Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable risk criteria

  1. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  2. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, K.; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

  3. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  4. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  5. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  7. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  8. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  9. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  10. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  12. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  13. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  14. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  15. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  16. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  18. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  19. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Cochet, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  20. 7 CFR 42.107 - Lot acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot acceptance criteria. 42.107 Section 42.107... § 42.107 Lot acceptance criteria. (a) The acceptability of the lot is determined by relating the number and class of defects enumerated on the worksheet to the acceptance and rejection numbers shown...

  1. 7 CFR 42.107 - Lot acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lot acceptance criteria. 42.107 Section 42.107... § 42.107 Lot acceptance criteria. (a) The acceptability of the lot is determined by relating the number and class of defects enumerated on the worksheet to the acceptance and rejection numbers shown...

  2. Waste acceptance criteria for closure generated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The PORTS Facility has been operating since 1954. The PORTS Facility is used to enrich uranium for nuclear navy applications and commercial nuclear reactors. The PORTS process uses molecular diffusion techniques to separate the U-235 isotope from the U-238 isotope. The PORTS Facility consists of a complex cascade of compressors and converters through which gaseous uranium hexafluoride feed is processed. The feed contains approximately 0.7 percent U-235 by weight while products contain from 4 to 97 percent U-235 by weight, depending on the final application. In general, the majority of the closure wastes generated at PORTS consists of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, soils, decontamination solutions, and construction related debris. These hazardous wastes will be predominately characterized on the basis of process knowledge. PORTS assumes its conservative waste characterizations that are based on process knowledge are correct unless and until further investigation and/or analysis proves the constituents are not present or are present at concentrations below characteristic regulatory thresholds. Waste Acceptance Criteria for wastes generated by the closure of active and inactive RCRA facilities at PORTS has been developed. The criteria presented in this document govern the activities that are performed during the closure and subsequent generation of waste and relocation from the closure locations to the storage unit. These criteria are intended to ensure the proper handling, classification, processing, and storage of wastes in order to prevent hazardous waste release that may pose a threat to human health or the environment. Any wastes currently stored at each of the facilities that are to be closed will be transferred to the X-326 or X-7725 Storage Units. The waste transfers will be accomplished in accordance with the Container Transfer Plan.

  3. Analytical method transfer: new descriptive approach for acceptance criteria definition.

    PubMed

    de Fontenay, Gérald

    2008-01-01

    Within the pharmaceutical industry, method transfers are now commonplace during the life cycle of an analytical method. Setting acceptance criteria for analytical transfers is, however, much more difficult than usually described. Criteria which are too wide may lead to the acceptance of a laboratory providing non-equivalent results, resulting in bad release/reject decisions for pharmaceutical products (a consumer risk). On the contrary, criteria which are too tight may lead to the rejection of an equivalent laboratory, resulting in time costs and delay in the transfer process (an industrial risk). The consumer risk has to be controlled first. But the risk does depend on the method capability (tolerance to method precision ratio). Analytical transfers were simulated for different scenarios (different method capabilities and transfer designs, 10,000 simulations per test). The results of the simulations showed that the method capability has a strong influence on the probability of success of its transfer. For the transfer design, the number of independent analytical runs to be performed on a same batch has much more influence than the number of replicates per run, especially when the inter-day variability of the method is high. A classic descriptive approach for analytical method transfer does not take into account the variability of the method, and therefore, no risks are controlled. Tools for designing analytical transfers and defining a new descriptive acceptance criterion, which take into account the intra- and inter-day variability of the method, are provided for a better risk evaluation by non-statisticians. PMID:17961955

  4. Acceptance criteria for heat exchanger head staybolts

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.; Barnes, D.M.; Placr, A.; Morrison, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site production reactors contains two parallel single-pass heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary coolant (D{sub 2}O) to the secondary cooling water (H{sub 2}O). The configuration of the heat exchangers includes a plenary space defined by the heat exchanger tubesheet and the heat exchanger head at both the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to the primary piping. The primary restraint of the heat exchanger head (Type 304 stainless steel) is provided by 84 staybolts (Type 303 stainless steel) which attach to the tubesheet. The staybolts were cap seal-welded in the mid-1960's and are immersed in moderator. Access to inspect the staybolts is limited to a recently-developed ultrasonic technique shooting a beam through the staybolt assembly. Acceptance Criteria to allow disposition of flaws detected by UT inspection have been developed. The structural adequacy to protect against collapse loading of the head is demonstrated by finite element analysis of the head assembly and fracture analysis of flaw postulates in the staybolts. Both normal operation and normal operation plus seismic loading conditions were considered. Several bounding cases containing various configurations of nonactive (exceeding critical flaw size) staybolts were analyzed. The model of the head assembly can be applied to evaluate any active staybolt configurations based on the results from future inspections. 9 refs.

  5. Acceptance criteria for heat exchanger head staybolts

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.; Barnes, D.M.; Placr, A.; Morrison, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site production reactors contains two parallel single-pass heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary coolant (D{sub 2}O) to the secondary cooling water (H{sub 2}O). The configuration of the heat exchangers includes a plenary space defined by the heat exchanger tubesheet and the heat exchanger head at both the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to the primary piping. The primary restraint of the heat exchanger head (Type 304 stainless steel) is provided by 84 staybolts (Type 303 stainless steel) which attach to the tubesheet. The staybolts were cap seal-welded in the mid-1960`s and are immersed in moderator. Access to inspect the staybolts is limited to a recently-developed ultrasonic technique shooting a beam through the staybolt assembly. Acceptance Criteria to allow disposition of flaws detected by UT inspection have been developed. The structural adequacy to protect against collapse loading of the head is demonstrated by finite element analysis of the head assembly and fracture analysis of flaw postulates in the staybolts. Both normal operation and normal operation plus seismic loading conditions were considered. Several bounding cases containing various configurations of nonactive (exceeding critical flaw size) staybolts were analyzed. The model of the head assembly can be applied to evaluate any active staybolt configurations based on the results from future inspections. 9 refs.

  6. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  7. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  8. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  9. 46 CFR 164.120-7 - Acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance criteria. 164.120-7 Section 164.120-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Fire Retardant Resins for Lifeboats and Rescue Boats § 164.120-7 Acceptance criteria. (a) The laminating...

  10. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  11. Risk comparisons, conflict, and risk acceptability claims.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2004-02-01

    Despite many claims for and against the use of risk comparisons in risk communication, few empirical studies have explored their effect. Even fewer have examined the public's relative preferences among different kinds of risk comparisons. Two studies, published in this journal in 1990 and 2003, used seven measures of "acceptability" to examine public reaction to 14 examples of risk comparisons, as used by a hypothetical factory manager to explain risks of his ethylene oxide plant. This study examined the effect on preferences of scenarios involving low or high conflict between the factory manager and residents of the hypothetical town (as had the 2003 study), and inclusion of a claim that the comparison demonstrated the risks' acceptability. It also tested the Finucane et al. (2000) affect hypothesis that information emphasizing low risks-as in these risk comparisons-would raise benefits estimates without changing risk estimates. Using similar but revised scenarios, risk comparison examples (10 instead of 14), and evaluation measures, an opportunity sample of 303 New Jersey residents rated the comparisons, and the risks and benefits of the factory. On average, all comparisons received positive ratings on all evaluation measures in all conditions. Direct and indirect measures showed that the conflict manipulation worked; overall, No-Conflict and Conflict scenarios evoked scores that were not significantly different. The attachment to each risk comparison of a risk acceptability claim ("So our factory's risks should be acceptable to you.") did not worsen ratings relative to conditions lacking this claim. Readers who did or did not see this claim were equally likely to infer an attempt to persuade them to accept the risk from the comparison. As in the 2003 article, there was great individual variability in inferred rankings of the risk comparisons. However, exposure to the risk comparisons did not reduce risk estimates significantly (while raising benefit estimates

  12. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  13. Acceptance criteria considerations for miscellaneous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, A.R.; Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    EPA standards set forth limitations regarding releases to the accessible environment adjacent to a geologic repository. The NRC criteria pertaining to waste form and engineered barrier performance place certain restrictions on the physical and chemical nature of the waste form and require substantially complete confinement of radioactivity until the high-heat-production period is past. After this period, the annual release of radionuclides from the waste package is normally limited to 1 part in 100,000 of the amounts calculated to be present at 1000-y decay. The regulation permits deviation from these criteria in exceptional circumstances. One such circumstance might be the absence of a significant perturbation in temperature around the stored waste. The lack of significant heat release will eliminate the hydrologic driving force for dispersal of radionuclides. Exceptional circumstances which potentially could justify a less stringent long-term release criterion are: small quantity of radioactivity, the nature of the radioactive species, and the nature of the geology in which the waste is to be emplaced. Because the MW after a suitable decay period have low heat release rates per unit volume, they apparently could be so emplaced in a repository that there would be no compelling need, according to the reasoning presented in 10 CFR 60, for a 1000-y container. Regarding attainment of the specified long-term release rate criterion, neither the solubility limits for the various waste forms nor the conductance of potential migration barriers are currently adequately characterized. The relatively small total heat generation rate for the MW in combination with the usual low volumetric heat generation rate apparently will allow application of migration barriers in a low temperature environment where barrier performance would be expected to be unchanged with time.

  14. Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report.

  15. Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria for Energy-Limited Events

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer D. Snow; Dana K. Morton

    2009-07-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code was primarily written with stress-based acceptance criteria. These criteria are applicable to force, displacement, and energy-controlled loadings and ensure a factor of safety against failure. However, stress-based acceptance criteria are often quite conservative for one time energy-limited events such as accidental drops and impacts. For several years, the ASME Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containments has been developing the Design Articles for Section III, Division 3, “Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material and Waste,” and has wanted to establish strain-based acceptance criteria for accidental drops of containments. This Division 3 working group asked the Working Group on Design Methodology (WGDM) to assist in developing these strain-based acceptance criteria. This paper discusses the current proposed strain-based acceptance criteria, associated limitations of use, its background development, and the current status.

  16. Performance-based waste acceptance criteria preliminary baseline assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-24

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) strategy for the management of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed wastes has focused on the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP repository is designated to receive DOE defense wastes that meet the established criteria for acceptance. As a national strategy [DOE, 1993], DOE does not intend to treat candidate wastes unless treatment or processing are necessary to meet the safety, health, and regulatory criteria for transport and disposal at WIPP. The WIPP WAC has evolved over the past 10 years to include criteria and requirements in support of the Waste Characterization program and other related compliance programs. In aggregate, the final health, safety and regulatory criteria for the waste will be documented in the Disposal WAC. This document serves two purposes. First, it familiarizes regulators and stakeholders with the concept of performance based waste acceptance criteria as an augmentation within a final Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. Second, the document preliminarily identifies certain waste characteristics that appear important to the performance assessment process for WIPP; therefore, these could become component characteristics in the Performance Based Waste Acceptance Criteria (PBWAC). Identification of the final PBWAC will be accomplished through iterative runs of the System Prioritization Method (SPM). These iterations will serve to more clearly isolate and identify those waste characteristics that directly and predominately impact on the performance assessment.

  17. Acceptance criteria for corroded carbon steel piping containing weld defects

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.; Lam, P.S.; Awadalla, N.G.

    1993-04-01

    Acceptance criteria for corroded low temperature, low pressure carbon steel piping containing weld defects is presented along with a typical application of these criteria. They are intended to preclude gross rupture or rapidly propagating failure due to uniform wall thinning, local wall thinning, pitting corrosion and weld defects. The minimum allowable uniform wail thickness is based on the code-of-record allowable stress and fracture criteria. Weld defects are postulated as potential sites for fracture initiation. CEGB/R6 failure assessment diagram is used as the fracture criteria to determine the minimum allowable wall thickness. Design of a large portion of the low temperature, low pressure piping is dominated by axial stresses. Existing local wall thinning acceptance criteria address high pressure piping where hoop stress dominates the design. The existing criteria is over conservative, in some cases, when used on low pressure piping. Local wall thinning criteria is developed to limit the axial stress on the locally thinned section, based on a reduced average thickness. Limits on pit density are also developed to provide acceptance criteria for pitted piping.

  18. Acceptance criteria for corroded carbon steel piping containing weld defects

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.; Lam, P.S.; Awadalla, N.G.

    1993-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for corroded low temperature, low pressure carbon steel piping containing weld defects is presented along with a typical application of these criteria. They are intended to preclude gross rupture or rapidly propagating failure due to uniform wall thinning, local wall thinning, pitting corrosion and weld defects. The minimum allowable uniform wail thickness is based on the code-of-record allowable stress and fracture criteria. Weld defects are postulated as potential sites for fracture initiation. CEGB/R6 failure assessment diagram is used as the fracture criteria to determine the minimum allowable wall thickness. Design of a large portion of the low temperature, low pressure piping is dominated by axial stresses. Existing local wall thinning acceptance criteria address high pressure piping where hoop stress dominates the design. The existing criteria is over conservative, in some cases, when used on low pressure piping. Local wall thinning criteria is developed to limit the axial stress on the locally thinned section, based on a reduced average thickness. Limits on pit density are also developed to provide acceptance criteria for pitted piping.

  19. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  20. Anticipating Potential Waste Acceptance Criteria for Defense Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Lord, M.E.; Stockman, C.T.; McCurley, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and disposal of DOE owned defense spent nuclear fuel and high level waste (DSNF/DHLW). A desirable option, direct disposal of the waste in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, depends on the final waste acceptance criteria, which will be set by DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, evolving regulations make it difficult to determine what the final acceptance criteria will be. A method of anticipating waste acceptance criteria is to gain an understanding of the DOE owned waste types and their behavior in a disposal system through a performance assessment and contrast such behavior with characteristics of commercial spent fuel. Preliminary results from such an analysis indicate that releases of 99Tc and 237Np from commercial spent fuel exceed those of the DSNF/DHLW; thus, if commercial spent fuel can meet the waste acceptance criteria, then DSNF can also meet the criteria. In large part, these results are caused by the small percentage of total activity of the DSNF in the repository (1.5%) and regulatory mass (4%), and also because commercial fuel cladding was assumed to provide no protection.

  1. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  2. Procedures and acceptance criteria for PAS-1 cask inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-09-09

    The procedures and acceptance criteria that comprise this document were prepared to support a one-time test to certify two PAS-1 casks in accordance with US Department of Energy Certificate of Compliance US A/9184/B(U), which was issued in 1998. The specific inspections addressed in this document are the visual weld inspection and a dimensional inspection of the primary containment vessel.

  3. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... renewal criteria-general. 203.202 Section 203.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... initiation of sanctions against a Plan issuer or insurance backer, in accordance with 2 CFR part 2424. If HUD..., and the procedural safeguards of 2 CFR part 2424 will apply. (c) Unless renewed, Plan acceptance...

  4. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... renewal criteria-general. 203.202 Section 203.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... initiation of sanctions against a Plan issuer or insurance backer, in accordance with 2 CFR part 2424. If HUD..., and the procedural safeguards of 2 CFR part 2424 will apply. (c) Unless renewed, Plan acceptance...

  5. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... renewal criteria-general. 203.202 Section 203.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... initiation of sanctions against a Plan issuer or insurance backer, in accordance with 2 CFR part 2424. If HUD..., and the procedural safeguards of 2 CFR part 2424 will apply. (c) Unless renewed, Plan acceptance...

  6. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... renewal criteria-general. 203.202 Section 203.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... initiation of sanctions against a Plan issuer or insurance backer, in accordance with 2 CFR part 2424. If HUD..., and the procedural safeguards of 2 CFR part 2424 will apply. (c) Unless renewed, Plan acceptance...

  7. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... renewal criteria-general. 203.202 Section 203.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... initiation of sanctions against a Plan issuer or insurance backer, in accordance with 2 CFR part 2424. If HUD..., and the procedural safeguards of 2 CFR part 2424 will apply. (c) Unless renewed, Plan acceptance...

  8. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) V2.0 logistics module PBI acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Weidert, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    This document defines the acceptance criteria for the Automated Transportation Management System V2.0 Logistics Module Performance Based Incentive (PBI). This acceptance criteria will be the primary basis for the generation of acceptance test procedures. The purpose of this document is to define the minimum criteria that must be fulfilled to guarantee acceptance of the Logistics Module.

  9. Establishment of noise acceptance criteria for wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F.

    1981-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop noise criteria for wind turbines which minimize annoyance and which can be used in design specifications for future machines. The approach consists of presenting wind turbine noise stimuli to test subjects in a laboratory listening chamber. The responses of the subjects are recorded for a range of stimuli which encompass the designs, operating conditions, and ambient noise levels of current and future installations. Results to date have established the threshold of detectability for a range of impulsive stimuli of the type associated with blade/tower-wake interactions. The status of the ongoing psychoacoustic tests, the subjective data, and the approach to the development of noise acceptance criteria are described.

  10. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  11. Bayesian risk-based acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.F.; Abramson, L.R.; Johnson, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Mechanistic (or deterministic) analysis is traditionally performed in the process of designing a new nuclear reactor or reactor core and also as part of the safety analysis of existing reactors or reload cores. Mechanistic accident analysis is characterized by the specification of an initial operating condition, an initiating event, and subsequent system faults. These subsequent faults are often chosen, through such mechanisms as the worst single failure criterion, so as to maximize the consequences of the accident. Thus, the behavior of all reactor system hardware is prescribed before this analysis begins. Mechanistic analysis then attempts to predict the dynamic response of the system and usually involves detailed reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic predictions of the system behavior, including such parameters as power distributions in the reactor core, coolant temperatures and flow rates, and fuel clad temperature distributions. The objective of this analysis has typically been to establish and verify reactor operating limits and technical specifications, so that severe core damage (SCD) is prevented for a wide variety of reactor accidents.

  12. Risk: assessment, acceptability and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Risk assessment, particularly of risks to the public health resulting from government and industry decisions, is discussed. Cost/benefit analysis as applied to such situations as human deaths and the contracting of cancer by humans is discussed. The role of government regulations and standards is discussed.

  13. Community acceptance of helicopter noise: Criteria and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munch, C. L.; King, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to define those criteria necessary for civil helicopter operations to be acoustically acceptable to the communities from which they operate and over which they fly. The study involved surveying existing domestic and foreign Federal regulations and guidelines, state and local noise ordinances, results of community noise annoyance studies, and results of individual aircraft noise annoyance studies, and results of individual aircraft noise annoyance studies in order to establish the criteria. The final criteria selection are based on the Day-Night Level, L sub DN, a measure of total noise exposure. The basic rating unit is the A weighted sound pressure level (dbA) which has accuracy comparable to other units currently used for aircraft. An L sub DN of 60 is recommended as a criterion for areas where the ambient noise is below 58 dbA. An L sub DN value 2 dbA above the local ambient is recommended for areas where the ambient is above 58 dbA.

  14. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  15. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4... acceptance criteria (ITAAC) completion. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has... acceptance criteria are met for ITAAC E.2.5.04.05.05.02, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  17. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... acceptance criteria (ITAAC) completion. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has... acceptance criteria are met for ITAAC E.2.5.04.05.05.02, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  18. CTOD-based acceptance criteria for heat exchanger head staybolts

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Awadalla, N.G.

    1992-11-01

    The primary coolant piping system of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors contains twelve heat exchangers to remove the waste heat from the nuclear materials production. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The beat exchanger head is analyzed with a three- dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts, that is, bolts that have a flaw exceeding the ultrasonic testing (UT) threshold depth of 25% of the bolt diameter. A limit of 6 inactive staybolts is reached with a fracture criterion based on the maximum allowable local displacement at the active staybolts which corresponds to the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of 0.032 inches. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. A total of up to 6 staybolts, reported as containing flaws with depths at or exceeding 25% would be acceptable in the heat exchanger.

  19. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W.; Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven-step DQO process

  20. Visual weld acceptance criteria: Volume 1, Visual weld acceptance criteria for structural welding at nuclear power plants (NCIG-01, Revision 2): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Nuclear Construction Issues Group (NCIG) was formed to resolve common problems being experienced at nuclear power plants in the assurance of hardware quality for which common solutions likely existed. The initial activity undertaken by this group was development of visual weld acceptance criteria and inspection guidance for structural welds. This report, Volume 1, documents the results of this NCIG activity in describing the visual weld acceptance criteria for structural welding at nuclear power plants (NCIG-01, Revision 2).

  1. HOW TO DEAL WITH WASTE ACCEPTANCE UNCERTAINTY USING THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS CAPABILITY SYSTEM (WACFACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Redus, K. S.; Hampshire, G. J.; Patterson, J. E.; Perkins, A. B.

    2002-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria Forecasting and Analysis Capability System (WACFACS) is used to plan for, evaluate, and control the supply of approximately 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous wastes from over 60 environmental restoration projects between FY02 through FY10 to the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). WACFACS is a validated decision support tool that propagates uncertainties inherent in site-related contaminant characterization data, disposition volumes during EMWMF operations, and project schedules to quantitatively determine the confidence that risk-based performance standards are met. Trade-offs in schedule, volumes of waste lots, and allowable concentrations of contaminants are performed to optimize project waste disposition, regulatory compliance, and disposal cell management.

  2. 7 CFR 42.107 - Lot acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... acceptance (Ac) and rejection (Re) numbers in the sampling plan. (1) Accept the lot after examining the single sample or first sample of a double sampling plan when all of the following conditions are met: (i... first sample of a double sampling plan when any one or more of the following conditions occur: (i)...

  3. 7 CFR 42.107 - Lot acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acceptance (Ac) and rejection (Re) numbers in the sampling plan. (1) Accept the lot after examining the single sample or first sample of a double sampling plan when all of the following conditions are met: (i... first sample of a double sampling plan when any one or more of the following conditions occur: (i)...

  4. 7 CFR 42.107 - Lot acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acceptance (Ac) and rejection (Re) numbers in the sampling plan. (1) Accept the lot after examining the single sample or first sample of a double sampling plan when all of the following conditions are met: (i... first sample of a double sampling plan when any one or more of the following conditions occur: (i)...

  5. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. 50.46a Section 50.46a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.46a Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant...

  6. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. 54.05-17 Section 54.05-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy...

  7. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. 54.05-17 Section 54.05-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy...

  8. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy V-notch impact tests the energy absorbed in both the weld metal and heat affected zone impact tests in weld... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria....

  9. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy V-notch impact tests the energy absorbed in both the weld metal and heat affected zone impact tests in weld... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria....

  10. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy V-notch impact tests the energy absorbed in both the weld metal and heat affected zone impact tests in weld... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria....

  11. 46 CFR 28.275 - Acceptance criteria for instructors and course curricula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the contingencies listed in 46 CFR 28.270(a) including— (i) Experience as an instructor; or (ii... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance criteria for instructors and course curricula... the Aleutian Trade § 28.275 Acceptance criteria for instructors and course curricula. (a) A...

  12. 78 FR 65007 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has determined that the inspections, tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are met for Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC), 2.1.03.11 for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  13. Defining "Acceptable Risk" for Earthquakes Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B.

    2001-05-01

    The greatest and most rapidly growing earthquake risk for mortality is in developing countries. Further, earthquake risk management actions of the last 50 years have reduced the average lethality of earthquakes in earthquake-threatened industrialized countries. (This is separate from the trend of the increasing fiscal cost of earthquakes there.) Despite these clear trends, every new earthquake in developing countries is described in the media as a "wake up" call, announcing the risk these countries face. GeoHazards International (GHI) works at both the community and the policy levels to try to reduce earthquake risk. GHI reduces death and injury by helping vulnerable communities recognize their risk and the methods to manage it, by raising awareness of its risk, building local institutions to manage that risk, and strengthening schools to protect and train the community's future generations. At the policy level, GHI, in collaboration with research partners, is examining whether "acceptance" of these large risks by people in these countries and by international aid and development organizations explains the lack of activity in reducing these risks. The goal of this pilot project - The Global Earthquake Safety Initiative (GESI) - is to develop and evaluate a means of measuring the risk and the effectiveness of risk mitigation actions in the world's largest, most vulnerable cities: in short, to develop an earthquake risk index. One application of this index is to compare the risk and the risk mitigation effort of "comparable" cities. By this means, Lima, for example, can compare the risk of its citizens dying due to earthquakes with the risk of citizens in Santiago and Guayaquil. The authorities of Delhi and Islamabad can compare the relative risk from earthquakes of their school children. This index can be used to measure the effectiveness of alternate mitigation projects, to set goals for mitigation projects, and to plot progress meeting those goals. The preliminary

  14. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  15. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  16. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  17. 46 CFR 164.120-7 - Acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufacturer and must be performed by an independent laboratory. (1) Polyester resins. (i) The resin must meet the specifications of Grade A, Class O resin of MIL-R-7575C (incorporated by reference, see § 164.120... criteria. (a) The laminating resin must pass the inspections and tests specified in this section....

  18. 46 CFR 164.120-7 - Acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacturer and must be performed by an independent laboratory. (1) Polyester resins. (i) The resin must meet the specifications of Grade A, Class O resin of MIL-R-7575C (incorporated by reference, see § 164.120... criteria. (a) The laminating resin must pass the inspections and tests specified in this section....

  19. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  20. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  1. Technical basis for acceptance criteria on the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for establishing acceptance criteria on the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The effort is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed with the application of digital instrumentation and controls systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic voltage levels, thereby leading to the risk of susceptibility when spurious interference is misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant`s electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Then, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced.

  2. Example Procedures for Developing Acceptance-Range Criteria for BESTEST-EX

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    This document provides an example procedure for establishing acceptance-range criteria to assess results from software undergoing BESTEST-EX. This example method for BESTEST-EX is a modified version of the method described in HERS BESTEST.

  3. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  4. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  5. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  6. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... explosive debris. (b) Hazard identification and risk assessment. To demonstrate compliance with paragraph (a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or...

  7. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... explosive debris. (b) Hazard identification and risk assessment. To demonstrate compliance with paragraph (a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or...

  8. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  9. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  10. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This Revision 4 of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), WIPP-DOE-069, identifies and consolidates existing criteria and requirements which regulate the safe handling and preparation of Transuranic (TRU) waste packages for transportation to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This consolidation does not invalidate any existing certification of TRU waste to the WIPP Operations and Safety Criteria (Revision 3 of WIPP-DOE--069) and/or Transportation: Waste Package Requirements (TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging [SARP]). Those documents being consolidated, including Revision 3 of the WAC, currently support the Test Phase.

  11. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 915.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (c) DOE's...

  12. 48 CFR 15.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 15.607 Section 15.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (a)...

  13. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 915.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (c) DOE's...

  14. Technical Basis For Radiological Acceptance Criteria For Uranium At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2009-07-22

    The purpose of this report is to establish radiological acceptance criteria for uranium. Other factors for acceptance not considered include criticality safety concerns, contaminants to the process stream, and impacts to the Safety Basis for the affected facilities. Three types of criteria were developed in this report. They include limits on external penetrating and non-penetrating radiation and on the internal hazard associated with inhalation of the material. These criteria are intended to alleviate the need for any special controls beyond what are normally utilized for worker protection from uranium hazards. Any proposed exceptions would require case-by-case evaluations to determine cost impacts and feasibility. Since Y-12 has set rigorous ALARA goals for worker doses, the external limits are based on assumptions of work time involved in the movement of accepted material plus the desire that external doses normally received are not exceeded, and set so that no special personnel monitoring would be required. Internal hazard controls were established so that dose contributions from non-uranium nuclides would not exceed 10% of that expected from the uranium component. This was performed using a Hazard Index (HI) previously established for work in areas contaminated with non-uranium nuclides. The radiological acceptance criteria for uranium are summarized in Table 1. Note that these limits are based on the assumption that radioactive daughter products have reached equilibrium.

  15. La composition academique: les limites de l'acceptabilite (Composition for Academic Purposes: Criteria for Acceptability).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenall, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the pedagogical approaches and problems attendant to the development of English writing programs for foreign students. Discusses the skills necessary to handle course work, such as essay tests, term papers and reports, theses and dissertations, and focuses particularly on diagnostic problems and acceptability criteria. Societe Nouvelle…

  16. 76 FR 27925 - Requirements for Maintenance of Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...) part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,'' on April 18, 1989 (54 FR... construction was complete. See 54 FR 15371; April 18, 1989; at 15383 (second column). On August 28, 2007 (72 FR... Section 189.a(1)(B) of the AEA threshold for requesting a hearing on acceptance criteria. See 72 FR...

  17. 46 CFR 164.019-5 - Standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures. 164.019-5 Section 164.019-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation...

  18. Launch Risk Acceptability Considering Uncertainty in Risk Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. D.; Carbon, S. L.

    2010-09-01

    Quantification of launch risk is difficult and uncertain due to the assumptions made in the modeling process and the difficulty in developing the supporting data. This means that estimates of the risks are uncertain and the decision maker must decide on the acceptability of the launch under uncertainty. This paper describes the process to quantify the uncertainty and, in the process, describes the separate roles of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in obtaining the point estimate of the casualty expectation and, ultimately, the distribution of the uncertainty in the computed casualty expectation. Tables are included of the significant sources and the nature of the contributing uncertainties. In addition, general procedures and an example are also included to describe the computational procedure. The second part of the paper discusses how the quantified uncertainty should be applied to the decision-making process. This discussion describes the procedure proposed and adopted by the Risk Committee of the Range Commander’s Council Range Safety Group which will be published in RCC 321-10 [1].

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk Assessment Criteria B Appendix B to Part 236... B to Part 236—Risk Assessment Criteria The safety-critical performance of each product for which risk assessment is required under this part must be assessed in accordance with the following...

  20. 29 CFR 99.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Criteria for Federal program risk. 99.525 Section 99.525... Auditors § 99.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of the risk of noncompliance occurring which could be material to...

  1. 29 CFR 99.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 99.525 Section 99.525... Auditors § 99.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of the risk of noncompliance occurring which could be material to...

  2. 7 CFR 3052.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to discuss a particular Federal program with auditee... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 3052.525 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's...

  3. 29 CFR 99.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 99.525 Section 99.525... Auditors § 99.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of the risk of noncompliance occurring which could be material to...

  4. 29 CFR 99.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 99.525 Section 99.525... Auditors § 99.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of the risk of noncompliance occurring which could be material to...

  5. 7 CFR 3052.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to discuss a particular Federal program with auditee... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 3052.525 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's...

  6. 7 CFR 3052.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to discuss a particular Federal program with auditee... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 3052.525 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's...

  7. 7 CFR 3052.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to discuss a particular Federal program with auditee... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 3052.525 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's...

  8. 29 CFR 99.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Criteria for Federal program risk. 99.525 Section 99.525... Auditors § 99.525 Criteria for Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of the risk of noncompliance occurring which could be material to...

  9. Launch Risk Acceptability: The Public Speaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of those assuming risk has become increasingly important to launch agencies. The IAASS white paper "An ICAO for Space?" proposed four ultimate goals of any international regulatory framework. The first of these was to "Ensure that citizens of all nations are equally protected from "unreasonable levels" of risk from overflight by missiles, launch vehicles and returning spacecraft". A key component of this concept is the issue of what is an "unreasonable level" of risk from the perspective of those assuming the risk.

  10. Wall thinning acceptance criteria for degraded carbon steel piping systems using FAD methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Gupta, N.K.

    1995-02-01

    As part of the structural integrity assessment for Savannah River Site (SRS) piping systems, an acceptance criteria methodology for minimum pipe wall thickness has been developed for carbon steel piping. If a measured pipe thickness during inspection cannot meet the 87.5% of the nominal wall thickness specified in the ASME Code Case N-480, the acceptance criteria must be invoked. For a particular pipe, the larger of the two minimum thickness values obtained from the code stress check and the CEGB-R6 Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) methodology is the minimum wall thickness for the acceptance criteria. The code stress check is based on the ASME/ANSI B31.1 Code, ASME Code Case N-480, and the SRS reactor restart criteria. The pipe wall thickness is calculated from the code equations and the applied loads. In fracture analysis, three types of axial and circumferential flaws are assumed to exist in the pipes based on the weld defects found in service history. For each flaw configuration, the stress intensity factors and the limit load solutions are calculated. These quantities are input to FAD to solve for the corresponding wall thickness required for the pipe to sustain the postulated flaws and to meet ASME safety margins under the applied loads.

