…

  17. 75 FR 27548 - Quality GearBox, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Quality GearBox, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application..., Quality GearBox, LLC (Quality GearBox) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...

  18. RIDE: the Research Infrastructure Database for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Jeffery, Keith G.; Clemenceau, Alice; Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is a European initiative which aims to promote and make possible innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes laying behind natural events and geo-science phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis etc.) by integrating existing national and trans-national Research Infrastructures (RIs). Such integration will increase access and use of the multidisciplinary data recorded by solid Earth monitoring networks, acquired in laboratory experiments and/or produced by computational simulations. Here we present the Research Infrastructures Database for EPOS (RIDE), a database containing technical information about the different RIs declared by EPOS partners and EPOS associate partners, which will eventually compose the EPOS distributed Research Infrastructure. The main goals of RIDE are (i) to allow the EPOS RI to be organized, with interactive access and information mining available to a broad community of users and stakeholders, (ii) to have a first set of information to be stored in the EPOS catalogue, which will be used as a basis for the development of EPOS Core Services, (iii) to enable EPOS partners to revise and update the current RI information, (iv) to show the contents of the EPOS integration plan to all stakeholders, (v) to facilitate the dissemination of existing data infrastructures to different communities and to promote a discussion within the community to implement the present data infrastructures. RIDE - whose driving technology is Apache CouchDB - contains at the current status detailed information on more than 200 Research Infrastructures. It enables any user to visualize RIs and sensors on a map, to carry out statistics on the stored data and to browse through the details of any RI. Based on the content of RIDE it is now possible to estimate the potential size of the new EPOS distributed RI: EPOS is going to integrate more than 7000 sensors (seismic

  19. A Comparison of the Free Ride and CISK Assumptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunge Pedersen, Torben

    1991-08-01

    In a recent paper Fraedrich and McBride have studied the relation between the `free ride' and CISK (conditional instability of the second kind) assumptions in a well-known two-layer model. Here the comparison is extended to a more general case. For this purpose the free ride and CISK assumptions are compared in linearized models with special emphasis on the small-scale limit. To this end a general solution of the linearized CISK problem is presented. The free ride can be interpretated both as a local and an integral constraint. It is shown within the context of analytic models that the CISK assumption satisfies the integrated free ride in the small-scale limit. However, interpretating the free ride as an integral constraint yields a solution that differs qualitatively from the CISK solution even though both satisfy the required balance. On the other hand, if the free ride is applied locally, the special constraint is obtained, which states that the nondimensional function must be unity at the top of the Ekman layer, and in this case the free ride and CISK solution becomes identical in the small-scale limit. From this, it is concluded that the free ride is not identical to CISK, but rather it constitutes a special subset of the CISK solutions. Further, the general CISK solution, which differs from that of the free ride, actually satisfies the local free ride balance except at the lowest levels of the atmosphere. This breakdown of the balance appears to be in accordance with results based on observations.

  20. Perceived Influence of a Compression, Posture-Cueing Shirt on Cyclists’ Ride Experience and Post-Ride Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Yu, Tiffany S.; Lyssanova, Olia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the opinions of experienced cyclists on perceived influence of a posture-cueing shirt with compressive properties on their comfort and recovery. Methods Twenty experienced cyclists wore a compressive shirt during rides and as a postride recovery shirt; cyclists rated their perceived experiences during rides and recovery. They completed 2 separate questionnaires specific to riding or recovery; scores ranged from − 3.0 (negative influence) to + 3.0 (positive influence), addressing posture, discomfort, breathing, and recovery. Data analysis included frequencies and t tests to compare groups. Results Cyclists completed 53 rides, averaging 95.48 km (SD = 31.72 km), wearing the shirt and reported a perceived benefit (mean score = 1.17, SD = 0.25). For their postride recovery perceptions, scores averaged 1.99 (SD = 0.48) for perceived benefits for recovery. No differences in scores were identified between male and female cyclists during rides (t = − 0.28, P > .05); however, female riders perceived greater benefit during recovery (t = − 2.24, P < .05). There were no correlations with scores and cyclist age, experience, or ride distances during rides or recovery (r = 0.02-0.35). Conclusion A posture-cueing, compressive shirt was rated to have a perceived benefit by experienced cyclists for riding posture, postride posture, spine discomfort, and postride recovery. This study did not evaluate physical or physiologic variables to confirm these perceptions. PMID:24711781

  1. Defining the Utility of Clinically Acceptable Variations in Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Evaluation of Quality Improvement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescoe-Long, Mary; Long, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the usefulness of systematically accounting for acceptable physician variations in guideline application. Review of 141 cases of treatment of acute myocardial infarction in a Canadian hospital show that even seemingly noncontentious guideline protocols do not offer a threshold of variation similar to conventional Continuous Quality…

  2. Effects of diet on carcass quality and consumer taste panel acceptance of intact or castrated hair lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty hair-type lambs were examined in a 70-d study to determine the effects of gender (castrate; C vs. intact; I) and forage type on carcass traits and sensory acceptability. Lambs were procured from a single source in Missouri and one-half were randomly castrated. Lambs were randomly assigned to t...

  3. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  4. Analysis of Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour on Speed Table

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the change of various types of riding behaviour, such as speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, when they ride across the speed table. An instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensor, on-board camera, and data logger was used in acquiring the traffic data in the research. Riders were instructed to ride across two speed tables and the riding data were then analyzed to study the behaviour change from different riders. The results from statistical analysis showed that the riding characteristics such as speed, brake force, and throttle force applied are influenced by distance from hump, riding experience, and travel mileage of riders. Riders tend to apply higher brake intensity at distance point 50 m before the speed table and release the braking at point −10 m after the hump. In short, speed table has different rates of influence towards riding behaviour on different factors, such as distance from hump and different riders' attributes. PMID:24991638

  5. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three dimensional head motions were measured during three different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared to published data using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure (HIC15) of 28.1 and head impact factor (HIP) of 3.41, over six times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  6. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  7. Fever: suppress or let it ride?

    PubMed

    Ray, Juliet J; Schulman, Carl I

    2015-12-01

    While our ability to detect and manage fever has evolved since its conceptualization in the 5(th) century BC, controversy remains over the best evidence-based practices regarding if and when to treat this physiologic derangement in the critically ill. There are two basic fields of thought: (I) fever should be suppressed because its metabolic costs outweigh its potential physiologic benefit in an already stressed host; vs. (II) fever is a protective adaptive response that should be allowed to run its course under most circumstances. The latter approach, sometime referred to as the "let it ride" philosophy, has been supported by several recent randomized controlled trials like that of Young et al. [2015], which are challenging earlier observational studies and may be pushing the pendulum away from the Pavlovian treatment response. PMID:26793378

  8. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-03-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the conceptual difficulties often associated with understanding centripetal force and typical "elevator-type problems" that are inherent in so many amusement park rides that move, lift, and drop riders. This article provides some sample data and examples from a visit to Six Flags Great America.

  9. Optimizing surface quality of stainless alloys and using a modified ASTM G 48B procedure for acceptance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of high-temperature oxide scales and Cr-depleted zones on stainless alloys, such as 6% Mo superaustenitic steels, can significantly reduce their corrosion resistance. Effective methods to remove these layers and restore the surface to an optimized condition are detailed. Also, an acceptance test using a modified ASTM G 48B method at 35 C (95 F) for 72 h with a specimen having a crevice, and special corrosion criteria for failure, are described. Comparison of this test method with one using an uncreviced specimen at lower temperatures and for less time is discussed.

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Collaborative Care Intervention To Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure: Mixed Methods Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Stephanie; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.; Meek, Paula; McBryde, Connor; Hattler, Brack; Lorenz, Karl A.; Heidenreich, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: People with chronic heart failure (HF) suffer from numerous symptoms that worsen quality of life. The CASA (Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness) intervention was designed to improve symptoms and quality of life by integrating palliative and psychosocial care into chronic care. Objective: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of CASA and identify necessary improvements. Methods: We conducted a prospective mixed-methods pilot trial. The CASA intervention included (1) nurse phone visits involving structured symptom assessments and guidelines to alleviate breathlessness, fatigue, pain, or depression; (2) structured phone counseling targeting adjustment to illness and depression if present; and (3) weekly team meetings with a palliative care specialist, cardiologist, and primary care physician focused on medical recommendations to primary care providers (PCPs, physician or nurse practioners) to improve symptoms. Study subjects were outpatients with chronic HF from a Veteran's Affairs hospital (n=15) and a university hospital (n=2). Measurements included feasibility (cohort retention rate, medical recommendation implementation rate, missing data, quality of care) and acceptability (an end-of-study semi-structured participant interview). Results: Participants were male with a median age of 63 years. One withdrew early and there were <5% missing data. Overall, 85% of 87 collaborative care team medical recommendations were implemented. All participants who screened positive for depression were either treated for depression or thought to not have a depressive disorder. In the qualitative interviews, patients reported a positive experience and provided several constructive critiques. Conclusions: The CASA intervention was feasible based on participant enrollment, cohort retention, implementation of medical recommendations, minimal missing data, and acceptability. Several intervention changes were made based

  11. VIEW OF RIDING STABLE AND PASTURE FROM ENTRANCE ROAD, PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RIDING STABLE AND PASTURE FROM ENTRANCE ROAD, PART TWO OF PANORAMA, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  12. Roller-Coaster Ride to Relief from TMJ

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: TMJ Roller-coaster Ride to Relief From TMJ Past Issues / Winter ... two decades, TMJ has made her life a roller coaster of constant pain. Since the late 1980s, Patricia (" ...

  13. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, W.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology is overviewed. Several useful relations derived from the technology are: input environments to the vehicle; aircraft operations; and aircraft configurations. Input environments which influence the ride motion environment consist of naturally occuring phenomena such as gusts or turbulence and man generated phenomena such as trailing vortex wakes or runway roughness. Aircraft operations influence ride environments in the form of motions caused by maneuvers, of pressure changes caused by rapid descents, or of too high temperature. Aircraft configurations influence the ride environment by size and shape of external surfaces which generate aerodynamic perturbing forces; by onboard equipment, such as power plant noise and vibrations; and by passive equipment which directly interfaces the passengers such as marginal size seats with limited elbowroom and legroom.

  14. Birthday Wishes for Suni Williams from Sally Ride's Family

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sally Ride's family was in Mission Control Center to surprise Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and wish her a happy birthday. Read more about NASA astronaut Suni Williams... http://go.nasa.gov...

  15. Small molecule specific run acceptance, specific assay operation, and chromatographic run quality assessment: recommendation for best practices and harmonization from the global bioanalysis consortium harmonization teams.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Eric J; McDougall, Stuart; Fast, Douglas M; Andraus, Maristela; Barfield, Matthew; Blackburn, Michael; Gordon, Ben; Hoffman, David; Inoue, Noriko; Marcelin-Jimenez, Gabriel; Flynn, Amy; LeLacheur, Richard; Reuschel, Scott; Santhanam, Ravisankar; Bennett, Patrick; Duncan, Barbara; Hayes, Roger; Lausecker, Berthold; Sharma, Abhishek; Togashi, Kazutaka; Trivedi, Ravi Kumar; Vago, Miguel; White, Stephen; Barton, Hollie; Dunn, John A; Farmen, Raymond H; Heinig, Katja; Holliman, Christopher; Komaba, Junji; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Consensus practices and regulatory guidance for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays of small molecules are more aligned globally than for any of the other bioanalytical techniques addressed by the Global Bioanalysis Consortium. The three Global Bioanalysis Consortium Harmonization Teams provide recommendations and best practices for areas not yet addressed fully by guidances and consensus for small molecule bioanalysis. Recommendations from all three teams are combined in this report for chromatographic run quality, validation, and sample analysis run acceptance. PMID:24961918

  16. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn. PMID:26980555

  17. An innovative method for the preparation of mum (Thai fermented sausages) with acceptable technological quality and extended shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2012-11-15

    Freshly-manufactured mum sausages were assigned to two processing methods (process I: stored at ∼30 °C for 14 days; process II: stored at ∼30 °C for three days, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 °C until day 28). Physicochemical, microbial, textural, and sensory properties of samples were analysed. The results showed that dehydration was more intense in process I samples, and resulted in lower moisture content and water activity. Significant decreases in pH values, and increases in lactic acid were observed in both samples by day 3. The total microflora and lactic acid bacteria counts increased rapidly during the fermentation and then decreased while the Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased steadily. Too much dehydration resulted in tough textures and unacceptable sensory qualities for process I samples. In conclusion, after three days of fermentation, with vacuum-packaging, ripening and storage at 4 °C up to 28 days, it is possible to produce mum sausages with better qualities and an extended shelf life. PMID:22868122

  18. Analysing demand for environmental quality: a willingness to pay/accept study in the province of Siena (Italy).

    PubMed

    Basili, Marcello; Di Matteo, Massimo; Ferrini, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The province of Siena, Italy, enacted a new garbage plan (NGP) with the objective of increasing separate waste collection (SWC), shutting down six landfills and increasing incineration. The aim of the paper is to evaluate costs and benefits of the NGP. The hypothesis is that willingness to pay (WTP) should reflect the value to the community of having better environmental quality, according to the Contingent Valuation literature. The paper reports the results of a contingent valuation (CV). The sample was divided into two subsets: firms and households. Through the information gathered via a detailed questionnaire, parametric and non-parametric estimates were elaborated to analyse the WTP of the population for the benefits flowing from increased SWC, increased incineration and shutting down of landfills. These values were expressed as a share of the tax actually paid. Although a small subset of firms and households valued increasing incineration less positively, requesting compensation, on the whole interviewees (with large differences between firms and households) had a net positive WTP for the provisions included in NGP. Parametric estimation procedures enabled us to analyse the economic as well as social and demographic factors affecting these results. These elements are useful for computing a value for the waste charge that also reflects external effects. Finally, we estimated household income elasticity of WTP for the increase in SWC and found less than one: environmental quality is not a luxury good. PMID:16387237

  19. Prolonged Length of Stay Is Not an Acceptable Alternative to Coded Complications in Assessing Hospital Quality in Elective Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Stephen; Fields, Kara G; Nocon, Allina A; Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Boettner, Friedrich

    2015-11-01

    We sought to determine if prolonged length of stay (pLOS) is an accurate measure of quality in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA). Coded complications and pLOS for 5967 TKA and 4518 THA patients in our hospital discharged between 2009 and 2011 were analyzed. Of 727 patients with pLOS, only 170 also had a complication, yielding a sensitivity of 41.4% (95% CI: 36.7, 46.2) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of just 23.4% (95% CI: 20.3, 26.4). Specificity (94.5% [95% CI: 94.0, 94.9]) and negative predictive value (NPV) (97.5% [95% CI: 97.2, 97.8]) were high, due to the large number of patients without complications or pLOS. This suggests that risk-adjusted pLOS is an inadequate measure of patient safety in primary THA and TKA. PMID:26059501

  20. Outpatient treatment of low-risk venous thromboembolism with monotherapy oral anticoagulation: patient quality of life outcomes and clinician acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Kahler, Zachary P; Beam, Daren M

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral monotherapy anticoagulation has facilitated home treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in outpatients. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure efficacy, safety, as well as patient and physician perceptions produced by a protocol that selected VTE patients as low-risk patients by the Hestia criteria, and initiated home anticoagulation with an oral factor Xa antagonist. Methods Patients were administered the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of life/Symptoms questionnaire [VEINEs QoL/Sym] and the physical component summary [PCS] from the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF36]). The primary outcomes were VTE recurrence and hemorrhage at 30 days. Secondary outcomes compared psychometric test scores between patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to those with pulmonary embolism (PE). Patient perceptions were abstracted from written comments and physician perceptions specific to PE outpatient treatment obtained from structured survey. Results From April 2013 to September 2015, 253 patients were treated, including 67 with PE. Within 30 days, 2/253 patients had recurrent DVT and 2/253 had major hemorrhage; all four had DVT at enrollment. The initial PCS scores did not differ between DVT and PE patients (37.2±13.9 and 38.0±12.1, respectively) and both DVT and PE patients had similar improvement over the treatment period (42.2±12.9 and 43.4±12.7, respectively), consistent with prior literature. The most common adverse event was menorrhagia, present in 15% of women. Themes from patient-written responses reflected satisfaction with increased autonomy. Physicians’ (N=116) before-to-after protocol comfort level with home treatment of PE increased 48% on visual analog scale. Conclusion Hestia-negative VTE patients treated with oral monotherapy at home had low rates of VTE recurrence and bleeding, as well as quality of life measurements similar to prior reports. PMID:27143861

  1. American Pacific rides the crest of change

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesche, E.S.

    1993-04-14

    The future of American Pacific (AmPac; Las Vegas, NV) is riding on two products that the company is not yet selling--sodium azide--the gas-generating component of automotive air bag systems--and halon alternatives. Together the two products should generate $140 million-$150 million/year in revenue. That business depends heavily on US Navy and Environmental Protection Agency assessments of halon alternatives before AmPac can start selling its Halotron I for critical US military applications. Rooker expects approval in Europe to follow. AmPac has acquired the technology for two products: Halotron I, which replaces halon 1211, used in fire extinguishers; and Halotron II, a substitute for halon 1301 for certain flooding applications, such as in computer rooms. A competing product, 3M's perfluorohexane (C[sub 6]), has been ruled out for use in fire-fighting training, a large portion of the fire extinguishment market. And Great Lakes Chemical's FM-100 is likely to be phased out soon after halons because of its ozone depletion potential. Halotron I is a blend based on hydrofluorocarbon (HCFC)-123, and Halotron II is simply described as a proprietary blend not based on HCFCs. Other methods of fire prevention and suppression may reduce demand for halon alternatives. And AmPac's early lead will not ensure long-term dominance of the market, as competitive products are sure to make their way to market. But for the time being, AmPac's product appears to be the only candidate likely to receive EPA approval, says Brown.

  2. The Phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Jamshid J.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the ‘historic-geographic’ school, it is possible to classify similar tales into “international types” and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, ‘The Wolf and the Kids’. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  3. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Jamshid J

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives. PMID:24236061

  4. Safety and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Blockade as a Treatment Adjunct for Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Quality Assurance Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a quality assurance and performance improvement project through review of our single center data on the safety and patient acceptability of the stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) procedure for the relief of symptoms related to chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. BACKGROUND: Our interventional pain management service has been offering trials of SGB therapy to assist with the management of the sympathetically mediated anxiety and hyperarousal symptoms of severe and treatment-refractory combat-related PTSD. There have been multiple case series in the literature describing the potential impact of this procedure for PTSD symptom management as well as the safety of image-guided procedures. We wished to ensure that we were performing this procedure safely and that patients were tolerating and accepting of this adjunctive treatment option. METHODS: We conducted a review of our quality assurance and performance improvement data over the past 18 months during which we performed 250 stellate ganglion blocks for the management of PTSD symptoms to detect any potential complications or unanticipated side effects.  We also analyzed responses from an anonymous patient de-identified survey collected regarding the comfort and satisfaction associated with the procedure. RESULTS: We did not identify any immediate post-procedural complications or delayed complications from any of the 250 procedures performed from November 2013 to April 2015. Of the 110 surveys that were returned and tabulated, 100% of the patients surveyed were overall satisfied with our process and with the procedure, 100% said they would recommend the procedure to a friend, and 95% stated that they would be willing to undergo as many repeat procedures as necessary based on little discomfort and tolerable side effects. CONCLUSION: Our quality assurance assessment suggests that in our center the SGB procedure for PTSD is a safe, well-tolerated, and acceptable

  5. Impairment of simulated motorcycle riding performance under low dose alcohol.

    PubMed

    Filtness, A J; Rudin-Brown, C M; Mulvihill, C M; Lenné, M G

    2013-01-01

    Crash statistics that include the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of vehicle operators reveal that crash involved motorcyclists are over represented at low BACs (e.g., ≤0.05%). This riding simulator study compared riding performance and hazard response under three low dose alcohol conditions (sober, 0.02% BAC, 0.05% BAC). Forty participants (20 novice, 20 experienced) completed simulated rides in urban and rural scenarios while responding to a safety-critical peripheral detection task (PDT). Results showed a significant increase in the standard deviation of lateral position in the urban scenario and PDT reaction time in the rural scenario under 0.05% BAC compared with zero alcohol. Participants were most likely to collide with an unexpected pedestrian in the urban scenario at 0.02% BAC, with novice participants at a greater relative risk than experienced riders. Novices chose to ride faster than experienced participants in the rural scenario regardless of BAC. Not all results were significant, emphasising the complex situation of the effects of low dose BAC on riding performance, which needs further research. The results of this simulator study provide some support for a legal BAC for motorcyclists below 0.05%. PMID:22749316

  6. Ride quality evaluation 1: Questionnaire studies of airline passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents; the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.

  7. Preliminary ride-quality evaluation of the HM.2 Hoverferry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a forty-minute exposure of the HM.2 Hoverferry are presented. Quantitative evaluations were made from aft seats on the starboard side for a sea state considered calm and visually estimated at one-half to one foot. Since this type of craft is sensitive to sea state, the conclusions are based on ideal conditions. Some drawings are included.