  11. TRU waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This document is intended to delineate the criteria by which unclassified waste will be accepted for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and describe the bases upon which these criteria were established. These criteria are not intended to be specifications but rather limits that will allow waste generating and shipping sites to develop their own procedures and specifications for preparation of TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. These criteria will also allow waste generating sites to plan future facilities for waste preparation that will produce TRU waste forms compatible with WIPP waste emplacement and isolation requirements. These criteria only apply to contract-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste forms and are not intended to apply to beta-gamma wastes, spent fuel, high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), low specific activity (LSA) waste, or forms of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. Specifications for receipt of experimental waste forms will be prepared by the responsible projects in conjunction with the staff of the WIPP project at a later date. In addition, these criteria only apply to waste emplaced in bedded rock salt. Technical bases for these criteria may differ significantly from those for other host rocks. 25 refs. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  14. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  15. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  16. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  17. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  18. Corrosion control acceptance criteria for sacrificial anode type, cathodic protection systems (user guide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Vincent F.; Noble, Michael; McLeod, Malcolm E.

    1994-07-01

    The Army currently operates and maintains more than 20,000 underground storage tanks and over 3000 miles of underground gas pipelines, all of which require some form of corrosion control. Cathodic protection is one method of corrosion control used to prevent corrosion-induced leaks when a steel structure is exposed to an aggressive soil. The corrosion control acceptance criteria for sacrificial anode type CP systems provides guidelines for the DEH/DPW cathodic protection installation inspectors whose responsibilities are to ensure that the materials and equipment specified are delivered to the job site and subsequently installed in accordance with the engineering drawings and specifications. The sacrificial anode CP acceptance criteria includes all components for the sacrificial anode system such as insulated conductors, anodes, anode backfills, and auxiliary equipment. The sacrificial anode CP acceptance criteria is composed of a checklist that lists each component and that contains a space for the inspector to either check 'yes' or 'no' to indicate whether the component complies with the job specifications. In some cases, the inspector must measure and record physical dimensions or electrical output and compare the measurements to standards shown in attached tables.

  19. Risk-based versus deterministic explosives safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) is actively considering ways to apply risk-based approaches in its decision- making processes. As such, an understanding of the impact of converting to risk-based criteria is required. The objectives of this project are to examine the benefits and drawbacks of risk-based criteria and to define the impact of converting from deterministic to risk-based criteria. Conclusions will be couched in terms that allow meaningful comparisons of deterministic and risk-based approaches. To this end, direct comparisons of the consequences and impacts of both deterministic and risk-based criteria at selected military installations are made. Deterministic criteria used in this report are those in DoD 6055.9-STD, `DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standard.` Risk-based criteria selected for comparison are those used by the government of Switzerland, `Technical Requirements for the Storage of Ammunition (TLM 75).` The risk-based criteria used in Switzerland were selected because they have been successfully applied for over twenty-five years.

  20. Values, perceived risks and benefits, and acceptability of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    2013-02-01

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that egoistic values are positively related to the perceived benefits and acceptability of NE. In contrast, altruistic and biospheric values were positively related to the perceived risks of NE. Although it has been argued that NE may help to combat climate change through lower CO(2) emissions, these environmental benefits were not acknowledged by people with strong biospheric values. Furthermore, results confirmed that the more risks respondents perceived, the less they were inclined to accept NE. In contrast, the more a person believed that NE has beneficial consequences, the more acceptable NE was. Finally, as expected, perceived risks and benefits were found to partly mediate the relationship between personal values and acceptability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:22642255

  1. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Combustible Gas Management Leak Test Acceptance Criteria (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    2000-10-10

    The purpose of this document is to support the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's combustible gas management strategy while avoiding the need to impose any requirements for oxygen free atmospheres within storage tubes that contain multi-canister overpacks (MCO). In order to avoid inerting requirements it is necessary to establish and confirm leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs that are adequte to ensure that, in the unlikely event the leak test results for any MCO were to approach either of those criteria, it could still be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the SNF Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCOs or within their surroundings. To support that strategy, this document: (1) establishes combustible gas management functions and minimum functional requirements for the MCO's mechanical seals and closure weld(s); (2) establishes a maximum practical value for the minimum required initial MCO inert backfill gas pressure; and (3) based on items 1 and 2, establishes and confirms leak test acceptance criteria for the MCO's mechanical seal and final closure weld(s).

  2. 2 CFR 200.519 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to discuss a particular Federal... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 200.519... program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of...

  3. Willingness to accept risk in the treatment of rheumatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, B J; Elswood, J; Calin, A

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess patients willingness to accept mortal risk in the drug treatment of chronic rheumatic disease. DESIGN--A non-random sample of consecutive patients were interviewed with a standardised survey instrument. SETTING--The study took place in the Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Bath, UK. PATIENTS--100 consecutive in- and out-patients aged 65 or less were interviewed, 50 with rheumatoid arthritis and 50 with ankylosing spondylitis. Mean age was 48 years with mean disease duration of 14 years. The rheumatoid arthritis group was mainly female (84%), v 26% in the ankylosing spondylitis group. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Risk preferences were elicited using the method of standard gamble in the context of a hypothetical new drug. Patients indicated the maximum percentage probability of mortality they regarded as acceptable to achieve four different levels of benefit: total cure (20.7%), relief of pain (16.9%), relief of stiffness (13.1%), return to normal functioning (14.5%). Rheumatoid arthritis patients displayed a higher (p less than 0.05) willingness to accept risk than ankylosing spondylitis patients for all gambles except relief of stiffness. Analysis of variance indicated that willingness to accept risk decreases with the duration of disease and increases with reductions in self assessed health status. CONCLUSIONS--Evaluative methods such as standard gamble can elicit useful risk-benefit preference data from patients to assist those who manage clinical risks. PMID:2273365

  4. 7 CFR 3052.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for Federal program risk. 3052.525 Section 3052.525 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.525 Criteria for...

  5. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  6. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  7. Elastic-Plastic Strain Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading

    SciTech Connect

    W.R. Solonick

    2003-04-01

    Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

  8. Initial Acceptance Criteria Concepts and Data for Assessing Longevity of Low-Voltage Cable Insulations and Jackets

    SciTech Connect

    Gary toman

    2005-03-30

    This report establishes a basis for acceptance criteria, provides a method for estimating remaining low-voltage cable life, and provides aging profiles under various thermal and radiation conditions for available cable polymer condition-monitoring techniques. This report is not meant to be the final comprehensive source of acceptance criteria, but rather is intended for trial usage so that it can be further refined for easier reference in the future.

  9. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? (a) Specifications. You must establish specifications for each PET drug product, including criteria for...

  10. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? (a) Specifications. You must establish specifications for each PET drug product, including criteria for determining identity, strength, quality,...

  11. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-29

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source

  12. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  13. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Proposed GTA welding specification and acceptance criteria for the MC4163

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, J.J.

    1991-04-12

    This specification documents the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process and production weld acceptance criteria requirements for the MC4163. This document is written specifically to apply to the welds on the MC4163 and is not to be used as a general gas tungsten arc welding specification. All sections of this specification must be complied with unless specifically exempted in writing. There are a total of five welds with three different joint designs required to fabricate the MC4163. In the order of fabrication they are (1) initiator closure disc, (2) nozzle to case girth welds, two and, (3) nozzle closure disc welds, two. This specification will only address the nozzle to case girth welds and the nozzle closure disc welds.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 50 SLURRY FOR SALTSTONE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, APRIL 2007 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2007-12-07

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of the second quarter April 2007 sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Six one liter samples were taken in polyethylene bottles to analyze for the WAC contaminants and a 200 mL sample was taken in a steel container for analysis of volatile organic compounds. The information from this characterization will be given to Waste Solidification Engineering personnel to qualify the transfer of aqueous waste to the Saltstone Facility. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) All six of the one liter samples taken in April 2007 from the mixed slurry in Tank 50 have the same compositions within the experimental uncertainty of the analyses. (2) Of the ninety-one process, chemical, and radioactive WAC target or limit contaminants listed in Revision 7 of the 'Waste Acceptance Criteria for Aqueous Waste sent to the Z-Area Saltstone Production Facility', eighty-nine had concentrations that were unequivocally less than the WAC limit or target. (3) The two contaminants whose concentrations could not be shown to be less than their WAC targets were methanol and radioactive Nb-93m. Currently the AD Section of SRNL does not have a method for measuring methanol in caustic solutions. For Nb-93m the results are ambiguous due to possible interferences in the ICP-MS analysis from Zr-93 or Mo-93. (4) Of the six additional chemical and radioactive contaminants requested in the TTR for Saltstone qualification, five were measured or calculated. These were Sb, Be, Tl, along with total beta and gamma. The AD Section does not have a method to measure the 6th contaminant which was the cyanide ion.

  16. Lung transplantation from donors outside standard acceptability criteria--are they really marginal?

    PubMed

    Zych, Bartlomiej; García Sáez, Diana; Sabashnikov, Anton; De Robertis, Fabio; Amrani, Mohamed; Bahrami, Toufan; Mohite, Prashant N; Patil, Nikhil P; Weymann, Alexander; Popov, Aron F; Reed, Anna; Carby, Martin; Simon, André R

    2014-11-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) from "extended donor criteria" donors may reduce significantly organ shortage. However, its influence on results remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate retrospectively the results of LTx from donors outside standard criteria: PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg, age over 55 years, and history of smoking > 20 pack-years. Two hundred and forty-eight patients underwent first time LTx in our institution between January 2007 and January 2013. Seventy-nine patients (Group I) received organs from "extended donor criteria" and 169 patients (Group II) from "standard donor criteria." Recipients' and donors' demographics, perioperative variables, and outcome were compared. Donors from Group I were significantly older [median (interquartile range)]: 52.5 (44;58) vs. 42 (28.5;48.5) years (P < 0.001) with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 366 ± 116.1 455 ± 80.5 mmHg (P < 0.001), higher incidence of smoking history: 57.7% vs. 41.8% (P = 0.013), and more extensive smoking history: 24(15;30) vs. 10(3.75;14) pack-years (P < 0.001). Other parameters were comparable. Recipients' gender, diagnosis, percentage of patients operated on pump and receiving double LTx were also comparable. Recipients from Group I were significantly older: 50 (42;57) vs. 44 (29.5;53.5) years (P = 001). There were no differences observed in recipients' prevalence of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) grade 3 over first three postoperative days, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care and hospital length of stay, prevalence of rejection, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). 90-day, 1-year, and 5-year survival (Group I vs. II) were also similar: 88.6% vs. 91.7%, 83.2% vs. 84.6%, and 59% vs. 68.2% (log rank P = 0.367). Carefully selected donor lungs from outside the standard acceptability criteria may expand existing donor pool with no detrimental effect on LTx outcome. PMID:25070600

  17. Using cost/risk procedures to establish recovery criteria following a nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tawil, J J; Strenge, D L

    1987-02-01

    In the event of a major accidental release of radionuclides at a nuclear power plant, large populated areas could become seriously contaminated. Local officials would be responsible for establishing radiation recovery criteria that would permit the evacuated population to return safely to their jobs and homes. The range of acceptable criteria could imply variations in property losses in the billions of dollars. Given the likely public concern over the health consequences and the enormity of the potential property losses, a cost/risk analysis can provide important input to establishing the recovery criteria. This paper describes procedures for conducting a cost/risk analysis of a site radiologically contaminated by a nuclear power plant accident. The procedures are illustrated by analyzing a hypothetically contaminated site, using software developed for determining the property and health effects of major reactor accidents. PMID:3818283

  18. Heat exchanger staybolt acceptance criteria. Task number: 90-058-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-02-01

    The structural integrity demonstration of the primary coolant piping system includes evaluating the structural capacity of each component against a large break or equivalent Double-Ended Guillotine Break. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The Savannah River Site heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. Access to the staybolts is limited due to a welded seal cap over the staybolts. An ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection technique to provide an in-situ examination of the staybolts has recently been developed at SRS. Examination of the staybolts will be performed to ensure their service condition and configuration is within acceptance limits. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. The heat exchanger head is analyzed with a three-dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts. Evaluation of specific, inactive staybolt configurations based on the UT results can be performed with the finite element model and fracture methodology in this report.

  19. CTOD-based acceptance criteria for heat exchanger head staybolts. [Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Awadalla, N.G.

    1992-01-01

    The primary coolant piping system of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors contains twelve heat exchangers to remove the waste heat from the nuclear materials production. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The beat exchanger head is analyzed with a three- dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts, that is, bolts that have a flaw exceeding the ultrasonic testing (UT) threshold depth of 25% of the bolt diameter. A limit of 6 inactive staybolts is reached with a fracture criterion based on the maximum allowable local displacement at the active staybolts which corresponds to the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of 0.032 inches. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. A total of up to 6 staybolts, reported as containing flaws with depths at or exceeding 25% would be acceptable in the heat exchanger.

  20. Prototype Training Materials for Acceptance Criteria of Maintenance ASAP Events Occurring Within Social Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The aviation maintenance community is at a crossroads with respect to implementing the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP). While there is considerable interest, several key issues have emerged that cast doubt on how to assure a successful implementation, including buy-in from all levels of the company and training for key participants. There are two objectives for the present report. The first is to provide an examination of limits (or more properly, examples) of the degree of acceptability of more problematic events for risk-based decisions within the current ASAP guidelines. The second objective is to apply these limits of community standards to a set of further refined ASAP training scenarios.

  1. Social acceptability of phytoremediation: The role of risk and values.

    PubMed

    Weir, Ellen; Doty, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    A former gas production site that was converted to a public park was chosen as the research location for the present study. Some of the contaminants at the site have been remediated; however, much of the soil is still contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are toxic pollutants that have been shown to have numerous negative health effects. The primary form of remediation at the site has been capping, which is usually considered a temporary remediation strategy since it does not remove contaminants from the site but simply covers them, and this requires repeated re-capping efforts. Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation using willow shrubs is an alternative remediation strategy that could improve soil quality and permanently reduce contaminant levels in the soil. The goal of the present study was to explore the social acceptability of utilizing phytoremediation strategies. Surveys were used to explore public perceptions of the park and of using phytoremediation to clean up existing contamination. Results indicated a high level of social acceptability of phytoremediation at the park. Additionally, ecocentrism was shown to be a significant predictor of phytoremediation acceptability. Risk and anthropocentrism were not significant predictors of acceptability. Results suggest that messages intended to encourage the use and acceptability of phytoremediation should focus on the environmental benefits of phytoremediation. PMID:27167719

  2. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. PMID:25689883

  3. Visual weld acceptance criteria: Volume 3, Training manual for inspectors of structural welds at nuclear power plants using the acceptance criteria of NCIG-01 (NCIG-03, Revision 1): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Nuclear Construction Issues Group (NCIG) was formed to resolve common problems being experienced at nuclear power plants in the assurance of hardware quality for which common solutions likely existed. The initial activity undertaken by this group was development of visual weld acceptance criteria and inspection guidance for structural welds. This report documents the results of this NCIC - activity the discussion of a training manual for inspectors of structural welds at nuclear power plants using the acceptance criteria of NCIG-01 (NCIG-03, Revision 1).

  4. Classification criteria and probability risk maps: limitations and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Saisana, Michaela; Dubois, Gregoire; Chaloulakou, Archontoula; Spyrellis, Nikolas

    2004-03-01

    Delineation of polluted zones with respect to regulatory standards, accounting at the same time for the uncertainty of the estimated concentrations, relies on classification criteria that can lead to significantly different pollution risk maps, which, in turn, can depend on the regulatory standard itself. This paper reviews four popular classification criteria related to the violation of a probability threshold or a physical threshold, using annual (1996-2000) nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 40 air monitoring stations in Milan. The relative advantages and practical limitations of each criterion are discussed, and it is shown that some of the criteria are more appropriate for the problem at hand and that the choice of the criterion can be supported by the statistical distribution of the data and/or the regulatory standard. Finally, the polluted area is estimated over the different years and concentration thresholds using the appropriate risk maps as an additional source of uncertainty. PMID:15046326

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk Assessment Criteria B Appendix B to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL...

  6. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  7. Characterization of Tank 23H Supernate Per Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria Analysis Requirements -2005

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L

    2005-05-05

    Variable depth Tank 23H samples (22-inch sample [HTF-014] and 185-inch sample [HTF-013]) were pulled from Tank 23H in February, 2005 for characterization. The characterization of the Tank 23H low activity waste is part of the overall liquid waste processing activities. This characterization examined the species identified in the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the transfer of waste into the Salt-Feed Tank (SFT). The samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and analyzed. Apart from radium-226 with an average measured detection limit of < 2.64E+03 pCi/mL, which is about the same order of magnitude as the WAC limit (< 8.73E+03 pCi/mL), none of the species analyzed was found to approach the limits provided in the Saltstone WAC. The concentration of most of the species analyzed for the Tank 23H samples were 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits. The achievable detection limits for a number of the analytes were several orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits, but one or two orders of magnitude higher than the requested detection limits. Analytes which fell into this category included plutonium-241, europium-154/155, antimony-125, tin-126, ruthenium/rhodium-106, selenium-79, nickel-59/63, ammonium ion, copper, total nickel, manganese and total organic carbon.

  8. Characterization of Tank 23H Supernate Per Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria Analysis Requirements-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L

    2005-06-01

    Variable depth Tank 23H samples (22-inch sample [HTF-014] and 185-inch sample [HTF-013]) were pulled from Tank 23H in February, 2005 for characterization. The characterization of the Tank 23H low activity waste is part of the overall liquid waste processing activities. This characterization examined the species identified in the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the transfer of waste into the Salt-Feed Tank (SFT). The samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and analyzed. Apart from radium-226 with an average measured detection limit of < 2.64E+03 pCi/mL, which is about the same order of magnitude as the WAC limit (< 8.73E+03 pCi/mL), none of the species analyzed was found to approach the limits provided in the Saltstone WAC. The concentration of most of the species analyzed for the Tank 23H samples were 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits. The achievable detection limits for a number of the analytes were several orders of magnitude lower than the WAC limits, but one or two orders of magnitude higher than the requested detection limits. Analytes which fell into this category included plutonium-241, europium-154/155, antimony-125, tin-126, ruthenium/rhodium-106, selenium-79, nickel-59/63, ammonium ion, copper, total nickel, manganese and total organic carbon.

  9. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multiple-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic In-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  10. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Poh -Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  11. When Failure Means Success: Accepting Risk in Aerospace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, NASA has been diligent in qualifying systems for human space flight. As the Agency transitions from operating the Space Shuttle, its employees must learn to accept higher risk levels to generate the data needed to certify its next human space flight system. The Marshall Center s Engineering workforce is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for safety, reliability, and cost-effective operations. This presentation will provide a risk retrospective, using first-hand examples from the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) and the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit flight demonstrators, while looking ahead to the upcoming Ares I-X uncrewed test flight. The DC-XA was successfully flown twice in 26 hours, setting a new turnaround-time record. Later, one of its 3 landing gears did not deploy, it tipped over, and was destroyed. During structural testing, the X-33 s advanced composite tanks were unable to withstand the forces to which it was subjected and the project was later cancelled. These are examples of successful failures, as the data generated are captured in databases used by vehicle designers today. More recently, the Ares I-X flight readiness review process was streamlined in keeping with the mission's objectives, since human lives are not at stake, which reflects the beginning of a cultural change. Failures are acceptable during testing, as they provide the lessons that actually lead to mission success. These and other examples will stimulate the discussion of when to accept risk in aerospace projects.

  12. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... include the rupture opening. (3) Maximum hydrogen generation. The calculated total amount of...

  13. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  14. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  15. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  16. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... principles at 48 CFR part 31 allow a for-profit firm that has expenditure-based, Federal...

  17. Compliance with Waste Acceptance Criteria of WIPP and NTS for Vitrified Low-Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    A joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been established to evaluate vitrification as an option for the immobilization of waste within ORNL tank farms. This paper presents details of calculations based on current best available analyses of the Oak Ridge Tanks on the limits for waste loadings imposed by the waste acceptance criteria.

  18. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS Finished Drug Product Controls and Acceptance § 212.70 What controls and... specifications for each PET drug product, including criteria for determining identity, strength, quality, purity... each batch of a PET drug product conforms to specifications, except for sterility. For a PET...

  19. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS Finished Drug Product Controls and Acceptance § 212.70 What controls and... specifications for each PET drug product, including criteria for determining identity, strength, quality, purity... each batch of a PET drug product conforms to specifications, except for sterility. For a PET...

  20. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS Finished Drug Product Controls and Acceptance § 212.70 What controls and... specifications for each PET drug product, including criteria for determining identity, strength, quality, purity... each batch of a PET drug product conforms to specifications, except for sterility. For a PET...

  1. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION...

  2. 40 CFR 90.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 90.510 Section 90.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT...

  3. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  4. 10 CFR 51.108 - Public hearings on Commission findings that inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 52.103(b), the Commission will not admit any contentions on environmental issues, the adequacy of... finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g). materials licenses ..., tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria of combined licenses are met. 51.108 Section 51.108...

  5. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. 50.60 Section 50.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of Licenses and Construction Permits...

  6. Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report was prepared to comply with the requirements listed in the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Sludge, Actinide Removal Process (ARP), and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Process Transfers to 512-S and DWPF. The requirements for transfers to 512-S were evaluated during ISDP Salt Batch 1 qualification. The calculations of sludge concentrations are based entirely on the Tank 51 sample processed at SRNL. This is conservative because Tank 51 is blended with the dilute feed in the DWPF Feed Tank (Tank 40). This report documents the acceptability of sludge only as well as Sludge Batch 5 sludge slurry combined with ARP/MCU products for feed to DWPF. All criteria were met for unblended Tank 51 material.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-12-20

    As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

  8. Assessing Interventions to Manage West Nile Virus Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis with Risk Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hongoh, Valerie; Campagna, Céline; Panic, Mirna; Samuel, Onil; Gosselin, Pierre; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Ravel, André; Samoura, Karim; Michel, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America highlights vulnerability to climate sensitive diseases and stresses the importance of preventive efforts to reduce their public health impact. Effective prevention involves reducing environmental risk of exposure and increasing adoption of preventive behaviours, both of which depend on knowledge and acceptance of such measures. When making operational decisions about disease prevention and control, public health must take into account a wide range of operational, environmental, social and economic considerations in addition to intervention effectiveness. The current study aimed to identify, assess and rank possible risk reduction measures taking into account a broad set of criteria and perspectives applicable to the management of WNV in Quebec under increasing transmission risk scenarios, some of which may be related to ongoing warming in higher-latitude regions. A participatory approach was used to collect information on categories of concern to relevant stakeholders with respect to WNV prevention and control. Multi-criteria decision analysis was applied to examine stakeholder perspectives and their effect on strategy rankings under increasing transmission risk scenarios. Twenty-three preventive interventions were retained for evaluation using eighteen criteria identified by stakeholders. Combined evaluations revealed that, at an individual-level, inspecting window screen integrity, wearing light colored, long clothing, eliminating peridomestic larval sites and reducing outdoor activities at peak times were top interventions under six WNV transmission scenarios. At a regional-level, the use of larvicides was a preferred strategy in five out of six scenarios, while use of adulticides and dissemination of sterile male mosquitoes were found to be among the least favoured interventions in almost all scenarios. Our findings suggest that continued public health efforts aimed at reinforcing individual

  9. Assessing Interventions to Manage West Nile Virus Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis with Risk Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hongoh, Valerie; Campagna, Céline; Panic, Mirna; Samuel, Onil; Gosselin, Pierre; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Ravel, André; Samoura, Karim; Michel, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America highlights vulnerability to climate sensitive diseases and stresses the importance of preventive efforts to reduce their public health impact. Effective prevention involves reducing environmental risk of exposure and increasing adoption of preventive behaviours, both of which depend on knowledge and acceptance of such measures. When making operational decisions about disease prevention and control, public health must take into account a wide range of operational, environmental, social and economic considerations in addition to intervention effectiveness. The current study aimed to identify, assess and rank possible risk reduction measures taking into account a broad set of criteria and perspectives applicable to the management of WNV in Quebec under increasing transmission risk scenarios, some of which may be related to ongoing warming in higher-latitude regions. A participatory approach was used to collect information on categories of concern to relevant stakeholders with respect to WNV prevention and control. Multi-criteria decision analysis was applied to examine stakeholder perspectives and their effect on strategy rankings under increasing transmission risk scenarios. Twenty-three preventive interventions were retained for evaluation using eighteen criteria identified by stakeholders. Combined evaluations revealed that, at an individual-level, inspecting window screen integrity, wearing light colored, long clothing, eliminating peridomestic larval sites and reducing outdoor activities at peak times were top interventions under six WNV transmission scenarios. At a regional-level, the use of larvicides was a preferred strategy in five out of six scenarios, while use of adulticides and dissemination of sterile male mosquitoes were found to be among the least favoured interventions in almost all scenarios. Our findings suggest that continued public health efforts aimed at reinforcing individual

  10. Acceptance criteria for ultrasonic flaw indications in the inner liner of double-shell waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A.; Graves, R.E.; Johnson, K.I.

    1995-07-01

    Radioactive defense waste, resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, has been stored in double-shell tanks (DSTS) at the Hanford Site since 1970. As part of the program to assure that the DSTs maintain their structural integrity, an inspection plan is being developed and implemented. This report provides recommendations and technical bases for acceptance criteria for flaw indications detected during ultrasonic inspection of inner liners of the DSTS. The types of indications addressed are crack-like flaws, wall thinning, and pitting. In establishing acceptable flaw sizes, the evaluations have taken into consideration the potential for crack growth by the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking. Consideration was given to technical approaches used in ASME Codes, for reactor tanks at the Department of Energy Savannah River facilities, and in recommendations by the Tank Structural Integrity Panel. The goal was to ensure that indications discovered during inspections are not large enough to ever cause a leak or rupture of the tank inner liner. The acceptance criteria are intended to be simple to apply using a set of tables giving acceptable flaw sizes. These tables are sufficiently conservative to be applicable to all double-shell tanks. In those cases that a flaw exceeds the size permitted by the tables, it is proposed that additional criteria permit more detailed and less conservative evaluations to address specific conditions of stress levels, operating temperature, flaw location, and material properties.

  11. Principles of risk assessment for illness caused by foodborne biological agents. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, R

    1998-08-01

    The Risk Assessment Subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria in Foods has prepared a generic document on the principles of risk assessment as applied to biological agents that can cause human foodborne disease. Typical biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa, algae, parasites, and the toxic products that these agents may produce. Basic principles elaborated to characterize food pathogen risks include the four broadly accepted components of risk assessment. The role of surveillance and investigational activities to link biological agents and their food sources to consumer illness is described as is the role of predictive modeling for food pathogens. PMID:9713775

  12. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Strategy for Revising the RIA Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, Paul M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued interim criteria and guidance for the reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) within the latest revision to NUREG-0800, 'Standard Review Plan' (SRP), Section 4.2, 'Fuel System Design', Appendix B (Revision 03, March 2007). The purpose of this paper is as follows: 1. present a change in regulatory staff position regarding the requirements of 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 28 (GDC28) and changes in regulatory guidance provided in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.77, RG 1.195, RG 1.183, and previous versions of NUREG-0800 SRP; 2. describe the implementation strategy and schedule for both new reactors and the existing fleet; and 3. encourage licensees and nuclear fuel vendors to (1) develop improved core physics analytical methods to allow a more deliberate transition to the new fuel cladding failure criteria and (2) develop the technical basis to address the new core coolability criteria. (authors)

  13. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  14. The Mutable Nature of Risk and Acceptability: A Hybrid Risk Governance Framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine Mei Ling

    2015-11-01

    This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement. PMID:26094547

  15. Risk analysis for new nuclear waste sites: Will it generate public acceptance?

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses public acceptance of radioactive waste facilities and what seems to be increasingly militant stances against such facilities. The role of risk assessment in possibly enhancing public acceptance is investigated.

  16. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  17. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  18. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operated from the control room. (b) The design of the vents and associated controls, instruments and power sources must conform to appendix A and appendix B of this part. (c) The vent system must be designed to... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with...

  19. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  20. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  1. Affect and Acceptability: Exploring Teachers' Technology-Related Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Educational change, such as technology integration, involves risk. Teachers are encouraged to "take risks", but what risks they are asked to take and how do they perceive these risks? Developing an understanding of teachers' technology-related risk perceptions can help explain their choices and behaviours. This paper presents a way to understand…

  2. How do the Properties of Allan Hills 84001 Compare With Accepted Criteria for Evidence of Ancient Life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Westall, F.; Romanek, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Criteria for Past Life: To be confident that any sample contains evidence of past life or biogenic activity, one must determine beyond a shadow of a doubt that certain well-established features or biomarker signatures are present in the sample. In the case of martian samples, the criteria for past life have not been established because if life existed on the planet, we have no way of knowing its detailed characteristics. Lacking independent evidence about the nature of possible past life on Mars, the scientific community must use, for the time being, the criteria established for ancient samples from the Earth: (1) Do we know the geologic context of the sample? Is it compatible with past life? (2) Do we know the age of the sample and its stratigraphic location? Are they understood enough to relate possible life to geologic history? (3) Does the sample contain evidence of cellular morphology? (4) What structural remains of colonies or communities exist within the samples? (5) Is there any evidence of biominerals showing chemical or mineral disequilibria? (6) Is there any evidence of stable isotope patterns unique to biology? (7) Are there any organic biomarkers present? (8) Are the features indigenous to the sample? For acceptance of past life in a geologic sample, essentially all of these criteria must he met.

  3. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  4. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn. PMID:26980555

  5. Estimating urban flood risk - uncertainty in design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, M.; Franks, S. W.; White, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    The design of urban stormwater infrastructure is generally performed assuming that climate is static. For engineering practitioners, stormwater infrastructure is designed using a peak flow method, such as the Rational Method as outlined in the Australian Rainfall and Runoff (AR&R) guidelines and estimates of design rainfall intensities. Changes to Australian rainfall intensity design criteria have been made through updated releases of the AR&R77, AR&R87 and the recent 2013 AR&R Intensity Frequency Distributions (IFDs). The primary focus of this study is to compare the three IFD sets from 51 locations Australia wide. Since the release of the AR&R77 IFDs, the duration and number of locations for rainfall data has increased and techniques for data analysis have changed. Updated terminology coinciding with the 2013 IFD release has also resulted in a practical change to the design rainfall. For example, infrastructure that is designed for a 1 : 5 year ARI correlates with an 18.13% AEP, however for practical purposes, hydraulic guidelines have been updated with the more intuitive 20% AEP. The evaluation of design rainfall variation across Australia has indicated that the changes are dependent upon location, recurrence interval and rainfall duration. The changes to design rainfall IFDs are due to the application of differing data analysis techniques, the length and number of data sets and the change in terminology from ARI to AEP. Such changes mean that developed infrastructure has been designed to a range of different design criteria indicating the likely inadequacy of earlier developments to the current estimates of flood risk. In many cases, the under-design of infrastructure is greater than the expected impact of increased rainfall intensity under climate change scenarios.

  6. 7 CFR 3052.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 3052.530 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following... periods) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance...

  7. 7 CFR 3052.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 3052.530 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following... periods) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance...

  8. 7 CFR 3052.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 3052.530 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following... periods) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance...

  9. 7 CFR 3052.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 3052.530 Section... ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following... periods) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance...

  10. Air Force use of civil airworthiness criteria for testing and acceptance of military derivative transport aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, R.I.; Chapman, D.M.; Langley, M.J.; Fouts, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of commercial aircraft programs and the use of FAA certification criteria in the acquisition of off-the-shelf transport aircraft by the USAF to fulfill its airlift requirements is presented. In addition, major differences between military and commercial test programs and acquisition are cited to illustrate the principal benefits to the Air Force of this method. Significantly reduced acquisition time, and reduced ground and flight testing and development costs are shown as benefits of this process. The unique aspects of certification of military derivatives, recent initiatives to codify the processes, and the impacts on changes required in the manner in which the USAF currently contracts for aircraft are discussed. 20 refs.

  11. Alternative risk-based criteria for transportation of radioactive material on the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, J.E.; Field, J.G.; Smith, R.J.; Wang, O.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford position on equivalent safety for onsite transportation is based on a regulation-based risk acceptance approach. The acceptance criteria based on conservative regulatory individual dose limits have been verified to be less than the iso-risk lines corresponding to the operational risk at normal conditions of transport. An uncertainty study is being initiated to estimate the magnitude of the uncertainty, especially for low-probability events at frequencies less than 10{sup {minus}6}/yr. This paper documents a Westinghouse Hanford approach to deal with equivalent safety for onsite transportation. Also included are the relevant technical bases, which will be reviewed and revised, if necessary, as soon as the radioactive health effect study is updated by the authoritative national or international agencies. A procedural methodology for applications to onsite transportation activities is also discussed.

  12. Comparative research on NIMBY risk acceptability between Chinese and Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunqing; Zhai, Guofang; Li, Shasha; Ren, Chongqiang; Tsuchida, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Along with the progressive acceleration of urbanization, the need to identify potentially troublesome "Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) facilities in the city is inevitable. To resolve NIMBY conflict, it is important to know people's NIMBY risk acceptability for these facilities. A questionnaire survey was used among Chinese and Japanese college students to identify NIMBY risk acceptability. LISREL was used to construct a structural equation model to analyze the difference in NIMBY risk acceptability between the Chinese and Japanese college students. Factors that may affect NIMBY risk acceptability were analyzed: "perceiving utility," "perceiving risk," "trust in government," "reasonable compensation," and "procedural justice." The findings show that Japanese students' concerns were greater than Chinese students' concerns. Perceiving utility and perceiving risk were the most important factors that affect people's NIMBY risk acceptability, followed by procedural justice, trust in government, and reasonable compensation. There is a difference between the different cultural backgrounds in confronting the risk: Chinese students focus more on the reputation and value of real estate, while Japanese students pay more attention to environmental pollution and damage to health. Furthermore, cultural influences play a role in students' risk perception. To improve the risk acceptability for NIMBY facilities and provide a basis for resolving NIMBY conflicts, it is necessary to ensure the benefits of the NIMBY facility while reducing environmental pollution. The findings of this study may be of interest for policy makers and practitioners to devise future NIMBY strategies. PMID:25004852

  13. Impact of the American Diabetes Association diagnosis criteria on high-risk Spanish population. IGT Research Group. Impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Costa, B; Franch, J; Martín, F; Morató, J; Donado, A; Basora, J; Daniel, J

    1999-10-01

    To research into the impact of the new American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria on high risk Spanish population, two cross-sectional studies involving seven primary health care centers in Catalonia (Spain) were revised. Individuals aged > 40 years with any major risk factor for diabetes were screened according to the World Health Organization (WHO) rules using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose. The changes on diabetes prevalence and on epidemiological characteristics were evaluated applying the ADA criteria on the basis of FPG alone. A total of 970 individuals, 453 males (46.7%), mean age 59 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 30.6 kg/m2 were screened. Among the 459 diabetic subjects according to either the WHO or the ADA criteria, 314 (68.4%) were classified as having diabetes with respect to both sets of criteria (WHO and ADA). The overlap between impaired glucose tolerance (WHO) and impaired fasting glucose (ADA) diagnoses was 20.7%. Using the ADA criteria results in a decrease of the prevalence of diabetes by 1.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.2 to -0.8%). No changes in the diabetic phenotype (age, sex and BMI) were found. Impaired fasting glucose prevalence was 18.4% (95% CI = 16-21%). Overall concordance in terms of crude and weighted kappa-value was only acceptable (kappa = 0.51 and kappa = 0.61, respectively). To apply the new ADA diagnostic criteria on high risk Spanish population evidenced a decrease on diabetes prevalence. Nevertheless, the change of criteria undervalued the risk of postprandial hyperglycaemia related to impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:10580619

  14. Warning Signals: Basic Criteria for Tracking At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, James

    Developed by a multidisciplinary group (convened by Project Zero to Three) of 17 experts in the identification and evaluation of high risk infants and young children, this manual presents basic criteria for tracking at risk infants and toddlers. The first section answers such questions about the criteria as the following: What is a tracking system…

  15. 38 CFR 41.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 41.530 Section 41.530 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee,...

  16. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... reusable launch vehicle mission risk. (a) To obtain safety approval for an RLV mission, an applicant must demonstrate that the proposed mission does not exceed acceptable risk as defined in this subpart. For...

  17. Space Reactor Launch Safety-An Acceptably Low Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzberg, Abraham; Wright, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Results from previous space reactor and radioisotope power source risk assessments were combined to provide a scoping assessment of the possible risks from the launch of a reactor power system for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. It is assumed that future reactor power system launches would be subject to the same rigorous safety analysis and launch approval process as past nuclear payload launches. Using the same methodology that has gained approval of past launches, it was determined that the mission risk would be 0.029 person-rem worldwide which translates to 1.5*10-5 latent health effects. It is seen that the only significant sources of radiological risks from a non-operating reactor are possible inadvertent criticality accidents and the consequences of such events have been shown to be extremely low. Passive means such as spectral shift poisons or high reactor core length/diameter ratios have been shown to be able to reduce or eliminate the possibility of the more credible criticality accidents, such as flooding or sand burial. This paper advances the premise that, for design purposes, future space reactor surface-power designs should primarily address the credible accidents and not the hypothetical accidents. For launch accidents and other safety assessments, a probabilistic risk assessment approach will have to be used to assess the safety impact of all types of accidents, including the hypothetical accidents. With this approach, the design of the system will not be burdened with design features that are based on hypothetical criticality accidents having negligible risk. Moreover, there is little chance of convincingly demonstrating that these design features can substantially reduce or eliminated the risk associated with hypothetical criticality accidents.

  18. Space Reactor Launch Safety--An Acceptably Low Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzberg, Abraham; Wright, Steven

    2008-01-21

    Results from previous space reactor and radioisotope power source risk assessments were combined to provide a scoping assessment of the possible risks from the launch of a reactor power system for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. It is assumed that future reactor power system launches would be subject to the same rigorous safety analysis and launch approval process as past nuclear payload launches. Using the same methodology that has gained approval of past launches, it was determined that the mission risk would be 0.029 person-rem worldwide which translates to 1.5*10{sup -5} latent health effects. It is seen that the only significant sources of radiological risks from a non-operating reactor are possible inadvertent criticality accidents and the consequences of such events have been shown to be extremely low. Passive means such as spectral shift poisons or high reactor core length/diameter ratios have been shown to be able to reduce or eliminate the possibility of the more credible criticality accidents, such as flooding or sand burial. This paper advances the premise that, for design purposes, future space reactor surface-power designs should primarily address the credible accidents and not the hypothetical accidents. For launch accidents and other safety assessments, a probabilistic risk assessment approach will have to be used to assess the safety impact of all types of accidents, including the hypothetical accidents. With this approach, the design of the system will not be burdened with design features that are based on hypothetical criticality accidents having negligible risk. Moreover, there is little chance of convincingly demonstrating that these design features can substantially reduce or eliminated the risk associated with hypothetical criticality accidents.

  19. 38 CFR 41.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section, to identify risk in Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to... program risk. 41.525 Section 41.525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation...

  20. 38 CFR 41.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, to identify risk in Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to... program risk. 41.525 Section 41.525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation...

  1. 38 CFR 41.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section, to identify risk in Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to... program risk. 41.525 Section 41.525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation...

  2. 38 CFR 41.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section, to identify risk in Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to... program risk. 41.525 Section 41.525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation...

  3. 38 CFR 41.525 - Criteria for Federal program risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section, to identify risk in Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to... program risk. 41.525 Section 41.525 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal program risk. (a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation...

  4. The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination in the United States is a frequent source of controversy, with critics alleging failures by public health officials to adequately identify, monitor, and respond to risks associated with vaccines. In response to these charges, the case of RotaShield, a vaccine withdrawn in 1999 following confirmation of a serious adverse event associated with its use, is regularly invoked as evidence of the effectiveness of current vaccine safety activities. Methods This article examines the history of RotaShield, with particular attention paid to decision making regarding its use in the United States and internationally. I reviewed and analyzed federal advisory committee meeting transcripts, international conference reports, government and scientific publications, media coverage, and other primary and secondary source materials. I also conducted six semistructured interviews with former senior officials and advisory committee members at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who participated in decisions regarding the vaccine. Findings Decision making regarding RotaShield, including the ultimate withdrawal of its recommendation for use, was shaped significantly by government health officials’ concern for preserving public confidence in overall U.S. vaccination efforts amid several unrelated vaccine risk controversies ongoing at that time. This attention to public perception and external pressures occurred in tandem with the evaluation of the quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude and severity of the risk associated with the vaccine. The decisions made in the United States resulted in foreseen but unintended consequences for international use of the vaccine, including in nations where the profile of risks and potential benefits was dramatically different. Conclusions As enthusiasm for evidence-based decision making grows throughout medicine and public health, greater explicit attention should be directed to the processes by which decision

  5. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530... Auditors § 99.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following conditions...) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with §...

  6. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530... Auditors § 99.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following conditions...) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with §...

  7. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530... Auditors § 99.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following conditions...) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with §...

  8. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530 Labor... Auditors § 99.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following conditions...) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with §...

  9. 29 CFR 99.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 99.530 Section 99.530 Labor... Auditors § 99.530 Criteria for a low-risk auditee. An auditee which meets all of the following conditions...) shall qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with §...

  10. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups. PMID:25831934

  11. Waste management project's alternatives: A risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Sotirchos, Anastasios; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the evaluation of a waste management project's alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a novel risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the RBMCA the evaluation criteria are based on the quantitative risk analysis of the project's alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers' risk preferences is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preference to the multi-criteria against the one-criterion evaluation process is discussed. - Abstract: This paper examines the evaluation of a waste management project's alternatives through a quantitative risk analysis. Cost benefit analysis is a widely used method, in which the investments are mainly assessed through the calculation of their evaluation indicators, namely benefit/cost (B/C) ratios, as well as the quantification of their financial, technical, environmental and social risks. Herein, a novel approach in the form of risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) is introduced, which can be used by decision makers, in order to select the optimum alternative of a waste management project. Specifically, decision makers use multiple criteria, which are based on the cumulative probability distribution functions of the alternatives' B/C ratios. The RBMCA system is used for the evaluation of a waste incineration project's alternatives, where the correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers' risk preferences is analyzed and useful conclusions are discussed.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to have a high degree of confidence. (b) How does the risk assessment handle interaction risks for... availability calculations for subsystems and components, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) of the subsystems,...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to have a high degree of confidence. (b) How does the risk assessment handle interaction risks for... availability calculations for subsystems and components, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) of the subsystems,...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to have a high degree of confidence. (b) How does the risk assessment handle interaction risks for... availability calculations for subsystems and components, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) of the subsystems,...

  15. PARALLELS OF RADIATION- AND FINANCIAL-RISK MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.

    2010-01-04

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified.

  16. Parallels of radiation and financial risk management: impacts on public acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified. PMID:21399429

  17. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of risk. 266.305 Section 266.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.305 HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of...

  18. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of risk. 266.300 Section 266.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.300 HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of...

  19. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of risk. 266.300 Section 266.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.300 HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of...

  20. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of risk. 266.305 Section 266.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Processing, Development, and Approval § 266.305 HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of...

  1. 38 CFR 41.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk... a low-risk auditee. An auditee, which meets all of the following conditions for each of the... low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with § 41.520: (a)...

  2. 38 CFR 41.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk... a low-risk auditee. An auditee, which meets all of the following conditions for each of the... low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with § 41.520: (a)...

  3. 12 CFR 3.141 - Operational criteria for recognizing the transfer of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transfer of risk. 3.141 Section 3.141 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.141 Operational criteria for recognizing...

  4. 38 CFR 41.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk... a low-risk auditee. An auditee, which meets all of the following conditions for each of the... low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with § 41.520: (a)...

  5. 38 CFR 41.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for a low-risk... a low-risk auditee. An auditee, which meets all of the following conditions for each of the... low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with § 41.520: (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 3052.530 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 3052.530 Section 3052.530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.530 Criteria for a...

  7. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. PMID:26577458

  8. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  9. Perception and acceptance of risk from radiation exposure in space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.

    1997-04-30

    There are a number of factors that influence how a person views a particular risk. These include whether the risk is judged to be voluntary and/or controllable, whether the effects are immediate or delayed, and the magnitude of the benefits that are to be gained as a result of being exposed to the risk. An important aspect of the last factor is whether those who suffer the risks are also those who stand to reap the benefits. The manner in which risk is viewed is also significantly influenced by the manner in which it is framed and presented. In short, risk does not exist in the world independent of our minds and cultures, waiting to be measured. Assessments of risk are based on models whose structure is subjective and associated evaluations are laden with assumptions whose inputs are dependent on judgments. In fact, subjectivity permeates every aspect of risk assessment. The assessment of radiation risks in space is no exception. The structuring of the problem includes judgments related to the probability, magnitude, and effects of the various types of radiation likely to be encountered and assumptions related to the quantitative relationship between dose and a range of specific effects, all of which have associated uncertainties. For these reasons, there is no magic formula that will lead us to a precise level of acceptable risk from exposure to radiation in space. Acceptable risk levels must evolve through a process of negotiation that integrates a large number of social, technical, and economic factors. In the end, a risk that is deemed to be acceptable will be the outgrowth of the weighing of risks and benefits and the selection of the option that appears to be best.

  10. An analytical framework for flood water conservation considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Yong; Zeng, Ruijie; Zhou, Huicheng; Cai, Ximing

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood-limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the trade-off between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress. The analysis is illustrated via a case study with a real-world reservoir in northeastern China.

  11. Applying Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Comparative Benefit-Risk Assessment: Choosing among Statins in Primary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Tommi; Naci, Huseyin; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Ades, Anthony E; Angelis, Aris; Hillege, Hans L; Postmus, Douwe

    2015-10-01

    Decision makers in different health care settings need to weigh the benefits and harms of alternative treatment strategies. Such health care decisions include marketing authorization by regulatory agencies, practice guideline formulation by clinical groups, and treatment selection by prescribers and patients in clinical practice. Multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a family of formal methods that help make explicit the tradeoffs that decision makers accept between the benefit and risk outcomes of different treatment options. Despite the recent interest in MCDA, certain methodological aspects are poorly understood. This paper presents 7 guidelines for applying MCDA in benefit-risk assessment and illustrates their use in the selection of a statin drug for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We provide guidance on the key methodological issues of how to define the decision problem, how to select a set of nonoverlapping evaluation criteria, how to synthesize and summarize the evidence, how to translate relative measures to absolute ones that permit comparisons between the criteria, how to define suitable scale ranges, how to elicit partial preference information from the decision makers, and how to incorporate uncertainty in the analysis. Our example on statins indicates that fluvastatin is likely to be the most preferred drug by our decision maker and that this result is insensitive to the amount of preference information incorporated in the analysis. PMID:25986470

  12. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  13. IMPROVED RISK CHARACTERIZATION METHODS FOR DEVELOPING AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA FOR NON-BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will use existing and developing information to evaluate and demonstrate procedures for more fully characterizing risks of non-bioaccumulative toxicants to aquatic organisms, and for incorporating these risks into aquatic life criteria. These efforts will address a v...

  14. Perceived Risk in College Selection: Differences in Evaluative Criteria Used by Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jacquelyn; Mansfield, Phylis M.

    2003-01-01

    Students and parents base college selection on how well the college will overcome the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with the college experience. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant differences between students and parents as well as for their level of…

  15. 2 CFR 200.520 - Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for a low-risk auditee. 200.520... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES...-risk auditee. An auditee that meets all of the following conditions for each of the preceding two...

  16. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants Are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Allison; Albarracín, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use correlate with subsequent acceptance of an HIV-prevention counseling session. Ironically, participants with high (vs. low) motivation to use condoms, high (vs. low) condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and high (vs. low) prior condom use were more likely to accept the HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, the influence of motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use on acceptance of the counseling was mediated by expectations that the counseling session would be useful. Methods to reduce barriers to recruitment of clients for counseling programs are discussed. PMID:19634960

  17. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  18. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  19. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  20. 14 CFR 435.35 - Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of a reentry vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable reentry risk for reentry of a reentry vehicle. 435.35 Section 435.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety...

  1. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping.

  2. Risk Informed Design and Analysis Criteria for Nuclear Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Michael W.

    2015-06-17

    Target performance can be achieved by defining design basis ground motion from results of a probabilistic seismic hazards assessment, and introducing known levels of conservatism in the design above the DBE. ASCE 4, 43, DOE-STD-1020 defined the DBE at 4x10-4 and introduce only slight levels of conservatism in response. ASCE 4, 43, DOE-STD-1020 assume code capacities shoot for about 98% NEP. There is a need to have a uniform target (98% NEP) for code developers (ACI, AISC, etc.) to aim for. In considering strengthening options, one must also consider cost/risk reduction achieved.

  3. Selenium Health Benefit Values: Updated Criteria for Mercury Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Nicholas V C; Ralston, Carla R; Raymond, Laura J

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se)-dependent enzymes (selenoenzymes) protect brain tissues against oxidative damage and perform other vital functions, but their synthesis requires a steady supply of Se. High methylmercury (CH3Hg) exposures can severely diminish Se transport across the placenta and irreversibly inhibit fetal brain selenoenzymes. However, supplemental dietary Se preserves their activities and thus prevents pathological consequences. The modified Se health benefit value (HBVSe) is a risk assessment criterion based on the molar concentrations of CH3Hg and Se present in a fish or seafood. It was developed to reflect the contrasting effects of maternal CH3Hg and Se intakes on fetal brain selenoenzyme activities. However, the original equation was prone to divide-by-zero-type errors whereby the calculated values increased exponentially in samples with low CH3Hg contents. The equation was refined to provide an improved index to better reflect the risks of CH3Hg exposures and the benefits provided by dietary Se. The HBVSe provides a biochemically based perspective that confirms and supports the FDA/EPA advice for pregnant and breast-feeding women regarding seafoods that should be avoided vs. those that are beneficial to consume. Since Se can be highly variable between watersheds, further evaluation of freshwater fish is needed to identify locations where fish with negative HBVSe may arise and be consumed by vulnerable subpopulation groups. PMID:26463749

  4. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the “Borda” Method: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran’s public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called “Borda” in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software “Math-lab”7, “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. “Borda” estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance

  5. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the "Borda" Method: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran's public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called "Borda" in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software "Math-lab"7, "SPSS" 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. "Borda" estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance decision making

  6. Detecting extinction risk from climate change by IUCN Red List criteria.

    PubMed

    Keith, David A; Mahony, Michael; Hines, Harry; Elith, Jane; Regan, Tracey J; Baumgartner, John B; Hunter, David; Heard, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Nicola J; Parris, Kirsten M; Penman, Trent; Scheele, Ben; Simpson, Christopher C; Tingley, Reid; Tracy, Christopher R; West, Matt; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is a key threat to global biodiversity. To inform strategic actions aimed at conserving biodiversity as climate changes, conservation planners need early warning of the risks faced by different species. The IUCN Red List criteria for threatened species are widely acknowledged as useful risk assessment tools for informing conservation under constraints imposed by limited data. However, doubts have been expressed about the ability of the criteria to detect risks imposed by potentially slow-acting threats such as climate change, particularly because criteria addressing rates of population decline are assessed over time scales as short as 10 years. We used spatially explicit stochastic population models and dynamic species distribution models projected to future climates to determine how long before extinction a species would become eligible for listing as threatened based on the IUCN Red List criteria. We focused on a short-lived frog species (Assa darlingtoni) chosen specifically to represent potential weaknesses in the criteria to allow detailed consideration of the analytical issues and to develop an approach for wider application. The criteria were more sensitive to climate change than previously anticipated; lead times between initial listing in a threatened category and predicted extinction varied from 40 to 80 years, depending on data availability. We attributed this sensitivity primarily to the ensemble properties of the criteria that assess contrasting symptoms of extinction risk. Nevertheless, we recommend the robustness of the criteria warrants further investigation across species with contrasting life histories and patterns of decline. The adequacy of these lead times for early warning depends on practicalities of environmental policy and management, bureaucratic or political inertia, and the anticipated species response times to management actions. PMID:24512339

  7. Alzheimer disease: Epidemiology, Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Christiane; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The global prevalence of dementia is as high as 24 million, and has been predicted to quadruple by the year 2050. In the US alone, Alzheimer disease (AD) – the most frequent cause of dementia characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function in particular the memory domain -causes estimated health-care costs of $172 billion per year. Key neuropathological hallmarks of the AD brain are diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques—often surrounded by dystrophic neurites—and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. These pathological changes are frequently accompanied by reactive microgliosis and loss of neurons, white matter and synapses. The etiological mechanisms underlying these neuropathological changes remain unclear, but are probably caused by both environmental and genetic factors. In this review article, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of AD, review the biomarkers that may be used for risk assessment and in diagnosis, and give suggestions for future research PMID:24398425

  8. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-07-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  9. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  11. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. PMID:24603028

  12. Sexual Barrier Acceptability Among Multiethnic HIV-Positive and At-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Bruscantini, Laura; Weiss, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual behavior interventions have been found to reduce sexual risk among HIV-seropositive and high-risk HIV-seronegative women. Methods This study examined the influence of ethnicity and HIV serostatus on sexual barrier acceptability and use at short-term and long-term follow-up among African American and Hispanic (n = 457) women participating in a gender and culturally tailored sexual risk reduction intervention. We hypothesized that sexual barrier acceptability and use would differ between ethnic groups but that this difference would dissipate after intervention participation. We further postulated that HIV-seropositive women would report greater acceptability and use of sexual barriers than seronegative women at baseline and that after participation in the intervention, acceptability and use would increase for both serostatus groups. Results We enrolled 317 African American and 140 Hispanic women, 273 (60%) seropositive and 184 (40%) seronegative. Ethnic differences in the frequency of male and female condom use existed at baseline but were not found at 12-month follow-up. Male condom acceptability was higher among African American women than Hispanic women at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Seropositive women reported higher levels of consistent male condom use, but both ethnic and serostatus groups reported high levels (positive, 40%; negative, 52%) of inconsistent condom use. Most women had little experience with female condoms or lubricating gels and suppositories at baseline. No differences between ethnicities were identified in lubricant use. Conclusions Results support the use of a culturally tailored intervention among these populations to increase sexual barrier use and reduce sexual risk. PMID:21526524

  13. Multi-criteria decision analysis with probabilistic risk assessment for the management of contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Khadam, Ibrahim M.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2003-10-01

    Traditionally, environmental decision analysis in subsurface contamination scenarios is performed using cost-benefit analysis. In this paper, we discuss some of the limitations associated with cost-benefit analysis, especially its definition of risk, its definition of cost of risk, and its poor ability to communicate risk-related information. This paper presents an integrated approach for management of contaminated ground water resources using health risk assessment and economic analysis through a multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology introduces several important concepts and definitions in decision analysis related to subsurface contamination. These are the trade-off between population risk and individual risk, the trade-off between the residual risk and the cost of risk reduction, and cost-effectiveness as a justification for remediation. The proposed decision analysis framework integrates probabilistic health risk assessment into a comprehensive, yet simple, cost-based multi-criteria decision analysis framework. The methodology focuses on developing decision criteria that provide insight into the common questions of the decision-maker that involve a number of remedial alternatives. The paper then explores three potential approaches for alternative ranking, a structured explicit decision analysis, a heuristic approach of importance of the order of criteria, and a fuzzy logic approach based on fuzzy dominance and similarity analysis. Using formal alternative ranking procedures, the methodology seeks to present a structured decision analysis framework that can be applied consistently across many different and complex remediation settings. A simple numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results showed the importance of using an integrated approach for decision-making considering both costs and risks. Future work should focus on the application of the methodology to a variety of complex field conditions to

  14. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  15. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  16. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  17. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  18. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  19. Probabilistic exposure risk assessment with advective-dispersive well vulnerability criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzenhoefer, Rainer; Nowak, Wolfgang; Helmig, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    Time-related advection-based well-head protection zones are commonly used to manage the contamination risk of drinking water wells. According to current water safety plans advanced risk management schemes are needed to better control and monitor all possible hazards within catchments. The goal of this work is to cast the four advective-dispersive intrinsic well vulnerability criteria by Frind et al. [1] into a framework of probabilistic risk assessment framework. These criteria are: (i) arrival time, (ii) level of peak concentration, (iii) time until first arrival of critical concentrations and (iv) exposure time. Our probabilistic framework yields catchment-wide maps of probabilities to not comply with these criteria. This provides indispensable information for catchment managers to perform probabilistic exposure risk assessment and thus improves the basis for risk-informed well-head management. We resolve heterogeneity with high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations and use a new reverse formulation of temporal moment transport equations to keep computational costs low. Our method is independent of dimensionality and boundary conditions, and can account for arbitrary sources of uncertainty. It can be coupled with any method for conditioning on available data. For simplicity, we demonstrate the concept on a 2D example that includes conditioning on synthetic data.

  20. Effect of acculturation on the acceptability of potential microbicides and sexual risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra; PIPER, Jeanna M

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the acceptability and use patterns of potential microbicides among African American (AA), Acculturated Hispanic (AH) and Less-Acculturated Hispanic (LAH) women. We measured baseline sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of behavioral change, given effective microbicides. Methods Interview of 506 Mexican American (MA) and AA women, all of whom have a sexually transmitted infection (STI) enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone.. Results The 3 groups reported similarly high acceptance of potential microbicides (76 – 83% p = 0.24). LAHs were most likely to report they would use microbicides covertly (p = 0.03). Given the possibility of effective microbicides, AHs were consistently more likely to report risk disinhibition. AHs, as compared to LAHs and AAs respectively, were most likely to report that they would not use condoms, (53% vs. 33% vs. 30% p < 0.001), would have a one-night stand (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.02), or would have sex with a man before they got to know him (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.01). AHs were also most likely to say they would or probably would change from baseline safe sexual practices to unsafe sexual behaviors if potential microbicides were available. Age was controlled for in the analysis as AHs were younger than AAs and LAHs. Conclusions Future microbicides were acceptable among this at risk cohort. Acculturation was a predictor of risk disinhibition and should be considered when tailoring STI prevention messages, given the advent of effective microbicides. PMID:19556933

  1. Multi Criteria Evaluation Module for RiskChanges Spatial Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) module is one of the five modules of RiskChanges spatial decision support system. RiskChanges web-based platform aims to analyze changes in hydro-meteorological risk and provides tools for selecting the best risk reduction alternative. It is developed under CHANGES framework (changes-itn.eu) and INCREO project (increo-fp7.eu). MCE tool helps decision makers and spatial planners to evaluate, sort and rank the decision alternatives. The users can choose among different indicators that are defined within the system using Risk and Cost Benefit analysis results besides they can add their own indicators. Subsequently the system standardizes and prioritizes them. Finally, the best decision alternative is selected by using the weighted sum model (WSM). The Application of this work is to facilitate the effect of MCE for analyzing changing risk over the time under different scenarios and future years by adopting a group decision making into practice and comparing the results by numeric and graphical view within the system. We believe that this study helps decision-makers to achieve the best solution by expressing their preferences for strategies under future scenarios. Keywords: Multi-Criteria Evaluation, Spatial Decision Support System, Weighted Sum Model, Natural Hazard Risk Management

  2. Wild Fire Risk Map in the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasanbat, Elbegjargal; Lkhamjav, Ochirkhuyag

    2016-06-01

    Grassland fire is a cause of major disturbance to ecosystems and economies throughout the world. This paper investigated to identify risk zone of wildfire distributions on the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia. The study selected variables for wildfire risk assessment using a combination of data collection, including Social Economic, Climate, Geographic Information Systems, Remotely sensed imagery, and statistical yearbook information. Moreover, an evaluation of the result is used field validation data and assessment. The data evaluation resulted divided by main three group factors Environmental, Social Economic factor, Climate factor and Fire information factor into eleven input variables, which were classified into five categories by risk levels important criteria and ranks. All of the explanatory variables were integrated into spatial a model and used to estimate the wildfire risk index. Within the index, five categories were created, based on spatial statistics, to adequately assess respective fire risk: very high risk, high risk, moderate risk, low and very low. Approximately more than half, 68 percent of the study area was predicted accuracy to good within the very high, high risk and moderate risk zones. The percentages of actual fires in each fire risk zone were as follows: very high risk, 42 percent; high risk, 26 percent; moderate risk, 13 percent; low risk, 8 percent; and very low risk, 11 percent. The main overall accuracy to correct prediction from the model was 62 percent. The model and results could be support in spatial decision making support system processes and in preventative wildfire management strategies. Also it could be help to improve ecological and biodiversity conservation management.

  3. HIV vaccine acceptability among high-risk drug users in Appalachia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A vaccine could substantially impact the HIV epidemic, but inadequate uptake is a serious concern. Unfortunately, people who use drugs, particularly those residing in rural communities, have been underrepresented in previous research on HIV vaccine acceptability. This study examined HIV vaccine acceptability among high-risk drug users in a rural community in the United States. Methods Interviewer-administered questionnaires included questions about risk behavior and attitudes toward HIV vaccination from 433 HIV-negative drug users (76% with history of injection) enrolled in a cohort study in Central Appalachia. HIV vaccine acceptability was measured on a 4-point Likert scale. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine correlates to self-report of being “very likely” to receive a 90% effective HIV vaccine (i.e. “maximum vaccine acceptability”, or MVA). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results Most (91%) reported that they would accept a preventive HIV vaccine, but concerns about cost, dosing, transportation constraints, vaccine-induced seropositivity, and confidentiality were expressed. Cash incentives, oral-administration, and peer/partner encouragement were anticipated facilitators of uptake. In multivariate analysis, men were significantly less likely to report MVA (AOR: 0.33, CI: 0.21 – 0.52). MVA was more common among participants who believed that they were susceptible to HIV (AOR: 2.31, CI: 1.28 – 4.07), that an HIV vaccine would benefit them (AOR: 2.80, CI: 1.70 – 4.64), and who had positive experiential attitudes toward HIV vaccination (AOR: 1.85, CI: 1.08 – 3.17). MVA was also more common among participants who believed that others would encourage them to get vaccinated and anticipated that their behavior would be influenced by others' encouragement (AOR: 1.81, 95% 1.09 – 3.01). Conclusions To our knowledge, this study was among the first to explore and

  4. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9 % for the monthly model, and 80.4 % for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$ 288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$ 156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM and MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average WTA estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model to targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  6. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. PMID:24093745

  7. Role of Histological Criteria and Immunohistochemical Markers in Predicting Risk of Malignancy in Parathyroid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Niraj; Chaudhary, Nandita; Pradhan, Roma; Agarwal, Amit; Krishnani, Narendra

    2016-06-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasm accounting for 0.5-6 % of primary hyperparathyroidism. Histological criteria are currently considered as established means to diagnose malignancy in parathyroid neoplasms; however, it does not accurately predict the risk of aggressive behaviour of PC. Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers have been used in the literature with variable results. This work was planned to study whether IHC markers would have any added advantage over histology in predicting outcome in parathyroid neoplasms. Two hundred twenty-seven parathyroid neoplasms were reviewed according to older and revised histological criteria. IHC was performed for parafibromin, APC, galectin-3, PGP9.5 and Ki67. Diagnostic categories were correlated with clinical, biochemical, histological features and IHC markers. Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical variables. Review of histology by earlier and revised criteria showed a change in diagnosis of five cases of atypical adenoma (15.1 %), all of which were diagnosed as carcinoma according to earlier criteria. Change in diagnosis did not affect behaviour of disease as none of the cases showed recurrence or metastasis on follow-up. Combination of PF, Gal-3 and PGP9.5 showed 50 % sensitivity, 97.9 % specificity and 95.4 % predictive accuracy for PC. Histological criteria still remains the most established method for predicting risk of malignancy in parathyroid neoplasms irrespective of whether old or revised criteria are used. Combination of positive (Gal-3, PGP9.5) and negative (PF) IHC markers may be used as an adjunct to histology in histological, atypical and malignant parathyroid neoplasms to obviate the need for repeated follow-up. PMID:26984237

  8. Development of acceptance criteria for batches of silane primer for external tank thermal protection system bonding applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikes, F.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is currently the best technique for observing hydrolytic changes in DC 1200 silane the primers caused by moisture in the atmosphere. To further prove that FTIR can be used as a criterion test for acceptance of silane primer lots, intensities of the FTIR OH- band are being compared with primer adhesive bond strength using a mechanical test suggested by NASA. Results of tests for shear strength and Oh-absorption are tabulated and compared with FTIR absorption intensities in the OH-region.