  8. Evaluation of vehicle ride comfort based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yinhan; Tang, Rongjiang; Liang, Jie; Shen, Shen; Liang, Jie; Sun, Huihui

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between subjective ride comfort in a vehicle seat and human whole-body vibration can be modeled using frequency weightings and rms(root mean square) averaging as specified in ISO2631. However, recent studies indicate that, there are some flaws in the relationship between subjective response and objective vibration given by the ISO2631.This paper presents an alternative approach based on neural network model. Time-domain vibration acceleration signals are processed as neural network inputs, subjective evaluation results are quantified as outputs, and the weights of neural networks are used as frequency weighting coefficients to evaluate the vehicle ride comfort. The method has been used to evaluate the ride comfort on a number of conditions with good results achieved.

  9. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  10. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality. PMID:19542506

  11. Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console during the STS-2 simulation (33962); Dele Moore, remote manipulator system (RMS) specialist, stands beside Ride as they go over procedures (33963).

  12. A review of ride comfort studies in the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    United Kingdom research which is relevant to the assessment of vehicle ride comfort was reviewed. The findings reported in approximately 80 research papers are outlined, and an index to the areas of application of these studies is provided. The data obtained by different research groups are compared, and it is concluded that, while there are some areas of general agreement, the findings obtained from previous United Kingdom research are insufficient to define a general purpose ride comfort evaluation procedure. The degree to which United Kingdom research supports the vibration evaluation procedure defined in the current International Standard on the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration is discussed.

  13. Genetic analysis of clinical findings at health examinations of young Swedish warmblood riding horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soundness is important for welfare and utility of the riding horse. Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common causes of interruption in training and of culling. Despite great importance, heritability of a majority of health traits in horses has previously not been estimated. The objective was to perform genetic analyses of medical and orthopaedic health traits in young riding horses, including estimates of heritability and genetic correlations between health traits, and to reveal possibilities for genetic evaluation of stallions for progeny health. Results The heritability of health traits was estimated using records from 8,238 Swedish warmblood riding horses examined as 4–5 year olds at the Riding Horse Quality Test in 1983–2005. The analyses were performed using multi-trait linear mixed animal models. The heritabilities of palpatory orthopaedic health (PALP), including effusion, swelling, heat, soreness and stiffness/atrophy, and hoof examination results (HOOF), of hoof shape and hoof wall quality, were 0.12 and 0.10, respectively. The genetic variation in these traits resulted in distinct health differences between progeny groups of stallions. The highest heritability among clinical signs of PALP was found for synovial effusions at 0.14. For systemic locations, joint related findings had the highest heritability; 0.13. The heritabilities of medical health and locomotion examination results were low, 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. A genetic improvement of health status has occurred over time but accounts only partly for the decrease in clinical findings of health during the studied period. Conclusions The genetic variation found in PALP and HOOF implies distinct differences between progeny groups. Thus, there are possibilities for improvement of these traits in the population through selection. The weak and non-significant correlation between PALP and HOOF suggests that both traits need to be selected for in practical breeding to improve both

  14. Quality characteristics and acceptability of 'amala' (yam-based thick paste) as influenced by particle size categorization of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour.

    PubMed

    Ayodele, B C; Bolade, M K; Usman, M A

    2013-02-01

    The study was essentially an investigation on the influence of size-categorized yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour on the quality characteristics and acceptability of amala (yam-based thick paste). Yam flour was separated into three major particle size categories (i.e. 75-150 µm, 150-300 µm and whole meal [<300 µm]), while the physicochemical properties of each category were evaluated and flour samples finally used to prepare amala. Both the protein and ash contents of the yam flours were found to decrease with the decrease in the particle size giving 2.87% and 2.27% in 75-150 µm flour category, respectively. The loose bulk density and packed bulk density of the whole meal (<300 µm) were higher than that of others giving 0.50 g/cm(3) and 0.78 g/cm(3), respectively, while 150-300 µm flour category gave the highest value (2.88 g/g) in water absorption capacity. The colour characteristics of the flour samples showed that the whole meal (<300 µm) had the highest lightness index, L*-value (76.4). The 75-150 µm flour category had the highest chroma, C-value (19.2), while that of 150-300 µm had the lowest value (18.7) with no significant difference at p < 0.05. The pasting characteristics of the flour samples showed that 75-150 µm flour category exhibited highest peak viscosity (257.1 RVU), while the whole meal (<300 µm) exhibited highest breakdown viscosity (40.9 RVU), final viscosity (364.0 RVU) and setback viscosity (99.7 RVU). The amala prepared from 150-300 µm flour category gave the highest softness index (19.6 mm) while that obtained from 75-150 µm flour category gave the lowest value (16.6 mm). The sensory quality rating of amala prepared from the flour samples showed that amala from 150-300 µm flour category was rated the highest in terms of colour, texture (ease of mouldability), aroma and overall acceptability. Both positive and negative correlations were found between some properties of size-categorized yam

  15. The Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Classroom Attention of Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Sharon Sue

    2010-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the existence of a functional relation between therapeutic horseback riding and academic-engaged time. With a certified therapeutic riding instructor, riding is designed to address physical, mental, and/or social needs of riders with goal-specific activities. Claims of improvement in attention for those with…

  16. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when necessary...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19074 - Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19074 Riding the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead. Persons shall not ride the bail, rim, bonnet, or crosshead of any shaft conveyance except when...

  6. 49 CFR 392.64 - Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.64 Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits. No person shall ride within the closed body of...

  7. Connect the Book. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    The famous poem "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (originally included in "Tales of a Wayside Inn" as "The Landlord's Tale") has been illustrated by a number of children's book artists over the years. One particular version of note was graved and painted by Christopher Bing and published by Handprint Books in 2001.…

  8. Riding the Wave: A Self-Portrait Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Creating a self-portrait of having fun "riding a wave" is a very enlightening and engaging experience for students of all ages, but the author's second-graders had an especially wonderful time with this art experience. To begin the unit of study, the author and her students looked at self-portraits created by Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt,…

  9. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Monday, No. 89 May 9, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8668--50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 89 / Monday, May 9, 2011 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ]...

  10. Battlefield Tours and Staff Rides: A Useful Learning Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A key component of current British military education is the battlefield tour and staff ride. These tours allow students to visit the location of military events, most commonly the battlefields of the First and Second World Wars in northern Europe, to facilitate their understanding of military history and draw contemporary parallels from the…

  11. Saturday Subway Ride: A Report on the Initial Tryout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilling, Mary R.; And Others

    "Saturday Subway Ride," a program designed to teach pupils creative thinking techniques and positive attitudes toward creative ideas, is a 92-page workbook in a story-exercise format. Secondary objectives for the product include improving verbal fluency and creative writing. Three classrooms 61 sixth graders and 34 fifth graders at two Wisconsin…

  12. Accreditation's Alchemy Hour: Riding the Wave of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This article was adapted from Paul L. Gaston's address to the 2014 annual meeting of the "Association of American Colleges and Universities." The panel session talk "Accreditation: Riding the Wave of Innovation--or Going Under?" addressed issues surrounding the many proposals for demolishing and rebuilding higher education…

  13. GRINDING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. NOTE OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE RIDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. NOTE OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE RIDING ON STEEL RAILS SUPPORTED BY WOODEN BEAMS AND CYCLONE CLASSIFIER IN CENTER. AT RIGHT IS TOP PORTION OF FLASH FLOTATION CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  14. Long School Bus Rides: Stealing the Joy of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Beth

    Every school day, hundreds of West Virginia children ride school buses much longer than state guidelines say they should. Under those guidelines, no elementary student should be on the bus more than 30 minutes one way, middle school students 45 minutes, and high school students 1 hour. In fall 1999, public hearings about school transportation…

  15. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  16. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  17. Disability, Riding, and Identity: A Qualitative Study on the Influence of Riding on the Identity Construction of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to examine the influence of riding on the identity construction of people with disabilities. The 15 participants, three men and 12 women, were between 15 and 65 years old and have various physical disabilities. The data analysis derives from identity theory, a social-psychological theory that…

  18. Serial Measurements of Apoptotic Cell Numbers Provide Better Acceptance Criterion for PBMC Quality than a Single Measurement Prior to the T Cell Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Marie; Caspell, Richard; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V.; Sundararaman, Srividya

    2015-01-01

    As soon as Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) are isolated from whole blood, some cells begin dying. The rate of apoptotic cell death is increased when PBMC are shipped, cryopreserved, or stored under suboptimal conditions. Apoptotic cells secrete cytokines that suppress inflammation while promoting phagocytosis. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells in PBMC may modulate T cell functions in antigen-triggered T cell assays. We assessed the effect of apoptotic bystander cells on a T cell ELISPOT assay by selectively inducing B cell apoptosis using α-CD20 mAbs. The presence of large numbers of apoptotic B cells did not affect T cell functionality. In contrast, when PBMC were stored under unfavorable conditions, leading to damage and apoptosis in the T cells as well as bystander cells, T cell functionality was greatly impaired. We observed that measuring the number of apoptotic cells before plating the PBMC into an ELISPOT assay did not reflect the extent of PBMC injury, but measuring apoptotic cell frequencies at the end of the assay did. Our data suggest that measuring the numbers of apoptotic cells prior to and post T cell assays may provide more stringent PBMC quality acceptance criteria than measurements done only prior to the start of the assay. PMID:25585298

  19. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  20. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  1. The pharmaceutical death-ride of dihydroartemisinin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the 2010 second edition of WHO's guidelines for the treatment of malaria, the relatively new fixed dose combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is included as one of the recommended artemisinin combination therapies. However, experimental testing demonstrates that, due to its intrinsic chemical instability, dihydroartemisinin is not suitable to be used in pharmaceutical formulations. In addition, data show that the currently available dihydroartemisinin preparations fail to meet the internationally accepted stability requirements. At a time when many efforts aim to ban counterfeit and substandard drugs from the malaria market, the obvious question rises how WHO and public-private partnerships, such as Medicine for Malaria venture (MMV), can support the production and marketing of anti-malarial drugs that do not even meet the International Pharmacopoeia requirements? PMID:20649950

  2. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  3. Clinical mentorship to improve pediatric quality of care at the health centers in rural Rwanda: a qualitative study of perceptions and acceptability of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence supporting Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) as a strategy to improve pediatric care in countries with high child mortality, its implementation faces challenges related to lack of or poor post-didactic training supervision and gaps in necessary supporting systems. These constraints lead to health care workers’ inability to consistently translate IMCI knowledge and skills into practice. A program providing mentoring and enhanced supervision at health centers (MESH), focusing on clinical and systems improvement was implemented in rural Rwanda as a strategy to address these issues, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of pediatric care at rural health centers. We explored perceptions of MESH from the perspective of IMCI clinical mentors, mentees, and district clinical leadership. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 40 health care workers from 21 MESH-supported health centers. Two FGDs in each district were carried out, including one for nurses and one for director of health centers. District medical directors and clinical mentors had individual in-depth interviews. We performed a hermeneutic analysis using Atlas.ti v5.2. Results Study participants highlighted program components in five key areas that contributed to acceptability and impact, including: 1) Interactive, collaborative capacity-building, 2) active listening and relationships, 3) supporting not policing, 4) systems improvement, and 5) real-time feedback. Staff turn-over, stock-outs, and other facility/systems gaps were identified as barriers to MESH and IMCI implementation. Conclusion Health care workers reported high acceptance and positive perceptions of the MESH model as an effective strategy to build their capacity, bridge the gap between knowledge and practice in pediatric care, and address facility and systems issues. This approach also improved relationships between the district supervisory team and health center-based care

  4. Radiative inflation and dark energy RIDEs again after BICEP2

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F.; Merle, Alexander; Luhn, Christoph; Schmidt-May, Angnis E-mail: S.F.King@soton.ac.uk E-mail: A.Merle@soton.ac.uk

    2014-08-01

    Following the ground-breaking measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.20{sup +0.07}{sub -0.05} by the BICEP2 collaboration, we perform a statistical analysis of a model that combines Radiative Inflation with Dark Energy (RIDE) based on the M{sup 2}|Φ|{sup 2}ln(|Φ|{sup 2}/Λ{sup 2}) potential and compare its predictions to those based on the traditional chaotic inflation M{sup 2}|Φ|{sup 2} potential. We find a best-fit value in the RIDE model of r=0.18 as compared to r=0.17 in the chaotic model, with the spectral index being n{sub S}=0.96 in both models.

  5. Guaranteed ride home: Taking the worry out of ridesharing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The report describes how to set up a guaranteed ride home (GRH) program as an element of an integrated commuter transportation program. Such programs promote ridesharing by making sure carpool or vanpool members have transportation available to them if an emergency arises or if they have to work late. The costs of such GRH programs are relatively low, since they are used infrequently, but they have high value as an insurance policy for potential ridesharers. Options for providing such rides include company cars, subsidized taxi service, rental cars, community sponsored shuttles, and arrangements with the local transit operator. The document describes how to set up a GRH programs, explores the various options for providing service, and describes the experiences of a number of programs in Southern California.

  6. Long-lasting virtual motorcycle-riding trainer effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vidotto, Giulio; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Tira, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group 1 year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training—1 year before—is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well. PMID:26579036

  7. Safety riding program and motorcycle-related injuries in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Chatchaipan, Pornthip; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2013-09-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Thailand from 2007 to 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of a safety riding program in preventing motorcycle-related injuries. A training group of motorcyclists were certified by the Asia-Pacific Honda Safety Riding Program in either 30-h instruction (teaching skills, riding demonstration) or 15-h license (knowledge, skills, and hazard perception) courses. The control group consisted of untrained motorcyclists matched on an approximately 1:1 ratio with the training group by region and date of licensure. In total, there were 3250 subjects in the training group and 2963 in the control group. Demographic data and factors associated with motorcycle-related injuries were collected. Motorcycle-related injuries were identified using the Road Injuries Victims Protection for injuries claims and inpatient diagnosis-related group datasets from the National Health Security Office. The capture-recapture technique was used to estimate the prevalence of injuries. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to motorcycle-related injuries. The prevalence of motorcycle-related injuries was estimated to be 586 out of 6213 riders (9.4%) with a 95% confidence interval (CI): 460-790. The license course and the instruction course were significantly associated with a 30% and 29% reduction of motorcycle-related injuries, respectively (relative risk 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92 and 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42-1.18, respectively). Other factors associated with the injuries were male gender and young age. Safety riding training was effective in reducing injuries. These training programs differ from those in other developed countries but display comparable effects. Hazard perception skills might be a key for success. This strategy should be expanded to a national scale. PMID:23727552

  8. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  9. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  10. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  11. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  12. New approaches to provide ride-through for critical loads in electric power distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Hernandez, Oscar C.

    2001-07-01

    The extensive use of electronic circuits has enabled modernization, automation, miniaturization, high quality, low cost, and other achievements regarding electric loads in the last decades. However, modern electronic circuits and systems are extremely sensitive to disturbances from the electric power supply. In fact, the rate at which these disturbances happen is considerable as has been documented in recent years. In response to the power quality concerns presented previously, this dissertation is proposing new approaches to provide ride-through for critical loads during voltage disturbances with emphasis on voltage sags. In this dissertation, a new approach based on an AC-DC-AC system is proposed to provide ride-through for critical loads connected in buildings and/or an industrial system. In this approach, a three-phase IGBT inverter with a built in Dc-link voltage regulator is suitably controlled along with static by-pass switches to provide continuous power to critical loads. During a disturbance, the input utility source is disconnected and the power from the inverter is connected to the load. The remaining voltage in the AC supply is converted to DC and compensated before being applied to the inverter and the load. After detecting normal utility conditions, power from the utility is restored to the critical load. In order to achieve an extended ride-through capability a second approach is introduced. In this case, the Dc-link voltage regulator is performed by a DC-DC Buck-Boost converter. This new approach has the capability to mitigate voltage variations below and above the nominal value. In the third approach presented in this dissertation, a three-phase AC to AC boost converter is investigated. This converter provides a boosting action for the utility input voltages, right before they are applied to the load. The proposed Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control strategy ensures independent control of each phase and compensates for both single-phase or poly

  13. Active Control of Airspring Secondary Suspension for Improving Ride Comfort in Presence of Random Track Irregularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfi, Stefano; Bruni, Stefano; Gialleonardo, Egidio Di; Facchinetti, Alan

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possible benefits brought by the use of active control of the airspring secondary suspension for high speed railway vehicles; in this regard, active control is applied to reduce the vertical and pitch carbody oscillations in the low frequency range, according to the concept of skyhook damping. A concept is developed for the active airspring suspension, and a numerical model is derived for the vehicle equipped with the active suspension. The results obtained show that the use of active suspension control offers an important improvement of ride quality, by far larger than that achievable with semi-active suspensions. On the other hand, the issue of air consumption is outlined as a critical point of the proposed concept, requiring further research.

  14. Investigation on motorcyclist riding behaviour at curve entry using instrumented motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  15. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  16. Riding a tsunami in ocean science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Donald L.

    1998-08-01

    An experiment began in late 1994 in which the WWW plays a critical role in the instruction of students in an oceanography course for non-majors. The format of the course consists of an equal blend of traditional lectures, tutorial-style exercises delivered from the course WWW site, classroom activities, such as poster presentations and group projects, and field excursions to local marine environments. The driving force behind the technology component of the course is to provide high-quality educational materials that can be accessed at the convenience of the student. These materials include course information and handouts, lecture notes, self-paced exercises, a virtual library of electronic resources, information on newsworthy marine events, and late-breaking oceanographic research that impacts the population of California. The course format was designed to partially meet the demands of today's students, involve students in the learning process, and prepare students for using technology in work following graduation. Students have reacted favorably to the use of the WWW and comments by peers have been equally supportive. Students are more focused in their efforts during the computer-based exercises than while listening to lecture presentations. The implementation of this form of learning, however, has not, as yet, reduced the financial cost of the course or the amount of instructor effort in providing a high quality education. Interactions between the instructor and students have increased significantly as the informality of a computer laboratory promotes individual discussions and electronic communication provides students with easy (and frequent) access to the instructor outside of class.

  17. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Bass, Margaret M; Duchowny, Catherine A; Llabre, Maria M

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism. We hypothesized that participants in the experimental condition (n = 19), compared to those on the wait-list control (n = 15), would demonstrate significant improvement in social functioning following a 12-weeks horseback riding intervention. Autistic children exposed to therapeutic horseback riding exhibited greater sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity, social motivation, and less inattention, distractibility, and sedentary behaviors. The results provide evidence that therapeutic horseback riding may be a viable therapeutic option in treating children with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:19350376

  18. The use of contingent-interrupted music in the treatment of disruptive bus-riding behavior.

    PubMed

    Barmann, B C; Croyle-Barmann, C; McLain, B

    1980-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of using contingent-interrupted music in treating the disruptive bus-riding behavior of an 8-year-old profoundly retarded female. Music was played during each bus ride as long as the subject was sitting appropriately, and interrupted contingent upon each response defined as disruptive bus riding, during an ABCDCDCDA design. A significant reduction in disruptive bus riding occurred with each introduction of contingent-interrupted music. The treatment procedure described in this report was easy to administer, produced rapid treatment gains, and showed virtually no regression during an 8-week follow-up period. PMID:7204285

  19. Fundamental Study on the Effect of High Frequency Vibration on Ride Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Chizuru; Shimamune, Ryohei; Watanabe, Ken; Suzuki, Erimitsu

    To develop a more suitable method of evaluating ride comfort of high speed trains, a fundamental study was conducted on sensitivity of passengers to various frequencies of vibration with respect to ride comfort. Experiments were performed on 55 subjects using an electrodynamic vibration system that can generate vibrations in the frequency range of 1 to 80 Hz in the vertical direction. Results of experiments indicated that the subjects tend to experience greater discomfort when exposed to high frequency vibrations than that presumed by the conventional Japanese ride comfort assessment method, the "Ride Comfort Level."

  20. Vehicle/guideway interaction and ride comfort in maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S. S.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1993-09-01

    The importance of vehicle/guideway dynamics in maglev systems is discussed. The particular interest associated with modeling vehicle guide-way interactions and explaining response characteristics of maglev systems for a multicar, multiload vehicle traversing on a single- or double-span flexible guideway are considered, with an emphasis on vehicle/guideway coupling effects, comparison of concentrated and distributed loads, and ride comfort. Coupled effects of vehicle/guideway interactions over a wide range of vehicle speeds with various vehicle and guideway parameters are investigated, and appropriate critical vehicle speeds or crossing frequencies are identified.

  1. Vehicle/guideway interaction and ride comfort in maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-01

    The importance of vehicle/guideway dynamics in maglev systems is discussed. The particular interest associated with modeling vehicle guide-way interactions and explaining response characteristics of maglev systems for a multicar, multiload vehicle traversing on a single- or double-span flexible guideway are considered, with an emphasis on vehicle/guideway coupling effects, comparison of concentrated and distributed loads, and ride comfort. Coupled effects of vehicle/guideway interactions over a wide range of vehicle speeds with various vehicle and guideway parameters are investigated, and appropriate critical vehicle speeds or crossing frequencies are identified.

  2. Circuit riding for managing small community sewage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancl, Karen; Duffalo, Michael

    1987-03-01

    Providing wastewater treatment services for small communities can be expensive, so many communities have chosen part-time or inadequately trained operators. This can result in neglect and poor plant performance. Indiana County, Pennsylvania, in the USA, has established an authority to provide operation and maintenance through a circuit riding arrangement. Two operators travel to eight plants five days a week. This has resulted in more consistent operation and maintenance at affordable rates. Homeowners pay 12.60 18.00 and commercial customers pay 25 150 a month. Even with regular attention, these small plants are not able to meet their effluent requirements at all times.

  3. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  4. Playing Hockey, Riding Motorcycles, and the Ethics of Protection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ice hockey and motorcycle riding are increasingly popular activities in the United States that are associated with high risks of head and facial injuries. In both, effective head and facial protective equipment are available. Yet the debates about safety policies regarding the use of head protection in these activities have taken different forms, in terms of the influence of epidemiological data as well as of the ethical concerns raised. I examine these debates over injury prevention in the context of leisure activities, in which the public health duty to prevent avoidable harm must be balanced with the freedom to assume voluntary risks. PMID:23078472

  5. Metaheuristics for the dynamic stochastic dial-a-ride problem with expected return transports.

    PubMed

    Schilde, M; Doerner, K F; Hartl, R F

    2011-12-01

    The problem of transporting patients or elderly people has been widely studied in literature and is usually modeled as a dial-a-ride problem (DARP). In this paper we analyze the corresponding problem arising in the daily operation of the Austrian Red Cross. This nongovernmental organization is the largest organization performing patient transportation in Austria. The aim is to design vehicle routes to serve partially dynamic transportation requests using a fixed vehicle fleet. Each request requires transportation from a patient's home location to a hospital (outbound request) or back home from the hospital (inbound request). Some of these requests are known in advance. Some requests are dynamic in the sense that they appear during the day without any prior information. Finally, some inbound requests are stochastic. More precisely, with a certain probability each outbound request causes a corresponding inbound request on the same day. Some stochastic information about these return transports is available from historical data. The purpose of this study is to investigate, whether using this information in designing the routes has a significant positive effect on the solution quality. The problem is modeled as a dynamic stochastic dial-a-ride problem with expected return transports. We propose four different modifications of metaheuristic solution approaches for this problem. In detail, we test dynamic versions of variable neighborhood search (VNS) and stochastic VNS (S-VNS) as well as modified versions of the multiple plan approach (MPA) and the multiple scenario approach (MSA). Tests are performed using 12 sets of test instances based on a real road network. Various demand scenarios are generated based on the available real data. Results show that using the stochastic information on return transports leads to average improvements of around 15%. Moreover, improvements of up to 41% can be achieved for some test instances. PMID:23543641

  6. Driving and riding avoidance following motor vehicle crashes in a non-clinical sample: psychometric properties of a new measure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E; St Peter, Claire C

    2004-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of a measure that we developed using a non-clinical sample of university undergraduates, the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale (DRAS). Study 1 indicated that the scale was internally consistent (alpha=0.92) and that a four-factor model (general avoidance, avoidance of traffic and busy roads, avoidance of weather or darkness, and riding avoidance) provided the best fit to the data in a sample of 386 crash survivors. This study also revealed that survivors who received medical treatment for their crash-related injuries reported significantly greater avoidance than people who were uninjured or injured and not medically treated. Study 2 revealed that the DRAS possessed acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.83) over a 4-week interval in a sample of 67 crash survivors. Using a sample of 118 survivors, study 3 examined the instrument's convergent and divergent validity through correlations with the Accident Fear Questionnaire (AFQ), the Mobility Inventory (MI), the Fear Survey Schedule-II (FSS-II), and the Fear Questionnaire (FQ). The strongest relationships were observed between the DRAS and the AFQ and with a driving subscale created from the MI items. The DRAS exhibited significantly weaker relationships with the FQ subscales that assessed other kinds of phobic avoidance. PMID:15178463

  7. 3 CFR 8668 - Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011. 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides 8668 Proclamation 8668 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8668 of May 3, 2011 Proc. 8668 50th Anniversary of the Freedom RidesBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Fifty years ago,...

  8. 48 CFR 46.503 - Place of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of acceptance. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.503 Place of acceptance. Each contract shall specify the place of acceptance. Contracts that provide for Government contract quality assurance at source shall...

  9. 48 CFR 46.503 - Place of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Place of acceptance. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.503 Place of acceptance. Each contract shall specify the place of acceptance. Contracts that provide for Government contract quality assurance at source shall...

  10. Experimental tests of beam-riding sail dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, James; Benford, Gregory; Gornostaeva, Olga; Garate, Eusebio; Anderson, Michael; Prichard, Alan; Harris, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Stability is a neglected issue in concepts for propelling ultralight sails by beamed power. Whether the beam comes from a laser or a microwave antenna, power falls with angle from the beam center. This drives a sail sideways under any lateral perturbation-``tumbling down the hill.'' The basic mechanics of pressures and sail averaging of them across its area remain unexplored in experiment, and have only recently been treated in theory. Here we report the first experiments on beam-riding dynamics in the laboratory, using a slightly over-weighted pendulum. In the experiments, a sail attached to the pendulum bottom is made unstable by adding weight to the top end. Sail stability and oscillation are possible if this is countered by electrodynamic beam pressure on the sail, directed from below, torquing the pendulum into a stable state. We present both data and analysis that shows that the beam-riding effect does in fact occur: microwave powers of a few hundred W can hold an otherwise unstable sail steady. This is made possible because of the gradient in beam power with sidewise angle. Our experiments verify the University of New Mexico simulations, which show similar stability conditions. Beam powers comparable to the strength of perturbing forces can plausibly achieve these stability effects in free sail flight. .

  11. Evaluation of Free-Riding Traffic Problem in Overlay Routing and Its Mitigation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Go; Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Murata, Masayuki

    Recent research on overlay networks has revealed that user-perceived network performance could be improved by an overlay routing mechanism. The effectiveness of overlay routing is mainly a result of the policy mismatch between the overlay routing and the underlay IP routing operated by ISPs. However, this policy mismatch causes a “free-riding” traffic problem, which may become harmful to the cost structure of Internet Service Providers. In the present paper, we define the free-riding problem in the overlay routing and evaluate the degree of free-riding traffic to reveal the effect of the problem on ISPs. We introduce a numerical metric to evaluate the degree of the free-riding problem and confirm that most multihop overlay paths that have better performance than the direct path brings the free-riding problem. We also discuss the guidelines for selecting paths that are more effective than the direct path and that mitigate the free-riding problem.

  12. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  13. Effective use of park-and-ride facilities. A synthesis of highway practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, K.F.

    1995-08-01

    This synthesis will be of interest to traffic planners and engineers, as well as to transit planners and operations personnel, design and construction contractors, and municipal, transit, and highway agencies. Security and management officials who are responsible for safe and efficient operation of park-and-ride facilities will also find the synthesis useful. The synthesis provides an assessment of the current status of park-and-ride facilities in the United States. The various aspects of park-and-ride facilities, including conceptual issues, location, design, administration, operation, maintenance, and other supporting elements are addressed in this synthesis. The report of the Transportation Research Board also provides information on the current usage of park-and-ride facilities throughout the nation, operating and maintenance practices at selected sites, descriptions of safety and security measures used at various facilities, and the relationship of ridesharing and travel demand management (TDM) programs to the success of park-and-ride facilities.

  14. 48 CFR 1346.503 - Place of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of acceptance. 1346... QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 1346.503 Place of acceptance. Insert a clause substantially similar to 1352.246-70, Place of Acceptance, in contracts and solicitations to indicate where the acceptance...

  15. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance of... to a cognizant contract administration office or to another agency (see 42.202(g)), acceptance...

  16. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance of... to a cognizant contract administration office or to another agency (see 42.202(g)), acceptance...

  17. Inclination to speeding and its correlates among two-wheeler riding Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Rajeev J.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Mehrotra, Seema; Banu, Humera; Kumar, Rajesh; Sudhir, Paulomi M.; Chakrabarthy, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Concerns about road safety have been increasingly associated with two-wheeler riding and especially with young commuters in India. Aims: The study was designed to explore inclination to speeding and to profile the driving behaviors in two-wheeler riding young men and women who reported a tendency to ride faster than their peers. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Materials and Methods: On the basis of three focus group discussions and review of literature, a survey was prepared to tap domains such as affect states associated with riding/speeding, factors contributing to speeding, inclination for competing, perceived speed and safety, etc. The study sample comprised of 961 two-wheeler riding college-going young men and women in Bangalore. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used including Chi-square, Spearman's rank correlation, and independent sample t-test. Results: The sample was divided into two subgroups on the basis of self-report of greater speeding than one's peers. A subgroup of 349 participants endorsed the item regarding inclination to ride faster than one's peers, whereas, the remaining 612 participants did not endorse it. The profiles of these two subgroups were obtained in terms of sociodemographic variables, riding behaviors, and associated domains. Significant differences between the subgroups emerged on domains such as motives for riding fast, tendency for competing, perceived safety and frequency of minor accidents while riding. Conclusions: Several correlates of the tendency to speeding among young two-wheeler riders emerged that have implications for enhancing safe riding. PMID:25788799

  18. Using software metrics and software reliability models to attain acceptable quality software for flight and ground support software for avionic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Stella

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with methods of measuring and developing quality software. Reliable flight and ground support software is a highly important factor in the successful operation of the space shuttle program. Reliability is probably the most important of the characteristics inherent in the concept of 'software quality'. It is the probability of failure free operation of a computer program for a specified time and environment.

  19. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  20. Effects of different weight loads on the body during motorcycle riding.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Fukaya, Y; Yokomori, M

    1986-08-01

    The authors examined the physiological changes of men riding motorcycles carrying different loads. Nine healthy professional riders were the subjects. They used professional Honda MD 90B-90CC motorcycles. Each subject made test rides with the loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kg, taken at random, on a concrete road for 20 min at a speed of 30 km/h. The environmental temperature at the time of the test, skin temperature, vibration sense threshold at a vibration level of 125 Hz, critical flicker fusion frequency, pinching power, grasping power, pulse rates, and blood pressure were measured. The pulse rates were significantly different for the rides with the four different loads, and the changes in pulse rate after the ride with the loads of 10 and 20 kg were comparatively higher than those before the ride. The changes of systolic blood pressure after the rides with the loads of 15 and 20 kg were significantly higher than those before the rides. The other changes observed were not significantly different. PMID:3775328

  1. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties. PMID:24713220

  2. Time geography for ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning in mobile geosensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubal, Martin; Winter, Stephan; Teβmann, Sven; Gaisbauer, Christian

    Ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning in an urban environment is a complex task within a non-deterministic transportation network. Mobile geosensor networks provide the technical environment for realizing ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning: Network nodes are autonomous agents that interact locally by ad-hoc short-range communication and arrange for shared rides. In a mobile geosensor network, communication costs are critical because of constraints regarding bandwidth, available energy, and memory. This paper introduces spatio-temporal concepts from time geography, which can be employed during the planning process to significantly reduce communication costs. We will integrate network-based algorithms and different wayfinding strategies to assist both shared-ride clients and hosts in finding optimal travel assignments. Multi-agent geosimulation in a real street network is used to demonstrate the applicability of the approach and quantitatively confirm the theoretically foreseen reduction in communication costs.

  3. Christa McAuliffe during her training ride in the T-38 jet trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Payload specialist Sharon Christa McAuliffe appears to be enjoying her ride during her training in the T-38 jet trainer. Part of Galveston Island and the Greater Houston Metropolitan area can be seen in the background.

  4. An Active Suspension Controller Achieving the Best Ride Comfort at Any Specified Location on A Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshiaki

    In this paper, a new active suspension control scheme is developed so that ride comfort becomes best at any specified location on vehicle body. To achieve this end, two ideal vehicles are designed in which ride comfort becomes best at each different location. Then, linearly combining the two ideal vehicles, a combined ideal vehicle is constructed. It should be noted that we can easily force ride comfort at a specified location become best in the proposed combined ideal vehicle by setting only one design parameter. To achieve the good property stated above in actual vehicles, a robust tracking controller is proposed. It is shown by carrying out numerical simulations that ride comfort at a specified location can be easily improved in the closed loop system using the proposed combined ideal vehicle.

  5. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  6. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  7. The effects of horse-riding simulator exercise and Kendall exercise on the forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Gil; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse-riding simulator exercise and Kendall exercise on forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly college students with a forward head posture were randomly divided into two groups for 15 persons each, a horse-riding simulator group and Kendall exercise group, and performed exercise for eight weeks. [Results] The horse-riding simulator group and Kendall exercise group showed significant differences after the intervention in New York state posture rating, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle. The horse-riding simulator group showed a significantly smaller value than the Kendall exercise group for New York state posture rating evaluation after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that horse-riding simulator exercise is more effective on forward head posture than Kendall exercise. Therefore, horse-riding simulator exercise can be used as a new simple treatment method for the ever-growing forward head posture. PMID:25995571

  8. Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Hong, Chul Un; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities. PMID:25226940

  9. Bicycle Riding, Walking, and Weight Gain in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Anne C.; Mekary, Rania A.; Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Context No research has been conducted on bicycle riding and weight control in comparison to walking. Objective To assess the association between bicycle riding and weight control in premenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a 16-year follow-up of 18, 414 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Main Outcome Measures Weight change between 1989 and 2005 was the primary outcome and odds of gaining >5% of baseline body weight (BBW) by 2005 the secondary outcome. Results At baseline, only 39% walked briskly while only 1.2% bicycled for ≥30 min/d. For a 30 min/d increase in activity between 1989 and 2005, weight gain was significantly less for brisk walking (−1.81 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.05,−1.56), bicycling (−1.59 kg; 95%CI= −2.09, −1.08), and other activities (−1.45 kg; 95%CI= −1.66, −1.24) but not for slow walking (+0.06 kg; 95%CI= −0.22, 0.35). Women who reported no bicycling in 1989 and increased to as little as 5 minutes/day in 2005 gained less weight (−0.74 kg; 95%CI= −1.41, −0.07, P-trend<0.01) than those who remained non-bikers. Normal weight women who bicycled ≥ 4 hours/week in 2005 had lower odds of gaining >5% of their BBW (Odds Ratio (OR) =0.74, 95%CI=0.56–0.98) compared with those who reported no bicycling; overweight/obese women had lower odds at 2–3 hours/week (OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.34–86). Conclusions Bicycling, similar to brisk walking, is associated with less weight gain and an inverse dose-response relationship exists, especially among overweight/obese women. Future research should focus on brisk walking but also on greater time spent bicycling. PMID:20585071

  10. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R.; Carretero-González, R.

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle.

  11. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R; Carretero-González, R

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle. PMID:26986326

  12. Cooking practices, air quality, and the acceptability of advanced cookstoves in Haryana, India: an exploratory study to inform large-scale interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Sambandam, Sankar; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Jack, Darby; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Vaswani, Mayur; Bates, Michael N.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Arora, Narendra; Smith, Kirk R.

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, approximately 66% of households rely on dung or woody biomass as fuels for cooking. These fuels are burned under inefficient conditions, leading to household air pollution (HAP) and exposure to smoke containing toxic substances. Large-scale intervention efforts need to be informed by careful piloting to address multiple methodological and sociocultural issues. This exploratory study provides preliminary data for such an exercise from Palwal District, Haryana, India. Methods Traditional cooking practices were assessed through semi-structured interviews in participating households. Philips and Oorja, two brands of commercially available advanced cookstoves with small blowers to improve combustion, were deployed in these households. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) related to traditional stove use were measured using real-time and integrated personal, microenvironmental samplers for optimizing protocols to evaluate exposure reduction. Qualitative data on acceptability of advanced stoves and objective measures of stove usage were also collected. Results Twenty-eight of the thirty-two participating households had outdoor primary cooking spaces. Twenty households had liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) but preferred traditional stoves as the cost of LPG was higher and because meals cooked on traditional stoves were perceived to taste better. Kitchen area concentrations and kitchen personal concentrations assessed during cooking events were very high, with respective mean PM2.5 concentrations of 468 and 718 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour outdoor concentrations averaged 400 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour personal CO concentrations ranged between 0.82 and 5.27 ppm. The Philips stove was used more often and for more hours than the Oorja. Conclusions The high PM and CO concentrations reinforce the need for interventions that reduce HAP exposure in the aforementioned community. Of the two stoves tested

  13. Increase in fault ride through capability of direct drive permanent magnet based wind farm using VSC-HVDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Hesamaldin; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.; Lak, Moein

    2013-06-01

    Burning of fossil fuels and green house gasses causes global warming. This has led to governments to explore the use of green energies instead of fossil fuels. The availability of wind has made wind technology a viable alternative for generating electrical power. Hence, many parts of the world, especially Europe are experiencing a growth in wind farms. However, by increasing the number of wind farms connected to the grid, power quality and voltage stability of grid becomes a matter of concern. In this paper, VSC-HVDC control strategy which enables the wind farm to ride-through faults and regulate voltage for fault types is proposed. The results show that the wind turbine output voltage fulfills the E.ON grid code requirements, when subjected to three phase to ground fault. Hence, continues operation of the wind farm is achieved.

  14. Riding the Range: Horse Riding Activities. Level 4. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08056

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  15. A Pilot Feasibility and Acceptability Study of Yoga/Meditation on the Quality of Life and Markers of Stress in Persons Living with HIV Who Also Use Crack Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Adarsh; Lewis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) who also use crack cocaine may have stressful, chaotic lives and typically do not engage in standard medical care that addresses a multitude of extenuating life circumstances. Yoga/meditation (YM) improves quality of life (QOL) and biomarkers of stress, but the effect of this intervention is almost unknown in PLWH, particularly those who use crack cocaine. Objectives: This pilot study sought to compare the feasibility and acceptability of 60-minute, twice-per-week sessions of YM for 2 months with those of no-contact control and to evaluate the effects of the intervention on QOL (according to the Short Form-36, Perceived Stress Scale [PSS], and Impact of Events Scale [IES]) and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) among PLWH who use crack cocaine. Design: Participants were randomly assigned to YM or no-contact control and were assessed at baseline, 2 months after the intervention, and 4 months' follow-up. Results: The YM program was acceptable and feasible, with high overall attendance (89%) and individual participation in yoga sessions (83%). YM participants showed modest improvements on QOL. The PSS total score and the IES intrusion score improved significantly 2 months after the intervention, but cortisol and DHEA-S did not change. Conclusions: This pilot study showed a high level of feasibility and acceptability and modest effects on measures of QOL among PLWH who use crack cocaine. The results suggest utility of YM as a simple, safe, and inexpensive format to improve QOL in a population that has many medical difficulties and extenuating stressors. PMID:25695849

  16. Walk or ride? Phoretic behaviour of amblyceran and ischnoceran lice.

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Villa, Scott M; Thompson, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E

    2016-04-01

    Phoresy is a behaviour where one organism hitches a ride on another more mobile organism. This is a common dispersal mechanism amongst relatively immobile species that specialise on patchy resources. Parasites specialise on patchily distributed resources: their hosts. Although host individuals are isolated in space and time, parasites must transmit between hosts or they will die with their hosts. Lice are permanent obligate ectoparasites that complete their entire life cycle on their host. They typically transmit when hosts come into direct contact; however, lice are also capable of transmitting phoretically. Yet, phoresy is rare amongst some groups of lice. Fundamental morphological differences have traditionally been used to explain the phoretic differences amongst different suborders of lice; however, these hypotheses do not fully explain observed patterns. We propose that a more fundamental natural history trait may better explain variation in phoresy. Species able to disperse under their own power should be less likely to engage in phoresy than more immobile species. Here we experimentally tested the relationship between independent louse mobility and phoresy using a system with four species of lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Amblycera) that all parasitize a single host species, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia). We quantified the relative ability of all four species of lice to move independently off the host, and we quantified their ability to attach to, and remain attached to, hippoboscid flies (Pseudolynchia canariensis). Our results show that the most mobile louse species is the least phoretic, and the most phoretic species is quite immobile off the host. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that phoretic dispersal should be rare amongst species of lice that are capable of independent dispersal; however other factors such as interspecific competition may also play a role. PMID:26896575

  17. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    PubMed

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements. PMID:26910774

  18. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Stephen M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements. PMID:26910774

  19. Ride dynamic evaluations and design optimisation of a torsio-elastic off-road vehicle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazooki, Alireza; Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Boileau, Paul-Émile

    2011-09-01

    The ride dynamic characteristics of a novel torsio-elastic suspension for off-road vehicle applications are investigated through field measurements and simulations. A prototype suspension was realised and integrated within the rear axle of a forestry skidder for field evaluations. Field measurements were performed on forestry terrains at a constant forward speed of 5 km/h under the loaded and unloaded conditions, and the ride responses were acquired in terms of accelerations along the vertical, lateral, roll, longitudinal and pitch axes. The measurements were also performed on a conventional skidder to investigate the relative ride performance potentials of the proposed suspension. The results revealed that the proposed suspension could yield significant reductions in magnitudes of transmitted vibration to the operator seat. Compared with the unsuspended vehicle, the prototype suspended vehicle resulted in nearly 35%, 43% and 57% reductions in the frequency-weighted rms accelerations along the x-, y- and z-axis, respectively. A 13-degree-of-freedom ride dynamic model of the vehicle with rear-axle torsio-elastic suspension was subsequently derived and validated in order to study the sensitivity of the ride responses to suspension parameters. Optimal suspension parameters were identified using the Pareto technique based on the genetic algorithm to obtain minimal un-weighted and frequency-weighted rms acceleration responses. The optimal solutions resulted in further reduction in the pitch acceleration in the order of 20%, while the reductions in roll and vertical accelerations ranged from 3.5 to 6%.