  9. An ethical appraisal of hormesis: toward a rational discourse on the acceptability of risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Renn, O

    2008-08-01

    Hormesis has been defined as a dose-response relationship in which there is a stimulatory response at low doses but an inhibiting response at high doses, resulting in a U- or inverted U-shaped dose response. Until now, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to address this new insight or adjusted their routines for regulating such substances. Should regulators change their principles of decision making and standard setting in the light of the new insights from hormesis research? To answer this question, it is essential to review the ethical implications of hormesis in risk assessment and management. What kind of values should govern the regulation of substances and radiation that may cause positive and negative impacts at the same time (depending on dose and individual variability)? This article tries to address this problem. It deals with the basic ethical principles and foundations of risk management and introduces the essentials of ethics and the application of ethical principles to judging the acceptability of risks to humans and the environment. It will also discuss the merits of an analytic deliberative approach to evaluating complex risks and address the application of this discursive methods to risk management taking into account the hormesis challenge. PMID:19029259

  10. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  11. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October-November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  12. NCRP Program Area Committee 1: Basic Criteria, Epidemiology, Radiobiology and Risk.

    PubMed

    Held, Kathryn D; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2016-02-01

    NCRP Program Area Committee (PAC) 1 addresses fundamental issues on basic criteria, epidemiology, radiation biology, and risk with regard to radiation protection and measurements. PAC 1 has overseen the work of Scientific Committee 1-22, which produced a Commentary published in November 2014 and has four active committees working on reports or commentaries providing guidance to a number of U.S. government agencies in diverse areas, including effects of low dose and low energy radiations and space radiation. PMID:26717156

  13. Data Quality Objectives and Criteria for Basic Information, Acceptable Uncertainty, and Quality-Assurance and Quality-Control Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Bank, Fred G.; Cazenas, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration and State transportation agencies have the responsibility of determining and minimizing the effects of highway runoff on water quality; therefore, they have been conducting an extensive program of water-quality monitoring and research during the last 25 years. The objectives and monitoring goals of highway runoff studies have been diverse, because the highway community must address many different questions about the characteristics and impacts of highway runoff. The Federal Highway Administration must establish that available data and procedures that are used to assess and predict pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff are valid, current, and technically supportable. This report examines criteria for evaluating water-quality data and resultant interpretations. The criteria used to determine if data are valid (useful for intended purposes), current, and technically supportable are derived from published materials from the Federal Highway Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey and from technical experts throughout the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality data that are documented to be meaningful, representative, complete, precise, accurate, comparable, and admissible as legal evidence will meet the scientific, engineering, and regulatory needs of highway agencies. Documentation of basic information, such as compatible monitoring objectives and program design features; metadata (when, where, and how data were collected as well as who collected and analyzed the data); ancillary information (explanatory variables and study-site characteristics); and legal requirements are needed to evaluate data. Documentation of sufficient quality-assurance and quality-control information to establish the quality and uncertainty in the data and interpretations also are needed to determine the comparability and utility of

  14. A Procedure for Determination of Degradation Acceptance Criteria for Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Hahm, D.; Choi, I-K.

    2012-01-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory since 2007 to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This collaboration program aims at providing technical support to a five-year KAERI research project, which includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment: (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. The understanding and assessment of age-related degradations of structures, systems, and components and their impact on plant safety is the major goal of this KAERI-BNL collaboration. Four annual reports have been published before this report as a result of the collaboration research.

  15. Accepting risk in the acceleration of drug development for rare cancers.

    PubMed

    Ashley, David; Thomas, David; Gore, Lia; Carter, Rob; Zalcberg, John R; Otmar, Renée; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Rare cancers collectively contribute a disproportionate fraction of the total burden of cancer. The oncology community is increasingly facing small numbers of patients with each cancer subtype, requiring cooperation and collaboration to complete multicentre trials that advance knowledge and patient care. At the same time, new insights into the biology of rare cancers have led to an explosion in knowledge and development of targeted agents. These insights and techniques are set to revolutionise the care of patients with cancer. However, drug development strategies and the availability of new agents for rare cancers are at risk of stalling owing to the ever-increasing complexity and costs of clinical trials. Finding solutions to these problems is imperative to the future of cancer care. We propose that a greater degree of risk sharing is needed than is currently accepted to enable the use of new methods with confidence, and to keep pace with scientific advancement. PMID:25846099

  16. Establishment of design criteria for acceptable failure modes and fail safe considerations for the space shuttle structural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrup, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of fatigue life, and safe-life and fail-safe design concepts as applied to space shuttle structure are summarized. The results are evaluated to select recommended structural design criteria to provide assurance that premature failure due to propagation of undetected crack-like defects will not occur during shuttle operational service. The space shuttle booster, GDC configuration B-9U, is selected as the reference vehicle. Structural elements used as basis of detail analyses include wing spar caps, vertical stabilizer skins, crew compartment skin, orbiter support frame, and propellant tank shell structure. Fatigue life analyses of structural elements are performed to define potential problem areas and establish upper limits of operating stresses. Flaw growth analyses are summarized in parametric form over a range of initial flaw types and sizes, operating stresses and service life requirements. Service life of 100 to 500 missions is considered.

  17. Reliability, Resilience, and Vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of Human Health Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the impact of water quality on the health of a general population is challenging due high degrees of uncertainty and variability in hydrological, toxicological and human aspects of the system. Assessment of the impact of changes in water quality of a public water supply is critical to management of that water supply. We propose the use of three different system evaluation criteria: Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV) as a tool for assessing the impact of uncertainty in the arrival of contaminant mass through time with respect to human health risks on a variable population. These criteria were first introduced to the water resources community by Hashimoto et al (1982). Most simply one can understand these criteria as the following: Reliability is the likelihood of the system being in a state of success; Resilience is the probability that the system will return to a state of success at t+1 if it is in failure at time step t, and Vulnerability is the severity of failure, which here is defined as the maximum health risk. These concepts are applied to a theoretical example where the water quality at a water supply well varies over time: health impact is considered based on sliding, 30-year windows of exposure to water derived from the well. We apply the methodology, in terms of uncertainty in water quality deviations, to eight simulated breakthrough curves of a contaminant at the well: each curve represents equal mass of contaminant arriving at the well over a 70-year lifetime of the well, but different mass distributions over time. These curves are used to investigate the impact of uncertainty in the distribution through time of the contaminant mass at the well, as well as the initial arrival of the contaminant over the 70-year lifetime of the well. In addition to extending the health risk through time with uncertainty in mass distribution, we incorporate variability in the human population to examine the evolution of the three criteria within

  18. A watershed-based cumulative risk impact analysis: environmental vulnerability and impact criteria.

    PubMed

    Osowski, S L; Swick, J D; Carney, G R; Pena, H B; Danielson, J E; Parrish, D A

    2001-01-01

    Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have received much attention in recent years. As a result, a watershed-based screening tool, the Cumulative Risk Index Analysis (CRIA), was developed to assess the cumulative impacts of multiple CAFO facilities in a watershed subunit. The CRIA formula calculates an index number based on: 1) the area of one or more facilities compared to the area of the watershed subunit, 2) the average of the environmental vulnerability criteria, and 3) the average of the industry-specific impact criteria. Each vulnerability or impact criterion is ranked on a 1 to 5 scale, with a low rank indicating low environmental vulnerability or impact and a high rank indicating high environmental vulnerability or impact. The individual criterion ranks, as well as the total CRIA score, can be used to focus the environmental analysis and facilitate discussions with industry, public, and other stakeholders in the Agency decision-making process. PMID:11214349

  19. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tran, John; Jeanmonod, Donald; Agresti, Darin; Hamden, Khalief; Jeanmonod, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI) in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. Methods This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. Results We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65–101). The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4%) cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9–100]) with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7–100). Conclusion Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls. PMID:27330655

  20. Effect of radon dose on cleanup criteria and using RESRAD for chemical risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J. ); Wallo, A. III )

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has used RESRAD, a pathway analysis program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, in conjunction with the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle to develop site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines (cleanup criteria) for many sites. This study examines the effects of the radon pathway, recently added to the RESRAD program, on the calculation of uranium, radium, and thorium cleanup criteria. The results show that the derived uranium guidelines will not be affected by the radon ingrowth considerations. The effect of radon on radium and thorium generic guidelines is more significant, but the model does indicate that at the generic soil limits used for radium and thorium the indoor radon decay product concentrations would be below the 0.02 working level standard. This study also examines the feasibility of applying RESRAD to chemical risk assessment. The results show that RESRAD can perform risk assessment of toxic chemicals after simple modifications. Expansion of the RESRAD database to include chemical compounds will increase its capability to handle chemical risk assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Cleaning level acceptance criteria and a high pressure liquid chromatography procedure for the assay of Meclizine Hydrochloride residue in swabs collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Lunn, M J; Keeley, F J; George, R C; Bodenmiller, J R

    1999-04-01

    A method using pharmacologically based and visual limit of detection criteria to determine the acceptable residue level for Meclizine Hydrochloride (MH) on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces after cleaning is described. A formula was used in order to determine the pharmacologically safe cleaning level for MH. This level was termed as specific residual cleaning Level (SRCL) and calculated to be 50 microg 100 cm(-2). The visual limit of detection (VLOD) was determined by spiking different levels of MH on stainless steel plates and having the plates examined by a group of observers. The lowest level that could be visually detected by the majority of the observers, 62.5 microg 100 cm(-2), was considered as the VLOD for MH. The lower of the SRCL and VLOD values, i.e. 50 microg 100 cm(-2), was therefore chosen as the cleaning acceptance criterion. A sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of MH in swabs used to test equipment surfaces. Using this method, the mean recoveries of MH from spiked swabs and '180-Grit' stainless steel plates were 87.0 and 89.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of +/- 3.3 and +/- 2.4%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the assay of actual swab samples collected from the equipment surfaces. The stability of MH on stainless steel plates, on cleaning swabs and in the extraction solution was investigated. PMID:10698538

  2. Gaining acceptance for the use of in vitro toxicity assays and QIVIVE in regulatory risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette; Lipscomb, John C

    2015-06-01

    Testing strategies are anticipated to increasingly rely on in vitro data as a basis to characterize early steps or key events in toxicity at relevant dose levels in human tissues. Such strategies require quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation to characterize dose-response as a basis for comparison with exposure to estimate risk. Current experience in the incorporation of mechanistic and in vitro data in risk assessment is considered here in the context of identified principles to increase the potential for timely acceptance of more progressive and tailored testing strategies by the regulatory community. These principles are outlined as transitioning in a familiar context, tiering to acquire experience and increase confidence, contextual knowledge transfer to facilitate interpretation and communication, coordination and development of expertise and continuing challenge. A proposed pragmatic tiered data driven framework which includes increasing reliance on in vitro data and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation is considered in the context of these principles. Based on this analysis, possible additional steps that might facilitate timely evolution and potentially, uptake are identified. PMID:25598226

  3. The Careful Puppet Master: Reducing risk and fortifying acceptance testing with Jenkins CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jason A.; Richman, Gabriel; DeStefano, John; Pryor, James; Rao, Tejas; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Centralized configuration management, including the use of automation tools such as Puppet, can greatly increase provisioning speed and efficiency when configuring new systems or making changes to existing systems, reduce duplication of work, and improve automated processes. However, centralized management also brings with it a level of inherent risk: a single change in just one file can quickly be pushed out to thousands of computers and, if that change is not properly and thoroughly tested and contains an error, could result in catastrophic damage to many services, potentially bringing an entire computer facility offline. Change management procedures can—and should—be formalized in order to prevent such accidents. However, like the configuration management process itself, if such procedures are not automated, they can be difficult to enforce strictly. Therefore, to reduce the risk of merging potentially harmful changes into our production Puppet environment, we have created an automated testing system, which includes the Jenkins CI tool, to manage our Puppet testing process. This system includes the proposed changes and runs Puppet on a pool of dozens of RedHat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) virtual machines (VMs) that replicate most of our important production services for the purpose of testing. This paper describes our automated test system and how it hooks into our production approval process for automatic acceptance testing. All pending changes that have been pushed to production must pass this validation process before they can be approved and merged into production.

  4. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off

  5. Acceptability of male circumcision for the prevention of HIV among high-risk heterosexual men in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Hong-Van; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Vatanparast, Rana; Jadwattanakul, Tanate; Pharachetsakul, Nutthasun; Mingkwanrungrueng, Pravit; Buajoom, Raksakul; Teeratakulpisarn, Somsong; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Methajittiphun, Pornpen; Hammer, Scott M; Ann Chiasson, Mary; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2010-06-01

    Limited data are available on circumcision prevalence and acceptability among Thai men to prevent human immunodeficiency virus. Of 408 high-risk heterosexual men, 12.3% were circumcised. 14.2% and 24.9% expressed willingness to be circumcised before and after circumcision education, respectively. Neonatal circumcision acceptability was relatively high. One participant underwent circumcision at 3-month follow-up. PMID:20145588

  6. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals. PMID:25936581

  7. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  8. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  9. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  10. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  11. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  12. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  13. Critical appraisal of the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection to reduce the risk of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Belfort, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based on mostly underpowered studies with variable eligibility criteria, including history of spontaneous abortion as an indication for treatment. More recent randomized controlled clinical trials restimulated the interest in progesterone supplementation, suggesting that progesterone may favorably influence the rate of preterm delivery. Preterm delivery is a complex disorder and consequently it is unlikely that one generalized prevention strategy will be effective in all patients. Further, an additional impediment in accepting progesterone as the “magic bullet” in the prevention of preterm delivery is that its mechanism of action is not fully understood and the optimal formulations, route of administration, and dose have yet to be established. We have concerned ourselves in this review with the most recent status of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OH-PC) supplementation for prevention of preterm delivery. Our intention is to emphasize the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of this intervention, based on a comprehensive and unbiased review of the available literature. Currently there are insufficient data to suggest that 17OH-PC is superior or inferior to natural progesterone. Based on available evidence, we suggest a differential approach giving preferential consideration to either 17OH-PC or other progestins based on obstetric history and cervical surveillance. Progestin therapy for risk factors other than a history of preterm birth and/or a short cervix in the current pregnancy is not currently supported by the published evidence. The experience to date with 17OH-PC indicates that there are population subgroups that may be harmed by

  14. ACR appropriateness criteria asymptomatic patient at risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P; Woodard, Pamela K; Abbara, Suhny; Akers, Scott R; Araoz, Philip A; Cummings, Kristopher; Cury, Ricardo C; Dorbala, Sharmila; Hoffmann, Udo; Hsu, Joe Y; Jacobs, Jill E; Min, James K

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Coronary artery disease has a long asymptomatic latent period and early targeted preventive measures can reduce mortality and morbidity. It is important to accurately classify individuals at elevated risk in order to identify those who might benefit from early intervention. Imaging advances have made it possible to detect subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcium score correlates closely with overall atherosclerotic burden and provides useful prognostic information for patient management. Our purpose is to discuss use of diagnostic imaging in asymptomatic patients at elevated risk for future cardiovascular events. The goal for these patients is to further refine targeted preventative efforts based on risk. The following imaging modalities are available for evaluating asymptomatic patients at elevated risk: radiography, fluoroscopy, multidetector CT, ultrasound, MRI, cardiac perfusion scintigraphy, echocardiography, and PET. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:24316232

  15. Social Network and Risk-Taking Behavior Most Associated with Rapid HIV Testing, Circumcision, and Preexposure Prophylaxis Acceptability Among High-Risk Indian Men

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupali; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Laumann, Edward; Mayer, Kenneth; Dandona, Lalit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Indian truck drivers and their younger apprentice drivers are at increased risk of HIV infection. We determine network and risk practices associated with willingness to adopt HIV prevention interventions currently not being used in India: rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in order to inform the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Truck drivers and truck cleaners were systematically recruited to participate in a social network and risk survey in Hyderabad, Southern India. Three separate composite measures of acceptability of rapid HIV testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were utilized to independently assess the relationship of these prevention interventions with risk-practices and social network characteristics. An 89% participation rate yielded 1602 truck drivers and truck cleaners with 54.2% younger than 30 years of age and 2.8% HIV infected. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported sex with female sex workers (FSW) and 5% with men (MSM). Rapid testing, circumcision, and PrEP acceptability were 97.4%, 9.1%, and 85.9%, respectively. Participants reporting prosocial network characteristics were more accepting of rapid testing (adjusted odds ratio [AORs] 3.07–6.71; p<0.05) and demonstrated variable PrEP acceptability (AORs 0.08–2.22; p<0.001). Sex with FSWs was associated with PrEP acceptability (AOR 4.27; p<0.001); sex with MSM was associated with circumcision acceptability only (AOR 2.66; p<0.01). Social network factors and risk-practices were associated with novel prevention acceptability, but not consistently across intervention type and with variable directionality. The NACP will need to consider that intervention uptake may likely be most successful when efforts are targeted to individuals with specific behavior and social network characteristics. PMID:22973951

  16. Planning replacement of natural gas distribution systems under constraints on acceptable risk from explosions.

    PubMed

    Noonan, F

    1991-12-01

    Natural gas distribution systems in the United States were developed primarily in the first half of this century, utilizing materials such as cast iron and then steel. Over time, cast iron and steel pipe sections became weak from corrosion and are subject to failure which in turn can lead to explosions and possible injury and loss of life. Gas utilities maintain system integrity through repair-replacement programs where pipe sections are prioritized for replacement in any given year through cost-benefit analysis; however, the total annual amount to be budgeted for replacement is left to engineering judgment. This approach has left some utilities vulnerable to criticism that their current replacement rate on cast iron pipe is not great enough and that public safety is being compromised. This paper addresses the problem situation by formulating a linear programming replacement decision model which augments cost-benefit analysis with explicit constraints on acceptable risk to human life from fire/explosion. The model is illustrated for a hypothetical utility. PMID:1780504

  17. Vehicles instability criteria for flood risk assessment of a street network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Huybrechts, Nicolas; Ouahsine, Abdellatif; Chassé, Patrick; Oumeraci, Hocine; Castelli, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The mutual interaction between floods and human activity is a process, which has been evolving over history and has shaped flood risk pathways. In developed countries, many events have illustrated that the majority of the fatalities during a flood occurs in a vehicle, which is considered as a safe shelter but it may turn into a trap for several combinations of water depth and velocity. Thus, driving a car in floodwaters is recognized as the most crucial aggravating factor for people safety. On the other hand, the entrainment of vehicles may locally cause obstructions to the flow and induce the collapse of infrastructures. Flood risk to vehicles can be defined as the combination of the probability of a vehicle of being swept away (i.e. the hazard) and the actual traffic/parking density, i.e. the vulnerability. Hazard for vehicles can be assessed through the spatial identification and mapping of the critical conditions for vehicles incipient motion. This analysis requires a flood map with information on water depth and velocity and consistent instability criteria accounting for flood and vehicles characteristics. Vulnerability is evaluated thanks to the road network and traffic data. Therefore, vehicles flood risk mapping can support people's education and management practices in order to reduce the casualties. In this work, a flood hazard classification for vehicles is introduced and an application to a real case study is presented and discussed.

  18. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  19. “Faster, better, and cheaper” at NASA: Lessons learned in managing and accepting risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Larry J.

    2007-11-01

    Can Earth observing missions be done "better, faster and cheaper"? In this paper I explore the management and technical issues that arose from the attempt to do things "faster, better and cheaper" at NASA. The FBC mantra lead to some failures and, more significantly, an increase in the cadence of missions. Mission cadence is a major enabler of innovation and the driver for the training and testing of the next generation of managers, engineers, and scientists. A high mission cadence is required to maintain and develop competence in mission design, management, and execution and, for an exploration-driven organization, to develop and train the next generation of leaders: the time between missions must be short enough that careers span the complete life of more than a few missions. This process reduces risk because the "lessons learned" are current and widely held. Increasing the cadence of missions has the added benefit of reducing the pressure to do everything on one particular mission thus reducing mission complexity. Since failures are inevitable in such a complex endeavor, a higher mission cadence has the advantage of providing some resiliency to the scientific program the missions support. Some failures are avoidable (often only in hindsight) but most are due to some combination of interacting factors. This interaction is often only appreciated as a potential failure mode after the fact. There is always the pressure to do more with less: the scope of the project may become too ambitious or the management and oversight of the project may be reduced to fit the money allocated, or the project time line may be lengthened due to external factors (launcher availability, budgetary constraints) without a concomitant increase in the total funding. This leads to increased risk. Risks are always deemed acceptable until they change from a "risk" to a "failure mode". Identifying and managing those risks are particularly difficult when the activities are dispersed

  20. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  1. [From the licensure of vaccines to the recommendation of the Standing Committee on Vaccination in Germany : criteria for the assessment of benefits and risks].

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Michael; Wichmann, Ole

    2015-03-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective preventive measures in modern medicine and have led to a dramatic decline and-for a few diseases-even to the elimination of severely infectious diseases. There are some particularities of the risk-benefit assessment of vaccines compared with that of therapeutic drugs. These include the fact that vaccines are applied to healthy individuals with the aim of preventing an infectious disease, while therapeutic drugs are administered to sick people to cure them of an already acquired disease. The acceptable level of risk associated with the application of a vaccine is therefore much lower. In addition, high vaccination coverage can lead to population-level effects (e.g., the indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals) that can confer additional benefits to the population overall. When a marketing authorization application (MAA) for a novel vaccine is evaluated, conclusions are made regarding its quality, safety, and efficacy, and a benefit-risk assessment is carried out accordingly. In contrast, when deciding on the introduction of a new vaccine into a national immunization program or on a recommendation for a specific risk-group, the focus is shifted to considerations of how a licensed vaccine can be best used in a population (e.g., which immunization strategy is most effective in preventing deaths or hospitalizations, or in reducing treatment costs for the health care system). Stringent assessment criteria have been developed that require a robust safety analysis before a new vaccine is administered to humans for the first time in pre-licensure studies. Similarly, criteria are applied for calculating the benefit-risk ratio at the time of the licensure of a new vaccine in addition to during the entire post-licensure period. However, when deciding if and how a licensed vaccine can best be integrated into an existing immunization program, additional criteria are applied that are different, yet complementary to those applied for

  2. Multi-Criteria Decision Making for a Spatial Decision Support System on the Analysis of Changing Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim H.; Aye, Zar Chi; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management requires decision making in several stages. Decision making on alternatives for risk reduction planning starts with an intelligence phase for recognition of the decision problems and identifying the objectives. Development of the alternatives and assigning the variable by decision makers to each alternative are employed to the design phase. Final phase evaluates the optimal choice by comparing the alternatives, defining indicators, assigning a weight to each and ranking them. This process is referred to as Multi-Criteria Decision Making analysis (MCDM), Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) or Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). In the framework of the ongoing 7th Framework Program "CHANGES" (2011-2014, Grant Agreement No. 263953) of the European Commission, a Spatial Decision Support System is under development, that has the aim to analyse changes in hydro-meteorological risk and provide support to selecting the best risk reduction alternative. This paper describes the module for Multi-Criteria Decision Making analysis (MCDM) that incorporates monetary and non-monetary criteria in the analysis of the optimal alternative. The MCDM module consists of several components. The first step is to define criteria (or Indicators) which are subdivided into disadvantages (criteria that indicate the difficulty for implementing the risk reduction strategy, also referred to as Costs) and advantages (criteria that indicate the favorability, also referred to as benefits). In the next step the stakeholders can use the developed web-based tool for prioritizing criteria and decision matrix. Public participation plays a role in decision making and this is also planned through the use of a mobile web-version where the general local public can indicate their agreement on the proposed alternatives. The application is being tested through a case study related to risk reduction of a mountainous valley in the Alps affected by flooding. Four alternatives are evaluated in

  3. The acceptability of a computer HIV/AIDS risk assessment to not-in-treatment drug users.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Freeman, R C; Bowen, A M; Saunders, L

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study assessing the acceptability of a computer HIV risk assessment instrument administered to not-in-treatment drug users. The study asked three questions related to acceptability: (1) are drug users comfortable responding to HIV risk questions using the computer assessment; (2) do drug users feel that they possess the requisite skill to respond to questions using a computer; and (3) do drug users believe that the responses they provide using the computer assessment will remain private and confidential. This study differs from other assessments of the acceptability of computer assisted data collection in that the population of interest has only limited education and interaction with computers. Furthermore, the study was implemented under field conditions. To conduct the study, an existing HIV risk assessment instrument was adapted for use with the computer. Only slight modifications were made to the content of the instrument. To facilitate data collection with this population, audio enhancement and touch screen were used. Three scales measuring comfort, skill and perceived privacy were developed. Results of analysis showed that drug users are comfortable responding to an HIV risk assessment using computer assisted interviewing. Drug users also perceived that they possessed the requisite skill to successfully complete the interview. And, study participants reported that they believed that their responses using the computer interview would remain private and confidential. Only minor differences in scale scores based on sociodemographic characteristics were found among study participants. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:9924525

  4. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  5. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...\\ Clearing Member Risk Management, 76 FR 45724 (Aug. 1, 2011). \\7\\ Adaption of Regulations to Incorporate... ``risk management.'' See, e.g., proposed Sec. 39.13 relating to risk management for DCOs, 76 FR at 3720... and increases risk.\\38\\ \\38\\ See 76 FR 1214, Jan. 7, 2011. In this rulemaking, the Commission...

  6. PCB contaminated dust on indoor surfaces--health risks and acceptable surface concentrations in residential and occupational settings.

    PubMed

    Kuusisto, Sari; Lindroos, Outi; Rantio, Tiina; Priha, Eero; Tuhkanen, Tuula

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in diverse purposes such as indoor paints. Removal of these paints with dust creating techniques, like sandblasting, will result in contamination of building surfaces with PCB-containing dust. Objectives of this study was to analyze the PCB concentrations on surfaces after sandblasting with silica using wipe samples and estimate the resulting health risks and further calculate the risk based acceptable PCB surface concentrations that do not cause incremental lifetime cancer risk higher that 10(-5) or does not cause immunosupression effects in residential use or in occupational settings. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches were used. The total PCB concentrations on surfaces ranged from 10 to 1100 microg/m(2). Estimated cancer risk was 1.2 x 10(-4) for childhood exposure, 1.3 x 10(-5) for adult residents and 1.5 x 10(-5) for occupational exposure. Probabilistic risk assessment revealed that point estimates were quite reasonable and located between 45th and 79th percentiles on probabilistic distribution of risk. The noncancer risks were calculated as hazard quotients (HQ) which ranged from 3.3 to 35 depending on the exposure scenario. Acceptable surface concentrations based on noncancer effects that are protective for 95% of exposed population were 7 microg/m(2) for residential use, 65 microg/m(2) for residential use if only adults will be exposed and 140 microg/m(2) for occupational use. Preliminary cleanup experiment revealed that when contaminated dust was carefully removed with industrial vacuum cleaner and further washed with terpene containing liquid the surface concentration dropped below the acceptable levels calculated in this study. PMID:17166563

  7. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable, and reentry or descent flight, and concludes upon landing on Earth of the RLV. (b) Acceptable...) Identify and describe the structure of the RLV, including physical dimensions and weight; (2) Identify...

  8. Risk-based ecological soil quality criteria for the characterization of contaminated soils. Combination of chemical and biological tools.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Dolores; Vega, María Milagrosa; Tarazona, José Vicente

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the development of soil quality criteria for the characterization of soils focused on the potential risk to the ecosystem. The approach combines both Generic Soil Quality standards (GSQs) for individual chemicals and direct ecotoxicity assays on soil samples taken from the site. Criteria establish three main risk levels with their corresponding trigger values. The trigger values to determine high risk or "polluted" soils are exclusively based on direct toxicity assessments. The trigger values for the other categories are established by a combination of the application of GSQs and the results of bioassays. Low-risk is assumed when no toxicity is observed and GSQs based on precautionary ecotoxicity thresholds are not exceeded; high-risk must be considered if acute toxicity above the proposed trigger value is observed in soil or leachate samples. In between these levels, the risk cannot be elucidated and a site-specific assessment is required. The GSQs take into account the current or future land use, thus defining three categories: industrial soils, urban/residential soils and natural/agricultural/forest soils, each of them with different ecological requirements. The GSQ values are established following an inverse risk assessment methodology, integrating ecotoxicity and exposure models and setting the soil levels associated to pre-established criteria for the assumption of low risk. The proposed methodology covers all relevant ecological receptors and processes, soil organisms, potential contamination of ground and surface waters, and exposure of terrestrial vertebrates due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Exposure routes and protection criteria are defined in each protection goal. The relevance of each receptor and route is established according to the land use. PMID:16574196

  9. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    PubMed

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health. PMID:26734840

  10. The Effectiveness of Training Acceptance / Commitment and Training Emotion Regulation on High-Risk Behaviors of Students with Dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Narimani, Mohammad; Abbasi, Moslem; Abolghasemi, Abbas; Ahadi, Batoul

    2013-01-01

    Background Now a days the utilization of Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation Strategy as a comprehensive treatment plan has been discussed in both the prevention and the control of destructive and risky behaviors. Treatment based on Acceptance/Commitment and Emotion Regulation was effective in both the improvement and the control of high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment, and Emotional Regulation training in high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. Materials and Methods This research was experimental, with pre-test, post-test and a control group. The statistical universe of this study included all sixth-grade male students in Ardabil city in the academic year of 2012-2013 (A.H.). The subjects of this study involved 800 sixth-grade elementary students in Ardabil province, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling. From among them, 60 students with dyscalculia were selected using random sampling method after the initial diagnosis by structured clinical interview and the Keymath Mathematic test. Twenty pupil were selected for either the experimental or the control group. To collect data, the questionnaires of "Keymath Mathematic test" and High-risk Behavior" were used. Results The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that "Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation" treatment trainings were effective in reducing high-risk behaviors, in a manner that they led to a reduction in negative emotions, self-destructive and impulsive behaviors of students with math disorder (dyscalculia). Conclusions It can be concluded that teaching these skills to the students has been influential in enhancing awareness level and change or positive attitude creation in the subjects. Therefore, it is essential to design and implement interventions based on "prevention caused by the peer group, in collaboration with the parents

  11. Simplified risk stratification criteria for identification of patients with MRSA bacteremia at low risk of infective endocarditis: implications for avoiding routine transesophageal echocardiography in MRSA bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Buitron de la Vega, P; Tandon, P; Qureshi, W; Nasr, Y; Jayaprakash, R; Arshad, S; Moreno, D; Jacobsen, G; Ananthasubramaniam, K; Ramesh, M; Zervos, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia with low risk of infective endocarditis (IE) who might not require routine trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE). We retrospectively evaluated 398 patients presenting with MRSA bacteremia for the presence of the following clinical criteria: intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), long-term catheter, prolonged bacteremia, intra-cardiac device, prosthetic valve, hemodialysis dependency, vertebral/nonvertebral osteomyelitis, cardio-structural abnormality. IE was diagnosed using the modified Duke criteria. Of 398 patients with MRSA bacteremia, 26.4 % of cases were community-acquired, 56.3 % were health-care-associated, and 17.3 % were hospital-acquired. Of the group, 44 patients had definite IE, 119 had possible IE, and 235 had a rejected diagnosis. Out of 398 patients, 231 were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or TEE. All 44 patients with definite IE fulfilled at least one criterion (sensitivity 100 %). Finally, a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to evaluate the total risk score of our proposed criteria as a predictor of the presence of IE, and this was compared to the ROC curve of a previously proposed criteria. The area under the ROC curve for our criteria was 0.710, while the area under the ROC curve for the criteria previously proposed was 0.537 (p < 0.001). The p-value for comparing those 2 areas was less than 0.001, indicating statistical significance. Patients with MRSA bacteremia without any of our proposed clinical criteria have very low risk of developing IE and may not require routine TEE. PMID:26676855

  12. ANALYTICAL METHODS NECESSARY TO IMPLEMENT RISK-BASED CRITERIA FOR CHEMICALS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ambient Water Quality Criteria that were promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1980 included water concentration levels which, for many pollutants, were so low as to be unmeasurable by standard analytical methods. Criteria for controlling toxics in munici...

  13. 78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... for Launch and Reentry, Notice of Waiver, 77 FR 24556 (April 24, 2012). Again, risk was largely a... during September.\\2\\ NASA, the ] U.S. Air Force and other U.S. National Test ranges use 0.0001 as the... Standards for National Test Ranges (2010). If the Falcon 9 v1.1's collective risk were to exceed...

  14. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  15. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  16. Interspecies Correlation Estimation - Applications in Water Quality Criteria and Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria (WQC) designate the maximum concentrations of water-borne toxicants that do not adversely affect specific protection goals under certain natural conditions. As the foundation of water quality standards, WQC provide a critical scientific basis for environmen...

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  18. Adjuvant imatinib treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumor: which risk stratification criteria and for how long? A case report.

    PubMed

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Levard, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is approved for the adjuvant treatment of KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) following surgical resection. However, uncertainty remains in terms of patient eligibility for adjuvant treatment and the optimal duration of treatment. Here, we present two challenging patient cases encountered in clinical practice that highlight the ambiguity in the current recommendations for adjuvant imatinib in GIST and discuss our approaches and rationales for treatment. The first case involves a 36-year-old man with a 7 cm duodenal GIST and possible tumor rupture during surgical resection. This patient's risk of GIST recurrence was either intermediate or high depending on which risk stratification criteria were used. The patient was treated with adjuvant imatinib for 3 years and experienced disease recurrence 14 months after the completion of treatment. Imatinib treatment was reintroduced, and the patient is in partial response 17 months later. The second case involves a 46-year-old woman at high risk of recurrence following surgical resection. Adjuvant treatment with imatinib was initiated. After considering the patient's initial high risk and good side-effect profile, the decision was made to continue adjuvant imatinib treatment for 5 years. As of May 2013, the patient has been receiving continuous imatinib treatment for 52 months, with no sign of progression. These reports exemplify the challenges faced in clinical practice because of uncertainties in optimal risk stratification criteria and duration of treatment. They stress the importance of individualized treatment and shared decision making between the physician and the patient. PMID:26457546

  19. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  20. Progress toward regulatory acceptance of risk-informed inspection programs for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Owen F.; Cowfer, C. David

    1996-11-01

    This paper will describe work within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers committee responsible for rules for inservice inspection of nuclear power plants. Work is progressing with the objective of producing proposals for risk-informed inspection programs that will be incorporated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission into the Federal Regulations Governing the construction and inservice inspection of al domestic commercial power plants. The paper will describe in detail the two primary proposals now under development and review. Both are directed toward enhancing safety while reducing the expense of periodic examination of piping welds. The first proposal provides a sound technical basis for reducing the number of Class 1 piping weld examinations as much as 60 percent while improving or maintaining equivalent safety. This is accomplished by using risk-informed techniques to re-establish the most important areas to examine. The second is a broader approach addressing all piping systems considered to be important under risk-informed assessment techniques. Both proposals are based on recent insights into risk analysis techniques developed within the pressure vessel industry, and both require evaluation of theoretical analysis and inputs of practical experience related to a wide variety of detrimental conditions. These proposals are being supported by pilot programs in a number of operating nuclear power plants. The authors will also attempt to explain the institutional constraints inherent in the process of obtaining regulatory recognition of proposals developed cooperatively by industry and the regulatory agency.

  1. 12 CFR 324.141 - Operational criteria for recognizing the transfer of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transfer of risk. 324.141 Section 324.141 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for...

  2. 75 FR 2823 - Incorporating Employee Compensation Criteria Into the Risk Assessment System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... structures misalign incentives and induce imprudent risk taking within financial organizations.\\1\\ Some..., ``Does Stock Option-Based Executive Compensation Induce Risk-Taking? An Analysis of the Banking Industry... perverse incentives'' that may jeopardize the institution's health. Excessive and imprudent risk...

  3. A novel method to risk stratify patients undergoing exercise stress echocardiography using a set of combined criteria.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher B; Leung, Sue Ellen; Fukuyanagi, Sasa

    2015-03-01

    Background and Purposes A novel method using quantitative long-axis function and tissue Doppler in addition to wall motion analysis in exercise stress echocardiography was evaluated. We hypothesized that the novel criteria added additional accuracy in stress echocardiography. Methods Patients with chest pain and at low-to-intermediate risk for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) were retrospectively studied. They underwent stress echocardiography with attention to wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular long-axis function, and tissue Doppler measurement. Results The results showed that the combined novel criteria (i.e., classifying a case as positive if three out of the following four criteria were fulfilled: (1) abnormal segmental wall motion shortly after peak stress; (2) Ee wave after peak stress less than 10 cm/s and Ee/Aa ratio after peak stress less than 1; (3) Sm wave after peak stress less than 10.5 cm/s; (4) abnormal long-axis left ventricular function) offered a better accuracy for predicting obstructive CAD and future revascularization with a high sensitivity (100%) and high negative predictive value (100%) . Conclusion From a practical standpoint, the combined novel criteria may be useful in improving the diagnostic accuracy of stress echocardiography. PMID:25780326

  4. Acceptability, Language, and Structure of Text Message-Based Behavioral Interventions for High-Risk Adolescent Females: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Choo, Esther K.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Spirito, Anthony; Thorsen, Margaret; Mello, Michael J.; Morrow, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate key elements surrounding acceptability/feasibility, language, and structure of a text message-based preventive intervention for high-risk adolescent females. Methods We recruited high-risk 13- to 17-year-old females screening positive for past-year peer violence and depressive symptoms, during emergency department visits for any chief complaint. Participants completed semistructured interviews exploring preferences around text message preventive interventions. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A coding structure was iteratively developed using thematic and content analysis. Each transcript was double coded. NVivo 10 was used to facilitate analysis. Results Saturation was reached after 20 interviews (mean age 15.4; 55% white; 40% Hispanic; 85% with cell phone access). (1) Acceptability/feasibility themes: A text-message intervention was felt to support and enhance existing coping strategies. Participants had a few concerns about privacy and cost. Peer endorsement may increase uptake. (2) Language themes: Messages should be simple and positive. Tone should be conversational but not slang filled. (3) Structural themes: Messages may be automated but must be individually tailored on a daily basis. Both predetermined (automatic) and as-needed messages are requested. Dose and timing of content should be varied according to participants’ needs. Multimedia may be helpful but is not necessary. Conclusions High-risk adolescent females seeking emergency department care are enthusiastic about a text message-based preventive intervention. Incorporating thematic results on language and structure can inform development of future text messaging interventions for adolescent girls. Concerns about cost and privacy may be able to be addressed through the process of recruitment and introduction to the intervention. PMID:24559973

  5. Judging statistical models of individual decision making under risk using in- and out-of-sample criteria.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Lusk, Jayson L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that conceptual models of individual decision making under risk are deterministic, attempts to econometrically estimate risk preferences require some assumption about the stochastic nature of choice. Unfortunately, the consequences of making different assumptions are, at present, unclear. In this paper, we compare three popular error specifications (Fechner, contextual utility, and Luce error) for three different preference functionals (expected utility, rank-dependent utility, and a mixture of those two) using in- and out-of-sample selection criteria. We find drastically different inferences about structural risk preferences across the competing functionals and error specifications. Expected utility theory is least affected by the selection of the error specification. A mixture model combining the two conceptual models assuming contextual utility provides the best fit of the data both in- and out-of-sample. PMID:25029467

  6. Demonstration of a modelling-based multi-criteria decision analysis procedure for prioritisation of occupational risks from manufactured nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Alstrup Jensen, Keld; Gottardo, Stefania; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Maccalman, Laura; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Several tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) have been developed. Most of them require input data on physicochemical properties, toxicity and scenario-specific exposure information. However, such data are yet not readily available, and tools that can handle data gaps in a structured way to ensure transparent risk analysis for industrial and regulatory decision making are needed. This paper proposes such a quantitative risk prioritisation tool, based on a multi-criteria decision analysis algorithm, which combines advanced exposure and dose-response modelling to calculate margins of exposure (MoE) for a number of MN in order to rank their occupational risks. We demonstrated the tool in a number of workplace exposure scenarios (ES) involving the production and handling of nanoscale titanium dioxide, zinc oxide (ZnO), silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of this application demonstrated that bag/bin filling, manual un/loading and dumping of large amounts of dry powders led to high emissions, which resulted in high risk associated with these ES. The ZnO MN revealed considerable hazard potential in vivo, which significantly influenced the risk prioritisation results. In order to study how variations in the input data affect our results, we performed probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, which demonstrated that the performance of the proposed model is stable against changes in the exposure and hazard input variables. PMID:26853193

  7. The Impact of the Malcolm Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence on Eighth Grade Mathematics TAKS Scores for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact the implementation of the Baldrige Education Criteria had on the mathematics portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for eighth grade at-risk students. The three research questions (a) examined the effects the Baldrige Education Criteria had on individual institutions over…

  8. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  9. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  10. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates. PMID:24331906

  11. [Permanent essential defacement--remarks on the possibilities of verification of the accepted criteria in medico-legal certification in criminal and civil law proceedings].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Jabłoński, Christian; Neniczka, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal and civil proceedings have been established, there are still some topics which are controversial and thus require modification. This is also true of the notion of "permanent essential defacement". In the opinion of the authors, changes in social conventions that are occurring nowadays, as well as a highly diversified, subjective perception of esthetic values indicate the need for discussing a possible modification of the presently obligatory criteria. Apart from the assessment of posttraumatic changes, an important problem is posed by defining the notion of "a part of the body customarily open to the view ". Additionally, the authors bring up for discussion the issue of experts taking into consideration the age and sex of the victims while assessing damages. A separate problem lies in difficulties in assessing the degree of detriment to health because of defacement due to the fact that official tables for evaluating permanent or long-term detriment to health do not include relevant information. PMID:17571513

  12. Risk Management in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jonathan; Lutomski, M.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of risk management in Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The contents include: 1) EVA Office at NASA - JSC; 2) EVA Project Risk Management: Why and When; 3) EVA Office Risk Management: How; 4) Criteria for Closing a Risk; 5) Criteria for Accepting a Risk; 6) ISS IRMA Reference Card Data Entry Requirement s; 7) XA/ EVA Office Risk Activity Summary; 8) EVA Significant Change Summary; 9) Integrated Risk Management Application (XA) Matrix, March 31, 2004; 10) ISS Watch Item: 50XX Summary Report; and 11) EVA Project RM Usefulness

  13. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    PubMed

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%. PMID:26024723

  14. Assessment of Yellow Fever Epidemic Risk: An Original Multi-criteria Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Sylvie; Beresniak, Ariel; Nguyen, Tim; Yonli, Tajoua; Duru, Gerard; Kambire, Chantal; Perea, William

    2009-01-01

    Background Yellow fever (YF) virtually disappeared in francophone West African countries as a result of YF mass vaccination campaigns carried out between 1940 and 1953. However, because of the failure to continue mass vaccination campaigns, a resurgence of the deadly disease in many African countries began in the early 1980s. We developed an original modeling approach to assess YF epidemic risk (vulnerability) and to prioritize the populations to be vaccinated. Methods and Findings We chose a two-step assessment of vulnerability at district level consisting of a quantitative and qualitative assessment per country. Quantitative assessment starts with data collection on six risk factors: five risk factors associated with “exposure” to virus/vector and one with “susceptibility” of a district to YF epidemics. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) modeling method was specifically adapted to reduce the five exposure variables to one aggregated exposure indicator. Health districts were then projected onto a two-dimensional graph to define different levels of vulnerability. Districts are presented on risk maps for qualitative analysis in consensus groups, allowing the addition of factors, such as population migrations or vector density, that could not be included in MCA. The example of rural districts in Burkina Faso show five distinct clusters of risk profiles. Based on this assessment, 32 of 55 districts comprising over 7 million people were prioritized for preventive vaccination campaigns. Conclusion This assessment of yellow fever epidemic risk at the district level includes MCA modeling and consensus group modification. MCA provides a standardized way to reduce complexity. It supports an informed public health decision-making process that empowers local stakeholders through the consensus group. This original approach can be applied to any disease with documented risk factors. PMID:19597548

  15. A social vaccine? Social and structural contexts of HIV vaccine acceptability among most-at-risk populations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon; Yim, Suzy; Walisser, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    A safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccine would be a tremendous asset for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, which bear the greatest global impact of AIDS. Nevertheless, substantial gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of already licensed vaccines demonstrate that availability does not guarantee uptake. In order to advance an implementation science of HIV vaccines centred on LMIC settings, we explored sociocultural and structural contexts of HIV vaccine acceptability among most-at-risk populations in Thailand, the site of the largest HIV vaccine trial ever conducted. Cross-cutting challenges for HIV vaccine uptake - social stigma, discrimination in healthcare settings and out-of-pocket vaccine cost - emerged in addition to population-specific barriers and opportunities. A 'social vaccine' describes broad sociocultural and structural interventions - culturally relevant vaccine promotion galvanised by communitarian norms, mitigating anti-gay, anti-injecting drug user and HIV-related stigma, combating discrimination in healthcare, decriminalising adult sex work and injecting drug use and providing vaccine cost subsidies - that create an enabling environment for HIV vaccine uptake among most-at-risk populations. By approaching culturally relevant social and structural interventions as integral mechanisms to the success of new HIV prevention technologies, biomedical advances may be leveraged in renewed opportunities to promote and optimise combination prevention. PMID:22780324

  16. Multi-criteria decision-making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. A total of 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. A wide range of applications were identified, with most papers focusing on ranking alternatives for flood mitigation, followed by risk, hazard, and vulnerability assessment. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most popular method, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest in MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and was seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Therefore, addressing the uncertainties around stakeholders' judgments and endorsing an active participation in all steps of the decision-making process should be explored in future applications. This could help to increase the quality of decisions and the implementation of chosen measures.

  17. Statistical problems in the assessment of nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Information on nuclear power plant risk assessment is presented concerning attitudinal problems; and methodological problems involving expert opinions, human error probabilities, nonindependent events, uncertainty analysis, and acceptable risk criteria.

  18. Increasing Prevalence, Changes in Diagnostic Criteria, and Nutritional Risk Factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Neggers, Yasmin H.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnoses has been increasing for decades, but researchers cannot agree on whether the trend is a result of increased awareness, improved detection, expanding definition, or an actual increase in incidence or a combination of these factors. Though both genetic and multiple environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, many potentially modifiable risk factors including nutritional and immune function related risk factors such as vitamin D, folic acid, and metabolic syndrome have not received sufficient attention. Several recent studies have put forward hypotheses to explain the mechanism of association between both folic acid and vitamin D and autism. A continuous rise in the prevalence of autism in the USA has coincided with a significant enhancement of maternal folate status with FDA mandated folic acid fortification of certain foods starting in 1998. There is also a growing body of research that suggests that vitamin D status either in utero or early in life may be a risk for autism. In this communication, controversies regarding increase in estimate of prevalence, implications of changes in definition, and possible association between some modifiable nutritional risk factors such as folic acid and vitamin D and ASD will be discussed. PMID:24967269

  19. Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G.; Scott, R.

    1980-02-01

    This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.

  20. Comparison of Vocal Vibration-Dose Measures for Potential-Damage Risk Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.; Hunter, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School-teachers have become a benchmark population for the study of occupational voice use. A decade of vibration-dose studies on the teacher population allows a comparison to be made between specific dose measures for eventual assessment of damage risk. Method: Vibration dosimetry is reformulated with the inclusion of collision stress.…

  1. Standard format and content acceptance criteria for the Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Reform Amendment: 10 CFR Part 74, Subpart E. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In 1987 the NRC revised the material control and accounting requirements for NRC licensees authorized to possess and use a formula quantity (i.e., 5 formula kilograms or more) of strategic special nuclear material. Those revisions issued as 10 CFR 74.51-59 require timely monitoring of in-process inventory and discrete items to detect anomalies potentially indicative of material losses. Timely detection and enhanced loss localization capabilities are beneficial to alarm resolution and also for material recovery in the event of an actual loss. NUREG-1280 was issued in 1987 to present criteria that could be used by applicants, licensees, and NRC license reviewers in the initial preparation and subsequent review of fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans submitted in response to the Reform Amendment. This document is also intended for both licensees and license reviewers with respect to FNMC plan revisions. General performance objectives, system capabilities, process monitoring, item monitoring, alarm resolution, quality assurance, and accounting are addressed. This revision to NUREG-1280 is an expansion of the initial edition, which clarifies and expands upon several topics and addresses issues identified under Reform Amendment implementation experience.

  2. Perspective: Towards environmentally acceptable criteria for downstream fish passage through mini hydro and irrigation infrastructure in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Lee J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Thorncraft, Garry; Boys, Craig A.; Brown, Richard S.; Singhanouvong, Douangkham; Phonekhampeng, Oudom

    2014-02-26

    Tropical rivers have high annual discharges optimal for hydropower and irrigation development. The Mekong River is one of the largest tropical river systems, supporting a unique mega-diverse fish community. Fish are an important commodity in the Mekong, contributing a large proportion of calcium, protein, and essential nutrients to the diet of the local people and providing a critical source of income for rural households. Many of these fish migrate not only upstream and downstream within main-channel habitats but also laterally into highly productive floodplain habitat to both feed and spawn. Most work to date has focused on providing for upstream fish passage, but downstream movement is an equally important process to protect. Expansion of hydropower and irrigation weirs can disrupt downstream migrations and it is important to ensure that passage through regulators or mini hydro systems is not harmful or fatal. Many new infrastructure projects (<6 m head) are proposed for the thousands of tributary streams throughout the Lower Mekong Basin and it is important that designs incorporate the best available science to protect downstream migrants. Recent advances in technology have provided new techniques which could be applied to Mekong fish species to obtain design criteria that can facilitate safe downstream passage. Obtaining and applying this knowledge to new infrastructure projects is essential in order to produce outcomes that are more favorable to local ecosystems and fisheries.

  3. Comparison of Vocal Vibration-Dose Measures for Potential-Damage Risk Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Schoolteachers have become a benchmark population for the study of occupational voice use. A decade of vibration-dose studies on the teacher population allows a comparison to be made between specific dose measures for eventual assessment of damage risk. Method Vibration dosimetry is reformulated with the inclusion of collision stress. Two methods of estimating amplitude of vocal-fold vibration are compared to capture variations in vocal intensity. Energy loss from collision is added to the energy-dissipation dose. An equal-energy-dissipation criterion is defined and used on the teacher corpus as a potential-damage risk criterion. Results Comparison of time-, cycle-, distance-, and energy-dose calculations for 57 teachers reveals a progression in information content in the ability to capture variations in duration, speaking pitch, and vocal intensity. The energy-dissipation dose carries the greatest promise in capturing excessive tissue stress and collision but also the greatest liability, due to uncertainty in parameters. Cycle dose is least correlated with the other doses. Conclusion As a first guide to damage risk in excessive voice use, the equal-energy-dissipation dose criterion can be used to structure trade-off relations between loudness, adduction, and duration of speech. PMID:26172434

  4. ‘Croque&bouge’: A feasible and acceptable programme for obesity prevention in preschoolers at risk and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Martin, Fiona; Kruseman, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conceptualize and pilot test a programme of three workshops aiming to prevent the development of overweight in susceptible preschool children. Methods: Three workshops were conducted, targeting both parents and children. The curriculum for parents included discussions on feeding responsibilities, healthy eating, taste development, neophobia and physical activity recommendations. Children participated in various play activities with fruits and vegetables and read stories about hunger and satiety feelings. Recruitment was organized through paediatricians and child-care centres. Evaluation of the programme focused on feasibility, adequacy for children’s age, parents’ perception of impact and, for children, change of the ability to recognize and willingness to taste fruits and vegetables. Results: A total of 21 children and one of their parents participated in the programme. The programme was found to be feasible and adequate for the targeted community. Parents reported perceiving a positive impact of the intervention; however, this finding was not statistically significant. The major difficulty was identifying and recruiting families and engaging the parents in a discussion about weight. Conclusions: This short programme aiming to improve parents’ ability to offer healthy environment and promote healthy eating behaviour was feasible and acceptable for families with young children. When developing and implementing such programmes, close collaboration with paediatricians and other health providers should be sought in order to identify and reach children at risk of obesity and their family. PMID:26770769

  5. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  6. Designing a Software for Flood Risk Assessment Based on Multi Criteria Desicion Analysis and Information Diffusion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musaoglu, N.; Saral, A.; Seker, D. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is one of the major natural disasters not only in Turkey but also in all over the world and it causes serious damage and harm. It is estimated that of the total economic loss caused by all kinds of disasters, 40% was due to floods. In July 1995, the Ayamama Creek in Istanbul was flooded, the insurance sector received around 1,200 claims notices during that period, insurance companies had to pay a total of $40 million for claims. In 2009, the same creek was flooded again and killed 31 people over two days and insurance firms paid for damages around cost €150 million for claims. To solve these kinds of problems modern tools such as GIS and Remote Sensing should be utilized. In this study, a software was designed for the flood risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Information Diffusion( InfoDif) methods.In the developed sofware, five evaluation criterias were taken into account, which were slope, aspect, elevation, geology and land use which were extracted from the satellite sensor data. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Ayamama River Basin was acquired from the SPOT 5 satellite image with 2.5 meter spatial resolution. Slope and aspect values of the study basin were extracted from this DEM. The land use of the Ayamama Creek was obtained by performing object-oriented nearest neighbor classification method by image segmentation on SPOT 5 image dated 2010. All produced data were used as an input for the part of Multi Criteria Desicion Analysis (MCDA) method of this software. Criterias and their each sub criteras were weighted and flood vulnerability was determined with MCDA-AHP. Also, daily flood data was collected from Florya Meteorological Station, between 1975 to 2009 years and the daily flood peak discharge was calculated with the method of Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) and were used as an input in the software for the part of InfoDif.Obtained results were verified using ground truth data and it has been clearly

  7. Multi-criteria decision making in flood risk management: research progress and the challenge of handling uncertainty and stakeholder participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have received much attention from researchers and practitioners for solving flood risk management problems in the last decades due to its capacity to deal with multiple criteria, conflicting objectives as well as the knowledge arising from the participation of several actors. In order to consolidate recent research conducted in this area, this study presents a state-of-the-art literature review of MCDM applications to flood risk management, seeking to provide a better understanding of the current status of how participatory MCDM is being conducted and the way uncertainties are included in the decision-making process. Totally, 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 in 72 different journals were systematically analyzed. Results indicated that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82% of all papers published since 2009. A wide range of application areas was identified, with most papers focusing on ranking alternatives for flood mitigation (22.78% of the total) followed by risk (21.11%) and vulnerability assessment (15%). The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the most popular MCDM method (42.72%) followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) (13.33%) and Weighted Sum Method (WSM) (12.73%). Although significant improvements have been made over the last decades, shortcomings remain in handling the uncertainty. Only eight papers (6.25%) have conducted uncertainty analysis, suggesting that a general procedure for performing it in MCDM does not yet exist. Researchers have applied the Monte Carlo simulation, Taylor's series error propagation method or assessed the uncertainty in qualitative ways, by describing its main sources or analyzing the stakeholders' degree of confidence. In addition, 35 articles (27.34%) have performed a sensitivity analysis of the criteria weights. Three distinct approaches were

  8. Outpatient treatment of low-risk venous thromboembolism with monotherapy oral anticoagulation: patient quality of life outcomes and clinician acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Kahler, Zachary P; Beam, Daren M

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral monotherapy anticoagulation has facilitated home treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in outpatients. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure efficacy, safety, as well as patient and physician perceptions produced by a protocol that selected VTE patients as low-risk patients by the Hestia criteria, and initiated home anticoagulation with an oral factor Xa antagonist. Methods Patients were administered the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of life/Symptoms questionnaire [VEINEs QoL/Sym] and the physical component summary [PCS] from the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF36]). The primary outcomes were VTE recurrence and hemorrhage at 30 days. Secondary outcomes compared psychometric test scores between patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to those with pulmonary embolism (PE). Patient perceptions were abstracted from written comments and physician perceptions specific to PE outpatient treatment obtained from structured survey. Results From April 2013 to September 2015, 253 patients were treated, including 67 with PE. Within 30 days, 2/253 patients had recurrent DVT and 2/253 had major hemorrhage; all four had DVT at enrollment. The initial PCS scores did not differ between DVT and PE patients (37.2±13.9 and 38.0±12.1, respectively) and both DVT and PE patients had similar improvement over the treatment period (42.2±12.9 and 43.4±12.7, respectively), consistent with prior literature. The most common adverse event was menorrhagia, present in 15% of women. Themes from patient-written responses reflected satisfaction with increased autonomy. Physicians’ (N=116) before-to-after protocol comfort level with home treatment of PE increased 48% on visual analog scale. Conclusion Hestia-negative VTE patients treated with oral monotherapy at home had low rates of VTE recurrence and bleeding, as well as quality of life measurements similar to prior reports. PMID:27143861

  9. A pilot study of immigration status, homosexual self-acceptance, social support, and HIV reduction in high risk Asian and Pacific Islander men.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, L S; Faust, M; Roque, J S; Loue, S

    1999-04-01

    This article reports the results of a cross-sectional study that was conducted to describe the sexual behavior and HIV risk reduction behaviors of homosexual and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men and to relate immigration status, self-acceptance as a homosexual, and levels of social support to the adoption of safe sexual behaviors in this population. Thirty-one gay and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men in San Diego County, California, participated. Generally high levels of knowledge about HIV and transmission risks as well as self-acceptance and social support were found. While most (84%) reported some attempts to increase condom use in the previous 6 months, 42% reported engaging in unprotected intercourse during that same time period. An inverse relationship between self-acceptance and utilization of risk reduction strategies was found. No association was found between immigration status or self-reported HIV status and level of HIV knowledge, level of HIV risk behavior, or level of HIV risk reduction efforts. The findings are discussed within the context of other social network studies and HIV prevention programs for gay and bisexual Asian and Pacific Islander men. PMID:16228708

  10. Rejection and Acceptance across Contexts: Parents and Peers as Risks and Buffers for Early Adolescent Psychopathology. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover, we examined whether acceptance in one context…

  11. Psychometric Properties and Validity of a Multi-dimensional Risk Perception Scale Developed in the Context of a Microbicide Acceptability Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sara E; Fava, Joseph L; Severy, Lawrence; Rosen, Rochelle K; Salomon, Liz; Shulman, Lawrence; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2016-02-01

    Currently available risk perception scales tend to focus on risk behaviors and overall risk (vs partner-specific risk). While these types of assessments may be useful in clinical contexts, they may be inadequate for understanding the relationship between sexual risk and motivations to engage in safer sex or one's willingness to use prevention products during a specific sexual encounter. We present the psychometric evaluation and validation of a scale that includes both general and specific dimensions of sexual risk perception. A one-time, audio computer-assisted self-interview was administered to 531 women aged 18-55 years. Items assessing sexual risk perceptions, both in general and in regards to a specific partner, were examined in the context of a larger study of willingness to use HIV/STD prevention products and preferences for specific product characteristics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two subscales: general perceived risk and partner-specific perceived risk. Validity analyses demonstrated that the two subscales were related to many sociodemographic and relationship factors. We suggest that this risk perception scale may be useful in research settings where the outcomes of interest are related to motivations to use HIV and STD prevention products and/or product acceptability. Further, we provide specific guidance on how this risk perception scale might be utilized to understand such motivations with one or more specific partners. PMID:26621151

  12. Eliciting and Combining Decision Criteria Using a Limited Palette of Utility Functions and Uncertainty Distributions: Illustrated by Application to Pest Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holt, Johnson; Leach, Adrian W; Schrader, Gritta; Petter, Françoise; Macleod, Alan; van der Gaag, Dirk Jan; Baker, Richard H A; Mumford, John D

    2013-07-01

    Utility functions in the form of tables or matrices have often been used to combine discretely rated decision-making criteria. Matrix elements are usually specified individually, so no one rule or principle can be easily stated for the utility function as a whole. A series of five matrices are presented that aggregate criteria two at a time using simple rules that express a varying degree of constraint of the lower rating over the higher. A further nine possible matrices were obtained by using a different rule either side of the main axis of the matrix to describe situations where the criteria have a differential influence on the outcome. Uncertainties in the criteria are represented by three alternative frequency distributions from which the assessors select the most appropriate. The output of the utility function is a distribution of rating frequencies that is dependent on the distributions of the input criteria. In pest risk analysis (PRA), seven of these utility functions were required to mimic the logic by which assessors for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization arrive at an overall rating of pest risk. The framework enables the development of PRAs that are consistent and easy to understand, criticize, compare, and change. When tested in workshops, PRA practitioners thought that the approach accorded with both the logic and the level of resolution that they used in the risk assessments. PMID:23834916

  13. Sexual risk behaviors and acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in serodiscordant relationships: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ronald A; Landovitz, Raphael J; Kaplan, Rachel L; Lieber, Eli; Lee, Sung-Jae; Barkley, Thomas W

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this mixed methods study was to examine current sexual risk behaviors, acceptability and potential adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, and sexual behavior intentions with PrEP adoption among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men (GBM) in HIV serodiscordant relationships. A multiracial/ethnic sample of 25 HIV-negative GBM in serodiscordant relationships completed a qualitative interview and a brief interviewer-administered survey. A modified grounded theory approach was used to identify key themes relating to acceptability and future adoption of PrEP. Participants reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. Participants also reported a high level of acceptability for PrEP and willingness to adopt PrEP for HIV prevention. Qualitative themes explaining future PrEP adoption included: (1) the opportunity to engage in sex using a noncondom HIV prevention method, (2) protection from HIV infection, and (3) less anxiety when engaging in sex with an HIV-positive partner. Associated with the future adoption of PrEP, a majority (64%) of participants indicated the likelihood for an increase in sexual risk behaviors and a majority (60%) of participants also indicated the likelihood for a decrease or abandonment of condom use, both of which are in contrast to the findings from the large iPrEx study. These findings suggest that the use of PrEP by HIV-negative GBM in serodiscordant relationships carries with it the potential for risk compensation. The findings suggest that PrEP only be offered as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy that includes ongoing risk reduction counseling in the delivery of PrEP to help moderate risk compensation. PMID:22149764

  14. The Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer of Women With Endometriosis May be Varied Greatly if Diagnostic Criteria Are Different

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ling; Chang, Wen-Hsun; Wang, Kuan-Chin; Guo, Chao-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jeng; Huang, Nicole; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article aims to test the hypothesis that the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in women with endometriosis might be changed by enrolling different population. A nationwide 14-year historic cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan and the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients was conducted. A total of 239,385 women aged between 20 and 51 years, with at least 1 gynecologic visit after 2000, were analyzed. Cases included women with a diagnosed endometriosis, which was established along a spectrum from at least 1 medical record of endometriosis (recalled endometriosis) to tissue-proved ovarian endometriosis (n = X). Controls included women without any diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 239,385 – X). We used Cox regression, and computed hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) to determine the risk of EOC in patients. The EOC incidence rates (IRs, per 10,000 person-years) of women with endometriosis ranged from 1.90 in women with recalled endometriosis to 18.70 in women with tissue-proved ovarian endometrioma, compared with those women without any diagnosis of endometriosis (0.77–0.89), contributing to crude HRs ranging from 2.59 (95% CI, 2.09–3.21; P < 0.001) to 24.04 (95% CI, 17.48–33.05; P < 0.001). After adjustment for pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, Charlson co-morbidity index, and age, adjusted HRs were ranged from the lowest of 1.90 (95% CI, 1.51–2.37; P < 0.001) in recalled endometriosis to the highest of 18.57 (95% CI, 13.37–25.79; P < 0.001) in tissue-proved ovarian endometrioma, which was inversely related to the prevalence rate of endometriosis (from the highest of 30.80% in recalled endometriosis to the lowest of 1.54% in tissue-proved ovarian endometrioma). The risk of EOC in women with endometriosis varied greatly by different criteria used. Women with endometriosis might have a more apparently higher risk than those reported

  15. Accommodating those Most at Risk. Responding to a Mismatch in Programme Selection Criteria and Foundation Biology Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Nicola F.; Dempster, Edith R.