  20. Hybrid column generation and large neighborhood search for the dial-a-ride problem.

    PubMed

    Parragh, Sophie N; Schmid, Verena

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change towards an ever aging population entails an increasing demand for specialized transportation systems to complement the traditional public means of transportation. Typically, users place transportation requests, specifying a pickup and a drop off location and a fleet of minibuses or taxis is used to serve these requests. The underlying optimization problem can be modeled as a dial-a-ride problem. In the dial-a-ride problem considered in this paper, total routing costs are minimized while respecting time window, maximum user ride time, maximum route duration, and vehicle capacity restrictions. We propose a hybrid column generation and large neighborhood search algorithm and compare different hybridization strategies on a set of benchmark instances from the literature. PMID:23471127

  1. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    PubMed

    Stock, Kathrin Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Studbook inspection (SBI) data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR) data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF) and hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB) which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14-0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09-0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of r(g) = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of r(g) = 0.37-0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF. PMID:17129565

  2. Outcomes of Home-Support Consultation on the Maintenance of Bicycle-Riding Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Pitchford, E. Andrew; Hauck, Janet L.; Ketcheson, Leah R.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle riding is a functional motor skill that increases physical activity opportunities, social interaction, and independence. However, bicycle riding is difficult for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to learn. This study examined the effectiveness of home-support consultation (HSC) on increasing the maintenance of independent bicycle…

  3. A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Health Benefits of a Therapeutic Riding Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Margaret Ann

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic horseback riding can be recommended as a useful health promotion intervention for individuals with disabilities who face challenges to optimal health and wellness. This qualitative study examined the perceived benefits of a therapeutic riding program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with particular focus on aspects…

  4. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  5. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  6. A method for the measurement and analysis of ride vibrations of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catherines, J. J.; Clevenson, S. A.; Scholl, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    The measurement and recording of ride vibrations which affect passenger comfort in transportation systems and the subsequent data-reduction methods necessary for interpreting the data present exceptional instrumentation requirements and necessitate the use of computers for specialized analysis techniques. A method is presented for both measuring and analyzing ride vibrations of the type encountered in ground and air transportation systems. A portable system for measuring and recording low-frequency, low-amplitude accelerations and specialized data-reduction procedures are described. Sample vibration measurements in the form of statistical parameters representative of typical transportation systems are also presented to demonstrate the utility of the techniques.

  7. Members of Apollo 15 crew ride Lunar Roving Vehicle during simulated EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A wide-angle view showing two members of the prime crew of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission riding in a Lunar Roving Vehicle trainer called 'Grover' during a simulation of lunar surface extravehicular activity in the Taos, New Mexico area. They are Astronauts David R. Scott (riding in left side seat), commander; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. Apollo 15 will be the first mission to the Moon to carry a Lunar Roving Vehicle, which will permit the astronauts to cover a larger area for exploration and sample collecting than on previous missions.

  8. Acceleration and rotation in a pendulum ride, measured using an iPhone 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlén, Johan

    2011-11-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a complete description of a motion also requires measurement of the rotation around the three axes, as provided, for example, by the iPhone 4. Here we present and interpret accelerometer and gyroscope data that were collected on a rotary pendulum ride.

  9. 48 CFR 446.370 - Inspection and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and acceptance... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 446.370 Inspection and acceptance. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 452.246-70, Inspection and Acceptance, in contracts where inspection...

  10. 48 CFR 2446.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Responsibility for acceptance. 2446.502 Section 2446.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 2446.502 Responsibility for acceptance....

  11. 48 CFR 2446.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility for acceptance. 2446.502 Section 2446.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 2446.502 Responsibility for acceptance....

  12. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  13. Traditional Wisdom and Male Adolescent Development on Marathon Bicycle Rides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary W.

    The challenge of the Australian lifestyle has historically led bushmen on journeys of arduous adventure which actively developed unfettered spirits and extraordinary endurance. These qualities have contributed to the development of the Australian psyche. As a way of passing on the qualities and values of Australian bushmen of years ago, an…

  14. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  15. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  16. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  17. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  18. 49 CFR 392.64 - Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits. 392.64 Section 392.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF...

  19. A Collaborative Effort Allows People with Disabilities to Experience the Joy of Horseback Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a story about children with special needs whose exceptional parents had the courage and faith to look beyond their child's physical disability. Their vision granted them opportunities in a therapeutic riding program, which previously would not have included individuals with such severe disabilities. Through their…

  20. Astronauts Joseph Allen rides cherry picker over stowage area/work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen rides a cherry picker over to a stowage area/work station to wrap up extravehicular activity (EVA) duties above Earth. The cherry picker is a union of the mobile foot restraint and the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside Discovery's cabin. The Westar VI/PAM-D satellite is pictured secured in Discovery's cargo bay.

  1. An Evaluation of a Group Project Designed to Reduce Free-Riding and Promote Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaray, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Group projects are recognised as effective means of engaging students with work-related skills and promoting cooperative learning. This paper reports findings of a small survey--a group project designed to reduce problems associated with the process of production of group goods and services: free-riding and monitoring participation level. The…

  2. RIDE'n RIPT—ring down elimination in rapid imaging pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelk, Klaus; Trautner, Peter; Niessen, Heiko G.; Gerald, Rex E., II

    2002-12-01

    A new pulse sequence is introduced for compensation of acoustic ringing effects, which occur in rotating-frame images obtained with the rapid imaging pulse trains (RIPT). The new sequence (RIDE'n RIPT) combines features of ring down elimination (RIDE), the most common difference-spectroscopy sequence for acoustic-ringing compensation, with the advantages of RIPT for fast acquisition of magnetization profiles in B1 field gradients. For even greater time efficiency in many experiments, the two transients of RIDE'n RIPT are combined to a single transient in which data for the difference spectroscopy are collected sequentially. RIDE'n RIPT was used to record one-dimensional profiles of the proton magnetization in supercritical fluid samples of methane in carbon dioxide. The profiles showed substantial improvements over profiles obtained from standard RIPT. To withstand the high pressures required for the supercritical carbon dioxide mixtures, a toroid cavity autoclave (TCA) was used as the NMR resonator and pressure vessel. The well-defined, strong, and nonuniform B1 field of the TCA was used to resolve distances along the radial dimension.

  3. 30 CFR 56.16011 - Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook. 56.16011 Section 56.16011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL...

  4. 30 CFR 57.16011 - Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Riding hoisted loads or on the hoist hook. 57.16011 Section 57.16011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  5. Astronauts Shepard and Young riding elevator to white room atop Pad 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Riding the elevator to the white room atop the Gemini Launch Vehicle on Pad 19 are Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (left) and John W. Young. The Gemini-Titan 3 flight was scheduled on march 23, 1965. Young is the pilot of the GT-3 mission. Shepard was the Mercury Redstone 3 pilot.

  6. R.I.D.E. (Responding to Individual Differences in Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkell, Vern

    Project R.I.D.E. provides support to regular education teachers to help them deal effectively with inappropriate social and academic behaviors and to eliminate false referrals to special education. A classroom teacher survey in the Great Falls (Montana) Public Schools determined the 20 most significant classroom problems. For each problem, five…

  7. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  8. Effect of Horseback Riding Simulation Machine Training on Trunk Balance and Gait of Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungguen; Her, Jin Gang; Ko, Jooyeon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of horseback riding simulation machine training on trunk balance and gait of patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 patients hospitalized for treatment after being diagnosed with stroke. Horseback riding simulation training was provided for 30 minutes, 5 times a week, for 6 weeks. Trunk balance was assessed using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) and a balance measuring device (Biorescue, RM ingenierie, France), and gait ability was measured using the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) and a gait analyzer (GAITRite, CIR system Inc., USA). [Results] There were significant changes in movement area, distance and velocity of body sway as measured by the TIS and the balance measuring device, and in gait velocity, cadence, stride length and double limb support as measured by the FGA and gait analyzer. [Conclusion] Horseback riding simulation training improved the trunk balance and gait of chronic stroke patients. This present study provides preliminary objective data for future research, and useful clinical information for physical therapists using horseback riding simulation machines as a treatment modality for patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24567670

  9. Acceleration and Rotation in a Pendulum Ride, Measured Using an iPhone 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Rohlen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Many modern cell phones have built-in sensors that may be used as a resource for physics education. Amusement rides offer examples of many different types of motion, where the acceleration leads to forces experienced throughout the body. A comoving 3D-accelerometer gives an electronic measurement of the varying forces acting on the rider, but a…

  10. Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Friedl, W A; Fong, M L; Yamada, R M; Sedivy, P; Haun, J E

    1992-02-27

    Over the past 50 years there has been much speculation about the energetic cost of swimming and wave-riding by dolphins. When aligned properly in front of the bow of moving ships in the stern wake of small boats, on wind waves, and even in the wake of larger cetaceans, the animals appear to move effortlessly through the water without the benefit of propulsive strokes by the flukes. Theoretically, body streamlining as well as other anatomical and behavioural adaptations contribute to low transport costs in these animals. The economy of movement permitted by wave-riding has been perceived as an energetic advantage for the swimming dolphin, but has been hard to prove in the absence of physiological data for exercising cetaceans. Here we determine the aerobic and anaerobic costs of swimming and wave-riding in bottlenose dolphins and find that the minimum cost of transport for swimming dolphins is 1.29 +/- 0.05 J kg-1 m-1 at a cruising speed of 2.1 m s-1. Aerobic costs are nearly twice as high for swimming seals and sea lions, and 8-12 times higher for human swimmers. Wave-riding by dolphins provides additional benefits in terms of speed. The results indicate that behavioural, physiological and morphological factors make swimming an economical form of high-speed travel for dolphins. PMID:1538760

  11. 13. photocopy, SCHOOLCHILDREN ENJOYING A WAGON RIDE, late 19th or ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. photocopy, SCHOOLCHILDREN ENJOYING A WAGON RIDE, late 19th or early 20th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF851 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  12. A Motion Simulator Ride Associated With Headache and Subdural Hematoma: First Case Report.

    PubMed

    Scranton, Robert A; Evans, Randolph W; Baskin, David S

    2016-02-01

    We report the first case report of symptomatic bilateral subdural hematomas (SDH) associated with riding a centrifugal motion simulator ride. A previously healthy 55-year-old male developed new onset daily headaches 1 week after going on the ride that were due to symptomatic bilateral SDH requiring operative intervention with a full recovery. There was no history of other trauma or other systemic or intracranial abnormality to account for the development of the SDH. We review the headaches and other clinical features associated with chronic SDH. Twelve cases of roller coaster headaches due to SDH associated with riding roller coasters have been reported. The pathophysiology is reviewed, which we believe is the same mechanism that may be responsible in this case. Although it is possible that this neurovascular injury is truly rare, it is also possible that this injury is underreported as patients and physicians may not make the association or physicians have not reported additional cases. The risk of this injury likely increases with age, as the size of the subdural space increases, and may support the maxim that "roller coasters and simulators are for kids." PMID:26581189

  13. The Dynamics of Plant Closings: An Extended Emotional Roller Coaster Ride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joe B.; Shepard, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Millions of United States' workers are unemployed, many of them dislocated from their jobs and careers by extended layoffs, drastic manpower reductions, and plant closings. Describes a model of the emotional roller coaster ride taken by employees displaced by a plant closing and suggests approaches to helping them and their families. (Author/ABB)

  14. Effects of mechanical horseback riding velocity on spinal alignment in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Heon; Cho, Woon-Su; Lee, Seong-Jin; Park, Chi-Bok; Park, Jang-Sung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine if the velocity of mechanical horseback-riding training can improve spinal alignment in young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated into high-, moderate-, and low-velocity mechanical horseback-riding training groups. All participants completed one 20-minute session per day, 3 days per week, for 6 weeks. The evaluation was performed before and 6 weeks after the training intervention. The spinal alignment was measured by a Formetric III device. The measurement items were kyphotic angle, lordotic angle, trunk inclination, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation, and lateral deviation. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance to determine the statistical significance. [Results] The kyphotic angle and trunk inclination were significantly different among the groups. The kyphotic angles of the high- and moderate-velocity groups were significantly lower than that of the low-velocity group after the intervention. The trunk inclination of the high-velocity group was significantly lower than that of the low-velocity group after intervention. [Conclusion] Higher-velocity mechanical horseback-riding training is more effective than lower-velocity mechanical horseback-riding training for improving spinal alignment. PMID:27390428

  15. Effects of vehicle-ride exposure on cervical pathology: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    KOLLOCK, Roger; GAMES, Kenneth; WILSON, Alan E.; SEFTON, JoEllen M.

    2015-01-01

    Research to date on the effect vehicle-ride exposure has on the development of cervical pathologies in mounted Warfighters is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to determine if the literature suggests a definite effect of vehicle-ride exposure on cervical pathology. Databases were searched using multiple combinations of select terms. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that overall vehicle-ride exposure was likely to increase cervical pathology (p=0.01, odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI=1.16−2.17). Using vehicle type as a moderator it was found that vehicle-ride exposure in ground-based vehicles (p=0.01, odds ratio=2.33, 95% CI=1.41−3.85) and fixed-wing aircraft (p=0.01, odds ratio =1.59, 95% CI=1.13−2.23) were likely to increase cervical pathology. Using operator/other personnel moderator it was found that in the populations tested, fighter pilots or fighter jet weapons systems operators were more likely to develop a cervical pathology (p<0.001, odds ratio=1.78, 95% CI=1.26−2.50). The available studies indicate an increase in cervical pathology for personnel exposed to ground-based vehicles and fixed-wing aircraft. PMID:25739897

  16. The Effectiveness of Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 20-week Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) by using an innovative exercise equipment (Joba[R]) on the motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions in 60 children with autism (age: 6 years, 5 months to 8 years, 9 months). In the first phase of 20 weeks, 30 children received the…

  17. Horse Riding 101: The Role of Experience in Reframing Teacher Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbett, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    For this self-study of my teacher education practice, I positioned myself as a novice in the unfamiliar context of learning to ride a horse. This gave me an opportunity to re-experience being an authentic learner and thereby to deepen my understanding of how an individual learns to teach. I recorded my experiences in an electronic journal and…

  18. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  19. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49-57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0-0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa-sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  20. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  1. Unsafe riding practice among electric bikers in Suzhou, China: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Yihe; Du, Wei; Powis, Brent; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Liao, Yilan; Li, Ning; Wu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Electric bike (E-bike)-related deaths have been increasing rapidly in China and such injuries may be partly attributable to unsafe riding practice. Objectives To describe potentially unsafe riding behaviours among electric bikers (E-bikers) and to investigate factors influencing these practices in China. Methods In September 2012, a cross-sectional observation study including a speed measurement component was conducted in Wuzhong (an urban district) and Zhangjiagang (a rural district) of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. Hand-held radar speed metres were used to read travelling speeds of E-bikes and a pro forma observation checklist was used to collect data on road riding practice. Mixed-effect logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for the association between speeding, road rule violations and helmet use and their influencing factors. Results Among 800 E-bikes with a speed reading, 70.9% exceeded the designed speed limit of 20 km/h. Among a further 20 647 E-bikers observed, 38.3% did not comply with the road rules when entering intersections; and only 2.2% wore helmets. No regional variation was identified between urban and rural areas. Male E-bikers were associated with more speeding and road rule violations, whereas riding a pedal-equipped E-bike was associated with less road rule violations and less helmet use. Conclusions Unsafe riding practices such as speeding, road rule violations and lack of helmet use were commonplace among E-bikers, especially among men. The study findings indicate that measures aimed at improving E-bike safety are required in China. PMID:24435891

  2. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  3. The use of a quasi-naturalistic riding method to investigate bicyclists' behaviors when motorists pass.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Chun-Chia; Lai, Ching-Huei; Doong, Ji-Liang; Jeng, Ming-Chang

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how motorized vehicle-related factors, road-related factors, and bicyclist-related factors influenced motorists' decisions about initial passing distances and bicyclists' behaviors after the motorists started to pass. A quasi-naturalistic riding method was used for thirty-four participating bicyclists riding an instrumented bicycle in real traffic. The study included 1380 incidents of left-side passing by motorists and revealed that the factors studied influenced both the motorists' initial passing distance and the bicyclists' position (lateral distance from the passing motorists), wheel angle, and speed control behaviors while the motorists passed. Some factors were related to the motorized vehicles; for example, the initial passing distance and the mean lateral distances were smaller when motorcycles passed than when cars and small trucks passed. The bicyclists demonstrated weaker lateral stability when they were passed by buses. In addition, a longer passing time caused the bicyclists to demonstrate cautious but less stable riding behaviors. For road-related factors, a clear and longitudinal solid line separation helped to maintain a greater lateral distance between motorists and bicyclists and assist the bicyclists in riding out of the motorists' path, maintaining a low speed, and remaining stable. Moreover, when bicyclists avoided road surface hazards, they reduced the initial passing distances that the motorists had chosen. Considering bicyclist-related factors, the motorists selected a greater initial passing distance for female bicyclists. There were also gender differences related to the bicyclists' lateral control, and differences in road use experience may explain this gender difference. Furthermore, the bicyclists' wheel angle, speed, and speed variation affected the motorists' initial passing distance. The present study demonstrated that the quasi-naturalistic riding method is capable of collecting rich data

  4. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  5. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  6. Hierarchical control of ride height system for electronically controlled air suspension based on variable structure and fuzzy control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Kongkang; Zou, Nannan; Jiang, Hong; Cui, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    The current research of air suspension mainly focuses on the characteristics and design of the air spring. In fact, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) has excellent performance in flexible height adjustment during different driving conditions. However, the nonlinearity of the ride height adjusting system and the uneven distribution of payload affect the control accuracy of ride height and the body attitude. Firstly, the three-point measurement system of three height sensors is used to establish the mathematical model of the ride height adjusting system. The decentralized control of ride height and the centralized control of body attitude are presented to design the ride height control system for ECAS. The exact feedback linearization method is adopted for the nonlinear mathematical model of the ride height system. Secondly, according to the hierarchical control theory, the variable structure control (VSC) technique is used to design a controller that is able to adjust the ride height for the quarter-vehicle anywhere, and each quarter-vehicle height control system is independent. Meanwhile, the three-point height signals obtained by three height sensors are tracked to calculate the body pitch and roll attitude over time, and then by calculating the deviation of pitch and roll and its rates, the height control correction is reassigned based on the fuzzy algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed combined control strategy, a validating test of ride height control system with and without road disturbance is carried out. Testing results show that the height adjusting time of both lifting and lowering is over 5 s, and the pitch angle and the roll angle of body attitude are less than 0.15°. This research proposes a hierarchical control method that can guarantee the attitude stability, as well as satisfy the ride height tracking system.