    2015-12-01

    In South Africa, foundation programmes are a well-established alternative access route to tertiary science study for educationally disadvantaged students. Student access to, and performance in, one such foundation programme has been researched by the authors seeking opportunities to improve student retention. The biology module in particular has been recognised to place students at risk of failing the foundation programme, thereby reducing throughput into mainstream science programmes. This study uses decision tree analysis to provide a detailed description of foundation biology student performance so that points of weakness and opportunities for remedial action may be pinpointed. While students' alternative-entry selection scores have previously been found to most effectively account for performance in the programme as a whole, no similar positive relationship was identified for any subgroup of students in the foundation biology module. Conversely, academic language proficiency in the medium of instruction (English), formerly found to play no role in overall student performance, was revealed as primary in explaining achievement in foundation biology, most adversely affecting students rendered particularly vulnerable by an additional academic and/or socio-economic disadvantage. A pass in the stand-alone foundation academic literacy module did not necessarily correspond to a pass in biology. Compromised by educational disadvantage, compounded by a mismatch in programme selection criteria and inadequate academic literacy support, discipline-specific, fundamental literacy development in the biology curriculum is proposed to enable students towards epistemic access in the module. Pending this intervention, formal access to mainstream study is unlikely for the foundation students most at risk of failure.

  16. Fish consumption as a driver of risk-management decisions and human health-based water quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Judd, Nancy; Lowney, Yvette; Anderson, Paul; Baird, Suzanne; Bay, Steven M; Breidt, Jay; Buonanduci, Michele; Dong, Zhao; Essig, Don; Garry, Michael R; Jim, Rebecca C; Kirkwood, Gemma; Moore, Shelly; Niemi, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Rory; Ruffle, Betsy; Schaider, Laurel A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E

    2015-11-01

    The use and interpretation of fish consumption surveys and interviews, the application of fish consumption rates for sediment evaluation and cleanup, and the development of human health water quality criteria (HH WQC) are complex and interrelated issues. The present article focuses on these issues using examples from the United States, although the issues may be relevant for other countries. Some key considerations include the fact that there are many types of fish consumption surveys (e.g., 24-h recall surveys, food frequency questionnaires, creel surveys), and these surveys have different advantages and limitations. Identification of target populations for protection, identification of the species and quantities of fish consumed, and determination of bioaccumulation assumptions are important factors when developing water quality and sediment screening levels and standards. Accounting for the cultural importance of fish consumption for some populations is an even more complex element. Discussions about HH WQC often focus only on the fish consumption rate and may not have broad public input. Some states are trying to change this through extensive public participation efforts and use of probabilistic approaches to derive HH WQC. Finally, there are limits to what WQC can achieve. Solutions beyond the establishment of WQC that target toxics reduction from other sources may provide the greatest improvements to water quality and reductions in human health risks in the future. PMID:26496131

  17. Acceptability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV prevention strategy: Barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake among at-risk Peruvian populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Salazar, Ximena; Lee, Sung-Jae; Giron, Maziel; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cáceres, Carlos; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among female sex workers, male-to-female transgendered persons, and men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. Focus groups explored social issues associated with PrEP acceptability and conjoint analysis assessed preferences among eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios with varying attribute profiles and their relative impact on acceptability. Conjoint analysis revealed that PrEP acceptability ranged from 19.8 to 82.5 out of a possible score of 100 across the eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios. Out-of-pocket cost had the greatest impact on PrEP acceptability (25.2, p <0.001), followed by efficacy (21.4, p <0.001) and potential side effects (14.7, p <0.001). Focus group data supported these findings, and also revealed that potential sexual risk disinhibition, stigma and discrimination associated with PrEP use, and mistrust of health care professionals were also concerns. These issues will require careful attention when planning for PrEP roll-out if proven efficacious in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:21571973

  18. [Work at high altitude: concepts of physiopathology, risk factors, health surveillance and criteria for the development of work capacity evaluation criteria].

    PubMed

    Taino, Giuseppe; Giardini, Guido; Pecchio, Oriana; Brevi, Marco; Giorgi, Marco; Verardo, Marina Giulia; Detragiaches, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Work at high altitude (elevation equal to or greater than 3000 m above sea level) results in a physiological adaptation of the human organism to changing environmental conditions. The main problem related to the altitude is represented by the reduction of partial pressure of oxygen (hypoxia) that occurs in proportion to the reduction of barometric pressure. Our study, starting with an analysis of the human body's physiological response to acute hypoxic conditions and acclimatization for reaching protracted stays, takes into consideration all risk factors related to the performance of work at high altitude. We identified risk factors related to physical environment of high altitude and represented by temperature, humidity, latitude, speed wind, atmospheric pressure and hypoxia, risk factors related to the worker and represented by age, sex, state of health and individual susceptibility, degree of training. With reference to the state of health we analyzed the major pathophysiological conditions that can create situations of susceptibility to high altitude. We then analyzed risk factors related to the characteristics of the job that are represented by the degree of physical effort and energy expenditure required, by the personal protective equipment (PPE) used and by the concomitant exposure to other occupational risk factors of physical and chemical nature. It was finally addressed the decision making process related to the formulation of the judgment of suitability for performance of work activities at high altitude. The health protocol proposed requires an accurate anamnestic investigation aimed at gathering information on pre-existing pathophysiological conditions that need, once identified, clinical and instrumental tests specific and targeted. These clinical protocols are analyzed and proposed for the main pathophysiologic conditions that pose a risk to health at high altitude. For workers, in which clinical investigation and medical history has not shown

  19. DOE natural phenomenal hazards design and evaluation criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Chander, H.; Hill, J.R.; Kimball, J.K.

    1994-10-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct, and operate DOE facilities so that workers, the general public, and the environment are protected from the impacts of natural phenomena hazards (NPH). Furthermore, DOE has established explicit goals of acceptable risk for NPH performance. As a result, natural phenomena hazard (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation NPH input from probabilistic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. For earthquake considerations, conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of target quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but have a rigorous basis. This paper addresses DOE seismic design and evaluation criteria.

  20. Examining the Application of the DC-IA-A Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction Disorder in At-Risk College Students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Chang, Shan-Mei; Chiu, Nan-Ying; Lin, Sunny S J; Tseng, Yin-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder is a relatively new condition, and the criteria for its diagnosis have been developed only over the last several years. The criteria for Internet addiction remain controversial. We strive to further elucidate the clinical validity of the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction. To test items of the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction among adolescents, we conducted a clinical interview study of college students based on longitudinal data on their risky use of the Internet. Forty-one high-risk cases were selected from a 3-year 5-time point longitudinal survey of 716 college freshmen. We examined disputes relevant to symptoms and impairment in the DC-IA-A (Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction among Taiwanese Adolescents). Of the 41 cases, 21 were diagnosed with Internet addiction via a psychiatric interview. In the Internet addiction disorder group, 23.8% of cases had a diagnosis of depression, whereas only 15.0% of the cases in the non-Internet addiction group had a diagnosis of depression. Two major criteria (A8 and A3) had low incidences in these high-risk college students and thus did not help provide a differential diagnosis between the groups. We suggest that A8, 'excessive effort spent on activities necessary to obtain access to the Internet', should be omitted, and that A3, 'tolerance: a marked increase in the duration of Internet use needed to achieve satisfaction', should be modified. A1 and A9 should be discussed regarding their role in the diagnosis of Internet addiction disorder. Additional well-designed studies examining the diagnostic criteria and the relationship between factors are needed. PMID:26609702

  1. A Latent Class Analysis of Pathological-Gambling Criteria Among High School Students: Associations With Gambling, Risk and Health/Functioning Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify subtypes of adolescent gamblers based on the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for gambling disorder and to examine associations between identified subtypes with gambling, other risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Methods Using cross-sectional survey data from 10 high schools in Connecticut (N = 3901), we conducted latent class analysis to classify adolescents who reported past-year gambling into gambling groups on the basis of items from the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Adolescents also completed questions assessing demographic information, substance use (cigarette, marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs), gambling behaviors (relating to gambling formats, locations, motivations, and urges), and health/functioning characteristics (eg, extracurricular activities, mood, aggression, and body mass index). Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling (86.4%), at-risk chasing gambling (7.6%), at-risk negative consequences gambling (3.7%), and problem gambling (PrG) (2.3%). At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Conclusions Adolescent gambling classifies into 4 classes, which are differentially associated with demographic, gambling patterns, risk behaviors, and health/functioning characteristics. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes. PMID:25275877

  2. Joint Contributions of Peer Acceptance and Peer Academic Reputation to Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Mediating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2010-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic…

  3. Does Sufficient Evidence Exist to Support a Causal Association between Vitamin D Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk? An Assessment Using Hill’s Criteria for Causality

    PubMed Central

    Weyland, Patricia G.; Grant, William B.; Howie-Esquivel, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been found to be inversely associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review looks for evidence of a causal association between low 25(OH)D levels and increased CVD risk. We evaluated journal articles in light of Hill’s criteria for causality in a biological system. The results of our assessment are as follows. Strength of association: many randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and cross-sectional studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk factors. Consistency of observed association: most studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk factors in various populations, locations and circumstances. Temporality of association: many RCTs and prospective studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk factors. Biological gradient (dose-response curve): most studies assessing 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk found an inverse association exhibiting a linear biological gradient. Plausibility of biology: several plausible cellular-level causative mechanisms and biological pathways may lead from a low 25(OH)D level to increased risk for CVD with mediators, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence: some well-designed RCTs found increased CVD risk factors with decreasing 25(OH)D levels. Analogy: the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and CVD risk is analogous to that between 25(OH)D levels and the risk of overall cancer, periodontal disease, multiple sclerosis and breast cancer. Conclusion: all relevant Hill criteria for a causal association in a biological system are satisfied to indicate a low 25(OH)D level as a CVD risk factor. PMID:25184368

  4. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project and Studies of Risk and Resilience in Maltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joan; Gelernter, Joel; Hudziak, James; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Coplan, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project was initiated to develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures. This article reviews the rationale behind the RDoC program, its goals, and central tenets; discusses application of an RDoC framework to research with maltreated children; and highlights some clinical implications of this work. Method Published RDoC papers were reviewed, together with relevant preclinical and clinical studies that guide our work on risk and resilience in maltreated children. Results The ultimate long-term goal of the RDoC initiative is precision medicine in psychiatry. In the interim, the RDoC initiative provides a framework to organize research to help develop the database required to derive a new psychiatric nomenclature that can appropriately match treatments to patients. The primary focus of RDoC is on neural circuitry, with levels of analyses that span from molecules to behavior. There has been some concern that the RDoC framework is reductionist, with an overemphasis on neural circuits and genetics; however, the briefly reviewed, burgeoning literature on neuroplasticity and epigenetics highlights that this concern is unwarranted, as one cannot study neural circuits and genetics without considering experience. Conclusion The study of maltreated children has a number of advantages for the RDoC project, including the following: study of a subset of patients who are often not responsive to standard interventions; examination of a relatively homogenous sample with onset of psychopathology proposed to be associated with stress-related mechanisms; and well-established, relevant animal models to facilitate translational research. PMID:26210330

  5. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Internet-Based, African Dance-Modified Yoga Program for African-American Women with or at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candace C; Taylor, Ann Gill; Anderson, Joel G; Jones, Randy A; Whaley, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) women are the segment of the population that experiences the highest mortality from metabolic syndrome (MetS). Yoga decreases risk of MetS, yet there have been no yoga studies of AA women with or at risk for MetS. The purpose of this 4-week study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally tailored, Internet-based intervention, yogic dance (YD), using digital videos in a sample of AA women (ages 35-64) at risk for or with MetS. The investigators examined the rates of accrual, attrition, and reasons for attrition; the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver the intervention; the acceptability of the intervention as structured; and any other benefits and/or limitations of YD. The study used a single-group, mixed-methods design underpinned by social constructivist theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model. Twenty-four women provided consent to enroll in the study. After completing in-person semi-structured interviews and Internet-based measures, including the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, and the modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire, consented participants engaged in 4-weeks of the yogic dance intervention via daily video-based instructions located on the study Web site. After the intervention, four women participated in focus groups to voice their perceptions of barriers to and benefits from YD and the acceptability of using the YD intervention. The investigators analyzed focus group data using content/thematic analysis and validated themes with baseline semi-structured interviews. The majority of the women (79%) found YD acceptable. Themes that emerged from the descriptive data include: (1) Culture is an important aspect of yogic dance; and (2) Increased social support would enhance yogic dance participation. The integrated results from this feasibility study will inform research exploring the complex correlates that influence health behaviors in AA women. PMID:25593785

  6. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was <25 years old and 77.0 % identified as Bong kin ("hidden," masculine-appearing). Feasibility and acceptability of the program was evidenced by 87.0 % retention for the intervention sessions, 78.0 % completion of the 6 month assessment, and positive responses on evaluation forms and qualitative exit interviews. There was a decline in the number of condomless anal sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p < .0001). These data support the need for further testing of this group-based, behavioral HIV prevention intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior among MSM in Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial. PMID:26721662

  7. Genetic test reporting enhances understanding of risk information and acceptance of prevention recommendations compared to family history-based counseling alone.

    PubMed

    Taber, Jennifer M; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Stump, Tammy K; Kohlmann, Wendy; Champine, Marjan; Leachman, Sancy A

    2015-10-01

    It is unknown whether or why genetic test reporting confers benefits in the understanding and management of cancer risk beyond what patients learn from counseling based on family history. A prospective nonexperimental control group study compared participants from melanoma-prone families who underwent CDKN2A/p16 (p16) genetic testing (27 carriers, 38 noncarriers) to participants from equivalently melanoma-prone families known not to carry a deleterious p16 mutation (31 no-test controls). All participants received equivalent counseling concerning elevated lifetime melanoma risk and corresponding recommendations for prevention and screening. Both immediately and 1 month after counseling, participants receiving a genetic test result reported greater understanding of their risk, decreased derogation of the risk information, and greater personal applicability of prevention recommendations than no-test controls. Decreased derogation of risk information after test reporting predicted further increases in understanding of melanoma risk and applicability of prevention recommendations 1 month later. Results suggest unique benefits of genetic test reporting in promoting understanding and acceptance of information about hereditary cancer risk and its management. PMID:26178773

  8. Proposed criteria for identifying GE crop plants that pose a low or negligible risk to the environment under conditions of low-level presence in seed.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew; Finardi-Filho, Flavio; Hegde, Subray; Kiekebusch, Juan; Klimpel, Gonzalo; Krieger, Mark; Lema, Martin A; Macdonald, Philip; Nari, Claudia; Rubinstein, Clara; Slutsky, Bernice; Vicien, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    The low-level presence (LLP) of genetically engineered (GE) seeds that have been approved in the country of origin but not the country of import presents challenges for regulators in both seed importing and exporting countries, as well as for the international seed trade and the farmers who rely on it. In addition to legal, financial and regulatory challenges, such LLP situations in seed may also require an environmental risk assessment by the country of import. Such assessments have typically been informed by the national framework established to support decisions related to wide scale cultivation, and frequently do not take into account the low environmental exposure and prior regulatory history of the GE plant. In addition, such assessment processes may not be well suited to the decision-making timeframe that is necessary when dealing with an LLP situation in imported seed. In order to facilitate regulatory decision making, this paper proposes a set of scientific criteria for identifying GE crop plants that are expected to pose a low or negligible risk to the environment under LLP conditions in seed. Regulatory decision makers in some importing countries may decide to use these criteria to assist in risk analysis associated with LLP situations they are experiencing or could experience in the future, and might choose to proactively apply the criteria to identify existing GE plants with regulatory approvals in other countries that would be expected to pose low risk under conditions of LLP in seed. PMID:26264890

  9. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  10. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  11. Access to chronic disease care in general practice: the acceptability of implementing systematic waiting-room screening using computer-based patient-reported risk status

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Christine L; Carey, Mariko; Yoong, Sze Lin; D’Este, Catherine; Makeham, Meredith; Henskens, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine screening and advice regarding risky lifestyle behaviours is appropriate in the primary care setting, but often not implemented. Routine electronic collection of patients’ self-reported data may streamline the collection of such information. Aim To explore the perceptions of GPs and their attending patients regarding the acceptability of waiting-room touchscreen computers for the collection of health behaviour information. Uptake, ease of operation, and the perceived likelihood of future implementation were studied. Design and setting Cross-sectional health-risk survey. General practices in metropolitan areas in Australia. Method Practices were randomly selected by postcode. Consecutive patients who were eligible to take part in the study were approached in the waiting room and invited to do so. Participants completed the touchscreen health survey. A subsample of patients and GPs completed additional items regarding acceptability. Results Twelve general practices participated in the study, with 4058 patients (86%) and 51 of 68 (75%) GPs consenting to complete the health-risk survey, 596 patients and 30 GPs were selected to complete the acceptability survey. A majority of the 30 GPs indicated that the operation of the survey was not disruptive to practice and more than 90% of patients responded positively to all items regarding its operation. More than three-quarters of the patient sample were willing to consider allowing their responses to be kept on file and complete such surveys in the future. Conclusion As waiting-room-based collection of this information appears to be both feasible and acceptable, practitioners should consider collecting and incorporating routine patient-reported health behaviours for inclusion in the medical record. PMID:23998842

  12. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM’s elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18–29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM’s wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost. PMID:25256808

  13. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E; Gamarel, Kristi E; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM's elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18-29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM's wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost. PMID:25256808

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of Project Connect: a couples-based HIV-risk reduction intervention among young couples in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Nguyen, Nadia; Rosenberg, Molly; Parker, Lisa; Sibeko, Jabu

    2014-04-01

    Given the importance of couples to the transmission of HIV, interventions focusing on both members of a partnership can play an important role in its prevention. We adapted and pilot-tested Project Connect, an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for couples, to determine its acceptability and feasibility among a sample of young urban South African couples. We recruited couples from a clinic in inner-city Johannesburg to take part in the study. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted at baseline and postintervention; an in-depth interview (IDI) was also conducted postintervention. Of 75 couples screened, 15 were eligible and enrolled. An important reason for ineligibility was a recent history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Couples attended, on average, five of the seven sessions. Overall, the intervention was acceptable and showed signs of potential efficacy. Couples reported enjoying Connect and feeling comfortable with its content. Participants also reported learning important communication and problem-solving skills, which resulted in more effective engagement in HIV prevention behaviors. However, the number of sessions and strict eligibility criteria proved challenging to the feasibility of the study. We recommend future couples' interventions have fewer sessions and enroll couples with a history of IPV. PMID:24116954

  15. Consumption and acceptability of whole grain staples for lowering markers of diabetes risk among overweight and obese Tanzanian adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary changes characterized by a reduction in carbohydrate quality are occurring in developing countries and may be associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the preferences and acceptability of unrefined whole grain carbohydrate staples (i.e., brown rice, unrefined maize and unrefined sorghum ugali) as substitutes for commonly consumed refined carbohydrates in Tanzania. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information and dietary habits, and pre-and post-tasting questionnaires were administered for test foods. A 10-point LIKERT scale was used to rate attributes of the three test foods. Results White rice and refined maize ugali were the most commonly consumed carbohydrate staples in this population; 98% and 91%, respectively. Occasional consumption of unrefined maize and sorghum ugali was reported by 32% and 23% of the participants, respectively. All of the test foods were highly rated for smell, taste, color, appearance and texture. Taste was rated highest for unrefined maize ugali. Almost all of the participants were willing to participate in a future dietary intervention involving regular consumption of these unrefined carbohydrates for at least six months duration. Conclusions These findings suggest that whole grain carbohydrates are highly acceptable, and that there is a promising potential for their use in future dietary intervention studies in Tanzania. PMID:23800295

  16. Joint Contributions of Peer Acceptance and Peer Academic Reputation to Achievement in Academically At Risk Children: Mediating Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2010-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic reputation (PAR) assessed in Year 2 on academic achievement in Year 5, via the effects of the peer relationships variables on perceived academic competence in Year 3 and effortful engagement in Year 4. As expected, the effect of PAR on engagement was partially mediated by perceived academic competence, and the effect of perceived academic competence on achievement was partially mediated by engagement. In the context of PAR, peer acceptance did not contribute to the mediating variables or to achievement. Findings provide a clearer understanding of the processes by which early peer-relationships influence concurrent and future school-related outcomes. Implications for educational practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21113406

  17. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  18. Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal.

    PubMed

    Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P

    2008-07-01

    A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (<20 years: OR = 1.0; 20-24 years: OR = 1.81; 95%CI: 0.58-5.67; 25-29 years: OR = 2.15; 95%CI: 0.66-6.97; 30-34 years: OR = 3.88; 95%CI: 1.21-13.41), mistrust in reliability of the HIV test (OR = 20.60; 95%CI: 3.24-131.0) and not having been tested for HIV previously (OR = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.02-4.54) were associated with test refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations. PMID:18576178

  19. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-04-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995.

  20. Voluntary STD testing and treatment program at a metropolitan correctional facility: evaluation of test acceptability and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher K; Earley, Mary; Shaikh, Raees; Fickenscher, Jillian; Ott, Jessica; Person, Austin; Islam, K M Monirul; Simonsen, Kari; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Kaiser, Katherine Laux; Foxall, Mark; Margalit, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have addressed challenges of diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) within correctional facilities. Initiatives that screen all inmates can be cost-prohibitive, while symptom-based screening undoubtedly fails to recognize significant numbers of asymptomatically infected persons. This study discusses a voluntary STD screening and treatment program developed at the Douglas County (Nebraska) Department of Corrections where student volunteers interviewed, screened, and educated 456 inmates. Inmate urine samples and interview responses about risk behaviors and motivators for participation in the screening program were analyzed. The results support the ongoing project method to screen and treat inmates in the community correctional facility. Risk factor analysis suggests that targeted testing and treatment efforts may have a role in providing cost-effective care for STD among the incarcerated population. PMID:24352406

  1. Using fuzzy multiple criteria decision-making approach for assessing the risk of railway reconstruction project in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shih-Tong; Yu, Shih-Heng; Chang, Dong-Shang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the risk factors in railway reconstruction project through complete literature reviews on construction project risks and scrutinizing experiences and challenges of railway reconstructions in Taiwan. Based on the identified risk factors, an assessing framework based on the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (fuzzy MCDM) approach to help construction agencies build awareness of the critical risk factors on the execution of railway reconstruction project, measure the impact and occurrence likelihood for these risk factors. Subjectivity, uncertainty and vagueness within the assessment process are dealt with using linguistic variables parameterized by trapezoid fuzzy numbers. By multiplying the degree of impact and the occurrence likelihood of risk factors, estimated severity values of each identified risk factor are determined. Based on the assessment results, the construction agencies were informed of what risks should be noticed and what they should do to avoid the risks. That is, it enables construction agencies of railway reconstruction to plan the appropriate risk responses/strategies to increase the opportunity of project success and effectiveness. PMID:24772014

  2. Using Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Assessing the Risk of Railway Reconstruction Project in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shih-Heng; Chang, Dong-Shang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the risk factors in railway reconstruction project through complete literature reviews on construction project risks and scrutinizing experiences and challenges of railway reconstructions in Taiwan. Based on the identified risk factors, an assessing framework based on the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (fuzzy MCDM) approach to help construction agencies build awareness of the critical risk factors on the execution of railway reconstruction project, measure the impact and occurrence likelihood for these risk factors. Subjectivity, uncertainty and vagueness within the assessment process are dealt with using linguistic variables parameterized by trapezoid fuzzy numbers. By multiplying the degree of impact and the occurrence likelihood of risk factors, estimated severity values of each identified risk factor are determined. Based on the assessment results, the construction agencies were informed of what risks should be noticed and what they should do to avoid the risks. That is, it enables construction agencies of railway reconstruction to plan the appropriate risk responses/strategies to increase the opportunity of project success and effectiveness. PMID:24772014

  3. Monte Carlo-based interval transformation analysis for multi-criteria decision analysis of groundwater management strategies under uncertain naphthalene concentrations and health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lixia; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Chen, Yizhong

    2016-08-01

    A new Monte Carlo-based interval transformation analysis (MCITA) is used in this study for multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) of naphthalene-contaminated groundwater management strategies. The analysis can be conducted when input data such as total cost, contaminant concentration and health risk are represented as intervals. Compared to traditional MCDA methods, MCITA-MCDA has the advantages of (1) dealing with inexactness of input data represented as intervals, (2) mitigating computational time due to the introduction of Monte Carlo sampling method, (3) identifying the most desirable management strategies under data uncertainty. A real-world case study is employed to demonstrate the performance of this method. A set of inexact management alternatives are considered in each duration on the basis of four criteria. Results indicated that the most desirable management strategy lied in action 15 for the 5-year, action 8 for the 10-year, action 12 for the 15-year, and action 2 for the 20-year management.

  4. Performance Criteria: Concrete, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenbeck, Roger F.; And Others

    The State University Construction Fund provides guidance and direction to professionals participating in its program by issuing performance criteria that set forth owner or user requirements. This document provides guidelines in the form of performance criteria, testing procedures, and instructions to achieve an acceptable level of performance in…

  5. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy--nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Jongejan, Ruben; Maaskant, Bob

    2011-02-01

    The Dutch government is in the process of revising its flood safety policy. The current safety standards for flood defenses in the Netherlands are largely based on the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. Loss of life has not been considered separately in the choice for current standards. This article presents the results of a research project that evaluated the potential roles of two risk metrics, individual and societal risk, to support decision making about new flood safety standards. These risk metrics are already used in the Dutch major hazards policy for the evaluation of risks to the public. Individual risk concerns the annual probability of death of a person. Societal risk concerns the probability of an event with many fatalities. Technical aspects of the use of individual and societal risk metrics in flood risk assessments as well as policy implications are discussed. Preliminary estimates of nationwide levels of societal risk are presented. Societal risk levels appear relatively high in the southwestern part of the country where densely populated dike rings are threatened by a combination of river and coastal floods. It was found that cumulation, the simultaneous flooding of multiple dike rings during a single flood event, has significant impact on the national level of societal risk. Options for the application of the individual and societal risk in the new flood safety policy are presented and discussed. PMID:20883529

  6. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute

  7. Development of a site-specific Ecological Risk Assessment for contaminated sites: part II. A multi-criteria based system for the selection of bioavailability assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Rutgers, Michiel; Marcomini, Antonio

    2007-06-15

    A comparison procedure based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and expert judgment was developed in order to allow the comparison of bioavailability tests to implement the chemical Line of Evidence (LoE) within a TRIAD based site-specific Ecological Risk Assessment framework including three tires of investigation. The proposed methodology was included in the Module 1 of the Decision Support System DSS-ERAMANIA and the obtained rank supported the selection of a suitable set of available tests to be applied to the case study. A simplified application of the proposed procedure is described and results obtained by the system software are discussed. PMID:17434575

  8. Sexual risk behaviour for women working in recreational venues in Mwanza, Tanzania: considerations for the acceptability and use of vaginal microbicide gels.

    PubMed

    Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola; Allen, Caroline; Bugeke, Gilbert; Vallely, Andrew; Ross, David

    2009-08-01

    Qualitative research was conducted to explore the social context of sexual-risk behaviour among women working in recreational occupations, during a feasibility study in preparation for the Phase III clinical trial of vaginal microbicides in Mwanza, Tanzania. Participant observation was conducted in 68 recreational venues. Six focus group discussions were conducted with women working in recreational occupations and two with male customers at these venues. Findings revealed that these women are at risk of HIV due their dependence on sexual transactions to improve their economic circumstances, which take place in environments and relationships where condom use is difficult. However, the findings revealed that, in spite of constraints, women did take actions to prevent HIV by negotiating for condom use or avoiding perceived risky practices or partnerships, in particular moving to more casual partnerships where condom negotiation is more acceptable. This indicates that, given their perception of their own risk, women working in recreational occupations will welcome an effective microbicide. However, sustained use will depend on how formulations overcome the difficulties women currently experience with condom negotiation and the specific environments and relationships in which they engage in sex. PMID:19444689

  9. Study on Influencing Factor Analysis and Application of Consumer Mobile Commerce Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoguang; Lv, Tingjie

    Mobile commerce (MC) refers to e-commerce activities carried out using a mobile device such as a phone or PDA. With new technology, MC will be rapidly growing in the near future. At the present time, what factors making consumer accept MC and what MC applications are acceptable by consumers are two of hot issues both for MC providers and f or MC researchers. This study presents a proposed MC acceptance model that integrates perceived playfulness, perceived risk and cost into the TAM to study which factors affect consumer MC acceptance. The proposed model includes five variables, namely perceived risk, cost, perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness, perceived ease of use, perceived playfulness. Then, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to calculate weight of criteria involved in proposed model. Finally, the study utilizes fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate MC applications accepted possibility, and then a MC application is empirically tested using data collected from a survey of MC consumers.

  10. Review Article: Multi-criteria decision making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state-of-the-art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito, M. M.; Evers, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a review of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. Totally, 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed and classified into the following application areas: (1) ranking of alternatives for flood mitigation, (2) reservoir flood control, (3) susceptibility, (4) hazard, (5) vulnerability, (6) risk, (7) coping capacity, and (8) emergency management. Additionally, the articles were categorized based on the publication year, MCDM method, whether they were or were not carried out in a participatory process, and if uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the most popular technique, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest on MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and is seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Based on the survey, some suggestions for further investigation are provided.