  7. Making vaccine refusal less of a free ride.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Asch, David A

    2013-12-01

    Herd immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is a public good because it is both non-excludable (meaning that there is no way to exclude people from using it) and non-rivalrous (meaning that one person's use does not limit or restrict others' use). Like other public goods, such as lighthouses, street lights and national defense, herd immunity is vulnerable to the "free rider" problem. We discuss four conventional responses to the free rider problem (participation mandates, exclusion, incentives, and social norms) and highlight how a public good perspective can inform the design of interventions to increase vaccine acceptance. PMID:24088616

  8. Riding the Wave: Creating a Momentum of School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David L.; Belfiore, Phillip J.; Budin, Shannon Gormley

    2008-01-01

    Recently, high-probability request sequences has shown promise as a method to enhance student compliance using positive methods without sacrificing the quality of the assignment. High-probability request sequences use a series of preferred behaviors to increase the likelihood that nonpreferred behaviors will occur. For this intervention, a series…

  9. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  10. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  11. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  12. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  13. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  14. Characteristics and effects of nurse dosing over-rides on computer-based intensive insulin therapy protocol performance

    PubMed Central

    May, Addison K; Waitman, Lemuel R; Ozdas, Asli; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine characteristics and effects of nurse dosing over-rides of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) in critical care units. Design Retrospective analysis of patient database records and ethnographic study of nurses using IIT CDSS. Measurements The authors determined the frequency, direction—greater than recommended (GTR) and less than recommended (LTR)— and magnitude of over-rides, and then compared recommended and over-ride doses' blood glucose (BG) variability and insulin resistance, two measures of IIT CDSS associated with mortality. The authors hypothesized that rates of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia would be greater for recommended than over-ride doses. Finally, the authors observed and interviewed nurse users. Results 5.1% (9075) of 179 452 IIT CDSS doses were over-rides. 83.4% of over-ride doses were LTR, and 45.5% of these were ≥50% lower than recommended. In contrast, 78.9% of GTR doses were ≤25% higher than recommended. When recommended doses were administered, the rate of hypoglycemia was higher than the rate for GTR (p=0.257) and LTR (p=0.033) doses. When recommended doses were administered, the rate of hyperglycemia was lower than the rate for GTR (p=0.003) and LTR (p<0.001) doses. Estimates of patients' insulin requirements were higher for LTR doses than recommended and GTR doses. Nurses reported trusting IIT CDSS overall but appeared concerned about recommendations when administering LTR doses. Conclusion When over-riding IIT CDSS recommendations, nurses overwhelmingly administered LTR doses, which emphasized prevention of hypoglycemia but interfered with hyperglycemia control, especially when BG was >150 mg/dl. Nurses appeared to consider the amount of a recommended insulin dose, not a patient's trend of insulin resistance, when administering LTR doses overall. Over-rides affected IIT CDSS protocol performance. PMID:21402737

  15. Interior noise and vibration measurements on operational military helicopters and comparisons with various ride quality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The results of physical measurements of the interior noise and vibration obtained within eight operational military helicopters are presented. The data were extensively analyzed and are presented in the following forms: noise and vibration spectra, overall root-mean-square acceleration levels in three linear axes, peak accelerations at dominant blade passage frequencies, acceleration exceedance data, and overall and ""A'' weighted sound pressure levels. Peak acceleration levels were compared to the ISO 1-hr reduced comfort and fatigue decreased proficiency boundaries and the NASA discomfort criteria. The ""A'' weighted noise levels were compared to the NASA annoyance criteria, and the overall noise spectra were compared to MIL-STD-1294 (""Acoustical Noise Limits in Helicopters''). Specific vibration components at blade passage frequencies for several aircraft exceeded both the ISO reduced comfort boundary and the NASA passenger discomfort criteria. The ""A'' weighted noise levels, corrected for SPH-4 helmet attenuation characteristics, exceeded the NASA annoyance threshold for several aircraft.

  16. Integration of visual and motion cues for flight simulator requirements and ride quality investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations for the improvement of flight simulators are reported. Topics include: visual cues in landing, comparison of linear and nonlinear washout filters using a model of the vestibular system, and visual vestibular interactions (yaw axis). An abstract is given for a thesis on the applications of human dynamic orientation models to motion simulation.

  17. Integration of visual and motion cues for simulator requirements and ride quality investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    Practical tools which can extend the state of the art of moving base flight simulation for research and training are developed. Main approaches to this research effort include: (1) application of the vestibular model for perception of orientation based on motion cues: optimum simulator motion controls; and (2) visual cues in landing.

  18. Research on integration of visual and motion cues for flight simulation and ride quality investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Curry, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular perception and integration of several sensory inputs in simulation were studied. The relationship between tilt sensation induced by moving fields and those produced by actual body tilt is discussed. Linearvection studies were included and the application of the vestibular model for perception of orientation based on motion cues is presented. Other areas of examination includes visual cues in approach to landing, and a comparison of linear and nonlinear wash out filters using a model of the human vestibular system is given.

  19. Tests and analyses applicable to passenger ride quality of large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, R. B.; Brumaghin, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was undertaken to determine airline passenger reaction to vibration environments that might be encountered in a supersonic transport or other large commercial jet aircraft. The principal problem addressed was to determine accelerations of vertical and lateral vibration that people find objectionable. Further questions experimentally posed were: (1) what is the relationship between human reactions to vertical and lateral vibration, (2) to single- and combined-frequency vibration, and (3) to single- and combined-axis vibration? Interest was confined to reactions to vibration in the frequency range of 0.20 to 7.0 Hz, a range typical of the vibration environment of a large airplane. Results indicated an increasing sensitivity to vertical vibration as frequency was increased from 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. Subjects were found most sensitive to lateral vibration in the 1.0 to 3.0 Hz range. There was a nearly linear decrease in sensitivity as frequency of lateral vibration was increased from 3.0 to 7.0 Hz.

  20. Effect of vertical active vibration isolation on tracking performance and on ride qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimasi, F. P.; Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect on pilot performance and comfort of an active vibration isolation system for a commercial transport pilot seat is reported. The test setup consisted of: a hydraulic shaker which produced random vertical vibration inputs; the active vibration isolation system; the pilot seat; the pilot control wheel and column; the side-arm controller; and a two-axis compensatory tracking task. The effects of various degrees of pilot isolation on short-term (two-minute) tracking performance and comfort were determined.

  1. Riding a Trojan horse: computerized psychiatric treatment planning using managed care principles.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, P B; Colenda, C C; Briggs, J; Hardison, P; Jane, J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to curtail health care costs have triggered new emphasis on resource management and accountability, entailing explicit documentation of the rationale for treatment and the resulting outcome of care. This article discusses the development of a computerized psychiatric treatment planning database that embodies principles and language of managed care, including specific admission criteria, severity ratings, and time frames for completion of interventions. The program is designed to balance goals of clinical utility, usefulness of the database as a tool for utilization review, quality improvement, and health services research, while providing an interface that is acceptable to clinicians. PMID:10162555

  2. The Geo Quick Ride (GQR) Program: Providing Inexpensive and Frequent Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caffrey, Robert; Baniszewski, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines piggybacking NASA, university, and industry payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites. NASA's RSDO Office awarded Geo Quick Ride (GQR) study contracts in 1998 to spacecraft manufactures to examine the issues with flying secondary payloads. The study results were very promising. Commercial communication satellites have frequent flights and significant unused resources that could be used to fly secondary payloads. However, manifesting secondary payloads on a commercial revenue-generating satellite is a complex problem to solve. The solution requires multiple simultaneous approaches in order to be successful. There are business, economic, technical, schedule, and organizational issues to be resolved. This paper examines the Geo Quick Ride (GQR) concept, discusses the development issues, and describes how this concept solves many of these issues.

  3. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. PMID:26739323

  4. Resolution of sudden sensorineural hearing loss following a roller coaster ride.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aman; Sinha, Amrita; Al-Waa, Ahmad M

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset during an aeroplane flight, which completely resolved during a roller coaster ride at Alton Towers theme park. A review of the literature concerning sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss and spontaneous resolution are discussed. Initially, pure-tone audiometry showed a profound sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and mild sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear (of note, the hearing was normal prior to the episode). Following resolution of the patient's symptoms during a roller coaster ride, pure-tone audiometry showed normal hearing thresholds in both ears. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a symptom of cochlear injury and the mechanism of the patient's symptoms was attributed to a patent cochlear aqueduct. PMID:22754856

  5. Optimization of Vehicle Suspension Parameters for Ride Comfort Based on RSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, A. C.; Patil, M. V.; Banerjee, N.

    2015-04-01

    Vehicle suspension design requires an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that assure optimal ride comfort (RC) of vehicle. In the present work response surface methodology (RSM), one of the methods of design of experiment has been successfully implemented for the purpose of finding optimal setting. Design of experiment sometimes requires accurate representation of the independent variables which are usually difficult to measure or else unavailable for experimentation. This paper proposes a simulation model to analyze the ride comfort with accurate independent variables as per Box-Behnken design of RSM. A prediction model of response variable, RC is developed using regression analysis which leads to a good agreement with simulated model ( R 2 = 99.74 %). The fitted model can be effectively used to evaluate optimal setting of spring stiffness and damping coefficient with the help of response optimization of a high desirability value.

  6. Ride 2 Recovery's Project HERO: using cycling as part of rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Barbara A

    2013-05-01

    Ride 2 Recovery was founded in 2008 by a former world-class cycling competitor and coach to enhance the physical and psychological recovery of our nation's wounded, ill and injured service members and veterans through the sport of cycling. Ride 2 Recovery's most notable endeavor is Project HERO (Healing Exercise Rehabilitation Opportunity) which uses staff members and volunteers to promote cycling as an integral part of rehabilitation at select military facilities to enhance physical, psychological, spiritual and social recovery. Project HERO is directed by a retired military physical therapist that spent the last decade caring for service men and women wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan. This article describes all facets of the Project HERO initiative and highlights the profound impact it has had in the lives of US military members and veterans. PMID:23257397

  7. Towards out-of-the-lab EEG in uncontrolled environments: Feasibility study of dry EEG recordings during exercise bike riding.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Siddharth; Casson, Alexander J

    2015-08-01

    Conventional EEG (electroencephalography) has relied on wet electrodes which require conductive gel to help the electrodes make contact with the scalp. In recent years many dry electrode EEG systems have become available that do not require this gel. As a result they are quicker and easier to set up, with the potential to record the the EEG in situations and environments where it has not previously been possible. This paper investigates the practicality of using dry EEG in new non-conventional recording situations. In particular it uses a dry EEG recording system to monitor the EEG while a subject is riding an exercise bike. The results show that good-quality EEG, free from high-amplitude motion artefacts, can be collected in this challenging motion rich environment. In the frequency domain a peak of activity is seen over the motor cortex (C4) at 23 Hz starting five minutes after the start of the exercise task, giving initial insights into the on-going operation of the brain during exercise. PMID:26736439

  8. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  9. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  10. "Riding the Wave": Transforming Sport and Exercise Psychology within an Interdisciplinary Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2008-01-01

    A metaphor of "riding the wave" is used as a means of envisioning the future of sport and exercise psychology given what we know about past and present waves in the field. First, I review the waves of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s to understand critical issues in the field and to evaluate the waves as smooth, choppy, or turbulent today. Second,…

  11. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  12. ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGE USED FOR A JOY RIDE IN INDIA.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Vinzuda, Vipul; Naik, Suhas; Karthikeyan, Vignesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-06-01

    Horse-drawn carriages popularly known as Tanga in India provide a popularjoy ride. Such vehicles were selected from two cites in Central India and the other from a city in Western India, based on complaints from the users that these vehicles were not comfortable to ride. Twelve male and twelve female participants were selected for the user study. Two of the members of the research team travelled on the vehicle on twelve trips over a 7 kilometer stretch (considered to be the maximum stretch for a Tanga ride). The study comprised three phases; direct observation and activity analysis, a questionnaire study and another questionnaire study of body part discomfort, with the aim to get an insight into the ergonomic design issues of the vehicle. There were gross mismatches in the design and human anthropometric dimensions together with other issues like safety and reliability involved. Based on the initial observations, four concept prototypes were developed which were later handed to the respective authorities for further implementation. PMID:26182669

  13. Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

    2012-11-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23036391

  14. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  15. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  16. United States Marine Corps light armored vehicle ride and shock mobility test

    SciTech Connect

    Casterlow, D.; Salami, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Mobility on the battlefield has been a major concern since the beginning of modern warfare. How do you transport troops more efficiently, in the least amount of time, from place to place on the battlefield? In the early days of World War I, came the invention of the tank and different types of armored vehicles. These vehicles were very slow and moved over a limited variety of terrain. Today, with faster, more powerful armored vehicles, extended testing is being done to determine their ability to move over various types of terrain encountered on the modern battlefield. Along with this testing, studies are performed which take into account the effect of the ride on soldiers. It has been proven that a sustained rough ride, of over 6 watts of vertical absorbed power, will affect a soldier`s ability to fight, once he reaches the battle. As a result, different vehicles go through testing in various off-road terrain to determine which one can handle the roughest terrain, at the fastest speed, while transporting troops, without imposing large amounts of human vibration on the soldiers. This is done through ride and shock mobility tests.

  17. CircleRides: developing an older adult transportation application and evaluating feedback.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Melinda; Kelly, Norene

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess perceptions of CircleRides, a paper prototype of a service website designed to meet older adult transportation needs. Researchers used purposive sampling to conduct two focus groups comprised of older adults to obtain feedback on the CircleRides prototype at the beginning of its iterative design process. One focus group was conducted in a continuing care retirement community (n = 13) and the other in an independent living community for older adults (n = 11). The study assessed perceptions of the CircleRides prototype as well as self-reported older adult transportation preferences and needs. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) trust and concern, (b) socialization, and (c) flexibility and options. Researchers found that participants are interested in transportation options; however, concern exists about trusting a new system or prototype that has not established a reputation. Findings from the current study offer lessons learned for future iterations and for creating transportation prototypes for older adults. PMID:25643351

  18. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  19. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  20. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  1. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  2. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    PubMed

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%. PMID:26024723

  3. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  4. Assessing E-Learning Acceptance by University Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Wong, Su Luan; Thammetar, Thapanee; Chattiwat, Wisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess e-learning acceptance by students, using data collected from 377 students at three public universities in Thailand. Using the "E-learning Acceptance Measure" (Teo, 2010b), participants gave their responses to 21 statements on three factors hypothesised to measure e-learning: tutor quality, perceived usefulness,…

  5. 48 CFR 446.370 - Inspection and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and acceptance. 446.370 Section 446.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 446.370 Inspection and acceptance. The Contracting...

  6. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom-level contributors to an acceptance of diversity in publicly supported pre-kindergarten classrooms across 11 states. Classroom composition, process quality, and teacher characteristics were examined as predictors of diversity-promoting practices as measured by the ECERS-R, acceptance of diversity construct. Findings…

  7. The effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone and range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Kwang; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Baek, Jae-Keun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to verify the effects of horseback riding participation on the muscle tone of pelvic limbs and articular range of motion for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The research target is 16 children with spastic cerebral palsy, 8 children for the experimental group and 8 children for the control group. As a tool to measure the muscle tone, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), was used and a goniometer was used to measure the range of motion (ROM). A therapeutic horseback riding program was conducted to an experimental group of 8 children with spastic cerebral palsy in the therapeutic horseback riding for 60 min a day, 2 days a week and a total of 12 weeks. The results are as follows: First, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the muscle tone for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Second, though the difference in knee muscle tone between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. Third, the participation in the therapeutic horseback riding program showed a statistically significant difference in the hip-joint motion range for the knee of children with spastic cerebral palsy (P< 0.01). Fourth, though the difference in the hip joint motion range between the experimental group and the control group was statistically insignificant, the average was improved by the participation. PMID:25426462

  8. Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Among 20 participants with stroke, 10 were randomly assigned to the experimental group, and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. The experimental group participated in horse-riding exercise for 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Balance was tested with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT). ADLs were tested with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Differences between pre- and post-experiment values within the two groups were compared using paired t-tests. Between-group differences were compared using independent t-tests. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and ADLs following horse-riding exercise. Additionally, the experimental group showed significant differences in balance, gait, and ADLs compared with in the control group. [Conclusion] These results support that horse-riding exercise enhances balance, gait, and ADLs in stroke patients. This study supports the need for further research on horse-riding exercise programs. PMID:25931690

  9. Some Aspects of the Investigation of Random Vibration Influence on Ride Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DEMIĆ, M.; LUKIĆ, J.; MILIĆ, Ž.

    2002-05-01

    Contemporary vehicles must satisfy high ride comfort criteria. This paper attempts to develop criteria for ride comfort improvement. The highest loading levels have been found to be in the vertical direction and the lowest in lateral direction in passenger cars and trucks. These results have formed the basis for further laboratory and field investigations. An investigation of the human body behaviour under random vibrations is reported in this paper. The research included two phases; biodynamic research and ride comfort investigation. A group of 30 subjects was tested. The influence of broadband random vibrations on the human body was examined through the seat-to-head transmissibility function (STHT). Initially, vertical and fore and aft vibrations were considered. Multi-directional vibration was also investigated. In the biodynamic research, subjects were exposed to 0·55, 1·75 and 2·25 m/s2 r.m.s. vibration levels in the 0·5- 40 Hz frequency domain. The influence of sitting position on human body behaviour under two axial vibrations was also examined. Data analysis showed that the human body behaviour under two-directional random vibrations could not be approximated by superposition of one-directional random vibrations. Non-linearity of the seated human body in the vertical and fore and aft directions was observed. Seat-backrest angle also influenced STHT. In the second phase of experimental research, a new method for the assessment of the influence of narrowband random vibration on the human body was formulated and tested. It included determination of equivalent comfort curves in the vertical and fore and aft directions under one- and two-directional narrowband random vibrations. Equivalent comfort curves for durations of 2·5, 4 and 8 h were determined.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Mechanical Horseback Riding on Gait and Balance Ability in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun Young; Kim, Shin Kyoung; Chung, Jin Sang; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Lim, Jae Kuk; Lee, Jiwon; Park, Kawn Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of mechanical horseback riding for gait and balance parameters in post-stroke patients. Method This study was a non randomized prospective positive-controlled trial over a 12 week period. From May 2011 to October 2011, 37 stroke patients were recruited from our outpatient clinic and divided into two groups. The control group received the conventional physiotherapy while the intervention group received the conventional physiotherapy along with mechanical horseback riding therapy for 12 weeks. Outcome measurements of gait included the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) and gait part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (G-POMA) while those of balance included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the balance part of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (B-POMA). These measurements were taken before and after treatment. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. When comparing baseline and 12 weeks post treatment in each group, the intervention group showed significant improvement on BBS (39.9±5.7 → 45.7±4.8, p=0.001) and B-POMA (10.4±2.6 → 12.6±2.1, p=0.001), but significant improvement on gait parameters. When comparing the groups, the dynamic balance category of BBS in post treatment showed significant difference (p=0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that mechanical horseback riding therapy may be an effective treatment tool for enhancing balance in adults with stroke. PMID:23342307

  11. Rural Kentucky High School Students' Exposure to All-Terrain Vehicle Riding and Injuries.

    PubMed

    Cole, Henry P; Myers, Melvin L; Westneat, Susan C; Mazur, Joan M; Watson, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    From 1982 to 2007, Kentucky had 459 deaths related to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), fifth highest among US states. By 2012, Kentucky ranked fourth highest, with 578 ATV-related deaths. Following the sentinel event of an ATV-related traumatic brain injury to an unhelmeted high school student, the authors developed a 19-item survey that collected data regarding rural Kentucky high school students' years of ATV driving, second-rider frequency, typical duration of riding events, estimated weekly number of riding events, and frequency of helmet use. Of the 159 students involved, males scored significantly higher on each of these items, except frequency of any ATV driving and frequency of helmet use, which showed no gender differences. Overall, 9.3% of students reported always wearing a helmet when driving and/or riding; 61.2% reported never wearing a helmet; 132 (83.0%) reported that they either drove ATVs or rode as a second rider, and 72 of these (57.1%) reported having had an ATV incident, 33 (45.8%) of which resulted in an injury. Twenty-one of these were serious injuries, including concussions; unconsciousness; fractures to skull, nose, collarbones, arms, ribs, and legs; elbow and hip dislocations; lacerations to head, eyes, arms, legs, and back; and multiple contusions and sprains. Findings have implications for the design of responsibility to protect (R2P) interventions that will reduce exposure and prevent ATV injury and fatality. A method that leverages the relevance of a sentinel event as a community public-health surveillance opportunity is described. Study surveillance data showed higher exposure to ATV hazards than previously reported. PMID:26515452

  12. Bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection after a horse-riding injury.

    PubMed

    Keilani, Zeid M; Berne, John D; Agko, Mouchammed

    2010-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries, defined as blunt injuries to the internal carotid or vertebral arteries, are uncommon and usually occur in victims of high-speed deceleration motor vehicle crashes. A blunt cerebrovascular injury after an equestrian accident is an extremely unusual presentation. In recent years, advances in screening and treatment with pharmacologic anticoagulation before the onset of neurologic symptoms have improved outcomes for these patients. Endovascular stenting and embolization, although unproven, offer a new potential approach for these complex injuries. We present a unique case of four-vessel blunt cerebrovascular injuries after a horse-riding injury that required multidisciplinary management. PMID:20888534

  13. Cuboid nutcracker fracture due to horseback riding in children: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ceroni, Dimitri; De Rosa, Vicenzo; De Coulon, Geraldo; Kaelin, André

    2007-01-01

    We report 4 cases of nutcracker fractures of the cuboid resulting from equestrian sport in pediatric population. These lesions are often consistent with a trauma in forced abduction of the forefoot. The particular mechanism of the cuboid fracture due to horseback riding in children is discussed. The methods used to radiographically evaluate the compression fracture of the cuboid and its associated injuries are presented. Left untreated, these fractures can lead to severe alterations in foot mechanics and function, such as to severe pain. In addition, the surgical treatment to correct the nutcracker fracture of the cuboid in our patients is presented. PMID:17585267

  14. Second-order sliding mode control for DFIG-based wind turbines fault ride-through capability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Benbouzid, Mohamed; Beltran, Brice; Amirat, Yassine; Yao, Gang; Han, Jingang; Mangel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the fault ride-through capability assessment of a doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbine using a high-order sliding mode control. Indeed, it has been recently suggested that sliding mode control is a solution of choice to the fault ride-through problem. In this context, this paper proposes a second-order sliding mode as an improved solution that handle the classical sliding mode chattering problem. Indeed, the main and attractive features of high-order sliding modes are robustness against external disturbances, the grids faults in particular, and chattering-free behavior (no extra mechanical stress on the wind turbine drive train). Simulations using the NREL FAST code on a 1.5-MW wind turbine are carried out to evaluate ride-through performance of the proposed high-order sliding mode control strategy in case of grid frequency variations and unbalanced voltage sags. PMID:24530194

  15. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  16. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  17. RIDES: Robust Intrusion Detection System for IP-Based Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Syed Obaid; Siddiqui, Muhammad Shoaib; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2009-01-01

    The IP-based Ubiquitous Sensor Network (IP-USN) is an effort to build the “Internet of things”. By utilizing IP for low power networks, we can benefit from existing well established tools and technologies of IP networks. Along with many other unresolved issues, securing IP-USN is of great concern for researchers so that future market satisfaction and demands can be met. Without proper security measures, both reactive and proactive, it is hard to envisage an IP-USN realm. In this paper we present a design of an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) called RIDES (Robust Intrusion DEtection System) for IP-USN. RIDES is a hybrid intrusion detection system, which incorporates both Signature and Anomaly based intrusion detection components. For signature based intrusion detection this paper only discusses the implementation of distributed pattern matching algorithm with the help of signature-code, a dynamically created attack-signature identifier. Other aspects, such as creation of rules are not discussed. On the other hand, for anomaly based detection we propose a scoring classifier based on the SPC (Statistical Process Control) technique called CUSUM charts. We also investigate the settings and their effects on the performance of related parameters for both of the components. PMID:22412321

  18. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    PubMed Central

    Kawasumi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Koide, M.; Okada, Y.; Mori, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T.

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  19. Physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted bicycle versus a classical bicycle.

    PubMed

    Theurel, J; Theurel, A; Lepers, R

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the physiological responses and the subsequent cognitive performance when riding an electrically assisted (EB) versus a classical (CB) bicycle. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and leg extensor muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded in 10 subjects during a 30-min intermittent cycling exercise performed with EB versus CB. Cognitive performance was evaluated by a mail sorting test, performed at rest and after each cycling session. Averaged oxygen uptake and heat rate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during EB cycling than during CB cycling. The EMG activities of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were significantly (P < 0.001) greater during CB cycling than during EB cycling. The time to complete the mail sorting test was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter after EB cycling than after CB cycling. Because EB cycling reduced muscle strains and physiological stress, it might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study compared physiological and cognitive responses when riding an electrically assisted versus a classical bicycle. The results showed that the electrically assisted bicycle led to reduced muscle strains and physiological stress and, therefore, might offer benefits for those using bicycles in their work, such as postal workers and police officers. PMID:22506555

  20. Does Bicycle Riding Impact the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Men?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Dae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to determine whether men who engaged in recreational bicycle riding are more likely to be affected by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction than are man who exercised by amateur marathon running with less perineal impact. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy male amateur bicyclists and 17 healthy male amateur marathoners were enrolled in the study. We evaluated questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), uroflowmetric values, postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate in all subjects. We also compared the prevalence of urination disorders (UD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, comorbidities, or exercise habits (p>0.05). Mean total and subscale scores of the IPSS and IIEF and the prevalence of UD (8/22 vs. 4/17, p=0.494) and ED (11/22 vs. 10/17, p=0.748) were not significantly different between the two groups. Also, there were no significant differences between the two groups in uroflowmetric parameters such as peak urinary flow rates, voided urine volume, PVR urine volume, prostate volume, or serum PSA level. Conclusions Bicycle riding seems to have no measurable hazardous effect on voiding function or sexual function in men who cycled recreationally. PMID:21687396

  1. On the temperature dependence of H-U{sub iso} in the riding hydrogen model

    SciTech Connect

    Lübben, Jens; Volkmann, Christian; Grabowsky, Simon; Edwards, Alison; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Fabbiani, Francesca P. A.; Sheldrick, George M.; Dittrich, Birger

    2014-07-01

    The temperature dependence of hydrogen U{sub iso} and parent U{sub eq} in the riding hydrogen model is investigated by neutron diffraction, aspherical-atom refinements and QM/MM and MO/MO cluster calculations. Fixed values of 1.2 or 1.5 appear to be underestimated, especially at temperatures below 100 K. The temperature dependence of H-U{sub iso} in N-acetyl-l-4-hydroxyproline monohydrate is investigated. Imposing a constant temperature-independent multiplier of 1.2 or 1.5 for the riding hydrogen model is found to be inaccurate, and severely underestimates H-U{sub iso} below 100 K. Neutron diffraction data at temperatures of 9, 150, 200 and 250 K provide benchmark results for this study. X-ray diffraction data to high resolution, collected at temperatures of 9, 30, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250 K (synchrotron and home source), reproduce neutron results only when evaluated by aspherical-atom refinement models, since these take into account bonding and lone-pair electron density; both invariom and Hirshfeld-atom refinement models enable a more precise determination of the magnitude of H-atom displacements than independent-atom model refinements. Experimental efforts are complemented by computing displacement parameters following the TLS+ONIOM approach. A satisfactory agreement between all approaches is found.

  2. Children riding in the back of pickup trucks: a neglected safety issue.

    PubMed

    Woodward, G A; Bolte, R G

    1990-11-01

    Motor vehicle-related trauma is the leading cause of death in children in the United States. All states have pediatric restraint requirements for passenger vehicles to help prevent these deaths and injuries. Only a few states, however, possess safety laws or restrictions for passengers who ride in the back of pickup trucks. A retrospective review of medical records for a 40-month period revealed 40 patients whose injuries were a direct result of being a passenger in the cargo area (bed) of a pickup truck. Their injuries and other pertinent data are discussed. Representatives from the Highway Safety Commission of each state were surveyed about their specific highway safety laws. The responses revealed that all states and the District of Columbia have child restraint requirements for passenger automobiles, 34 states have adult restraint laws, but only 17 states have any type of restriction for passengers riding in the back of pickup trucks. Seventy-one percent of the states with pickup truck regulations include only the preschool-age child. Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration concerning pickup trucks and passenger fatality are presented and discussed. PMID:2235220

  3. Experimental Investigation into Beam-Riding Physics of Lightcraft Engines: Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, David A.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel J.; Bragulla, Paul W.

    2010-05-01

    A twin Lumonics K922M pulsed TFA CO2 laser system (pulse duration of approximately 200 ns FWHM spike with 1 us tail) was employed to experimentally measure beam-riding behavior of Type ♯200 lightcraft engines, using the Angular Impulse Measurement Device (AIMD). Beam-riding forces and moments were examined along with engine thrust-vectoring behavior, as a function of: a) laser beam angular and lateral offset from the vehicle axis of symmetry; b) laser pulse energy 12 to 36 joules); c) pulse duration (100 ns and 1 μs); and d) engine size (97.7 mm to 161.2 mm). Maximum lateral momentum coupling coefficients (CM) of 135 N-s/MJ were achieved with the K922M laser whereas previous PLVTS laser (420 J, 18 μs duration) results indicated 15-30 N-s/MJ—an improvement of 4.5x to 9x. Maximum axial CM performance with the K922M is li1ely to be 4x to 7x larger than lateral CM values, but must await confirmation in upcoming tests.

  4. Regarding the fitness to ride a bicycle under the acute influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Mindiashvili, Nona; Maatz, Rüdiger; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Moody, Justin; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    To determine the threshold for the absolute inability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests and medical examinations at different blood alcohol concentrations were performed. Special attention was given to additional medical examinations, reaction tests and alcohol consumption under real-life conditions. Seventy-eight test subjects were included in the trials (37 females, 41 males). Five test subjects participated twice; thus, there were a total of 83 evaluable trials. Alcohol-related deficits were already identifiable at very low BACs. A significant increase in gross motoric disturbances compared to the soberness state did not regularly occur until a BAC of at least 0.8 g/kg was reached. At the BAC of 1.4 g/kg and above, no test subjects were able to achieve or surpass their sober driving results. Isolated highly alcoholised test subjects rode the bike in a manner that was not conspicuously different than the other sober test persons. Contrary to the assumptions of current German legal practise, it cannot be stated that all people are 'absolutely impaired' to the point of being incapable of riding bicycle at BACs of at least 1.6 g/kg. PMID:25428289

  5. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses.

    PubMed

    Kawasumi, K; Yamamoto, M; Koide, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL(-1) vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL(-1), Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  6. Spreading free-riding snow sports represent a novel serious threat for wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Arlettaz, Raphaël; Patthey, Patrick; Baltic, Marjana; Leu, Thomas; Schaub, Michael; Palme, Rupert; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by humans on wildlife by continuous development of outdoor recreational activities is of increasing concern for biodiversity conservation. Human disturbance often adds to other negative impact factors affecting the dynamics of vulnerable populations. It is not known to which extent the rapidly spreading free-riding snow sports actually elicit detrimental stress (allostatic overload) upon wildlife, nor what the potential associated fitness and survival costs are. Using a non-invasive technique, we evaluated the physiological stress response induced by free-riding snow sports on a declining bird species of Alpine ecosystems. The results of a field experiment in which radiomonitored black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) were actively flushed from their snow burrows once a day during four consecutive days showed an increase in the concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metabolites after disturbance. A large-scale comparative analysis across the southwestern Swiss Alps indicated that birds had higher levels of these metabolites in human-disturbed versus undisturbed habitats. Disturbance by snow sport free-riders appears to elevate stress, which potentially represents a new serious threat for wildlife. The fitness and survival costs of allostatic adjustments have yet to be estimated. PMID:17341459

  7. Riding comfort optimization of railway trains based on pseudo-excitation method and symplectic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, You-Wei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Jia-Hao; He, Xing-Wen

    2013-10-01

    This research is intended to develop a FEM-based riding comfort optimization approach to the railway trains considering the coupling effect of vehicle-track system. To obtain its accurate dynamic response, the car body is modeled with finite elements, while the bogie frames and wheel-sets are idealized as rigid bodies. The differential equations of motion of the dynamic vehicle-track system are derived considering wheel-track interaction, in which the pseudo-excitation method and the symplectic mathematical method are effectively applied to simplify the calculation. Then, the min-max optimization approach is utilized to improve the train riding comfort with related parameters of the suspension structure adopted as design variables, in which 54 design points on the car floor are chosen as estimation locations. The K-S function is applied to fit the objective function to make it smooth, differentiable and have superior integrity. Analytical sensitivities of the K-S function are then derived to solve the optimization problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical examples and some useful discussions are made.

  8. RIDES: Robust Intrusion Detection System for IP-Based Ubiquitous Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Amin, Syed Obaid; Siddiqui, Muhammad Shoaib; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2009-01-01

    The IP-based Ubiquitous Sensor Network (IP-USN) is an effort to build the "Internet of things". By utilizing IP for low power networks, we can benefit from existing well established tools and technologies of IP networks. Along with many other unresolved issues, securing IP-USN is of great concern for researchers so that future market satisfaction and demands can be met. Without proper security measures, both reactive and proactive, it is hard to envisage an IP-USN realm. In this paper we present a design of an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) called RIDES (Robust Intrusion DEtection System) for IP-USN. RIDES is a hybrid intrusion detection system, which incorporates both Signature and Anomaly based intrusion detection components. For signature based intrusion detection this paper only discusses the implementation of distributed pattern matching algorithm with the help of signature-code, a dynamically created attack-signature identifier. Other aspects, such as creation of rules are not discussed. On the other hand, for anomaly based detection we propose a scoring classifier based on the SPC (Statistical Process Control) technique called CUSUM charts. We also investigate the settings and their effects on the performance of related parameters for both of the components. PMID:22412321

  9. Riding raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes regularly collide with raindrops up to 50 times their own body mass and yet, remarkably, they live on to bite another victim. Stephen Ornes explains how scientists have figured out how these insects survive such a violent impact.

  10. Quiet Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Several companies are marketing maintenance equipment to education institutions on a "quiet platform," citing benefits such as a safer, more pleasant indoor environment and unobtrusive operations during day cleaning or operating hours. This is basically "sound advice" (no one likes noisy equipment), but some of the messages can be confusing and…

  11. Simulations of Carnival Rides and Rube Goldberg Machines for the Visualization of Concepts of Statics and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William; Williams, Richard; Yao, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Solid modeling is widely used as a teaching tool in summer activities with high school students. The addition of motion analysis allows concepts from statics and dynamics to be introduced to students in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Two sets of solid modeling projects--carnival rides and Rube Goldberg machines--are shown to allow the…

  12. Pilot Study Measuring the Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on School-Age Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Holt, Katherine D.; Shoffner, Amy; Zhaoxing, Pan; Ruzzano, Selga; Clayton, Gerald H.; Mesibov, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effects of 10 weekly lessons of therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on 42 participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ages 6-16 years) compared to a subset (n=16) of the total study population who were first evaluated before and after a 10-week waitlist control condition. All participants received…

  13. An Inquiry-Oriented Approach to Span and Linear Independence: The Case of the Magic Carpet Ride Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawro, Megan; Rasmussen, Chris; Zandieh, Michelle; Sweeney, George Franklin; Larson, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative instructional sequence for an introductory linear algebra course that supports students' reinvention of the concepts of span, linear dependence, and linear independence. Referred to as the Magic Carpet Ride sequence, the problems begin with an imaginary scenario that allows students to build rich imagery and…

  14. The Association between Therapeutic Horseback Riding and the Social Communication and Sensory Reactions of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Sandra C.; Whalon, Kelly; Rusnak, Katrina; Wendell, Kimberly; Paschall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between therapeutic riding (TR) and the social communication and sensory processing skills of 21 elementary students with autism attending TR as part of a school group. An interrupted treatment design was employed to determine whether children were able to maintain treatment effects following the removal of…

  15. Effects of Indoor Horseback Riding and Virtual Reality Exercises on the Dynamic Balance Ability of Normal Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects’ dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  17. An Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on the Behavior of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Sarah R.; Reed, Florence D. DiGennaro

    2013-01-01

    The current study experimentally evaluated the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on the behavior of children with autism using a multiple baseline across participants design and a waitlist control group for comparison purposes. Participants were observed weekly in an after-school program during four center-based activities and during…

  18. Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Steiner, H; Kertesz, Zs

    2015-09-01

    We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful. PMID:26551748

  19. Integration of Computer-Based Virtual Check Ride System--Pre-Trip Inspection in Commercial Driver License Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makwana, Alpesh P.

    2009-01-01

    "Pre-Trip Inspection" of the truck and trailer is one of the components of the current Commercial Driver's License (CDL) test. This part of the CDL test checks the ability of the student to identify the important parts of the commercial vehicle and their potential defects. The "Virtual Check Ride System" (VCRS), a computer-based application, is an…

  20. Effects of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects' dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  1. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  2. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  3. Prospective study of the associations between television watching and car riding behaviors and development of depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuemei; Brown, Wendy J.; Lavie, Carl J.; West, Delia S.; Pate, Russel R.; Payne, Jonathan P.W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between sedentary behaviors and risk of developing depressive symptoms. Patients and Methods 1012 women and 3790 men (18–80 yr) not reporting depressive moods completed a health survey during 1982 when they reported their time spent watching television (TV) and riding in a car each week. All participants completed a follow-up health survey when they responded to the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10). Those who scored 8 or more on the CES-D 10 were considered to have depressive symptoms. Results 568 participants reported depressive symptoms during an average follow-up of 9.3 years. After multivariate-adjustment including moderate- and vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA), time in riding in a car, watching TV and combined time spent in the two sedentary behaviors were positively (P trend <.05 for each) associated with depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported ≥9 hrs/wk riding in a car, >10 hrs/wk watching TV, or ≥19 hrs/wk of combined sedentary behavior had 28%, 52%, and 74% greater risk of developing depressive symptoms than those who reported <5 hrs/wk, <5 hrs/wk, or <12 hrs/wk, respectively after adjusting for baseline covariates and MVPA. The positive association between time in riding in a car or time in watching TV and depressive symptoms was only observed among individual who did not meet the current PA guidelines. Conclusion Longer time reported in these two sedentary behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The direct associations between time spent in car riding and TV viewing, with depressive symptoms, were however only significant among those who did not meet the current PA recommendation. PMID:25659236

  4. Long Distance Bicycle Riding Causes Prostate-Specific Antigen to Increase in Men Aged 50 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Mejak, Sandra L.; Bayliss, Julianne; Hanks, Shayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether bicycle riding alters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) serum concentrations in healthy older men. Methods 129 male participants, ranging in age from 50 to 71 years (mean 55 years), rode in a recreational group bicycle ride of between 55 and 160 kilometers. Blood samples for tPSA analysis were drawn within 60 minutes before starting, and within 5 minutes after completing the ride. The pre-cycling and post-cycling tPSA values were log transformed for normality and compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between changes in tPSA with age and distance cycled. Results Bicycle riding caused tPSA to increase by an average of 9.5% (95% CI = 6.1–12.9; p<0.001) or 0.23 ng/ml. The number of participants with an elevated tPSA (using the standard PSA normal range cut-off of 4.0 ng/ml) increased from two pre-cycle to six post-cycle (or from five to eight when using age-based normal ranges). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that the change in tPSA was positively correlated with age and the distance cycled. Conclusions Cycling causes an average 9.5% increase in tPSA, in healthy male cyclists ≥50 years old, when measured within 5 minutes post cycling. We considered the increase clinically significant as the number of participants with an elevated PSA, according to established cut-offs, increased post-ride. Based on the research published to date, the authors suggest a 24–48 hour period of abstinence from cycling and ejaculation before a PSA test, to avoid spurious results. PMID:23418500

  5. Time-domain simulation and nonlinear analysis on ride performance of four-wheel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; He, H.; Geng, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model with eight DOFs of a four-wheel vehicle is established in this paper. After detaching the nonlinear characteristics of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, the multi-step linearizing method is used to simulate the vehicle vibration in time domain, under a correlated four-wheel road roughness model. Experimental verifications suggest that the newly built vehicle model and simulation procedure are reasonable and feasible to be used in vehicle vibration analysis. Furthermore, some nonlinear factors of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, which affect the vehicle ride performance (or comfort), are investigated under different vehicle running speeds. Some substaintial rules of the nonlinear vehicle vibrations are revealed in this paper.

  6. Constraining free riding in public goods games: designated solitary punishers can sustain human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, Rick; Henrich, Joseph; Van Vugt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. Unlike other animals, people frequently cooperate with non-relatives in large groups. Evolutionary models of large-scale cooperation require not just incentives for cooperation, but also a credible disincentive for free riding. Various theoretical solutions have been proposed and experimentally explored, including reputation monitoring and diffuse punishment. Here, we empirically examine an alternative theoretical proposal: responsibility for punishment can be borne by one specific individual. This experiment shows that allowing a single individual to punish increases cooperation to the same level as allowing each group member to punish and results in greater group profits. These results suggest a potential key function of leadership in human groups and provides further evidence supporting that humans will readily and knowingly behave altruistically. PMID:18812292

  7. Vision-based measuring system for rider's pose estimation during motorcycle riding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheli, F.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzola, M.; Ruspini, E.; Zappa, E.

    2013-07-01

    Inertial characteristics of the human body are comparable with the vehicle ones in motorbike riding: the study of a rider's dynamic is a crucial step in system modeling. An innovative vision based system able to measure the six degrees of freedom of the driver with respect to the vehicle is proposed here: the core of the proposed approach is an image acquisition and processing technique capable of reconstructing the position and orientation of a target fixed on the rider's back. The technique is firstly validated in laboratory tests comparing measured and imposed target motion laws and successively tested in a real case scenario during track tests with amateur and professional drivers. The presented results show the capability of the technique to correctly describe the driver's dynamic, his interaction with the vehicle as well as the possibility to use the new measuring technique in the comparison of different driving styles.

  8. Ride comfort of a high-speed train through the structural upgrade of a bogie suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-M.; Goverdovskiy, V. N.; Sim, C.-S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to upgrade a bogie suspension (without a damaging) and thus to increase vibration isolation of a carbody in the infra frequency range, which is most important for ride comfort. The approach involves analysis of kinematic structure of the suspension's function-generating mechanism to detect sources of inefficiency within the supply and maintenance support of an existing design, as well as to predict the structural causes of a new design. A theory of the approach is presented. A survey of the typical suspensions is made; their kinematic structures are analyzed. The type and number synthesis of new candidates for the mechanism is illustrated to avoid undesirable structure redundancy in suspension design by the method of "negative" stiffness, which proved most promising. The utility of the approach is demonstrated through the upgrade of scaled simulated models and real suspensions.

  9. Sam the Monkey After His Ride in the Little Joe 2 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Sam, the Rhesus monkey, after his ride in the Little Joe-2 (LJ-2) spacecraft. A U.S. Navy destroyer safely recovered Sam after he experienced three minutes of weightlessness during the flight. Animals were often used during test flights for Project Mercury to help determine the effects of spaceflight and weightlessness on humans. LJ-2 was one in a series of flights that led up to the human orbital flights of NASA's Project Mercury program. The Little Joe rocket booster was developed as a cheaper, smaller, and more functional alternative to the Redstone rockets. Little Joe could be produced at one-fifth the cost of Redstone rockets and still have enough power to carry a capsule payload. Seven unmanned Little Joe rockets were launched from Wallops Island, Virginia from August 1959 to April 1961.