  11. A retrospective study of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: clinical criteria can identify patients at high risk for recurrent disease after first renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. Renal transplantation in patients with FSGS is often complicated by disease recurrence, which is associated with poor outcome. There are no tests that reliably predict recurrence of FSGS after transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate if clinical criteria can identify patients at high risk for recurrent disease. Methods We retrospectively studied 94 patients who received a first renal transplant at a median age of 37 years (range 5–69 years). Patients were assigned to one of three groups: familial or genetic FSGS (group I; n=18), secondary FSGS (group II; n=10) and idiopathic FSGS (group III; n=66). Pretransplant clinical characteristics were analyzed to determine predictors of a recurrence after transplantation. Results FSGS only recurred in patients with idiopathic FSGS (group III; 42%). Patients with a recurrence had a significantly lower serum albumin, higher 24-hour proteinuria and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis. Serum albumin at diagnosis was the only independent predictor of a recurrence in patients with idiopathic FSGS. Patients with recurrent FSGS had more acute rejection episodes (54% vs. 27%, P =0.02) and lower five year graft survival compared to patients without a recurrence (50 vs. 82%, P <0.01). Conclusions Clinical criteria allow identification of patients at high risk of recurrent FSGS after renal transplantation. This information can be used in the counseling and management of patients with FSGS. PMID:23433074

  12. Academic underachievement among children with epilepsy: proportion exceeding psychometric criteria for learning disability and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fastenau, Philip S; Jianzhao Shen; Dunn, David W; Austin, Joan K

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed rates of learning disabilities (LD) by several psychometric definitions in children with epilepsy and identified risk factors. Participants (N = 173, ages 8-15 years) completed IQ screening, academic achievement testing, and structured interviews. Children with significant head injury, chronic physical conditions, or mental retardation were excluded. Using an IQ-achievement discrepancy definition, 48% exceeded the cutoff for LD in at least one academic area; using low-achievement definitions, 41% to 62% exceeded cutoffs in at least one academic area. Younger children with generalized nonabsence seizures were at increased risk for math LD using the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition; age of seizure onset and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were risk factors for reading and math LD using low-achievement definitions. Writing was the most common domain affected, but neither ADHD nor seizure variables reliably identified children at risk for writing LD. Although children with earlier seizure onset, generalized nonabsence seizures, and comorbid ADHD appear to be at increased risk for some types of LD by some definitions, these findings largely suggest that all children with epilepsy should be considered vulnerable to LD. A diagnosis of epilepsy (even with controlled seizures and less severe seizure types) should provide sufficient cause to screen school-age children for LD and comorbid ADHD. PMID:18434287

  13. Update on diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever: 2015 Jones criteria

    PubMed Central

    Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler

    2016-01-01

    In the final Jones criteria, different diagnostic criteria were established for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever for low risk and moderate-high risk populations. Turkey was found to be compatible with moderate-high risk populations as a result of regional screenings performed in terms of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The changes in the diagnostic criteria for low-risk populations include subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram as a major criterion in addition to carditis found clinically and a body temperature of 38.5°C and above as a minor criterion. In moderate-high risk populations including Turkey, subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram in addition to clinical carditis is used as a major criterion as a new amendment. In addition, aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria in addition to migratory arthritis and monoarhtralgia is used as a minor criterion among joint findings. However, differentiation of subclinical carditis from physiological valve regurgitation found in healthy individuals and exclusion of other diseases involving joints when aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria are very important. In addition, a body temperature of 38°C and above and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 mm/h and above have been accepted as minor criteria. The diagnostic criteria for the first attack have not been changed; three minor findings have been accepted in presence of previous sterptococcal infection in addition to the old cirteria for recurrent attacks. In the final Jones criteria, it has been recommended that patients who do not fully meet the diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever should be treated as acute rheumatic fever if another diagnosis is not considered and should be followed up with benzathine penicilin prophylaxis for 12 months. It has been decided that these patients be evaluated 12 months later and a decision for continuation or discontinuation of

  14. Update on diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever: 2015 Jones criteria.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler

    2016-03-01

    In the final Jones criteria, different diagnostic criteria were established for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever for low risk and moderate-high risk populations. Turkey was found to be compatible with moderate-high risk populations as a result of regional screenings performed in terms of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The changes in the diagnostic criteria for low-risk populations include subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram as a major criterion in addition to carditis found clinically and a body temperature of 38.5°C and above as a minor criterion. In moderate-high risk populations including Turkey, subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram in addition to clinical carditis is used as a major criterion as a new amendment. In addition, aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria in addition to migratory arthritis and monoarhtralgia is used as a minor criterion among joint findings. However, differentiation of subclinical carditis from physiological valve regurgitation found in healthy individuals and exclusion of other diseases involving joints when aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria are very important. In addition, a body temperature of 38°C and above and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 mm/h and above have been accepted as minor criteria. The diagnostic criteria for the first attack have not been changed; three minor findings have been accepted in presence of previous sterptococcal infection in addition to the old cirteria for recurrent attacks. In the final Jones criteria, it has been recommended that patients who do not fully meet the diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever should be treated as acute rheumatic fever if another diagnosis is not considered and should be followed up with benzathine penicilin prophylaxis for 12 months. It has been decided that these patients be evaluated 12 months later and a decision for continuation or discontinuation of

  15. A process to provide harmonised criteria for the selection of indicators for pesticide risk reduction within the framework of the sustainable use directive.

    PubMed

    Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alex; Bollmohr, Silke; Sacchettini, Gabriele; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Capri, Ettore

    2013-04-01

    In October 2009, the Council of the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of Pesticides (EU 128/2009/EC). This directive establishes a framework to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides by reducing the risk and impacts of pesticide use on both human health and the environment, and promoting the use of integrated pest management and of alternative approaches or techniques. These risks thus need to be assessed using appropriate risk indicators. The OPERA Research Centre organised an expert working group and has had several consultations with stakeholders in order to identify a common way of thinking in evaluating and identifying the factors that should be considered in selecting each indicator. Harmonised criteria have been suggested to allow the selection of the most appropriate indicators, focusing on the use phase of pesticide, as requested by the sustainable use directive. The proposed methodology has led to a sharing of perspectives and knowledge between the experts involved, and some principles have been identified to help national regulatory institutions to estimate general trends in pesticide risk reduction. PMID:23197338

  16. Acceptance of, inclination for, and barriers in genetic testing for gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers among female residents of Warsaw

    PubMed Central

    Dera, Paulina; Religioni, Urszula; Duda-Zalewska, Aneta; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To check the degree of acceptance of, inclination for, and barriers in genetic testing for gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers among female residents of Warsaw Material and methods This study involved 562 women between 20 and 77 years of age, all of whom were patients visiting gynaecologists practising in clinics in the City of Warsaw. The studied population was divided into six age categories. The study method was a diagnostic poll conducted with the use of an original questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions. Results Nearly 70% of the women showed an interest in taking a test to detect predispositions to develop breast and ovarian cancer. More than 10% did not want to take such a test, while every fifth women was undecided. No statistically significant differences between the respondents’ willingness to pay and education were found (p = 0.05). The most frequent answer given by women in all groups was that the amount to pay was too high. Such an answer was given by 52.17% of women with primary education, 65.22% of women with vocational education, 58.61% of women with secondary education, and 41.62% of women with higher education. Conclusions Women with a confirmed increased risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer due to inter alia the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations should pay particular attention to 1st and 2nd level prophylaxis. PMID:27095945

  17. Academic Underachievement among Children with Epilepsy: Proportion Exceeding Psychometric Criteria for Learning Disability and Associated Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastenau, Philip S.; Shen, Jianzhao; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed rates of learning disabilities (LD) by several psychometric definitions in children with epilepsy and identified risk factors. Participants (N = 173, ages 8-15 years) completed IQ screening, academic achievement testing, and structured interviews. Children with significant head injury, chronic physical conditions, or mental…

  18. Monitoring Reading Behavior: Criteria for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    Effective use of the informal reading inventory (IRI) depends upon the criteria used in determining the functional reading levels and more specifically the word recognition criteria employed in describing acceptable limits of oral reading behavior. The author of this paper looks at the diverse sets of criteria commonly used, the problems…

  19. Lung donor selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  20. Lung donor selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  1. ADHD and Secondary ADHD Criteria Fail to Identify Many At-Risk Survivors of Pediatric ALL and Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Conklin, Heather M.; Tyc, Vida L.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Post-treatment attention problems experienced by pediatric cancer survivors have been described as similar to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experienced in physically healthy children. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the rate of occurrence of ADHD and secondary ADHD (SADHD) in a sample of pediatric cancer survivors, (b) compare the rate of ADHD/SADHD among survivors to the prevalence of ADHD in the general population, and (c) examine clinical correlates of ADHD/SADHD in this sample. Procedure Survivors of pediatric ALL or brain tumor (n=100) participated in an assessment of attention including a computerized performance measure [Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II)], parent and self-report measures (Conners 3), and a structured diagnostic interview for ADHD and other psychological disorders [Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (DICA-IV)]. Results Binomial tests revealed that the rate of ADHD/SADHD in our sample (9%) was significantly greater than the lower limits of ADHD prevalence among children in the US (3%; p<0.001), while no difference was identified compared to the upper limits of ADHD prevalence (7%; p>0.05). Many additional survivors (>25% of the sample) obtained clinical elevations on Conners 3 scales but did not meet ADHD/SADHD criteria. Conclusions Attentional deficits experienced by pediatric cancer survivors do not appear to resemble the clinical presentation of ADHD or SADHD. Many survivors with cognitive and behavioral difficulties related to attention were not identified using this diagnostic approach. Findings offer needed clarification to guide researchers and clinicians in conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening on attentional late effects. PMID:21337681

  2. Outcome of T1N0M0 breast cancer in relation to St. Gallen risk assignment criteria for adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Garassino, I; Gullo, G; Orefice, S; Tondulli, L; Masci, G; Salvini, P; Eboli, M; Di Tommaso, L; Giordano, L; Alloisio, M; Roncalli, M; Santoro, A

    2009-08-01

    T1N0M0 (stage I) breast cancer (BC) has been increasing in recent decades but the optimal adjuvant approach remains controversial. To assess the outcome of BC patients stratified and treated with multimodal therapies according to St. Gallen consensus meeting recommendations, we retrospectively evaluated an unselected cohort of T1N0M0 BC patients, with respect to the St. Gallen criteria. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the recurrence rate, recurrence-free survival and overall survival were 7%, 94% and 96% respectively, and 60% of relapses were locoregional. No statistically significant difference was observed between T1a,b/T1c groups, or among risk categories (high/intermediate/low). The very low rate of distant recurrences even in patients with unfavorable prognostic factors seems to support the use of adjuvant systemic therapies but better prognostic and predictive factors are strongly needed for this subset of patients. PMID:19682903

  3. Testing decision rules for categorizing species' extinction risk to help develop quantitative listing criteria for the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Regan, Tracey J; Taylor, Barbara L; Thompson, Grant G; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Ralls, Katherine; Runge, Michael C; Merrick, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Lack of guidance for interpreting the definitions of endangered and threatened in the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has resulted in case-by-case decision making leaving the process vulnerable to being considered arbitrary or capricious. Adopting quantitative decision rules would remedy this but requires the agency to specify the relative urgency concerning extinction events over time, cutoff risk values corresponding to different levels of protection, and the importance given to different types of listing errors. We tested the performance of 3 sets of decision rules that use alternative functions for weighting the relative urgency of future extinction events: a threshold rule set, which uses a decision rule of x% probability of extinction over y years; a concave rule set, where the relative importance of future extinction events declines exponentially over time; and a shoulder rule set that uses a sigmoid shape function, where relative importance declines slowly at first and then more rapidly. We obtained decision cutoffs by interviewing several biologists and then emulated the listing process with simulations that covered a range of extinction risks typical of ESA listing decisions. We evaluated performance of the decision rules under different data quantities and qualities on the basis of the relative importance of misclassification errors. Although there was little difference between the performance of alternative decision rules for correct listings, the distribution of misclassifications differed depending on the function used. Misclassifications for the threshold and concave listing criteria resulted in more overprotection errors, particularly as uncertainty increased, whereas errors for the shoulder listing criteria were more symmetrical. We developed and tested the framework for quantitative decision rules for listing species under the U.S. ESA. If policy values can be agreed on, use of this framework would improve the implementation of the ESA by

  4. Predicting Persistent Back Symptoms by Psychosocial Risk Factors: Validity Criteria for the ÖMPSQ and the HKF-R 10 in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Riewe, E.; Neubauer, E.; Pfeifer, A. C.; Schiltenwolf, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective 10% of all individuals in Germany develop persistent symptoms due to nonspecific back pain (NSBP) causing up to 90% of direct and indirect expenses for health care systems. Evidence indicates a strong relationship between chronic nonspecific back pain and psychosocial risk factors. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) and the German Heidelberger Kurzfragebogen Rückenschmerz (HKF-R 10) are deemed valid in prediction of persistent pain, functional loss or amount of sick leave. This study provides and discusses validity criteria for these questionnaires using ROC-curve analyses. Quality measurements included sensitivity and specificity, likelihood-ratio related test-efficiencies and clinical utility in regard to predictive values. Methods 265 patients recruited from primary and secondary care units completed both questionnaires during the same timeframe. From the total, 133 patients returned a 6-month follow-up questionnaire to assess the validity criteria for outcomes of pain, function and sick leave. Results Based on heterogeneous cut-offs for the ÖMPSQ, sensitivity and specificity were moderate for outcome of pain (72%/75%). Very high sensitivity was observed for function (97%/57%) and high specificity for sick leave (63%/85%). The latter also applied to the HKF-R 10 (pain 50%/84%). Proportions between sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced except for the ÖMPSQ outcome of pain. Likelihood-ratios and positive predictive values ranged from low to moderate. Conclusion Although the ÖMPSQ may be considered useful in identification of long-term functional loss or pain, over- and underestimation of patients at risk of chronic noncspecific back pain led to limited test-efficiencies and clinical utility for both questionnaires. Further studies are required to quantify the predictive validity of both questionnaires in Germany. PMID:27442020

  5. Elevated gastrocnemius forces compensate for decreased hamstrings forces during the weight-acceptance phase of single-leg jump landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kristin D; Donnelly, Cyril J; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-17

    Approximately 320,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States each year are non-contact injuries, with many occurring during a single-leg jump landing. To reduce ACL injury risk, one option is to improve muscle strength and/or the activation of muscles crossing the knee under elevated external loading. This study's purpose was to characterize the relative force production of the muscles supporting the knee during the weight-acceptance (WA) phase of single-leg jump landing and investigate the gastrocnemii forces compared to the hamstrings forces. Amateur male Western Australian Rules Football players completed a single-leg jump landing protocol and six participants were randomly chosen for further modeling and simulation. A three-dimensional, 14-segment, 37 degree-of-freedom, 92 muscle-tendon actuated model was created for each participant in OpenSim. Computed muscle control was used to generate 12 muscle-driven simulations, 2 trials per participant, of the WA phase of single-leg jump landing. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis showed both the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle force estimates were significantly greater than the hamstrings (p<0.001). Elevated gastrocnemii forces corresponded with increased joint compression and lower ACL forces. The elevated quadriceps and gastrocnemii forces during landing may represent a generalized muscle strategy to increase knee joint stiffness, protecting the knee and ACL from external knee loading and injury risk. These results contribute to our understanding of how muscle's function during single-leg jump landing and should serve as the foundation for novel muscle-targeted training intervention programs aimed to reduce ACL injuries in sport. PMID:25218505

  6. Establishing endangered species recovery criteria using predictive simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri L.; Aron, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Listing a species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and developing a recovery plan requires U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to establish specific and measurable criteria for delisting. Generally, species are listed because they face (or are perceived to face) elevated risk of extinction due to issues such as habitat loss, invasive species, or other factors. Recovery plans identify recovery criteria that reduce extinction risk to an acceptable level. It logically follows that the recovery criteria, the defined conditions for removing a species from ESA protections, need to be closely related to extinction risk. Extinction probability is a population parameter estimated with a model that uses current demographic information to project the population into the future over a number of replicates, calculating the proportion of replicated populations that go extinct. We simulated extinction probabilities of piping plovers in the Great Plains and estimated the relationship between extinction probability and various demographic parameters. We tested the fit of regression models linking initial abundance, productivity, or population growth rate to extinction risk, and then, using the regression parameter estimates, determined the conditions required to reduce extinction probability to some pre-defined acceptable threshold. Binomial regression models with mean population growth rate and the natural log of initial abundance were the best predictors of extinction probability 50 years into the future. For example, based on our regression models, an initial abundance of approximately 2400 females with an expected mean population growth rate of 1.0 will limit extinction risk for piping plovers in the Great Plains to less than 0.048. Our method provides a straightforward way of developing specific and measurable recovery criteria linked directly to the core issue of extinction risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  8. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  9. Nuclear-safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The policy of the United States for all US nuclear power sources in space is to ensure that the probability of release of radioactive material and the amounts released are such that an undue risk is not presented, considering the benefits of the mission. The objective of this document is to provide safety criteria which a mission/reactor designer can use to help ensure that the design is acceptable from a radiological safety standpoint. These criteria encompass mission design, reactor design, and radiological impact limitation requirements for safety, and the documentation required. They do not address terrestrial operations, occupational safety or system reliability except where the systems are important for radiological safety. Specific safety specifications based on these criteria shall also be generated and made part of contractual requirements.

  10. [Primary headache and work: concepts of pathophysiology, occupational risk factors, health monitoring and criteria for judging causation].

    PubMed

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Paola; Delogu, Alberto; Brevi, Marco; Bruscella, Sara; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Primary headaches account for 90% of all the forms of headache. The disease is characterized by high occurrence in the working-age population and by significant impact in countries with high economic and social development. These two epidemiological aspects carry significant economic costs that can be estimated calculating loss of working days due to illness and appreciable loss of labour productivity. In an occupational setting several circumstances are known to cause the onset of attacks in workers who already suffer from primary headache. In this sense, the following factors have an important role: interruption of the circadian sleep-wake rhythm, sleep deprivation, physical/mental distress, not ergonomic postures (mainly those involving the cervical-brachial district), prolonged use of display screen, acoustic discomfort. Among chemicals, in the current conditions of exposure, the olfactory characteristics seem of primary importance rather than the more "conventional" mechanism of toxicity. The main aim of this study is to provide useful information to occupational physicians on the management of workers suffering from primary headache, with regard either to the formulation of the judgement of suitability, or to their auxiliary role in the planning and organization of work. A second aim involves the identification of specific preventive measures in order to reduce the probability of occurrence of a headache attack. This also minimizes the risk of accidents and injuries and ensures workers' efficiency. After these considerations, we suggest guidelines for a flow chart (aimed to understand worker's suitability for his/her specific task). This guarantees not only safety and health of workers who suffer from the illness, but also safeguards any third worker from a possible consequence due to less working capacity and reduction of attention of employees working with a headache attack. In conclusion we also identify three critical factors: the diagnosis of the form of

  11. Impact of free on-site vaccine and/or healthcare workers training on hepatitis B vaccination acceptability in high-risk subjects: a pre-post cluster randomized study.

    PubMed

    Launay, O; Le Strat, Y; Tosini, W; Kara, L; Quelet, S; Lévy, S; Danan, J; Réveillon, J; Houdayer, J; Bouvet, E; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2014-10-01

    Despite recommendations for adults at high-risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV vaccine uptake remains low in this population. A pre-post randomized cluster study was conducted to evaluate the impact of on-site free HBV vaccine availability and/or healthcare worker training on HBV vaccination acceptability in high-risk adults consulting in 12 free and anonymous HIV and hepatitis B/C testing centres (FATC). The FATC were randomly allocated into three groups receiving a different intervention: training on HBV epidemiology, risk factors and vaccination (Group A), free vaccination in the FATC (Group B), both interventions (Group C). The main outcomes were the increase in HBV vaccination acceptability (receipt of at least one dose of vaccine) and vaccine coverage (receipt of at least two doses of vaccine) after intervention. Respectively, 872 and 809 HBV-seronegative adults at high-risk for HBV infection were included in the pre- and post-intervention assessments. HBV vaccination acceptability increased from 14.0% to 75.6% (p <0.001) in Group B and from 17.1% to 85.8% (p <0.001) in Group C and HBV vaccine coverage increased from 9.4% to 48.8% (p <0.001) in Group B and from 11.2% to 41.0% (p <0.001) in Group C. The association of training and free on-site vaccine availability was more effective than free on-site vaccine availability alone to increase vaccination acceptability (ratio 1.14; from 1.02 to 1.26; p 0.017). No effect of training alone was observed. These results support the policy of making HBV vaccine available in health structures attended by high-risk individuals. Updating healthcare workers' knowledge on HBV virus and its prevention brings an additional benefit to vaccination acceptability. PMID:24850059

  12. Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Patients With Impaired Fasting Glucose and/or Hemoglobin A1c 5.7% to 6.4%: Evidence for a Gradient According to Diagnostic Criteria: The PREDAPS Study.

    PubMed

    Giráldez-García, Carolina; Sangrós, F Javier; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Serrano, Rosario; Díez, Javier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; García-Soidán, F Javier; Artola, Sara; Ezkurra, Patxi; Carrillo, Lourdes; Millaruelo, J Manuel; Seguí, Mateu; Martínez-Candela, Juan; Muñoz, Pedro; Goday, Albert; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that the early detection of individuals with prediabetes can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the cardiometabolic risk profile in patients with prediabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and/or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria.Cross-sectional analysis from the 2022 patients in the Cohort study in Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes (PREDAPS Study) was developed. Four glycemic status groups were defined based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Information about cardiovascular risk factors-body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glomerular filtration-and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Mean values of clinical and biochemical characteristics and frequencies of metabolic syndrome were estimated adjusting by age, sex, educational level, and family history of diabetes.A linear trend (P < 0.001) was observed in most of the cardiovascular risk factors and in all components of metabolic syndrome. Normoglycemic individuals had the best values, individuals with both criteria of prediabetes had the worst, and individuals with only one-HbA1c or FPG-criterion had an intermediate position. Metabolic syndrome was present in 15.0% (95% confidence interval: 12.6-17.4), 59.5% (54.0-64.9), 62.0% (56.0-68.0), and 76.2% (72.8-79.6) of individuals classified in normoglycemia, isolated HbA1c, isolated FPG, and both criteria groups, respectively.In conclusion, individuals with prediabetes, especially those with both criteria, have worse cardiometabolic risk profile than normoglycemic individuals. These results suggest the need to use both criteria in the clinical practice to identify those individuals with the highest cardiovascular risk, in order to offer them special attention with intensive lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:26554799

  13. Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Patients With Impaired Fasting Glucose and/or Hemoglobin A1c 5.7% to 6.4%: Evidence for a Gradient According to Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Giráldez-García, Carolina; Sangrós, F. Javier; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Serrano, Rosario; Díez, Javier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; García-Soidán, F. Javier; Artola, Sara; Ezkurra, Patxi; Carrillo, Lourdes; Millaruelo, J. Manuel; Seguí, Mateu; Martínez-Candela, Juan; Muñoz, Pedro; Goday, Albert; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested that the early detection of individuals with prediabetes can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the cardiometabolic risk profile in patients with prediabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and/or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria. Cross-sectional analysis from the 2022 patients in the Cohort study in Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes (PREDAPS Study) was developed. Four glycemic status groups were defined based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Information about cardiovascular risk factors–body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glomerular filtration–and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Mean values of clinical and biochemical characteristics and frequencies of metabolic syndrome were estimated adjusting by age, sex, educational level, and family history of diabetes. A linear trend (P < 0.001) was observed in most of the cardiovascular risk factors and in all components of metabolic syndrome. Normoglycemic individuals had the best values, individuals with both criteria of prediabetes had the worst, and individuals with only one–HbA1c or FPG–criterion had an intermediate position. Metabolic syndrome was present in 15.0% (95% confidence interval: 12.6–17.4), 59.5% (54.0–64.9), 62.0% (56.0–68.0), and 76.2% (72.8–79.6) of individuals classified in normoglycemia, isolated HbA1c, isolated FPG, and both criteria groups, respectively. In conclusion, individuals with prediabetes, especially those with both criteria, have worse cardiometabolic risk profile than normoglycemic individuals. These results suggest the need to use both criteria in the clinical practice to identify those individuals with the highest cardiovascular risk, in order to offer them special attention with intensive lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:26554799

  14. The Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer of Women With Endometriosis May be Varied Greatly if Diagnostic Criteria Are Different: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Ling; Chang, Wen-Hsun; Wang, Kuan-Chin; Guo, Chao-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jeng; Huang, Nicole; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to test the hypothesis that the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in women with endometriosis might be changed by enrolling different population. A nationwide 14-year historic cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan and the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients was conducted. A total of 239,385 women aged between 20 and 51 years, with at least 1 gynecologic visit after 2000, were analyzed. Cases included women with a diagnosed endometriosis, which was established along a spectrum from at least 1 medical record of endometriosis (recalled endometriosis) to tissue-proved ovarian endometriosis (n = X). Controls included women without any diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 239,385 - X). We used Cox regression, and computed hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) to determine the risk of EOC in patients. The EOC incidence rates (IRs, per 10,000 person-years) of women with endometriosis ranged from 1.90 in women with recalled endometriosis to 18.70 in women with tissue-proved ovarian endometrioma, compared with those women without any diagnosis of endometriosis (0.77-0.89), contributing to crude HRs ranging from 2.59 (95% CI, 2.09-3.21; P < 0.001) to 24.04 (95% CI, 17.48-33.05; P < 0.001). After adjustment for pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, Charlson co-morbidity index, and age, adjusted HRs were ranged from the lowest of 1.90 (95% CI, 1.51-2.37; P < 0.001) in recalled endometriosis to the highest of 18.57 (95% CI, 13.37-25.79; P < 0.001) in tissue-proved ovarian endometrioma, which was inversely related to the prevalence rate of endometriosis (from the highest of 30.80% in recalled endometriosis to the lowest of 1.54% in tissue-proved ovarian endometrioma). The risk of EOC in women with endometriosis varied greatly by different criteria used. Women with endometriosis might have a more apparently higher risk than those reported by systematic review and meta-analysis. PMID

  15. Top-level regulatory criteria for the standard MHTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.H.

    1989-09-01

    The Top-Level Regulatory Criteria (TLRC) are defined as the standards for judging nuclear power plant licensability related to control of radionuclides that directly specify acceptable quantified limits on radionuclide releases for the public health and safety and the environment. The purpose of the TLRCis to establish a consistent and unambiguous quantitative basis for judging the acceptability of potential radionuclide releases such that protection to the public health and safety and the environment is maintained. In the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) program, these criteria establish numerical values against which potential releases of radioactive materials during anticipated and off-normal events are judged. They are proposed for concurrence by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with their completeness and acceptability. The approach taken is to select from regulations and current guidance a set of quantifiable consequence and risk criteria of general applicability to nuclear power plants. They encompass normal plant operation and a broad spectrum of off-normal events.

  16. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  17. Evaluation of allowed outage times (AOTs) from a risk and reliability standpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Vesely, W.E. )

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the basic risks which are associated with allowed outage times (AOTs), defines strategies for selecting the risks to be quantified, and describes how the risks can be quantified. The report furthermore describes criteria considerations in determining the acceptability of calculated AOT risks, and discusses the merits of relative risk criteria versus absolute risk criteria. The detailed evaluations which are involved in calculating AOT risks, including uncertainty considerations are also discussed. The report also describes the proper ways that risks from multiple AOTs should be considered so that risks are properly accumulated from proposed multiple AOT changes, but are not double-counted. Generally, average AOT risks which include the frequency of occurrence of the AOT need to be accumulated but single downtime risks don't since they apply to individual AOTs. 8 refs., 22 tabs.

  18. Hazardous waste site remediation and community acceptance: Beyond regulatory compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, M.A.; Moreau, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    Community acceptance is an important criteria in securing regulatory approval of remediation alternatives, and yet the legal requirements for public consultation during the preparation of site investigation and feasibility study reports are minimal. Usually the only provision for formal public input on remedial plans is at the final stages of preparation through the formalistic constraints of a public meeting and limited comment period. This is often too late for meaningful public input and precludes constructive dialogue between responsible parties, local citizens, and regulatory representatives. Often the public opposes proposed remediation alternatives because of insufficient information leading to mistrust and irreconcilable differences. This paper suggests that responsible parties run the risk of community rejection of remediation plans, and costly project delays, if they follow the minimum regulatory requirements for public involvement. Through the use of active and meaningful citizen participation throughout project planning, success in securing community acceptance for preferred remedial alternatives in potentially controversial remediation projects is greatly enhanced.

  19. The MyPEEPS randomized controlled trial: A pilot of preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a group-level, HIV risk reduction intervention for young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marco A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Hotton, Anna L.; Johnson, Amy K.; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An exigent need exists for HIV prevention intervention research targeting young men who have sex with men (MSM) – a group of young adults that, despite composing the highest and most racially disproportionate rates of HIV incidence, has been least often the focus of behavioral intervention research. This pilot study tested a group-based HIV primary prevention intervention for young MSM to evaluate its initial efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability. Participants were randomized (N=101; aged 16-20 years) to one of two group-level, HIV and STI education programs: controls participated in a non-interactive, lecture-based program while intervention participants took part in a highly interactive program tailored to young MSM aged 16-20. Sexual risk and social cognitive outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 6- and 12 weeks post-intervention. Over the entire follow-up period, intervention participants were less likely than controls to engage in any sexual behavior while under the influence of substances (p<0.05), and also observed in this group was a decreasing trend of unprotected anal sex while under the influence of substances (p=.08). Follow-up differences between groups on social cognitive outcomes favored the intervention group, though these differences were non-significant. Acceptability ratings were modest. A 6-session behavioral intervention tailored to young MSM, aged 16-20, is feasible, acceptable, and demonstrates evidence of preliminary efficacy in reducing sexual risk, specifically sexual risk while under the influence of substances. PMID:25135064

  20. Design criteria for maglev structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Maglev systems represent an entirely new concept in transportation. They will not operate on nor share the right-of-way with any other system. It is important, therefore, that the guideways be designed and constructed so as to be economical, constructable, durable, adaptable, reliable, and readily maintained. Comparisons should be made with the current transportation systems, especially highways and railroads. Since most of the guideway will be elevated, the comparison should be with the bridges. The object of the comparisons should be to avoid the shortcomings of the other systems while building on their strengths. This paper develops in some detail design and construction criteria that will ensure a good, long-lived performance of the maglev guideway. The importance of beauty should have a low priority in comparison to the other design criteria. Clean, simple details meeting other criteria will ensure an acceptable appearance. These criteria were used in evaluating the four maglev concepts developed for the National Maglev Initiative.

  1. Feasibility and Acceptability of Global Positioning System (GPS) Methods to Study the Spatial Contexts of Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A P18 Cohort Sub-Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Kapadia, Farzana; Regan, Seann D.; Goedel, William C.; Levy, Michael D.; Barton, Staci C.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Background No global positioning system (GPS) technology study has been conducted among a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM). As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using GPS methods to understand the spatial context of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of YMSM in New York City, a high-risk population. Methods Data came from a subsample of the ongoing P18 Cohort Study (n = 75). GPS feasibility and acceptability among participants was measured with: 1) a pre- and post-survey and 2) adherence to the GPS protocol which included returning the GPS device, self-report of charging and carrying the GPS device as well as objective data analyzed from the GPS devices. Analyses of the feasibility surveys were treated as repeated measures as each participant had a pre- and post-feasibility survey. When comparing the similar GPS survey items asked at baseline and at follow-up, we present percentages and associated p-values based on chi-square statistics. Results Participants reported high ratings of pre-GPS acceptability, ease of use, and low levels of wear-related concerns in addition to few concerns related to safety, loss, or appearance, which were maintained after baseline GPS feasibility data collection. The GPS return rate was 100%. Most participants charged and carried the GPS device on most days. Of the total of 75 participants with GPS data, 75 (100%) have at least one hour of GPS data for one day and 63 (84%) had at least one hour on all 7 days. Conclusions Results from this pilot study demonstrate that utilizing GPS methods among YMSM is feasible and acceptable. GPS devices may be used in spatial epidemiology research in YMSM populations to understand place-based determinants of health such as substance use and sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26918766

  2. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  3. Management of High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is an increasing public health concern, representing the second most common cancer in the United States. High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents a subgroup of this disease, where patients are at higher risk of metastasis and death. To date, there are no accepted criteria for defining or managing these patients. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and outlines reasonable management strategies based on available data. PMID:20725546

  4. Modelling public risk evaluation of natural hazards: a conceptual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, Th.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, the dealing with natural hazards in Switzerland has shifted away from being hazard-oriented towards a risk-based approach. Decreasing societal acceptance of risk, accompanied by increasing marginal costs of protective measures and decreasing financial resources cause an optimization problem. Therefore, the new focus lies on the mitigation of the hazard's risk in accordance with economical, ecological and social considerations. This modern proceeding requires an approach in which not only technological, engineering or scientific aspects of the definition of the hazard or the computation of the risk are considered, but also the public concerns about the acceptance of these risks. These aspects of a modern risk approach enable a comprehensive assessment of the (risk) situation and, thus, sound risk management decisions. In Switzerland, however, the competent authorities suffer from a lack of decision criteria, as they don't know what risk level the public is willing to accept. Consequently, there exists a need for the authorities to know what the society thinks about risks. A formalized model that allows at least a crude simulation of the public risk evaluation could therefore be a useful tool to support effective and efficient risk mitigation measures. This paper presents a conceptual approach of such an evaluation model using perception affecting factors PAF, evaluation criteria EC and several factors without any immediate relation to the risk itself, but to the evaluating person. Finally, the decision about the acceptance Acc of a certain risk i is made by a comparison of the perceived risk Ri,perc with the acceptable risk Ri,acc.

  5. Can mHealth Improve Risk Assessment in Underserved Populations? Acceptability of a Breast Health Questionnaire App in Ethnically Diverse, Older, Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; O’Donoghue, Cristina; Kaplan, Celia P.; Luce, Judith; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of mobile health (mHealth) tools has expanded rapidly but little research has been done on its acceptability by low-income, diverse, older patient populations. Objective To assess the attitudes of a diverse group of underserved women on the acceptability and usability of mHealth tools in a clinical setting using a breast health questionnaire application (app) at a public hospital mammography clinic. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a breast-imaging center of an urban safety net institution from July-August 2012. Interviews included pre- and post-questions. Women completed the Athena breast health questionnaire app on an iPad and were asked about their experience and ways to improve the tool. Results Fifteen women age 45–79 years from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds were interviewed. The majority of women, 11 of 15, preferred the Athena app over a paper version and all the women thought the app was easy to use. Two Spanish-speaking Latinas preferred paper; and two women, with limited mobile phone use, did not have a preference. Many women indicated that it would be necessary to have staff available for instruction and assistance if the app were to be implemented. Conclusions mHealth tools are an acceptable, if not preferred, method of collecting health information for diverse, older, low-income women. Further studies are required to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of data collection using mHealth tools in underserved populations. mHealth tools should be explored as a novel way to engage diverse populations to improve clinical care and bridge gaps in health disparities. PMID:25705576

  6. Quantification of seismic liquefaction risk

    SciTech Connect

    Arango, I.; Ostadan, F.; Lewis, M.R.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1996-02-29

    Explicit goals of acceptable risk for natural phenomena hazards (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) have been established by the Department of Energy (DOE) 1994. Closely associated to the earthquake risk is the issue of seismically-induced liquefaction. Because deterministic methods currently available to answer the question to whether a site is liquefiable or not are incapable of providing a clue as to the likelihood or risk of liquefaction, the application of the criteria to a given facility requires that alternative evaluation techniques be formulated. This paper describes the application to a nuclear facility of a newly developed probabilistic methodology which rigorously accounts for geotechnical and seismologic uncertainties. The results of the analyses are compared with the acceptable levels of risk presented by DOE. This comparison is used to emphasize the power of the methodology as a tool in the decision-making processes.

  7. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Test Method D-3 in appendix D to this part), a non-gelatin dynamite loses more than 3 percent by weight of the liquid explosive or a gelatin dynamite loses more than 10 percent by weight of the...

  8. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be subjected to the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(a)(i)), the Friction Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(b)(iii)), the Thermal Stability Test (Test Method 3(c)) at 75 °C (167 °F) and... tested in the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test apparatus for liquids; (2) For a solid, failure to...

  9. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be subjected to the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(a)(i)), the Friction Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(b)(iii)), the Thermal Stability Test (Test Method 3(c)) at 75 °C (167 °F) and... tested in the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test apparatus for liquids; (2) For a solid, failure to...

  10. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must be subjected to the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(a)(i)), the Friction Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(b)(iii)), the Thermal Stability Test (Test Method 3(c)) at 75 °C (167 °F) and... tested in the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test apparatus for liquids; (2) For a solid, failure to...

  11. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be subjected to the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(a)(i)), the Friction Sensitivity Test (Test Method 3(b)(iii)), the Thermal Stability Test (Test Method 3(c)) at 75 °C (167 °F) and... tested in the Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Test apparatus for liquids; (2) For a solid, failure to...

  12. 44 CFR 362.3 - Criteria for determining acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gift of services is offered to the Administrator for the benefit of the National Earthquake Hazards... objectives of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, as defined in 42 U.S.C. 7702. (b) All...

  13. 44 CFR 362.3 - Criteria for determining acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gift of services is offered to the Administrator for the benefit of the National Earthquake Hazards... objectives of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, as defined in 42 U.S.C. 7702. (b) All...

  14. Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant pumps and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.K.; Miller, R.F.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors contains one reactor coolant pump, one PUMP suction side motor operated valve, and other smaller valves. The pumps me double suction, double volute, and radially split type pumps. The valves are different size shutoff and control valves rated from ANSI B16.5 construction class 150 to class 300. The reactor coolant system components, also known as the process water system (PWS), are classified as nuclear Safety Class I components. These components were constructed in the 1950`s in accordance with the then prevailing industry practices. No uniform construction codes were used for design and analysis of these components. However, no pressure boundary failures or bolting failures have ever been recorded throughout their operating history. Over the years, the in-service inspection (ISI) was limited to visual inspection of the pressure boundaries, and surface and volumetric examination of the pressure retaining bolts. Efforts are now underway to implement ISI requirements similar to the ASME Section XI requirements for pumps and valves. This report discusses the new ISI requirements which also call for volumetric examination of the pump casing and valve body welds.

  15. 44 CFR 362.3 - Criteria for determining acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gift of services is offered to the Administrator for the benefit of the National Earthquake Hazards... objectives of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, as defined in 42 U.S.C. 7702. (b) All...

  16. 44 CFR 362.3 - Criteria for determining acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gift of services is offered to the Administrator for the benefit of the National Earthquake Hazards... objectives of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, as defined in 42 U.S.C. 7702. (b) All...

  17. 44 CFR 362.3 - Criteria for determining acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gift of services is offered to the Administrator for the benefit of the National Earthquake Hazards... objectives of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, as defined in 42 U.S.C. 7702. (b) All...

  18. DWPF COAL CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-06-21

    A paper study was completed to assess the impact on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)'s Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) acid addition and melter off-gas flammability control strategy in processing Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) to SB13 with an added Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) stream and two Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) products (Strip Effluent and Actinide Removal Stream). In all of the cases that were modeled, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted Reducing/Oxidizing (REDOX) Ratio of 0.20 Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe. There was sufficient formic acid in these combinations to reduce both the manganese and mercury present. Reduction of manganese and mercury are both necessary during Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing, however, other reducing agents such as coal and oxalate are not effective in this reduction. The next phase in this study will be experimental testing with SB10, FBSR, and both SWPF simulants to validate the assumptions in this paper study and determine whether there are any issues in processing these streams simultaneously. The paper study also evaluated a series of abnormal processing conditions to determine whether potential abnormal conditions in FBSR, SWPF or DWPF would produce melter feed that was too oxidizing or too reducing. In most of the cases that were modeled with one parameter at its extreme, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted REDOX of 0.09-0.30 (target 0.20). However, when a run was completed with both high coal and oxalate, with minimum formic acid to reduce mercury and manganese, the final REDOX was predicted to be 0.49 with sludge and FBSR product and 0.47 with sludge, FBSR product and both SWPF products which exceeds the upper REDOX limit.

  19. Food-intake patterns assessed by using front-of-pack labeling program criteria associated with better diet quality and lower cardiometabolic risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutr...

  20. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  1. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  2. W-087 Acceptance test procedure. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, A.W.

    1997-06-10

    This Acceptance Test Procedure/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation and Mechanical systems function as required by project criteria and to verify proper operation of the integrated system including the interlocks.

  3. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  4. MTBE ambient water quality criteria development: a public/private partnership.

    PubMed

    Mancini, E R; Steen, A; Rausina, G A; Wong, D C L; Arnold, W R; Gostomski, F E; Davies, T; Hockett, J R; Stubblefield, W A; Drottar, K R; Springer, T A; Errico, P

    2002-01-15

    A public/private partnership was established in 1997, under the administrative oversight of the American Petroleum Institute (API), to develop aquatic toxicity data sufficient to calculate ambient water quality criteria for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate. The MTBE Water Quality Criteria Work Group consisted of representatives from private companies, trade associations, and USEPA. Funding was provided by the private entities, while aquatic biological/toxicological expertise was provided by industry and USEPA scientists. This public/private partnership constituted a nonadversarial, cost-effective, and efficient process for generating the toxicity data necessary for deriving freshwater and marine ambient water quality criteria. Existing aquatic toxicity data were evaluated for acceptability, consistent with USEPA guidance, and nineteen freshwater and marine tests were conducted by commercial laboratories as part of this effort to satisfy the federal criteria database requirements. Definitive test data were developed and reported under the oversight of industry study monitors and Good Laboratory Practice standards auditors, and with USEPA scientists participating in advisory and critical review roles. Calculated, preliminary freshwater criteria for acute (Criterion Maximum Concentration) and chronic (Criterion Continuous Concentration) exposure effect protection are 151 and 51 mg MTBE/L, respectively. Calculated, preliminary marine criteria for acute and chronic exposure effect protection are 53 and 18 mg MTBE/L, respectively. These criteria values may be used for surface water quality management purposes, and they indicate that ambient MTBE concentrations documented in U. S. surface waters to date do not constitute a risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:11831214

  5. Developing acceptance limits for measured bearing wear of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genge, Gary G.

    1991-01-01

    The probabilistic design approach currently receiving attention for structural failure modes has been adapted for obtaining measured bearing wear limits in the Space Shuttle Main Engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump. With the development of the shaft microtravel measurements to determine bearing health, an acceptance limit was neeed that protects against all known faiure modes yet is not overly conservative. This acceptance criteria limit has been successfully determined using probabilistic descriptions of preflight hardware geometry, empirical bearing wear data, mission requirements, and measurement tool precision as an input for a Monte Carlo simulation. The result of the simulation is a frequency distribution of failures as a function of preflight acceptance limits. When the distribution is converted into a reliability curve, a conscious risk management decision is made concerning the acceptance limit.

  6. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  7. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  8. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  9. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  10. Development of a site-specific ecological risk assessment for contaminated sites: part I. A multi-criteria based system for the selection of ecotoxicological tests and ecological observations.

    PubMed

    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Semenzin, Elena; Giove, Silvio; Mesman, Miranda; Schouten, A J; Rutgers, M; Marcomini, Antonio

    2007-06-15

    A two modules Decision Support System (DSS-ERAMANIA) was developed in order to support the site-specific Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for contaminated sites. Within the first module, the TRIAD and the Weight of Evidence approaches were used to develop a site-specific Ecological Risk Assessment framework including three tires of investigation. Selected ecological observations and ecotoxicological tests were compared according to Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods and expert judgment, and the obtained ranking was used to identify a suitable set of tests, at each investigation tier, to be applied to the examined case study. A simplified application of the proposed methodology, implemented in the Module 1 of the DSS-ERA-MANIA, is described and discussed. PMID:17439821

  11. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  12. Reported Physical and Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adult HIV Risk Behaviour in Three African Countries: Findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043)

    PubMed Central

    Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR −0.6 (CI: −0.9, −0.4, p<0.003)—among men, OR −0.7 (CI: −0.9, −0.5, p<0.001)—among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p<0.001)—men,OR1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p<0.001)— women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p<0.001)— men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p<0.001)—women) and two forms of partner violence—recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p<0.001)—men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p<0.001)—women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p<0.001)—men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p<0.001)—women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  13. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations.

  14. Comparison of serum creatinine, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for acute kidney injury occurrence according to risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage criteria classification system in early after living kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Reza; Mohebi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the kidney function after living kidney donation, we measured serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) of 42 living donors before uninephrectomy and in three immediate days after it. We also evaluated the prevalence of the occurrence of the different stages of acute kidney injury (AKI) classified according to risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) criteria, and accuracy of each of these three biomarkers for predicting them were evaluated. Significant serum NGAL (s-NGAL) changes were limited to the 1 st day after donation, whereas SCr and cystatin C changes continued to the third day after donation. s-NGAL level in the 1 st day and serum cystatin C in the 3 rd day after donation, respectively, had the largest area under curve and best sensitivity and specificity for Stage 1 (risk) AKI prediction. During the immediate three days after donation, about half of patients suffered from AKI; mostly Stage 1 (injury). The sequence of the emergence of s-NGAL and s-cystatin C in the 1 st and 3 rd days as biomarkers with highest accuracy and power for RIFLE criteria defined AKI stage discrimination in our study was comparable to previous studies. We conclude that our study suggests that AKI was best detected in the 1 st day after uninephrectomy by the s-NGAL levels, whereas cystatin C was the best in the 3 rd day after donation for detection of AKI. PMID:27424680

  15. Feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a novel community-based intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk: mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Ryan, Vicky; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and design Lifestyle interventions can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In a mixed methods pilot study, we aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes at a 12-month follow-up of a behavioural intervention for adults at risk of T2D. Participants Adults aged 45–65 years with a Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) ≥11. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority that ranks in the 10 most socioeconomically deprived in England. Intervention A 10-week supported programme to promote increased physical activity (PA), healthy eating and weight loss was delivered by fitness trainers as twice-weekly group PA or cookery sessions, each followed by behavioural counselling with support to 12 months. Outcome measures We assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, and change in behavioural and health-related outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Results From 367 registers of interest, 218 participants were recruited to the programme with baseline mean (SD): age 53.6 (6) years, FINDRISC 13.9 (3.1), body mass index 33.5 (5.9) kg/m2, waist circumference 108.1 (13.7) cm, PA levels (self-report): daily total 49.1 (5.9) metabolic-equivalent (MET) h/day. Follow-up at 12 months was completed by 134 (61%) participants, with an estimated mean (95% CI) change from baseline in weight −5.7 (−7.8 to −2.8); −2.8 (−3.8 to −1.9) kg, waist circumference −7.2 (−9.2 to −5.2); −6.0 (−7.1 to −5.0) cm, and PA level 7.9 (5.8 to 10.1); 6.7 (5.2 to 8.2) MET h/day equivalent, for men and women, respectively (from covariance pattern mixed models). Participants reported an enjoyable, sociable and supportive intervention experience. Conclusions Participants’ views indicated a high level of intervention acceptability. High retention and positive outcomes at 12 months provide encouraging indications of the feasibility and potential effectiveness

  16. [Criteria for the diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration].

    PubMed

    Shimohata, Takayoshi; Aiba, Ikuko; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2015-04-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a distinct neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Patients with CBD often present with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) showing impairment of the motor system, cognition, or both. Several studies demonstrate that they may also present with progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS), aphasia, Alzheimer disease-like dementia, or behavioral changes, suggesting that CBS is merely one of the presenting phenotypes of CBD. Accurate diagnosis is important for future clinical trials using drugs aimed at modifying the underlying tau pathology. Although previous CBD diagnostic criteria reflected only CBS, Armstrong et al. proposed new diagnostic criteria for CBD in 2013 (Armstrong's criteria). The new criteria include 4 CBD phenotypes, including CBS, frontal behavioral-spatial syndrome (FBS), nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), and PSPS. These phenotypes were combined to create 2 sets of criteria: specific clinical research criteria for probable CBD (cr-CBD) and broader criteria for possible CBD that are more inclusive but have a higher probability of detecting other tau-based pathologies (p-CBD). However, two recent studies revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria were insufficient. Further refinement of the criteria is needed via biomarker research with prospective study designs. (Received August 19, 2014; Accepted December 26, 2014: Published April 1, 2015). PMID:25846600

  17. Quantitative environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Klovning, J.; Nilsen, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    According to regulations relating to implementation and rise of risk analysis in the petroleum activities issued by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, it is mandatory for an operator on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to establish acceptance criteria for environmental risk in the activities and carry out environmental risk analysis. This paper presents a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} method for environmental risk analysis developed by the company. The objective has been to assist the company to meet rules and regulations and to assess and describe the environmental risk in a systematic manner. In the environmental risk analysis the most sensitive biological resource in the affected area is used to assess the environmental damage. The analytical method is based on the methodology for quantitative risk analysis related to loss of life. In addition it incorporates the effect of seasonal fluctuations in the environmental risk evaluations. The paper is describing the function of the main analytical sequences exemplified through an analysis of environmental risk related to exploration drilling in an environmental sensitive area on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  18. Risk Management in environmental geotechnical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammemäe, Olavi; Torn, Hardi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the basis of risk analysis, assessment and management, accompanying problems and principles of risk management when drafting an environmental geotechnical model, enabling the analysis of an entire territory or developed region as a whole. The environmental impact will remain within the limits of the criteria specified with the standards and will be acceptable for human health and environment. An essential part of the solution of the problem is the engineering-geological model based on risk analysis and the assessment and forecast of mutual effects of the processes.

  19. GED Acquisition Rates From An At-Risk Youth Program's Curriculum as Influenced by Three Criteria: Multiple Intelligence Usage, Class Size, and Its Mentorship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Angela Rene

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a combination of three factors: (1) a reduced student teacher ratio (class size education); (2) a mentorship program and (3) a varied curriculum, via use of the multiple intelligences would successfully improve secondary at risk youths' high school graduation rates. The graduation rate and GED…

  20. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  1. Health, safety and environmental criteria for siting of laboratory facilities.

    PubMed

    Lees, P S; Corn, M

    1983-04-01

    The development of applicable criteria for assessing the suitability of a site for construction of full and partial containment laboratories for the analysis of unknown and highly toxic chemicals is described. The criteria, based on considerations of health, safety and environmental factors, are used to define critical considerations in site selection to minimize the risk to non-laboratory personnel and the surrounding environment. Criteria are synthesized from several sources using the assumption of a worst-case chemical release. Mechanical failures, human failures, critical events and social/legal limitations are investigated, as are the characteristics of a site which may limit construction of such a facility. A detailed description is made of the various types of laboratories and the types of samples analyzed in them. The final recommendations are summarized for five typical laboratory settings; they are based primarily on the potential impacts on people, property and natural resources. A single occupancy building in a rural setting is recommended as the most suitable site for a full containment laboratory. A single occupancy building in an industrial park setting is acceptable, while multiple occupancy buildings and sites which are more highly developed are unacceptable. Similar recommendations are made for partial containment and conventional laboratories. PMID:6858856

  2. IHE material qualification tests description and criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Slape, R J

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the qualification tests presently being used at Pantex Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory that are required by the Department of Energy prior to the approval for an explosive as an Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) material. The acceptance criteria of each test for IHE qualification is also discussed. 5 references, 10 figures.

  3. Age matters in the prevalence and clinical significance of ultra-high-risk for psychosis symptoms and criteria in the general population: Findings from the BEAR and BEARS-kid studies

    PubMed Central

    Schimmelmann, Benno G; Michel, Chantal; Martz-Irngartinger, Alexandra; Linder, Caroline; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important topic in psychiatry. Yet, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical significance of high-risk symptoms in children and adolescents as compared to adults. We examined ultra-high-risk (UHR) symptoms and criteria in a sample of individuals aged 8-40 years from the general population of Canton Bern, Switzerland, enrolled from June 2011 to May 2014. The current presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) and the fulfillment of onset/worsening and frequency requirements for these symptoms in UHR criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes. Additionally, perceptive and non-perceptive APS were differentiated. Psychosocial functioning and current non-psychotic DSM-IV axis I disorders were also surveyed. Well-trained psychologists performed assessments. Altogether, 9.9% of subjects reported APS and none BLIPS, and 1.3% met all the UHR requirements for APS. APS were related to more current axis I disorders and impaired psychosocial functioning, indicating some clinical significance. A strong age effect was detected around age 16: compared to older individuals, 8-15-year olds reported more perceptive APS, that is, unusual perceptual experiences and attenuated hallucinations. Perceptive APS were generally less related to functional impairment, regardless of age. Conversely, non-perceptive APS were related to low functioning, although this relationship was weaker in those below age 16. Future studies should address the differential effects of perceptive and non-perceptive APS, and their interaction with age, also in terms of conversion to psychosis. PMID:26043337

  4. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report. Appendix E

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the Early Site Permit Demonstration Program (ESPDP) is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. This document provides Appendix E which contains a population density report. In this study the proposed US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) population density and exclusion zone size criteria were evaluated for their potential effectiveness to meet the quantitative public health and safety objectives associated with the NRC Safety Goal Policy. In addition, the individual and societal risks from postulated accidents (based on NUREG-1150 methods) were determined and compared to the quantitative prompt and latent health objective of the safety goal policy.

  5. [THE AGE AND WORK EXPERIENCE DYNAMICS OF INDICES OF HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES--CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL AND NONOCCUPATIONAL RISKS].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, G A

    2016-01-01

    There are reported data of the analysis of parameters of the general morbidity (hypertension, chronic diseases, organs of respiratory and digestive system, adiposity, vertebral osteochondrosis) in dependence on age and work experience of dockers-mechanizators in seaport at various working conditions. Morbidity rate indices were calculated on results of the profound medical examination at annual periodic surveys of workers. There were analyzed ecological and ergonomic indices of working conditions, including an estimation of physiological intensity of the work. The general hygienic assessment of working conditions was executed on the basis of the measurement of rates of gains in the risk of diseases depending on age and the experience of work (an annual gain of risk). The divergence of these rates was used for the determination of occupational and nonoccupational fractions of the general morbidity in employees working in harmful conditions. PMID:27430067

  6. IWGT report on quantitative approaches to genotoxicity risk assessment II. Use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics in defining acceptable exposure limits and assessing human risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second of two reports from the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (the QWG). The first report summarized the discussions and recommendations of the QWG related to the ne...

  7. Negotiable Acceptability: Reflections on the Interactions between Language Professionals in Europe and NNS Scientists Wishing to Publish in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrough-Boenisch, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Prior to submitting a paper to a science journal, many European scientists employ language professionals to check that the English is acceptable. What influences these language professionals' criteria of acceptability? How do they interact with the authors for whom they work? And how do journals' criteria of acceptability affect their work? In…

  8. Diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Hilton-Jones, D; Brady, S

    2016-07-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) was first identified as a specific disorder about 40 years ago and is now recognized to be the most frequently presenting primary myopathy in middle age and beyond. Initial characterization was based on the observation of specific pathological features distinguishing it from polymyositis. It was soon appreciated that there were also distinguishing clinical features. The earliest diagnostic criteria were heavily biased towards pathological features, but over time revised criteria have given increasing importance to certain clinical features. Until the specific cause of IBM is determined, and the basic pathogenetic mechanisms are better understood, there can be no diagnostic gold-standard against which to compare the sensitivity and specificity of any proposed diagnostic criteria, but such criteria are essential to ensure that patients entering clinical, epidemiological, genetic, pathological or therapeutic studies represent a homogeneous population. It is likely that any currently accepted diagnostic criteria will, once a gold-standard is eventually established, be shown to have 'missed' patients with atypical features, but that has to be accepted to make certain that current studies are not contaminated by patients who do not have IBM. In other words, in everyday clinical practice there will be the occasional patient who an experienced myologist strongly suspects has IBM, but does not meet current criteria - the criteria lack sensitivity. But if the criteria are so broad as to include all such atypical cases, they would be likely to include patients who do not in fact have IBM - they would lack specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of existing criteria have been reviewed recently, in so far as it is possible to do so, and found to have high specificity but variable sensitivity. PMID:27027255

  9. Nutrient Criteria Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

  10. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  11. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  12. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  13. Acceptance of Safety and Mission Success Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    NASA has developed an objectives based hierarchy for guiding Reliability and Maintainability (RM) activities. This presentation overviews the hierarchy and proposes to the international trilateral partners to formulate a task force to consider the elements of the NASA RM framework, as captured in the hierarchy of RM considerations, to identify commonalities and differences in the way RM is addressed by the flight projects among the partners.

  14. Proposed Evaluation Criteria for Screening Programs for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contends that generally accepted criteria for screening asymptomatic individuals are not appropriate for the elderly due to the prevalence of symptoms and chronic problems in the elderly and the importance of tertiary prevention. Proposes evaluation criteria that reflect the goals of screening elderly individuals. (Author/ABB)

  15. Nuclear safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to define safety criteria which must be met to implement US safety policy for space fission reactors. These criteria provide the bases for decisions on the acceptability of specific mission and reactor design proposals. (JDH)

  16. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  17. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI Veterans Cohort: risks based on modelled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick W. Lipfert; Ronald E. Wyzga; Jack D. Baty; J. Philip Miller

    2009-04-15

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup -2}). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. There may be concerns associated with large stationary sources burning coal, residual fuel oil and municipal solid wastes. Nickel and arsenic have been identified in coal fly ash and residual oil. 81 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

  19. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  20. Recommendations for ductile and brittle failure design criteria for ductile cast iron spent-fuel shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report presents recommendations for establishing design and acceptance criteria for the ductile cast iron to be used for fabricating spent-fuel shipping casks. These recommendations address design criteria for preventing ductile failure, and acceptance criteria for preventing brittle fracture, based upon drop testing a flawed prototype cask.

  1. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  2. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  3. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  4. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  5. The use of the reverse shock index to identify high-risk trauma patients in addition to the criteria for trauma team activation: a cross-sectional study based on a trauma registry system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The presentation of decrease blood pressure with tachycardia is usually an indicator of significant blood loss. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the haemodynamic status of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI<1) may indicate haemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess whether RSI<1 can help to identify high-risk patients with potential shock and poor outcome, even though these patients do not yet meet the criteria for multidisciplinary trauma team activation (TTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants We retrospectively reviewed the data of 20 106 patients obtained from the trauma registry system of a level I trauma centre for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Patients for whom a trauma team was not activated (regular patients) and who had RSI<1 were compared with regular patients with RSI≥1. The ORs of the associated conditions and injuries were calculated with 95% CIs. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality. Results Among regular patients with RSI<1, significantly more patients had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥25 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.62; p<0.001) and the mortality rate was also higher (2.1% vs 0.5%; OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.10 to 7.08; p<0.001) than in regular patients with RSI≥1. The intensive care unit length of stay was longer in regular patients with RSI<1 than in regular patients with RSI≥1. Conclusions Among patients who did not reach the criteria for TTA, RSI<1 indicates a potentially worse outcome and a requirement for more attention and aggressive care in the emergency department. PMID:27329440

  6. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  7. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  8. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  9. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  10. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  11. Renal transplantation with expanded criteria donors: Which is the optimal immunosuppression?

    PubMed Central

    Filiopoulos, Vassilis; Boletis, John N

    2016-01-01

    The growing gap between demand and supply for kidney transplants has led to renewed interest in the use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys in an effort to increase the donor pool. Although most studies of ECD kidney transplantation confirm lower allograft survival rates and, generally, worse outcomes than standard criteria donor kidneys, recipients of ECD kidneys generally have improved survival compared with wait-listed dialysis patients, thus encouraging the pursuit of this type of kidney transplantation. The relative benefits of transplantation using kidneys from ECDs are dependent on patient characteristics and the waiting time on dialysis. Because of the increased risk of poor graft function, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity, increased incidence of infections, cardiovascular risk, and malignancies, elderly recipients of an ECD kidney transplant are a special population that requires a tailored immunosuppressive regimen. Recipients of ECD kidneys often are excluded from transplant trials and, therefore, the optimal induction and maintenance immunosuppressive regimen for them is not known. Approaches are largely center specific and based upon expert opinion. Some data suggest that antithymocyte globulin might be the preferred induction agent for elderly recipients of ECD kidneys. Maintenance regimens that spare CNIs have been advocated, especially for older recipients of ECD kidneys. CNI-free regimens are not universally accepted due to occasionally high rejection rates. However, reduced CNI exposure and CNI-free regimens based on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors have shown acceptable outcomes in appropriately selected ECD transplant recipients. PMID:27011908

  12. UPDATE ON PEC ACTIVITIES INCLUDING NEW EVALUATION CRITERIA, THE APPLICATION COMPLETENESS CHECKLIST, AND STATUS OF THE WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has updated the evaluation criteria it uses to make recommendations of equivalency (to processes acceptable under 40CFR503) on innovative or alternative sludge pathogen reduction processes. These criteria will be presented along with ...

  13. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  14. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  15. Fetal Risks, Relative Risks, and Relatives' Risks.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2016-01-01

    Several factors related to fetal risk render it more or less acceptable in justifying constraints on the behavior of pregnant women. Risk is an unavoidable part of pregnancy and childbirth, one that women must balance against other vital personal and family interests. Two particular issues relate to the fairness of claims that pregnant women are never entitled to put their fetuses at risk: relative risks and relatives' risks. The former have been used-often spuriously-to advance arguments against activities, such as home birth, that may incur risk; the latter implicate the nature of relationships in determining the acceptability of coercing or precluding activities. Motivated reasoning by clinicians and judges leads to inaccurate risk assessments, and judgments based on false claims to objectivity. Such judgments undermine the moral and legal standing of pregnant women and do not advance the interests of fetuses, pregnant women, families, or states. PMID:26832079

  16. Viability criteria for steelhead of the south-central and southern California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, David A.; Adams, Peter B.; Anderson, Eric; Fusaro, Craig; Keller, Edward A.; Kelley, Elsie; Lentsch, Leo; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Perry, Katie; Regan, Helen; Smith, Jerry; Swift, Camm C.; Thompson, Lisa; Watson, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Recovery planning for threatened and endangered steelhead requires measurable, objective criteria for determining an acceptably low risk of extinction. Here we propose viability criteria for two levels of biological organization: individual populations, and groups of populations within the SouthCentral/Southern California Coast Steelhead Recovery Planning Domain. For populations, we adapt criteria commonly used by the IUCN (The World Conservation Union) for identifying at-risk species. For groups of populations we implement a diversity-based “representation and redundancy rule,” in which diversity includes both life-history diversity and biogeographic groupings of populations. The resulting criteria have the potential for straightforward assessment of the risks posed by evolutionary, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic factors; and are designed to use data that are readily collected. However, our prescriptive approach led to one criterion whose threshold could not yet be specified due to inadequate data, and others in which the simplicity of the criteria may render them inefficient for populations with stable run sizes or stable life-history polymorphisms. Both of these problems could likely be solved by directed programs of research and monitoring aimed at developing more efficient (but equally risk-averse) “performance-based criteria.” Of particular utility would be data on the natural fluctuations of populations, research into the stabilizing influence of life-history polymorphisms, and research on the implications of drought, wildfires, and fluvial sediment regimes. Research on estuarine habitat could also yield useful information on the generality and reliability of its role as nursery habitat. Currently, risk assessment at the population level is not possible due to data deficiency, highlighting the need to implement a comprehensive effort to monitor run sizes, anadromous fractions, spawner densities and perhaps marine survival. Assessment at

  17. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  18. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  19. Acceptance test report, plutonium finishing plant life safety upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-12-02

    This acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that modifications to the Fir Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door By Pass Switches.

  20. Living Donor Liver Transplantation Outcomes for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Beyond Milan or UCSF Criteria.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Yusuf; Guler, Necdet; Yaprak, Onur; Dayangac, Murat; Akyildiz, Murat; Altaca, Gulum; Yuzer, Yildiray; Tokat, Yaman

    2015-12-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the most effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that arises from cirrhosis. The Milan and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) selection criteria have resulted in major improvements in patient survival. We assessed our outcomes for patients with HCC that were beyond the Milan and UCSF criteria after living donor liver transplantation. We reviewed the data for 109 patients with cirrhosis and HCC who underwent living donor right lobe liver transplantation (living donor liver transplantation; LDLT) during the period from July 2004 to July 2012. Sixteen (14.7 %) patients had HCC recurrences during a mean follow-up of 35.4 ± 26.2 months (range 4-100 months). The mean time to recurrence was 11 ± 9.4 months (range 4-26 months). Survival rates were not significantly different between patients with HCC that met and were beyond the Milan and UCSF criteria (p = 0.761 and p = 0.861, respectively). The Milan and UCSF criteria were not independent risk factors for HCC recurrence or patient survival. Only poorly differentiated tumors were associated with a lower survival rate (OR = 8.656, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.01-37.16; p = 0.004). Survival rates for patients with HCC that were beyond conventional selection criteria should encourage reconsidering the acceptable thresholds of these criteria so that more HCC patients may undergo LT without affecting outcomes. PMID:27011489