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, N.B.; Norkool, D.M. )

    1992-01-22

    The purpose of this study is to describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. The study took place in a private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age were studies. All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% {plus minus} 2.4% (mean {plus minus} SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided.

  11. Modelling biomechanical requirements of a rider for different horse-riding techniques at trot.

    PubMed

    de Cocq, Patricia; Muller, Mees; Clayton, Hilary M; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2013-05-15

    The simplest model possible for bouncing systems consists of a point mass bouncing passively on a mass-less spring without viscous losses. This type of spring-mass model has been used to describe the stance period of symmetric running gaits. In this study, we investigated the interaction between horse and rider at trot using three models of force-driven spring (-damper)-mass systems. The first system consisted of a spring and a mass representing the horse that interact with another spring and mass representing the rider. In the second spring-damper-mass model, dampers, a free-fall and a forcing function for the rider were incorporated. In the third spring-damper-mass model, an active spring system for the leg of the rider was introduced with a variable spring stiffness and resting length in addition to a saddle spring with fixed material properties. The output of the models was compared with experimental data of sitting and rising trot and with the modern riding technique used by jockeys in racing. The models show which combinations of rider mass, spring stiffness and damping coefficient will result in a particular riding technique or other behaviours. Minimization of the peak force of the rider and the work of the horse resulted in an 'extreme' modern jockey technique. The incorporation of an active spring system for the leg of the rider was needed to simulate rising trot. Thus, the models provide insight into the biomechanical requirements a rider has to comply with to respond effectively to the movements of a horse. PMID:23785107

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Dechant, Briar; Agnew, John A.; Brim, Natalie; Mesibov, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study expands previous equine-assisted intervention research by evaluating the effectiveness of therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on self-regulation, socialization, communication, adaptive, and motor behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Participants with ASD (ages 6–16 years; N=127) were stratified by nonverbal IQ standard scores (≤ 85 or > 85) and randomized to one of two groups for 10 weeks: THR intervention or a barn activity (BA) control group without horses that employed similar methods. The fidelity of the THR intervention was monitored. Participants were evaluated within one month pre- and post-intervention by raters blind to intervention conditions and unblinded caregiver questionnaires. During the intervention, caregivers rated participants’ behaviors weekly. Results Intent-to-treat analysis conducted on the 116 participants who completed a baseline assessment (THR n = 58; BA control n = 58) revealed significant improvements in the THR group compared to the control on measures of irritability (primary outcome) (p=.002; effect size [ES]=.50) and hyperactivity (p=.001; ES=0.53), beginning by week five of the intervention. Significant improvements in the THR group were also observed on a measure of social cognition (p=.05, ES=.41) and social communication (p=.003; ES =.63), along with the total number of words (p=.01; ES=.54) and new words (p=.01; ES=.54) spoken during a standardized language sample. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for age, IQ, and per-protocol analyses produced consistent results. Conclusion This is the first large-scale randomized, controlled trial demonstrating efficacy of THR for the ASD population, and findings are consistent with previous equine-assisted intervention studies. Clinical trial registration information Trial of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02301195. PMID:26088658

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    PubMed

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided. PMID:1370334

  14. Exploring E-Learning Acceptance among University Students in Thailand: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Ruangrit, Nammon; Khlaisang, Jintavee; Thammetar, Thapanee; Sunphakitjumnong, Kobkul

    2014-01-01

    This study surveys the e-learning acceptance of university students in Thailand. One thousand nine hundred and eighty-one (1,981) participants completed the E-Learning Acceptance Measure (Teo, 2010) which measures three constructs that predict e-learning acceptance (tutor quality, perceived usefulness, and facilitating conditions). Data analysis…

  15. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Promote Health and Well-being Among Middle School Educators. 20. A Systematic Review of Yoga-based Interventions for Objective and Subjective Balance Measures. 21. Disparities in Yoga Use: A Multivariate Analysis of 2007 National Health Interview Survey Data. 22. Implementing Yoga Therapy Adapted for Older Veterans Who Are Cancer Survivors. 23. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga for Women With Major Depressive Disorder: Decreased Ruminations as Potential Mechanism for Effects on Depression? 24. Yoga Beyond the Metropolis: A Yoga Telehealth Program for Veterans. 25. Yoga Practice Frequency, Relationship Maintenance Behaviors, and the Potential Mediating Role of Relationally Interdependent Cognition. 26. Effects of Medical Yoga in Quality of Life, Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation. 27. Yoga During School May Promote Emotion Regulation Capacity in Adolescents: A Group Randomized, Controlled Study. 28. Integrated Yoga Therapy in a Single Session as a Stress Management Technique in Comparison With Other Techniques. 29. Effects of a Classroom-based Yoga Intervention on Stress and Attention in Second and Third Grade Students. 30. Improving Memory, Attention, and Executive Function in Older Adults with Yoga Therapy. 31. Reasons for Starting and Continuing Yoga. 32. Yoga and Stress Management May Buffer Against Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior Increases in College Freshmen. 33. Whole-systems Ayurveda and Yoga Therapy for Obesity: Outcomes of a Pilot Study. 34. Women�s Phenomenological Experiences of Exercise, Breathing, and the Body During Yoga for Smoking Cessation Treatment. 35. Mindfulness as a Tool for Trauma Recovery: Examination of a Gender-responsive Trauma-informed Integrative Mindfulness Program for Female Inmates. 36. Yoga After Stroke Leads to Multiple Physical Improvements. 37. Tele-Yoga in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure: A Mixed-methods Study of Feasibility, Acceptability, and Safety

  16. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  17. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  18. Quality, quality, quality!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Charles A., II

    1994-03-01

    The manufacturing base is being revitalized by new manufacturing directions such as the new agile manufacturing and environmentally-conscious manufacturing. These processes hold promise for bringing high-impact technologies to quick commercial fruition, and more than ever before they incorporate quality principles in their development and operation. Because of their pivotal role in all of these aspects, the R&D institutions must maintain a firm grasp on solid quality fundamentals and new developments in the field.

  19. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  20. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  1. Genetic correlations between performance traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    PubMed

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2007-01-01

    Results of mare performance tests in the field (MPT-F) of 10,949 mares, mare performance tests at station (MPT-S) of 1,712 mares, and inspections of horses intended for sale at riding horse auctions (AU) of 4,772 horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits. Mare performance tests were held in 1995 to 2004 and auction inspections in 1999 to 2004. Scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for gaits under rider (walk, trot, canter), rideability (evaluated by judging commission and test rider), free-jumping (ability, style, total), and character. Radiography results of 5,102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between performance traits and particular radiographic findings. The radiographic findings included osseous fragments in fetlock and hock joints, deforming arthropathy in hock joints, and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones, which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones, which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on the horses radiographed and their contemporaries (n = 18,609). Heritability of performance traits ranged between 0.14 and 0.61, and heritability of radiographic findings between 0.14 and 0.33. Additive genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits were close to unity for MPT-F and MPT-S, ranged from 0.81 to 0.90 for MPT-F and AU, and were 0.75 to 0.92 for MPT-S and AU. Genetic correlations between performance and radiography results were mostly close to zero. Indications of negative additive genetic correlations were observed for deforming arthropathy in hock joints and canter, rideability evaluated by test rider, jumping traits and character, and osseous fragments in hock joints and character. Selection of horses for radiological health of their limbs will assist further genetic

  2. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    PubMed

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  3. The force output of handle and pedal in different bicycle-riding postures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Wu, Yu-Kuang; Chan, Ming-Sheng; Shih, Yo; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the force output of handle and pedal as well as the electromyography (EMG) of lower extremity in different cycling postures. Bilateral pedalling asymmetry indices of force and EMG were also determined in this study. Twelve healthy cyclists were recruited for this study and tested for force output and EMG during steady state cycling adopting different pedalling and handle bar postures. The standing posture increased the maximal stepping torque (posture 1: 204.2 ± 47.0 Nm; posture 2: 212.5 ± 46.1 Nm; posture 3: 561.5 ± 143.0 Nm; posture 4: 585.5 ± 139.1 Nm), stepping work (posture 1: 655.2 ± 134.6 Nm; posture 2: 673.2 ± 116.3 Nm; posture 3: 1852.3 ± 394.4 Nm; posture 4: 1911.3 ± 432.9 Nm), and handle force (posture 1: 16.6 ± 3.6 N; posture 2: 16.4 ± 3.6 N; posture 3: 26.5 ± 8.2 N; posture 4: 41.4 ± 11.1 N), as well as muscle activation (posture 1: 13.6-25.1%; posture 2: 13.0-23.9%; posture 3: 23.6-61.8%; posture 4: 22.5-65.8%) in the erector spine, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and soleus. However, neither a sitting nor a standing riding posture affected the hamstring. The riding asymmetry was detected between the right and left legs only in sitting conditions. When a cyclist changes posture from sitting to standing, the upper and lower extremities are forced to produce more force output because of the shift in body weight. These findings suggest that cyclists can switch between sitting and standing postures during competition to increase cycling efficiency in different situations. Furthermore, coaches and trainers can modify sitting and standing durations to moderate cycling intensity, without concerning unbalanced muscle development. PMID:26967311

  4. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    PubMed

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites. PMID:18930578

  5. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  6. A comparative study of the electromyographic activities of lower extremity muscles during level walking and Pedalo riding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongGeon; Kim, YouJeong; Yun, JiHyeon; Jung, MiHye; Lee, GyuChang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To analyze the electromyographic (EMG) activities of several lower extremity muscles during ground walking and pedaling using the Pedalo Reha-Bar device. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy adults aged 20–29 year participated in this study. The subjects’ surface EMG signals while walking and Pedalo Reha-Bar riding were recorded. The subjects performed 20 steps on flat ground and 20 cycles on the Pedalo Reha-Bar. During the tasks, EMG signals of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius within a 20-second period were recorded. The mean EMG signals within the 10 seconds from 6 to 15 seconds were used for the data analysis. [Results] There was a significant increase in the bilateral use of the rectus femoris and a significant decrease in the use of the left tibialis anterior and left soleus in pedaling using the Pedalo Reha-Bar device compared to ground walking. [Conclusion] Level walking and the Pedalo Reha-Bar riding utilize different types of muscles activities. These results suggest that Pedalo Reha-Bar riding may be used for neuromuscular activation, especially of the rectus femoris. PMID:27313354

  7. The effects of hippotherapy and a horse riding simulator on the balance of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong Gil; Na, Sang Su

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] We with respect to their effects on the compared hippotherapy with a horseback riding simulator (JOBA, Panasonic Inc. JP) static and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six children were randomly divided into two groups: a hippotherapy group that included 13 children, and a horseback riding simulator (JOBA, Panasonic Inc., Japan) group, which was also composed of 13 children. The two groups participated in 1 hour of exercise per day, 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. The subjects' static balance ability was measured using BPM (software 5.3, SMS Healthcare Inc., UK) as the center of pressure sway length while standing for 30 seconds with their eyes open and looking to the front. Dynamic balance ability was measured using the PBS (Pediatric Balance Scale). [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in static and dynamic balance but significant differences between the two groups were not found. [Conclusion] The horseback riding simulator could be a useful alternative to hippotherapy for the improvement of static and dynamic balance of children with CP. PMID:24707098

  8. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  9. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  10. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  11. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  12. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle ride performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-07-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used in the paper to analyse to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) can improve the vehicle ride comfort while preserving the wheel holding ability. The method is first applied for a cosine-shaped bump road disturbance of different heights, and for both quarter-car and full 10 degree-of-freedom vehicle models. A nonlinear anti-wheel hop constraint is considered, and the influence of bump preview time period is analysed. The analysis is then extended to the case of square- or cosine-shaped pothole with different lengths, and the quarter-car model. In this case, the cost function is extended with FAS energy consumption and wheel damage resilience costs. The FAS action is found to be such to provide a wheel hop over the pothole, in order to avoid or minimise the damage at the pothole trailing edge. In the case of long pothole, when the FAS cannot provide the wheel hop, the wheel is travelling over the pothole bottom and then hops over the pothole trailing edge. The numerical optimisation results are accompanied by a simplified algebraic analysis.

  13. Study of Low Voltage Ride Through Performance for Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirawata, Ryoya; Kai, Takaaki

    Recently, the introduction of wind power generation is increasing rapidly. The ratio of wind power generation to the capacity of a total generation is getting higher and higher. When the phase-to-phase fault occurs in the power system, the frequency of power system is lower due to disconnecting of the wind power generation with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Therefore, the power system might become unstable. This paper describes the LVRT (low voltage ride through) performance improvement scheme of the wind power generation with DFIG. The wind power generation is disconnected from the grid in case of the power system fault. It is independently in operation from the grid by controlling of the inverter equipped in the generation. After clearance of the power system fault, the wind power generation is immediately re-connected to the grid. As a result, instability in the power system disappears. The performance of LVRT is confirmed by using simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation result shows an excellent result to the three-phase short-circuit fault of the voltage dip 100%.

  14. Beam-Riding Analysis of a Parabolic Laser-thermal Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2011-11-10

    Flight experiments with laser-propelled vehicles (lightcrafts) are often performed by wire-guidance or with spin-stabilization. Nevertheless, the specific geometry of the lightcraft's optics and nozzle may provide for inherent beam-riding properties. These features are experimentally investigated in a hovering experiment at a small free flight test range with an electron-beam sustained pulsed CO{sub 2} high energy laser. Laser bursts are adapted with a real-time control to lightcraft mass and impulse coupling for ascent and hovering in a quasi equilibrium of forces. The flight dynamics is analyzed with respect to the impulse coupling field vs. attitude, given by the lightcraft's offset and its inclination angle against the beam propagation axis, which are derived from the 3D-reconstruction of the flight trajectory from highspeed recordings. The limitations of the experimental parameters' reproducibility and its impact on flight stability are explored in terms of Julia sets. Solution statements for dynamic stabilization loops are presented and discussed.

  15. Beam-Riding Analysis of a Parabolic Laser-thermal Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Röser, Hans-Peter

    2011-11-01

    Flight experiments with laser-propelled vehicles (lightcrafts) are often performed by wire-guidance or with spin-stabilization. Nevertheless, the specific geometry of the lightcraft's optics and nozzle may provide for inherent beam-riding properties. These features are experimentally investigated in a hovering experiment at a small free flight test range with an electron-beam sustained pulsed CO2 high energy laser. Laser bursts are adapted with a real-time control to lightcraft mass and impulse coupling for ascent and hovering in a quasi equilibrium of forces. The flight dynamics is analyzed with respect to the impulse coupling field vs. attitude, given by the lightcraft's offset and its inclination angle against the beam propagation axis, which are derived from the 3D-reconstruction of the flight trajectory from highspeed recordings. The limitations of the experimental parameters' reproducibility and its impact on flight stability are explored in terms of Julia sets. Solution statements for dynamic stabilization loops are presented and discussed.

  16. Sally Ride and others speak at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former astronaut Sally Ride (left) sits on a panel of women discussing 'Past, Present and Future of Space.' Other participants in the women's forum include Marta Bohn-Meyer (second from left), the first SR-71 female pilot; Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D., the first American woman to walk in space; Donna Shirley, Ph.D., the first woman leading the Mars Exploration Program; astronaut Yvonne Cagle; Jennifer Harris, flight director, Mars Pathfinder; astronaut Ellen Ochoa, the first Hispanic female in space and member of the President's commission on the Celebration of Women in American History. The panel is being moderated by Lynn Sherr, ABC News correspondent. The forum about women in space included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  17. Biomechanical responses of the back of riding horses to water treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Mooij, M J W; Jans, W; den Heijer, G J L; de Pater, M; Back, W

    2013-12-01

    There is a lack of evidence for the presumed beneficial effects of water treadmills on the movement of the horse's back. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of water treadmill exercise on axial rotation (AR), lateral bending (LB) and pelvic flexion (PF) in horses. The back kinematics of a group of riding horses were studied at the walk in a water treadmill at different depths of water (hoof, fetlock, carpus, elbow and shoulder joint levels) over a period of 10 days. Skin markers were placed at anatomical locations on the back. AR, LB and PF were measured on days 1 and 10 using two high-speed video cameras. There was a significant increase in AR compared to baseline at the level of the carpus and at higher water levels, whereas LB was significantly lower than baseline values at water levels that reached the elbow and shoulder joints. PF was significantly higher than baseline values at each water depth other than hoof water depth. At increasing water depths, there were significant increases in flexion and rotation of the back. At the highest water levels, there was reduced bending of the back. After 10 days, horses exhibited more bending of the back. PMID:24360735

  18. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K

    2015-12-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease-unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients. PMID:26682126

  19. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  20. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS) and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety).The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs) facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented) and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined). Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented). However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were related to fewer

  1. Assessment of Respondent Acceptability for Preference Measures in Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Duska M.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using one or more of four standard economic preference measures to assess health-related quality of life in stuttering, by assessing respondents' views of the acceptability of those measures. Method and results: A graphic positioning scale approach was used with 80 adults to assess four variables previously…

  2. Is parasitoid acceptance of different host species dynamic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Choice of host individuals by parasitoids is dynamic, varying with physiological state and experience. In particular, female parasitoids with high egg loads and low life expectancy are more willing to accept low quality hosts than females with low egg loads and high life expectancy. However, studi...

  3. Acceptance of Online Degrees by Undergraduate Mexican Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia; Adams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The quality and acceptance of online degree programs are still controversial issues. In Mexico, where access to technology is limited, there are few studies on the matter. Undergraduate students (n = 104) answered a survey that aimed to evaluate their knowledge of virtual education, their likelihood of enrollment in an online degree program, and…

  4. Quality patents.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K

    1994-01-01

    Watermark Patent and Trademark Attorneys has recently been accepted by the Council of National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia as operating a Quality Management System that complies with the requirements of AS3901/ISO9001 for the creation and servicing of Australian and overseas patents, trademarks and designs and provision of related advice. It is believed that Watermark is the first firm of Patent Attorneys in the world to achieve this. PMID:7765675

  5. Changes in heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, and cardiac biomarker values in horses during recovery after a long-distance endurance ride.

    PubMed

    Flethøj, Mette; Kanters, Jørgen K; Haugaard, Maria M; Pedersen, Philip J; Carstensen, Helena; Balling, Johanne D; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Buhl, Rikke

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate heart rate, heart rate variability, and arrhythmia frequency as well as changes in cardiac biomarker values and their association with heart rate in horses before and after an endurance ride. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 28 Arabian horses competing in a 120- or 160-km endurance ride. PROCEDURES ECG recordings were obtained from each horse before (preride) and after (recovery) an endurance ride to evaluate changes in heart rate and the SD of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) during the initial 12 hours of recovery. Frequencies of supraventricular and ventricular premature complexes before and after the ride were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained before the ride and twice during recovery. Hematologic analyses included measurement of serum cardiac troponin I concentration and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity. RESULTS Heart rate was significantly increased and SDNN was decreased during the recovery versus preride period. Frequency of ventricular premature complexes increased during recovery, albeit not significantly, whereas frequency of supraventricular premature complexes was not significantly different between preride and recovery periods. Serum cardiac troponin I concentration and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity were significantly increased in the recovery versus preride period. No associations were identified between cardiac biomarkers and velocity, distance, or mean heart rate. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Heart rate increased and SDNN decreased in horses after completion of an endurance ride. These and other cardiac changes suggested that prolonged exercise such as endurance riding might have cardiac effects in horses. Additional studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of the findings. PMID:27074612

  6. Acceptance testing prone stereotactic breast biopsy units.

    PubMed

    Kimme-Smith, C; Solberg, T

    1994-07-01

    When the Mammography Quality Standards Act becomes law in October, 1994, stereotactic breast biopsy units may require yearly physicist calibration. Upright stereotactic units can be easily tested using conventional mammography procedures and a gelatin phantom containing simulated calcifications, but prone units are difficult to assess because of the under-table tube configuration. The two current manufacturers of these units have made different design decisions which affect each unit's calibration. There are a number of important distinctions between screening and prone biopsy units. For the two currently available prone units, a pronounced heel effect makes ion chamber position critical. Focal spot measurements are particularly difficult on one unit because there is no light field. The fixed grid on the other unit must be tested with a flood film. Physicists who inspect these units before their clinical use should be aware of variations needed by this equipment for specific acceptance tests. PMID:7968854

  7. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  8. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  9. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  10. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  12. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3... Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance officer shall, within 15 days, complete and send the contractor a DD Form 1637, Notice of Acceptance...

  13. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  15. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  16. Riding on the fast lane: how sea turtles behave in post-nesting migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-H.; Cheng, I.-J.; Centurioni, L.

    2014-07-01

    Sea turtles are known as powerful swimmers. How do they behave when riding in strong currents during their migrations? In this study, three, satellite-tagged, post-nesting green turtles travelled from Lanyu Island, east of Taiwan, partly within the Kuroshio to their foraging sites approximately 1000 km away in the Ryukyu Archipelago. Their swimming behaviors were analyzed by comparing their migration velocities estimated from Argos tag data with ocean currents derived from a data simulation model and from AVISO advection estimates. Results suggest that the turtles take advantage of Kuroshio during the initial portion of their migration routes. They must then make a great effort to swim eastward, at speeds over 1 m s-1, toward their foraging sites to avoid being carried off course by the strong current. The cues that might cause the change in swimming direction were evaluated with a Principle Component Analysis. The factors considered are ambient current velocity, wind, eddy activity (vorticity), magnetic field (latitude) and water temperature. The analysis shows that the ambient current and water temperature are negatively correlated with the eastward swimming velocity. This suggests that the changes in ocean current and a drop of water temperature, likely due to eddies impinging on the Kuroshio, may trigger the eastward swimming. Despite the differences among migratory routes of three Argos-tagged turtles after leaving the Kuroshio, they all reached foraging sites in the same general area. That suggests there may be more complex cues that guide the turtles to their foraging sites during their post-nesting migrations.

  17. Stirrup forces during horse riding: a comparison between sitting and rising trot.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Femke E; de Cocq, Patricia; Timmerman, Mark; Muller, Mees

    2012-07-01

    Injuries of horses might be related to the force the rider exerts on the horse. To better understand the loading of the horse by a rider, a sensor was developed to measure the force exerted by the rider on the stirrups. In the study, five horses and 23 riders participated. Stirrup forces measured in sitting trot and rising trot were synchronised with rider movements measured from digital films and made dimensionless by dividing them by the bodyweight (BW) of the rider. A Fourier transform of the stirrup force data showed that the signals of both sitting and rising trot contained 2.4 and 4.8 Hz frequencies. In addition, 1.1 and 3.7 Hz frequencies were also present at rising trot. Each stride cycle of trot showed two peaks in stirrup force. The heights of these peaks were 1.17±0.28 and 0.33±0.14 in rising and 0.45±0.24 and 0.38±0.22 (stirrup force (N)/BW of rider (N)) in sitting trot. A significant difference was found between the higher peaks of sitting and rising trot (P<0.001) and between the peaks within a single stride for both riding styles (P<0.001). The higher peak in rising trot occurred during the standing phase of the stride cycle. Riders imposed more force on the stirrups during rising than sitting trot. A combination of stirrup and saddle force data can provide additional information on the total loading of the horse by a rider. PMID:22100209

  18. E2F Transcription Factors Control the Roller Coaster Ride of Cell Cycle Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Thurlings, Ingrid; de Bruin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Initially, the E2F transcription factor was discovered as a factor able to bind the adenovirus E2 promoter and activate viral genes. Afterwards it was shown that E2F also binds to promoters of nonviral genes such as C-MYC and DHFR, which were already known at that time to be important for cell growth and DNA metabolism, respectively. These findings provided the first clues that the E2F transcription factor might be an important regulator of the cell cycle. Since this initial discovery in 1987, several additional E2F family members have been identified, and more than 100 targets genes have been shown to be directly regulated by E2Fs, the majority of these are important for controlling the cell cycle. The progression of a cell through the cell cycle is accompanied with the increased expression of a specific set of genes during one phase of the cell cycle and the decrease of the same set of genes during a later phase of the cell cycle. This roller coaster ride, or oscillation, of gene expression is essential for the proper progression through the cell cycle to allow accurate DNA replication and cell division. The E2F transcription factors have been shown to be critical for the temporal expression of the oscillating cell cycle genes. This review will focus on how the oscillation of E2Fs and their targets is regulated by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanism in mammals, yeast, flies, and worms. Furthermore, we will discuss the functional impact of E2Fs on the cell cycle progression and outline the consequences when E2F expression is disturbed. PMID:26254918

  19. Predictive Sea State Estimation for Automated Ride Control and Handling - PSSEARCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.; Aghazarian, Hrand; Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    PSSEARCH provides predictive sea state estimation, coupled with closed-loop feedback control for automated ride control. It enables a manned or unmanned watercraft to determine the 3D map and sea state conditions in its vicinity in real time. Adaptive path-planning/ replanning software and a control surface management system will then use this information to choose the best settings and heading relative to the seas for the watercraft. PSSEARCH looks ahead and anticipates potential impact of waves on the boat and is used in a tight control loop to adjust trim tabs, course, and throttle settings. The software uses sensory inputs including IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), stereo, radar, etc. to determine the sea state and wave conditions (wave height, frequency, wave direction) in the vicinity of a rapidly moving boat. This information can then be used to plot a safe path through the oncoming waves. The main issues in determining a safe path for sea surface navigation are: (1) deriving a 3D map of the surrounding environment, (2) extracting hazards and sea state surface state from the imaging sensors/map, and (3) planning a path and control surface settings that avoid the hazards, accomplish the mission navigation goals, and mitigate crew injuries from excessive heave, pitch, and roll accelerations while taking into account the dynamics of the sea surface state. The first part is solved using a wide baseline stereo system, where 3D structure is determined from two calibrated pairs of visual imagers. Once the 3D map is derived, anything above the sea surface is classified as a potential hazard and a surface analysis gives a static snapshot of the waves. Dynamics of the wave features are obtained from a frequency analysis of motion vectors derived from the orientation of the waves during a sequence of inputs. Fusion of the dynamic wave patterns with the 3D maps and the IMU outputs is used for efficient safe path planning.

  20. Heart rate response and perceived exertion in college students during riding a scooter.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Morio; Kijima, Akira; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the heart rate responses and the perceived exertion in college students during scootering, and to examine if scootering possibly makes heart rate increase up to the level that can contribute to maintaining or developing cardiorespiratory fitness. Five male students (20-23 yrs) participated in this research, mainly assigned to scooter on an official 400 m-tartan track. Each session of scootering was six minutes. Each subject did three sessions of scootering at different speeds, slow, ordinary, and very fast. During the scootering, heart rate was measured using a Polar Vantage XL. Immediately after each session, the subjects were questioned about their perceived exertion. To evaluate heart rate during scootering on the track, maximal heart rate was measured in advance with graded maximal tests. In each speed in the track trial, the mean heart rates and the standard deviations were 106 +/- 5.9, 129 +/- 4.2, and 179 +/- 13.7 beats/min respectively. They correspond to 54.0 +/- 4.2%, 65.8 +/- 4.2%, and 91.2 +/- 5.5% of the maximal heart rate respectively. The mean and standard deviation of perceived exertion based on Borg's scale in each scootering session were 7.2 +/- 0.45, 10.2 +/- 1.10, and 16.6 +/- 2.79 respectively. Conclusively, at ordinary speed, the heart rates of the college students on a tartan track were situated around the level of the lower boundary which the American College of Sports Medicine recommended to develop and maintain cardiorespiratory fitness for apparently healthy people. If people have places to ride a scooter briskly, their heart rate could rise above the minimum level. PMID:12407987

  1. Medially-shifted rather than high-riding vertebral arteries preclude safe pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Iijima, Yasushi; Furuya, Takeo; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Junya; Okawa, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    We enrolled 100 patients who underwent preoperative CT angiography before cervical spine instrumentation and investigated the morphology of the C2 pedicle from the perspective of pedicle screw (PS) trajectory using volume rendering and multiplanar reconstruction. The narrowest portion of the pedicle was identified as the pedicle isthmus. Safe C2 PS insertion was regarded to be not feasible when the height of the medullary cavity of the pedicle isthmus and/or width of the medullary cavity of the pedicle isthmus was ⩽4mm. Forty-five (22.5%) pedicles were ⩽4mm in width, and safe insertion of a PS was determined to be not feasible. Among these, seven pedicles were ⩽4mm in both height and width. The remaining 38 pedicles were ⩽4mm in width with heights >4mm. There was no pedicle with a width >4mm and height <4mm. In other words, short pedicles were always concomitantly narrow. Therefore, the seven pedicles ⩽4mm in both height and width were considered to be morphologically narrow. The heights of the pedicle isthmus were not limited by the vertebral artery groove (VAG) and safe C2 PS insertion can be considered feasible where the VAG is marginally cranial, whereas the widths of the pedicle isthmus are limited by the VAG. Therefore, safe C2 PS insertion is precluded only when the VAG courses cranially and medially. It is a medially-shifted, rather than a high-riding, vertebral artery that precludes safe C2 PS insertion. Therefore to avoid vertebral artery injury an axial CT scan, parallel to the pedicle axis, should be evaluated before C2 PS insertion. PMID:26916906

  2. Prevalence of clinical findings at examinations of young Swedish warmblood riding horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soundness of an individual horse is important for animal welfare and owner economy. However, knowledge of health status in normal horse populations is limited due to lack of systematic health recordings. The aim of the investigation was to study the prevalence of veterinary clinical findings in 4-5-year-old Swedish warmblood riding horses, and their influence on overall health scores, where associations to future longevity has been indicated. Results The prevalence of clinical findings in 8,281 horses examined during 1983–2005 was studied according to a standardised protocol and related to overall health scores in linear statistical models. Effects of sex, age, examination event and changes over time were included. In total, 49% of the horses had clinical findings of medical health (MED), 42% in hooves (HOOF) and 74% of palpatory orthopaedic health (PALP). However, only 6%, 3% and 24% had moderate or severe findings, of MED, HOOF and PALP, respectively. Flexion test reactions were reported in 21% of the horses (5% moderate/severe), heavily influencing the overall score (H2). One fifth of these horses also had findings of unprovoked lameness while 83% had PALP findings (44% with moderate/severe findings). Acute clinical signs, i.e. heat or soreness, had a large influence on the H2 score but were rare, whereas more common clinical findings had smaller effects on overall health. Large variations in recorded health results were observed among events. A decrease in findings has occurred since 1983, in particular for PALP findings. Conclusions Results of occurrence and relevance of evaluated clinical findings could be used for advice on preventive actions to keep horses sound, and possibly for benchmarking, and genetic evaluation of health traits. The distinct effect of event on recorded clinical findings emphasises that further harmonisation of veterinary examinations are desirable. PMID:23597257

  3. The effects of a rhythm and music-based therapy program and therapeutic riding in late recovery phase following stroke: a study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke represents one of the most costly and long-term disabling conditions in adulthood worldwide and there is a need to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs in the late phase after stroke. Limited scientific support exists for training incorporating rhythm and music as well as therapeutic riding and well-designed trials to determine the effectiveness of these treatment modalities are warranted. Methods/Design A single blinded three-armed randomized controlled trial is described with the aim to evaluate whether it is possible to improve the overall health status and functioning of individuals in the late phase of stroke (1-5 years after stroke) through a rhythm and music-based therapy program or therapeutic riding. About 120 individuals will be consecutively and randomly allocated to one of three groups: (T1) rhythm and music-based therapy program; (T2) therapeutic riding; or (T3) control group receiving the T1 training program a year later. Evaluation is conducted prior to and after the 12-week long intervention as well as three and six months later. The evaluation comprises a comprehensive functional and cognitive assessment (both qualitative and quantitative), and questionnaires. Based on the International classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF), the outcome measures are classified into six comprehensive domains, with participation as the primary outcome measure assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS, version 2.0.). The secondary outcome measures are grouped within the following domains: body function, activity, environmental factors and personal factors. Life satisfaction and health related quality of life constitute an additional domain. Current status A total of 84 participants were randomised and have completed the intervention. Recruitment proceeds and follow-up is on-going, trial results are expected in early 2014. Discussion This study will ascertain whether any of the two intervention programs can

  4. Estimating the ride quality characteristics of vehicles with random decrement analysis of on-the-road vibration response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Rouillard, Vincent; Sek, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the application of a practical analytical technique based on the random decrement method to estimate the rigid sprung mass dynamic characteristics (frequency response function) of road vehicles using only vibration response data during constant-speed operation. A brief history and development of the random decrement technique is presented, along with a summary of work undertaken on optimal parameter selection to establish the random decrement signature. Two approaches to estimate the dynamic characteristics from the random decrement signature are described and evaluated. A custom, single-wheeled vehicle (physical quarter car) was commissioned to undertake a series of on-the-road experiments at various nominally constant operating speeds. The vehicle, also instrumented as an inertial profilometer, simultaneously measured the longitudinal pavement profile to establish the vehicle's actual dynamic characteristics during operation. The main outcome of the paper is that the random decrement technique can be used to provide accurate estimates of the sprung mass mode of the vehicle's dynamic characteristics for both linear and nonlinear suspension systems of an idealised vehicle.

  5. Trends and Correlates of Child Passenger Restraint Use in 6 Northwest Tribes: The Native Children Always Ride Safe (Native CARS) Project

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicole Holdaway; Lutz, Tam; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared proportions of children properly restrained in vehicles in 6 Northwest American Indian tribes in 2003 and 2009, and evaluated risks for improper restraint. Methods. During spring 2009 we conducted a vehicle observation survey in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho tribal communities. We estimated the proportions of children riding properly restrained and evaluated correlates of improper restraint via log-binomial regression models for clustered data. Results. We observed 1853 children aged 12 years and younger in 1207 vehicles; 49% rode properly restrained. More children aged 8 years and younger rode properly restrained in 2009 than 2003 (51% vs 29%; P < .001). Older booster seat–eligible children were least likely to ride properly restrained in 2009 (25%). American Indian children were more likely to ride improperly restrained than nonnative children in the same communities. Other risk factors included riding with an unrestrained or nonparent driver, riding where child passenger restraint laws were weaker than national guidelines, and taking a short trip. Conclusions. Although proper restraint has increased, it remains low. Tribe-initiated interventions to improve child passenger restraint use are under way. PMID:23237177

  6. The Adult Roles Models Program: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    We present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. We also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group, and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the 4-week intervention. The program was highly feasible and acceptable to participants, and the curriculum was implemented with a high level of fidelity and facilitator quality. Pilot data show promising outcomes for increasing parental knowledge, communication, and monitoring of their adolescent children. PMID:24883051

  7. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, J. G.; Heywood, J. B.; Sawyer, R. F.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1993-07-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been and are being controlled in an effort to abate urban air pollution. This article addresses the question: Will the vehicle exhaust emission control and fuel requirements in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the California Air Resources Board regulations on vehicles and fuels have a significant impact? The effective control of in-use vehicle emissions is the key to a solution to the motor vehicle part of the urban air pollution problem for the next decade or so. It is not necessary, except perhaps in Southern California, to implement extremely low new car emission standards before the end of the 20th century. Some of the proposed gasoline volatility and composition changes in reformulated gasoline will produce significant reductions in vehicle emissions (for example, reduced vapor pressure, sulfur, and light olefin and improved high end volatility), whereas others (such as substantial oxygenate addition and aromatics reduction) will not.

  8. Examining the Factors That Contribute to Successful Database Application Implementation Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nworji, Alexander O.

    2013-01-01

    Most organizations spend millions of dollars due to the impact of improperly implemented database application systems as evidenced by poor data quality problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to use, and extend, the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the impact of information quality and technical quality factors on database…

  9. Injuries suffered by dogs from riding in the back of open pickup trucks: a retrospective review of seventy cases.

    PubMed

    Houston, D M; Fries, C L; Alcorn, M J; Thomas, S S

    1995-08-01

    Case records of 70 dogs injured while riding in the back of open pickup trucks during the period January 1, 1982, to May 1, 1993, were reviewed. Most dogs were young (mean age 2.4 y) and of medium to large size (average weight 22.6 kg). Sixty-five dogs (93%) were injured during the months of April through October. Forty-nine dogs (70%) had single injuries and 21 dogs (30%) sustained multiple injuries. Fractures were the most frequent injury incurred, with fractures of the femur the most common. Surgical repair was recommended in all but 2 cases. PMID:7585438

  10. Quality Leadership and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Badrick, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Different quality control rules detect different analytical errors with varying levels of efficiency depending on the type of error present, its prevalence and the number of observations. The efficiency of a rule can be gauged by inspection of a power function graph. Control rules are only part of a process and not an end in itself; just as important are the trouble-shooting systems employed when a failure occurs. 'Average of patient normals' may develop as a usual adjunct to conventional quality control serum based programmes. Acceptable error can be based on various criteria; biological variation is probably the most sensible. Once determined, acceptable error can be used as limits in quality control rule systems. A key aspect of an organisation is leadership, which links the various components of the quality system. Leadership is difficult to characterise but its key aspects include trust, setting an example, developing staff and critically setting the vision for the organisation. Organisations also have internal characteristics such as the degree of formalisation, centralisation, and complexity. Medical organisations can have internal tensions because of the dichotomy between the bureaucratic and the shadow medical structures. PMID:18568046

  11. The DWPF strategy for producing an acceptable product

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, W.T.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will convert the 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste at SRS into stable borosilicate glass. Production of canistered waste forms by the DWPF is scheduled to begin well before submission of the license application for the first repository. The Department of Energy has defined waste acceptance specifications to ensure that DWPF canistered waste forms will be acceptable for eventual disposal. To ensure that canistered waste forms meet those specifications, a program is being carried out to qualify the waste form and those aspects of the production process which affect product quality. This program includes: Pre-production qualification testing of simulated and actual waste forms; Disciplined demonstrations of the ability to produce an acceptable product during startup testing; and Application of a rigorous product control program during production.

  12. The DWPF strategy for producing an acceptable product

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, W.T.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will convert the 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste at SRS into stable borosilicate glass. Production of canistered waste forms by the DWPF is scheduled to begin well before submission of the license application for the first repository. The Department of Energy has defined waste acceptance specifications to ensure that DWPF canistered waste forms will be acceptable for eventual disposal. To ensure that canistered waste forms meet those specifications, a program is being carried out to qualify the waste form and those aspects of the production process which affect product quality. This program includes: Pre-production qualification testing of simulated and actual waste forms; Disciplined demonstrations of the ability to produce an acceptable product during startup testing; and Application of a rigorous product control program during production.

  13. Transforming Quality for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idrus, Nirwan

    2003-01-01

    Describes some obstacles to the acceptance of concepts and practices related to quality in developing countries. Explores possible paradigm faults as reasons for the negative reactions often found, and concludes that culture alone is not the reason quality concepts are not more readily transplanted. Discusses the desirability of short-, middle-,…

  14. 21 CFR 820.80 - Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receiving, in-process, and finished device acceptance. 820.80 Section 820.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.80 Receiving, in-process, and finished device...

  15. MESSENGER Educator Fellows Taking the Nation on a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhala, H. A.; Goldstein, J. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Weir, H. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) Educator Fellows are making sure classrooms across the U.S. are treated to quite a show. The Fellows, a nationally selected team of 30 master science educator volunteers, conduct workshops to teachers on how to bring educational materials developed in support of the mission into the classroom. The goal of the program is to provide teachers and school districts with exceptional educational materials and professional development strongly tied to the space science curriculum, and the materials are designed to inspire the next generation of America's scientists and engineers through NASA missions. Since the program's inception in 2003, more than 17,000 educators have been trained by the Fellows. On the basis of data gathered from the Fellows, this figure could translate to over two million student experiences. The success of the Fellowship program can also be gauged by determining how well it has maintained its volunteer corps over the years. The Fellows, selected to the program through a national announcement of opportunity every two years, reflect a geographically and institutionally diverse mix of individuals from a variety of settings such as science centers, museums, school districts, and universities. The Fellows sign up to the program for two years at a time, and at the end of their term they have the option to reapply. To keep the number of Fellows at 30 in each cadre, new Fellows are recruited to replace those who have retired. The current, fourth cadre of Fellows includes 30 individuals in 19 states and territories. Of these, seven have been in the program since the first cadre, and the other 23 include Fellows from the second, third, and fourth recruitment campaigns in 2006, 2008, and 2010. The current cadre is conducting its work

  16. MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach Arranges a Ride to the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, H. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Hirshon, B.; Vanhala, H.; Solomon, S. C.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach Team

    2010-12-01

    Exploration of the mysterious planet Mercury offers an unprecedented opportunity for teachers, students, and citizens to tag along for the ride, and the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team for MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) is making sure the public gets quite a show. Since 2004, when MESSENGER was launched, MESSENGER has been gathering intriguing data and information about the Solar System's innermost planet. That journey will continue at a quickened pace after March 18, 2011, when MESSENGER enters into orbit around Mercury for one year of observations of the planet and its environment. The EPO Team - an extensive network of individuals and institutions - has sought to convey the excitement and complexity of the mission as MESSENGER's team overcomes challenges, achieves triumphs, and shares the adventure of space exploration with the American and global public. The EPO Team has developed a broad and comprehensive set of educational and outreach activities, ranging from curricular materials, teacher training, and unique mission-related student investigations to museum displays and special outreach to underserved communities and minority students. One of the most visible aspects of this effort is the MESSENGER Educator Fellows program: master science educators who conduct teacher training workshops throughout the nation for pre-K-12 educators. Educator Fellows train teachers on the EPO Team's MESSENGER Education Modules, which are also relevant to other NASA missions reaching important milestones this year (see http://www.messenger-education.org/teachers/educ_modules.php). By the time MESSENGER goes into orbit, Educator Fellows will have trained an estimated 18,000 teachers, who in turn, facilitate classroom experiences to over 1.8 million students. The EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for

  17. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  18. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  19. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  20. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258